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09-1

SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies


WCDMA
p
o
w
e
r
t
i
m
e
frequency
~5 MHz
09-2
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Outline
IMT-2000 Requirements
WCDMA system
Multiservice concepts
09-3
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
IMT-2000 requirements
Full coverage and mobility for 144 kbps,
and preferably for 384 kbps
Limited coverage and mobility for 2 Mbps
High spectral efficiency
Flexibility to introduce new services
09-4
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
IMT-2000 user rate vs coverage and
mobility
Fixed area / low mobility Wide area / high mobility
User bit rate
2 Mbps
384 kbps
144 kbps
10 kbps
Basic 2G
Evolved 2G
GSM EDGE
(Enhanced Data rates using optimised modulation)
IMT-2000
09-5
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
JargonFest
IMT-2000 = International Mobile Telephony 2000
ITU (International Telecommunications Union) terminology for 3G
UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
The UMTS Forum is an international and independent body, uniquely
committed through the building of cross-industry consensus to the
successful introduction and development of UMTS/IMT-2000 third
generation mobile communications systems.
UTRA = Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
3GPP = 3rd Generation Partnership Project
joint standardisation group
WCDMA is known within 3GPP as UTRA FDD + UTRA TDD
09-6
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
WCDMA Concepts
WCDMA system specifications
Logical Channels
Physical Channels
Packet Access
Multiservice support
TDD mode
09-7
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
WCDMA key characteristics
Multiple access scheme DS-CDMA
Duplex scheme FDD/TDD
Chip rate 3.84 Mcps
Carrier Spacing Flexible 4.4-5.0 MHz (3.84 Mcps)
Frame length 10 ms
Multi-rate/Variable rate Variable spreading factor (4 to 256)
+ Multi-code
Channel coding Convolutional coding (rate 1/2 or 1/3)
Optional outer Reed-Solomon
coding (rate 4/5)
Packet access Dual mode (common channel
or dedicated channel)
09-8
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Common Control Channels
Broadcast control channel (BCCH)
Forward Access Channel (FACH)
Paging Channel (PCH)
Random Access Channel (RACH)
Dedicated Channels
Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)
Downlink
Uplink
Bidirectional
Uplink and/or
Downlink
WCDMA Logical Channel structure
09-9
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Primary Common Control Physical Channel
(Primary CCPCH) (full cell coverage)
Secondary Common Control Physical Channel
(Secondary CCPCH)(may be transmitted
over only part of a cell, e.g. a lobe)
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)
The logical channels are mapped into
the above physical channels, (conceptually similarly to GSM).
C
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m
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n
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e
d
WCDMA Physical Channel Structure
09-10
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Broadcast Control Channel BCCH (DL)
Downlink point to multipoint channel
Broadcasts system and cell specific information
(including info on available codes at the cell)
BCCH is transmitted over entire cell
Mapped to Primary CCPCH
Forward Access Channel (DL)
Carries control information to mobile
FACH may also carry short user packets
FACH may be transmitted over only part of a cell
(e.g. smart antennas)
Mapped to Secondary CCPCH
Common Control Channels
09-11
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Paging Channel PCH (DL)
Carries control information to mobile when mobile location is
unknown
Transmitted over the entire cell
Mapped to Secondary CCPCH
Random Access Channel (UL)
Carries control information from mobile station
RACH may carry short user packets
Received from entire cell
Mapped to PRACH
Common Control Channels contd
09-12
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Dedicated Control Channel DCCH (UL and DL)
Bidirectional channel used to carry control information
Mapped to DPDCH (together with DTCHs)
Dedicated Traffic Channel DTCH (DL and/or UL)
Bidirectional or unidirectional channel
Used to carry user information
Mapped to DPDCH
(together with DCCH and other DTCHs)
Dedicated Control Channels
09-13
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Common Channels
BCCH Mapped to Primary CCPCH
FACH Mapped to Secondary CCPCH
PCH Mapped to Secondary CCPCH
RACH Mapped to PRACH
Dedicated Channels
DCCH Mapped to DPDCH
DTCH Mapped to DPDCH
Summary of Logical Channels
09-14
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Dedicated Physical Data Channel DPDCH
carries dedicated data, generated at level 2 and above
Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPCCH
carries control information generated at level 1, i.e.
pilot signals to assist in coherent detection
transmit power control signals
rate information
Dedicated Physical Channels
09-15
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Superframe, 72 frames, 720 ms
S#1 S#2 S#3 S#4 S#5 S#6 S#7 S#8 S#9 S#10 S#11 S#12 S#13 S#14 S#15 S#16
Frame, 16 slots, 10 ms
RI TPC Pilot
Slot, 0.625 ms, 2560 chips
Data
Rate Information
Transmit Power Control
Pilot signal
Data Bits
DPCCH DPDCH
WCDMA Frame Structure:
Downlink Dedicated Physical Channels
Slot length is 0.625 ms
with 20 2
k
bits , k = 0,1,...,6
SF=256/2
k
=>SF from 4 to 256
09-16
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Spreading and Modulation for
Downlink Dedicated Physical Channels
c
ch
is the channelisation code
c
scramb
is the scrambling code (cell-specific)
p(t) is the pulse shaping filter
For multicode transmission, each DPDCH/DPCCH
should be assigned a distinct channelisation code
Serial
to
Parallel
ch
c
scramb
c ) sin( t
) cos( t
DPDCH/
DPCCH
I
Q
) (t p
) (t p
09-17
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Channelisation Codes
Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes
defined by code tree:
) 1 (
1 , 1
= C
) 1 , 1 (
1 , 2
= C
) 1 , 1 (
2 , 2
= C
) 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 (
1 , 4
= C
) 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 (
2 , 4
= C
) 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 (
3 , 4
= C
) 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 (
4 , 4
= C
SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4
a code can only be used iff no other code is used
between that code and the root of the code tree
... SF = 256
09-18
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Superframe, 72 frames, 720 ms
S#1 S#2 S#3 S#4 S#5 S#6 S#7 S#8 S#9 S#10 S#11 S#12 S#13 S#14 S#15 S#16
Frame, 16 slots, 10 ms
WCDMA Frame Structure:
Uplink Dedicated Physical Channels
Slot length is 0.625 ms
with 10 2
k
bits ,
k = 0,1,...,6
Pilot TPC RI
Slot, 0.625 ms, 2560 chips
Data
DPCCH
DPDCH
Rate Information
Transmit Power Control
Pilot signal
09-19
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Spreading and Modulation for
Uplink Dedicated Physical Channels
c
C
, c
D
- channelisation codes
c
scramb
- primary scrambling code
- a complex code c
I
+jc
Q
c
scramb
- secondary scrambling code (optional)
p(t) is the pulse shaping filter
scramb
c'
) sin( t
) cos( t
DPDCH
I
Q
) (t p
) (t p
DPCCH
C
c
D
c
j *
jQ I +
(optional)
' '
scramb
c
Real
Imag
09-20
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
For multicode transmission, each additional DPDCH may be
transmitted on either the I or Q branch,
with a distinct channelisation code
Uplink Dedicated Physical Channels.
09-21
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Superframe, 72 frames, 720 ms
S#1 S#2 S#3 S#4 S#5 S#6 S#7 S#8 S#9 S#10 S#11 S#12 S#13 S#14 S#15 S#16
Frame, 16 slots, 10 ms
Pilot
Slot, 0.625 ms, 2560 chips
Data
Pilot signal
Data Bits
Slot length is 0.625 ms
with 20 2
k
bits ,
k = 0,1,...,6
CCPCH has
no power control
constant rate
WCDMA Frame Structure:
Common Control Physical Channels
09-22
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
CCPCH is modulated and spread as for the
Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel
Primary CCPCH
has fixed predefined rate of 32 kbps
is transmitted over an entire cell
Secondary CCPCH
has constant rate, which may be different for different cells,
depending on capacity needed for FACH and PCH
only transmitted when data is available, e.g. in a narrow lobe
has the FACH and PCH time multiplexed frame-by-frame.
The set of allocated frames is broadcast on the BCCH.
Common Control Physical Channels
(contd)
09-23
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
SCH is used for cell search
SCH consists of 2 sub-channels,
the Primary SCH and Secondary SCH
SCH is transmitted one codeword per slot
Primary SCH is used to acquire slot synchronisation
to the strongest BS
Secondary SCH is used to obtain frame synchronisation
and identify the code group of the BS.
then the mobile can determine the scrambling code,
then detect the Primary CCPCH,
then acquire superframe synchronisation etc
Synchronisation Channel SCH (DL)
09-24
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Primary SCH is
an unmodulated Gold code of length 256 chips,
transmitted once per slot, aligned with slot boundary
same for every BS
Secondary SCH is
a modulated Gold code of length 256 chips
transmitted in parallel with the Primary SCH
chosen from a set of 16 different codes,
to match the BS downlink scrambling code
Synchronisation Channel SCH (DL) contd
09-25
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Physical Random Access Channel PRACH
Random access burst contains
a preamble of 16*256 chips (1ms)
a variable length data part
Preamble Data
The preamble consists of 16 symbols spread by the preamble code
of length 256 chips (find these from BCCH)
Each symbol is randomly chosen from a set
of 16 orthogonal code words each of length 16 bits
Neighbouring BSs use different preamble codes
09-26
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
CRC
PRACH: Data Part
Data part contains
Mobile station ID (16 bits)
Required service (3 bits) (e.g short packet, dedicated channel setup)
Optional user packet (variable length)
CRC (8 bits)
Spreading and modulation as for uplink dedicated physical channels
Preamble Data
Preamble
Req
Ser
MS
ID
User Packet
09-27
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Scrambling code for data part
is based on:
the BS specific preamble code
plus the randomly chosen preamble sequence
plus a randomly chosen time offset
This ensures that random access attempts using
different preamble codes/sequences wont collide
PRACH: Data Part...
09-28
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
First:
obtain chip and frame synchronisation
obtain information on available preamble codes
determine transmit power, estimated to achieve target SIR
using open loop power control
Then:
transmit the burst with a randomly chosen 2n ms (n = 0,1,2,3,4)
time offset relative to the frame boundary
A BS may the receive up to 80 random access attempts
within one 10 ms frame
(80 = 16 preamble sequences, with 5 time offsets)
Random Access procedure
09-29
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Power Control
SIR-based power control, using both open loop and
closed loop power control
Operates similarly on both uplink and downlink
Target SIR is independently adjusted for each connection,
based on the estimated quality of the connection.
Quality estimate is obtained using a combination of
BER and FER estimates
09-30
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
WCDMA Concepts
WCDMA system specifications
Logical Channels
Physical Channels
Packet Access
Multiservice support
TDD mode
09-31
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Outer
interleaving
Inner
interleaving
Inner
interleaving
Channel coding/interleaving for QoS
Inner
coding
Inner
coding
Outer
coding
BER=10
-3
BER=10
-6
Service Specific Coding
09-32
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Inner
coding/
interleaving
Outer
coding/
interleaving
Time
Mux
Multiple services belonging to the same connection
are normally time-multiplexed,
then mapped to one or more DPDCHs, as necessary
Time
Mux
Time
Mux
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
DPDCH #1
DPDCH #2
DPDCH #N
P
a
r
a
l
l
e
l

S
e
r
v
i
c
e
s
Service Multiplexing
09-33
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Service Multiplexing (contd)
Multiple services belonging to the same connection
may alternatively be treated completely separately, in multicode fashion
This allows QoS for separate services to be individually controlled,
but MS complexity is greater.
Coding/
interleaving
DPDCH #1
Coding/
interleaving
DPDCH #2
Coding/
interleaving
DPDCH #N
.
.
.
Parallel
Services
09-34
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Rate Matching
Multiplexed rates can produce almost arbitrary total bit rates
There are a limited set of rates available on a DPDCH
To match the rates: use rate matching
repetition coding or
code puncturing
09-35
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Example 8 kbps bearer service
Tail (8 bits) CRC (8 bits) Data (80 bits)
Data (96 x 3 = 288 bits)
Data (288 x 10/9 = 320 bits)
Rate 1/3 convolutional coding
9->10 unequal repetition
DPDCH
32 kbps
Bearer
8 kbps
Coded
channel
28.8 kbps
09-36
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Example 144 kbps bearer service
Tail (8 bits)
Data (1440 bits)
Data (1440 x 225/180 = 1800 bits)
Data (1808 x 3= 5424 bits)
Rate 180/225 RS coding
Rate 1/3 convolutional code
DPDCH
512 kbps
Bearer
144 kbps
Data (5424x 320/339 = 5120 bits)
339->320 code puncturing
Coded
channel
542.4 kbps
09-37
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Example 384 kbps bearer service
Tail (24 bits)
Data (3840 bits)
Data (3840 x 240/192 = 4800 bits)
Data (4824 x 2 = 9648bits)
Rate 192/240 RS coding
Rate 1/2 convolutional code
DPDCH
1024 kbps
Bearer
384 kbps
Data (9648 x 640/603 = 10240bits)
603->640 unequal repetition
Coded
channel
964.8 kbps
09-38
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Handover
Soft Handover
Active MS receives a priority list from the network
MS searches priority list for new BSs
Softer Handover
Soft handover between sectors of the same BS
Operation as for soft handover
Differences only at network implementation level
09-39
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Handover (contd)
Interfrequency Handover
Needed:
When handover occurs between cells where
a different # of carriers have been allocated
For handover between cell layers using different
carrier frequency (e.g hierarchichal cells)
For interoperator handover
For handover to GSM
09-40
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Interfrequency Handover
Idle period is created for measurements of other frequencies,
either by reducing the spreading factor by 2,
or by code puncturing
Frame
Idle period available for interfrequency measurements
Rate is variable, ~100 ms intervals
Handover (contd)
09-41
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Interfrequency Handover
When service allows interleaving over several frames,
multiple frames can be compressed to create
a 5 ms measurement slot
Frame
Idle period available for interfrequency measurements
Compressed transmission
during one interleaver span
Handover (contd)
09-42
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
WCDMA Packet Access
WCDMA packet access can take place
on a common fixed-rate channel
on a dedicated channel
Common channel packet transmission
Uplink packet is appended directly to a random access burst
Limited to short packets that use only a
limited amount of capacity
09-43
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
WCDMA Packet Access
Dedicated channel packet transmission
Single-packet transmission mode, or
Multiple-packet transmission mode
Single packet transmission mode
Send a random access request, indicating amount of data
to be sent
Network responds:
with an immediate scheduling message
OR with a short ACK, followed by a scheduling message
Scheduling message indicates when transmission can begin,
the bit rate, etc
09-44
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
WCDMA Packet Access (contd)
Random
access
burst
User
packet
Random
access
burst
User
packet
Arbitrary
Time
Packet transmission on common channel
User
packet
User
packet
Single packet transmission on dedicated channel
Random
access
burst
Random
access
burst
Arbitrary
Time
Common Channel
Dedicated
Channel
09-45
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
WCDMA Packet Access (contd)
Scheduled
user packet
Multi- packet transmission on dedicated channel
Dedicated Channel
Access
request
Random
access
burst Common Channel
Scheduled
user packet
Unscheduled
user packet
Access
request
Link maintenance
Multi-packet transmission
Random access request is used to set up a dedicated packet channel
Short packets may be sent on dedicated channel without scheduling
Long packets require an access request
09-46
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
TDD Operation
TDD mode is based on the same frame structure as FDD mode,
i.e. 10 ms frame split into 16 x 0.625 ms slots
Multiplexing and spreading as for FDD mode
Each TDD slot can be used either for uplink or downlink
TDD Alternating mode (e.g. outdoor suburban environment)
Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx
Tx Tx Tx Tx Tx Tx Tx Tx
0.625 ms
1.25 ms
10 ms
Coded Data
Guard Band
Pilot
09-47
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
TDD Operation (contd)
TDD Asymmetric mode (e.g. indoor/low speed outdoor)
0.625 ms
10 ms
Receive Pi G
Transmit Pi G
Receive block is a multiple of 0.625 ms
i.e. allows asymmetry of up to 15:1
09-48
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
UE UTRAN
UMTS High Level System Architecture
UE:
User
Equipment
CN
UTRAN:
UMTS
Terrestrial
Radio Access
Network
CN:
Core
Network
09-49
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
UE
ME+USIM
UTRAN
Node B + RNC
UTRA High Level System Architecture
ME: Mobile
Equipment
USIM: UMTS
Subscriber
Identity Module
CN
GMSC+
MSC/VLR
+HLR
Node B: Base
Station
RNC: Radio
Network
Controller
09-50
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
RNC
Node B
MSC/
VLR
HLR
MS
CN
UTRAN
Uu Interface Iub Interface
Iu interface
UTRA: Network Elements
GMSC
UE
USIM
Cu
Interface
External
Network
09-51
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
Network
(UTRAN)
Support of soft handover
Support of the WCDMA-specific radio resource
management functions
Maximisation of commonalities in handling packet-
switched and circuit-switched data
Maximisation of commonalities with GSM
Use ATM transport as the main transport mechanism
09-52
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
Radio Network Controller (RNC)
Each BS has a Controlling RNC (CRNC)
load and congestion control
admission control
code allocation
Since more than one RNC may be involved (e.g. soft handoff),
each connection may involve:
Serving RNC (SRNC) controls outer loop power control, handoff
decisions. The SRNC may be the same as the CRNC used by some
Node B used by the mobile.
Drift RNC (DRNC) controls any other cells used by the mobile. One UE
may have multiple DRNCs
09-53
SchooI of Informofion TechnoIogies
ETSI,
Wideband Direct Sequence CDMA (WCDMA)
Part 1: System Description and Performance Evaluation,
ETSI Tdoc SMG2 359/97, December 1997
H. Holma and A. Toskala (eds),
WCDMA for UMTS: Radio Access for Third Generation Mobile Communications,
Wiley, 2000
R Prasad, T Ojanper,
An Overview of CDMA Evolution toward Wideband CDMA,
IEEE Communication Surveys (http://www.comsoc.org/pubs/surveys),
Vol 1, No 1, pp 1-29, Fourth Quarter 1998
References