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Laboratory Session 5

Metallography and Heat Treatment


Abstract

Introduction
The following laboratory report consists of the basic concepts of metallography and heat
treatment, where by using solid solution and precipitation hardening tests to determine the
way metals are strengthened. Appling phase equilibrium diagrams will help grasp the
concepts of the laboratory session.

Background/Theory

Experimental Procedure
1. Performing a macro study on the different metallurgical structures.
• Cast structure
• Wrought structure
• Multi phase structure
2. After observing the features and characteristics of the metals, sketches are
made to document the arrangements of the grain structure.
3. Tested the hardness of the aluminium alloys using solid solution and
precipitation hardening tests.
4. Measured the hardness (Rockwell A) of aluminium specimens 2011 (5.5%
Cu).
5. Interpretated the results onto a graph of time versus hardness values.
6. The Jominy bar test was conducted to determine the hardenability of the of
two steel samples
• Plain carbon steel
• Alloy steel
7. Graph the hardenability curves of each specimen with corresponding results.

Results
Rockwell A Test on Al 2011 (5.5% Cu)
After conducting the Rockwell A test on the aluminium specimens, the results were plotted
on a graph of hardness value (HRa) versus ageing time (seconds) (fig 1.2). Over the three
attempts the results seemed relatively constant, along with some standard errors that could be
caused by various defects in the machinery and sample or environmental related issues (ref).
The data collected spaned over ageing time from 0-240 seconds where by a reading was
taken at those intervals. In observing the results we can conclude that the relative hardness of
the aluminium specimens 2011 (5.5% Cu) were constant and around the average of 35 (HRa),
where the expected value should be 34 (HRa) (ref).
Fig 1.2

Jominy Bar Test on Plain Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel

Discussion
http://www.hardnesstesters.com/problems-in-rockwell-testing.pdf
http://www.aurorametals.com/alloys.htm
Ageing Time Hardness Values Hardness Values Hardness Values
(seconds) (HRa) 1 (HRa) 2 (HRa) 3
0 30 29 29
4 28.5 28 30
8 30 29.5 30
12 31.5 31 31
16 32 39 31
20 32 34 32.5
24 39 52 34
28 48.5 38 38
32 41 40 42
36 40 41 41
44 34 35 34.5
52 48 47.5 39
60 33 33 32
80 33.5 35 33
240 33 31 32