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One of the challenges faced by marketers in markets is
inadequate awareness about
brands, product and its usage. It is observed that low awareness
level leads to
? High inertia to adopt new products.
? Reluctance to pay additional premium to pay for national
? Rampant usage of counterfeit brands.
It is hence necessary to create awareness as well as preference
for your brands among
your audience. This calls for extensive advertising and mass
marketing for attracting and
retaining the target markets. An urge to increase the market
share and beat the
competition is the aim of every company. And all this is possible
through advertising.
Effective advertising refers to informing the public about the
right product at the right
time through the right medium. A right message through the
wrong medium at the wrong
time would definitely lead to a waste of resources.
To get the most out of the advertising rupees sent, the primary
concern of the advertiser is
media selection. The cost of buying space or time is weighed
against the number of
audience secured by such advertising. Media ability covers such
qualitative values as
audience characteristics, editorial personality, and contribution
to advertising
effectiveness; above all it refers to “media image” capable of
enhancing the perception
and communication value of a given message.
Hence, the media plays a very important role in entire process of
reaching the target
audience and retaining them.
Evaluation of a particular medium for inclusion in a campaign
rests upon what it
contributes to the cumulative effect. Any medium comprises of 4
?? Character
?? Atmosphere
?? Reach and frequency
?? Cost
In addition to this, we should also realize that the “value”
contributed by the medium
also depends upon the – size of the advertisement or length of
the commercial and the
position of the advertisement.
By the word “character”, we mean the objective characteristics
of the medium; type
of coverage, seasonal implications etc. By “atmosphere” we
mean the effect on the
mind or emotions of the mood and circumstances in which the
advertisement in the
medium is perceived by the audience. We shall now see these
two elements in detail.
There are ten aspects to character.
- Geography
- Class
- Age
- Power to reach special groups
- Physical characteristics of the medium
- Assistance to selling
- Duration of interest
- Timing
- Impact or repetition
- Indirect effects on influential groups like retailers
Geography. The coverage of every medium is limited by area.
Coverage may be limited,
as with a national newspaper to a national basis. Within this lies
another limitation, as in
a national paper may also have a strong degree of coverage in
some areas and lighter
degree in others. Coverage may also be limited as with a
television or radio station to a
specified “region. Within this it is further influenced by
fluctuating factors like signal
strength, booster transmitters or pattern of relay services. This
factor is important not
only to small regional advertisers but also to national advertisers
whose sales patterns and
resistance varies from region to region.
Class. Most media have overwhelming bias towards any social
economic class, being
read and seen so widely that the class distinction is largely
eliminated. But there are also
many media in which the class bias is obvious or atleast
definable eg. High priced
fashion magazines are biased towards high society women.
Age groups: The age factor may be extremely important for
some products. For eg. Its
no use trying to sell toothpaste to people with false teeth.
General observation and
common sense shows that certain types of media vehicles, by
the virtue of their content
itself, appeal to certain age groups rather than others. In contrast,
certain other media
evidently have equal chance of reaching all age groups eg.
Posters, billboards etc.
Power to reach special groups. Even within socio-economic
groups there are certain
special groups that could be important to advertisers. Different
media are available for
reaching a pre-selected target audience as required by the
advertiser. Eg. The Motoring
Times targets males interested in Motor vehicles.
Physical characteristics of the media: Another important
character aspect is the
physical characteristics of the medium. Whether it is oral,
written or visual. Whether it
admits movement or not, etc. For eg. A message that requires
demonstration would use
the television medium, but which require personal interactive
demonstration would use
exhibitions or POP demos.
Assistance to Selling: Another aspect of character is the degree
to which the medium
assists the process of selling. Some advertisements aim at hard
core selling where as
some require the creation of a prestigious atmosphere. Mediums
differ in the level of
assistance to selling. For eg. Mediums like POPs have a high
level of assistance as
compared to television. Choosing the medium according to the
advertising objective is
extremely important. For eg. Using only down-to-earth mediums
for the brand building
exercise of expensive cosmetics would not only be detrimental
to the brand but also poor
returns for the money spent.
Duration of interest. The time given by the audience to the
advertisements in a
particular medium is another very important aspect. Some
advertising messages are just
reminders so mediums which have only a few seconds of
observer time like posters serve
the purpose. But other messages may require mediums with
higher duration of interest.
Timing. The moment at which the message is seen or read is
also of immense
importance. For eg. For products that have a casual or impulse
buying pattern, its
imperative that the media used for advertising used is as close to
the point of purchase as
possible. The day of the week, month, time of the day, season
etc also affect the degree to
which the message is effective.
Impact and repetition. The characteristics of the medium also
affect the impact offered
by the medium. For eg. An inch-high font size might be
effective on a full page
newspaper ad, but a foot high font size is totally ineffective for a
hoarding. The cost of
the medium also determines the ability to use it for repetitions.
For messages where
repetition is more effective then lengthy “once in a whiles”.
Using TV for short
advertisements is more effective then for longer duration films.
Indirect effects on influential groups like retailers . Another
important value of the
advertising budget is that it gives the retailer confidence to stock
the goods and to display
them prominently. This confidence can be formed only when the
retailer respects the ad
or sees the ad in the course of events. This many a times
becomes an important deciding
factor between two equivalent media. For eg. For a women’s
product sold through
grocers, if the choice is between a women’s magazine and a
daily newspaper, it is more
likely that the grocer will see the ad in the newspaper, thus the
newspaper is a more
efficient medium.
The character of a medium is essentially a very objective and
largely physical aspect. The
other element is the subjective and atmospheric aspect of any
medium. “Atmosphere” is
the mood of the audience and the relationship between the
message and the atmosphere
of the medium carrying it. Evaluating atmosphere begins with
drawing the distinction
between media whose primary function is advertising eg.
Posters, and media whose
objective is different eg. Entertainment for television channels,
where the advertising
matter is the intruder, whether acceptable or otherwise. Many
media have the ability to
reach customers when they are deciding their purchases. Any
advertising message at this
moment is not only acceptable but is also considered helpful.
This increases the level of
assistance to selling tremendously. For eg. A magazine that talks
about beauty and
fashion is highly effective in telling its readers about the latest
beauty products available.
The atmosphere of this particular medium is highly conducive to
the advertisements of
beauty products.
POPs as an example, rates very high on atmosphere as it is not
only acceptable but also
extremely relevant to the context. The customer is there to buy
and these aid the process
of selection. On the other hand, cinema, radio and television fall
into the opposite
category where advertising is generally intrusive.
Another aspect of atmosphere is the character of the medium,
the atmosphere in which
the medium is viewed
Cinemas are generally a cheerful escape for the audience into a
world of glamour and
fantasy. Advertising for happy, glamorous products would be
more effective in this case
rather than for hard core household products. The newspaper
would be more effective for
news oriented messages like an upcoming discount, or a sales
Another variation of atmosphere lies in the “prestige” of the
medium and particularly in
its capacity to instill confidence in the buyer about the goods.
For eg. National daily
papers are more effective as a selling media rather than local
weekly papers because their
credibility is much higher. This aspect is two way, it follows the
concept, where not only does the advertisement derive its
atmosphere from the medium
but also vice-versa.
Deciding to include advertising in the communication mix
process is a relatively easy
decision compared to deciding which media and media vehicle
(for example which
magazine or which cannel on TV, etc.)
Most of the advertising budget gets spent on the media (and not
the creative or
production side).This is why a careful planning, negotiating and
knowledge skills are
very important. Expert media planners and buyers got the best
out of the advertising by
finding the right spaces or places for an ad campaign at the
lowest cost.
There are a wide variety of media available today for the
advertisers to choose from. The
decision is depended on a lot of factors at the same time it is a
very crucial decision since
the success of the campaign is highly depended on the media
selection aspect.
Broadcast media:
1. television
2. radio
Narrowcast media:
1. video and cable TV,
2. cinema
1. Newspapers: (a) daily
(b) Weekly
(c) Sunday
(d) Weekend supplement
2. Magazines:
(a) Consumer magazines: general interest or special interest.
(b)Business publications: trade publications, institutional
(a) Billboards
(b)Transit media
Rural media
New media
Broadcast media are quite young in comparison to the printed
word. Fundamentally there
are two main forms of broadcast: television and radio.
Advertisers use these classes of
media in order to reach mass audiences with their messages at a
relatively low cost per
target reached.
The media allows the advertisers to add audio and /or visuals to
their messages. The
media gives life and energy to the advertising message which is
not really possible
through other media.
However people are normally unable and unwilling to become
actively involved in the
broadcast advertising message. They cant consume the pace at
which the meaasge is seen
and understood as the time is very short due to the cost aspect.
The advertisers are also
unable to provide excessive details and information.
As a result the medium becomes more suitable for low
involvement products.
Advertising messages through the broadcast media use a small
time period, normally 15
or 30 or 60 seconds depending on their budget and the
The word "narrowcasting" is particularly unique to the industry
of media specifically that
of broadcast media. It is, according to the dictionary, the ability
to "aim a radio or TV
program or programming at a specific, limited audience or
consumer market."
The practice came to the forefront with the advent of cable
television. As this specialty
media has matured, narrowcasting has become a fine art.
In the earlier days of Indian television, the two major networks
(doordarshans) dominated
programming and sought to obtain the widest audience possible.
They avoided
programming content that might appeal only to a small segment
of the mass population
and succeeded in their goal by reaching nearly 90% (combined)
of the television viewing
audience on a regular basis.
The networks maintained their stronghold until competition
emerged through the addition
of many independent stations, the proliferation of cable channels
and the popularity of
videocassettes. These competitors provided television audiences
with many more viewing
options. Consequently, the large numbers previously achieved
through mass-oriented
programming dwindled and "narrowcasting" took hold.
With narrowcasting the programmer or producer assumes that
only a limited number of
people or a specific demographic group will be interested in the
subject matter of a
program. In many ways, this is the essence of cable television's
programming strategy.
Following the format or characteristics of specialized
magazines, a cable television
program or channel may emphasize one subject or a few closely
related subjects.
For example, music television is presented on MTV (Music
Television), or Channel V,
CMM.ETC, CNN (Cable News Network) offers 24-hour news
coverage; ESPN
(Entertainment Sports Network) boasts an all sports format; and
Star TV, Zee etc, covers
the family entertainment segment. Other cable channels feature
programming such as
shopping, comedy, science-fiction, or programs aimed at
specific ethnic or gender groups
highly prized by specific advertisers
Recent technological advances have increased the range of new
media available to the
advertisers to communicate with their prospects and the
consumers. New media allows
for far greater level of interactions between the advertiser and
the receiver.
The new media would include internet and short message
service (SMS).
New media is different from traditional media on a number of
fronts, bu the most
important beingthe time that elspses between message receipt
and response.
With new media the advertisers can target tightly clustered
audiences with well defined
The World Wide Web is a hybrid medium, which shares
characteristics with mass
communication as well as interpersonal communication. The
medium combines
the ability of the mass media to disperse a message to a wider
audience with some
of interpersonal communication’s possibilities of feed-back and
From a marketing view point, one of the implications of this is
that exposure and
action advertising and transactions can be integrated. Since the
medium is
interactive, users of the World Wide Web play a much more
active role in the
communication process than users of traditional mass media.
Where traditional mass media are characterized by an
information push, the
communication processes on the Web are driven by a basic
information pull,
meaning that the control balance of the communication process
has shifted in favor
of the user. The immense body of information available to the
individual user
further pushes the control of the communication process towards
the user, and has
lead to a highly fragmented content structure that allows the
individual user to
pursue his specific interests.
Internet advertising has gained significant momentum across the
world and has
become a part of the media mix that is being considered by
advertisers worldwide.
TA is static. It is dynamic with multimedia- supporting
text and graphics video sound all together.
Space is not a restricting factor Space is a problem, as regards
size of the
banners etc.
The proportion of advertising to editorial is
high sometimes 50:50.
A web page would be 91% editorial and
9% advertising.
Does not evoke immediate action. Invokes immediate action as
you at-least
need to click on the ad.
Response to the action is not immediate. First response is
immediate as when the
user clicks, the person is directed to other
web page with more details.
dvertisements are passively received. The user has high attention
level and
concentration while using the net, and
hence they notice the ad. (please refer the
Advertising does not always target a very
focussed audience.
This can be very focussed.
Advertisements are ubiquitous. Advertisements catch users
when they are
on the lookout for some thing. For example
the search is for travel on a search engine
there are ads of travel agents on the net.
Difficult to track the exact number of
people who saw the advertisement.
This is quite possible with Internet
Ads are graphic intensive and avoid copy
Both copy and graphics are restricted by
the banner size specifications.
The costs would be prohibitive to reach a
global audience.
There are no such constraints.
ii. SMS - Selling Made Smarter!
A significant addition to the increasing list of communication
carriers, is that of SMS,
Short Messaging Service. SMS has become the fastest, easiest
and the most convenient
way to communicate today. For reasons personal or professional,
SMS works across
purposes. The most recent application of SMS has been to reach
out to the consumer
offering him products and services just as any of the other mass
media would. Be it in the
form of promotions or advertising or even sales, the
functionality of SMS usage is
crossing all barriers.
The Media Clutter
Amongst the sea of communication channels hitting the
consumer constantly, the actual
message usually gets lost. Many a times, the possibility of the
right message reaching the
right target is also dwindled, not ruling out the fact that this has
a direct impact on the
costs shelled out for such activities. Unlike the mass media,
SMS enables micro targeting,
which ensures that there is no spillover of the communication.
The use of this medium
also allows the consumer to react to the communication on the
spot, which helps measure
the effectiveness of the campaign. Then there is always the
option to explore the
possibility of this medium being used to propagate word-of-
mouth. Every single target
that the communication is being sent to carries the potential to
be the originator of a new
chain of targets. It just depends on how interesting and action-
provoking the message
designed is for the chain to remain continual.
SMS has graduated from a mere add-on service into a
communication channel alongside
voice calls in India.
Media players too have picked up the pulse and are using this
medium for many of its
unique advantages. HBO promoted 'The Mummy Returns'
contest via SMS which
allowed consumers to respond using the Internet and SMS. The
response to the warm-up
contests was overwhelming with over 5000 responses received
in the first week itself!
BBC World, in its marketing of the ongoing quiz show
`University Challenge', used SMS
along with radio and the Internet (yahoo.com) as a medium for
entries, and received more
than 15,000 entries on SMS alone.
Radio Mirchi broke new grounds in FM Radio interactive
programming by auctioning a
date with Kareena Kapoor. Listeners had to SMS their bid to
8888. The auction could be
played by anyone with an access to a mobile phone. The bidding
for the lunch date began
with Rs 5,000 and on the first day of the two-day auction, there
were already more than
1,800 responses and the bid has crossed Rs 85,600 in Mumbai
alone. The proceeds of the
auction were donated to Nav Nirman Foundation, a home for the
poor, addicts and the
mentally challenged.
WWhhyyy uus ss e ee SSMMSS aaaddvvv e ee r rrt tt i iis ss
i iinnggg ???
When compared to other media, SMS was found to be the most
efficient as SMS
messages have to be read before they are deleted.
Medium Reach Cost Strike Rate
Television One of the Highest Very High Good
Radio Medium Medium Poor
Internet (Banner) High Medium Dropping
Email High Extremely Low Extremely Low
Print Media (Flyers) Low High High
Billboards Medium Medium Medium
Moving Media Medium High Medium
Telephone Medium High Medium
Fax Low Medium Low
Standard Mailers High High Medium
Personal Interaction Low High High
The only disadvantage of SMS advertising is – it is restricted to
just 160 characters. So
the advertising message has to be SHORT and FOCUSED yet
Future of SMS
Marketing via SMS is the just the beginning of developing
relations with the consumer.
A lot of innovation has been observed in this aspect which has
given more than the
desired results. Selling via SMS has also started picking up
momentum and will soon be
at par with the figures of trading on Internet.
There is an element of personalization in marketing via SMS,
which increases the
possibility of participation/ response by the consumer. This
single aspect can drive the
scope of SMS usage to great heights.
The fast growing trend of SMS usage for multi-purpose
activities has generated the need
to find out more about the profile of people who welcome SMS
as a regular feature of
their life. SMS developed in the quest for getting into the depths
of not only the
demographics of such users but also their psychographics and
media habits.
Innovative media focuses on alternative platforms of
advertising which open up new
avenues for advertisers. As technological breakthroughs
facilitate better modes of
communication, the emergence of new media has enhanced
reach on several levels. The
result is new advertising vehicles which are wider in reach,
specific in targeting and most
of all, lower in cost.
i. Voice Reach:
Voice Reach advertising is an exciting new medium for
advertisers which enables them
to broadcast audio messages to a precisely defined target
audience. The idea behind this
service is simple and powerful. It allows people to communicate
with each other within
and across cities, at the cost of a local telephone call. How it
works is as follows. A
person in Mumbai can call up a local number and leave a
message for his friend, relative
or business associate in Mumbai and Delhi. The system will
deliver the message to the
recipient's mailbox or voicebox, which can be accessed by
calling a local number in
Delhi. Thus, it provides the convenience of listening to a
familiar voice, which otherwise
is a rare occasion and expensive. It is cheaper than long distance
calling, more convenient
than e-mail and requires no knowledge of the Internet or PC. To
hear/access the messages
posted in their inbox, users have to hear a commercial
announcement. These
announcements are targeted according to the profile submitted
by users at the time of
registration. This service is not just convenient, but also
completely free. Moreover, all
the technology required to use this service is a telephone. All
these factors promise to
make the Voice Reach service immensely popular.
ii. Advertising & Promotions
Voice Reach is undoubtedly an advertising platform with
massive potential. As expected,
this enormously valuable service is drawing users across all
ages, occupations, socio
economic classes and geographical areas of India. Advertisers,
in effect, not only have an
ever-growing user base to target, they also have the advantage of
reaching out to their
specific target group.
Voice Reach advertising promises:
o Better one-to-one marketing capabilities than the Internet

o Guaranteed ad consumption : The advertisement comes

before a user hears or
sends messages
o Target-based advertising

o Interactive Advertising
Commercial announcements are just the beginning of a strong
line-up of services which
Voice Reach offers.
iii. Customised Promotions & Contests
Everybody runs contests. But are these contests really effective?
How many people do
they reach? How many people respond? How many people
actually remember to fill up a
postcard, or send a fax (if they can), or remember to send an e-
mail. The fact is - very few
do. Geography is no longer a limiting factor, your audience can
now be an active part of
your contests just by dialing a local number. Make your
television programs more
interactive, let your viewers talk to you. Your viewers, anywhere
in India, can call a local
number and leave a message for you. These messages in turn
will be delivered at your
doorstep. A very valuable service for any broadcaster on
television or radio.
Voice Reach, thus, is the perfect medium to carry messages from
the viewer to the
broadcaster, enabling your audience to enter your contests with a
simple phone call.
o Customised contests - National Participation through a local
o Making TV shows more interactive

o Messages transferred over a local telephone could be -

?? Requests
?? Feedback
?? Queries
?? Opinion polls
iv. The Vidiwall:
The Vidiwall is an intensely captivating advertising medium
which truly represents the
best of today's technology. The Vidiwall is essentially a mega
screen capable of
broadcasting high quality audio-visuals, banners, logos & slides
of stunning size,
resolution and picture quality. Placed at Mumbai's premier
shopping plaza, Crossroads,
the Vidiwall is fast being recognized as a medium that grabs
attention like nothing else.
Vidiwalls, a trademarked Philips solution, have been adapted for
dedicated Point-Of-Sale
and Point-Of-Information usage. Known to have a tremendous
impact on people, the
Vidwall is a highly effective tool to maximize brand recall.
The Vidiwall is an exceptional means for advertisers who wish
to target Mumbaiites.
Crossroads boasts of shopper strength of 10,000-20,000 footfalls
per weekday and
32,000-60,000 footfalls per weekend. The minimum
cummulative of which is 4,76,000
footfalls per month. The consumer profile of Crossroads' visitors
ranges from SEC
A/B/C+ lying in a Catchment area of Colaba to Bandra. Another
interesting facet that
speaks of the involving effect that the Vidiwall has on
Mumbaiites is its arresting
nature...the mean for one-time viewers of the Vidiwall is 2.9
mins, whereas, the mean for
2 or more time viewers is 4.3 mins. A clear indicator of its
addictive nature.
In addition to the conventional media vehicles, a lot of
innovative mediums are used in
rural advertising and marketing. Some of the most striking ones
v. Puppetry
Puppetry is the indigenous theatre of India. From time immortal
it has been the most
popular form and well-appreciated form of entertainment
available to the village people.
It is an inexpensive activity. The manipulator uses the puppets as
a medium to express
and communicate ideas, values and social messages.
Life Insurance Corporation of India used puppets to educate
rural masses about Life
Insurance; enlisting the help of the literacy house in Luck now.
These plays were shown
to the audience in villages in UP, Bihar, & MP. The number of
inquires at local Life
Insurance Companies during the period immediately following
the performance was
compared with normal frequency and found to be considerable
higher. The field staff of
the corporation also reported a definite impact on the business.
vi. Folk Theater
Folk theaters are mainly short and rhythmic in form. The simple
tunes help in informing
and educating the people in informal and interesting manner. It
has been used as an
effective medium for social protest against injustice, exploitation
and oppression.
Government has used this media for popularizing improved
variety of seeds, agricultural
implements, fertilizer etc. Punjab Agricultural University
produced Two Audio Cassettes.
A) Balliye Kanak Biye - Wheat Cultivation.
B) Khiran Kepah Narme - Cotton Cultivation.
Both were well received by farmers.
BBLIL used Magician quite effectively for launch of Kadak
Chhap Tea in Etawah.
vii. Demonstration:
"Direct Contact" is a face-to-face relationship with people
individually and with groups
such as the Panchayats and other village groups. Such contact
helps in arousing the
villager's interest in their own problem and motivating them
towards self-development.
Demonstration may be
A. i. Method demonstration
ii. Result demonstration
B. i. Simple Demonstration
ii. Composite Demonstration
In result demonstration, help of audio -visual media can add
value. Asian Paints launched
Utsav range by painting Mukhiya's house or Post office to
demonstrate that paint does
not peel off.
viii. Wall Paintings
Wall Paintings are an effective and economical medium for
advertising in rural areas.
They are silent unlike traditional theatre .A speech or film comes
to an end, but wall
painting stays as long as the weather allows it to.
Retailer normally welcomes paintings of their shops, walls, and
name boards. Since it
makes the shop look cleaner and better. Their shops look
alluring and stand out among
other outlets. Besides rural households shopkeepers and
panchayats do not except any
payment, for their wall to be painted with product messages. To
get one's wall painted
with the product messages is seemed as a status symbol. The
greatest advantage of the
medium is the power of the picture completed with its local
touch. The images used have
a strong emotional association with the surrounding, a feet
impossible for even a moving
visual medium like television, which must use general image to
cater to greatest number
of viewers.
Selecting Advertising Media
In addition to decideding upon the content, style and tone of the
advertising message, the
media through which the message will be communicated to the
target audience must also
be selected, be it television, newspaper, magazine, radio or
In order to select the most appropriate media, consideration
should be given to the
advantages and disadvantages of each of the available types of
media. In the table below
we have identified commonly accepted advantages and
disadvantages of each of the
major media. This is followed by more detailed consideration of
each of these media in
latter sections of the article.
Media Strengths and Weaknesses
Media Strengths Weaknesses
?? Dynamic attention
getting media,
combining visual,
sound and animated
?? Strong potential
Impact & High
?? High level of initial
expenditure required
?? ‘Now you see it, Now
you don’t’ media, in
that commercials are
market coverage
?? Good at
?? Enabling targeting
through selection of
viewing channels and
slots between specific
?? Role model
advantage: here the
advertisers have
celebrities as
endorsers. Celebes
are role models of the
youth and the youth
always ape to be like
?? Creation of AIDA:
advertising in TV
attracts Attention that
creates an Interest
and Desire that can
lead to Action in the
form of final
?? Poor at
lengthy technical
?? Time consuming to
produce an ad
?? TV ads alone do not
suffice: in order to
make the campaign
successful TV ads
have to be supported
with other media like
print or radio.
?? Ads are very short to
provide any detail
?? Statutory controls:
the TV ads have to
adhere to the I&B
rules. Surrogate
advertisements have
been banned
?? Targeting is possible
through profiling
?? Good level of market
?? Local advertising
?? Inexpensive medium
when used
?? Reinforcement
?? Static media, not
suitable for product
?? Potential for poor
sometimes limited to
black and white print
?? Quality of paper used
is not very effective
and reduces the
attractiveness of ads
?? Possibility of an
individual advert
being lost on a page
of adverts
?? Short-life span, i.e.
newspapers become
today’s rubbish
?? Informal reading:
people may skip ads
?? Mass use of radio by
audience, particularly
in cars on the way to
work and home. 90%
of India has access to
Radio which is
unmatched by any
other media
?? Very effective for
reaching the large
rural audience.
?? High geographic and
demographic reach
?? Targeting is possible
through selection of
channel and
?? Low literacy rates
mean that the people
hardly read
newspapers and radio
is the only medium
that they can
understand. They
can’t afford a TV set.
Therefore radio is the
most popular.
?? Audio
communication only
?? Misunderstanding:
sometimes there
might be a
regarding the radio ad
as it is only heard.
?? Now you hear it,
Now you don’t
?? Lower attention
levels than television
from the audience
?? RJ needs training: it
is very important that
the Radio Jockey is
trained enough to
deliver the ad.
Sometimes the voice
really matters. If the
voice is irritating then
there is a chance that
the campaign may
?? High quality
reproduction, of color
?? Targeting is possible
through specialist
?? Coffee table effect –
advert can be referred
?? Static media, not
suitable for product
?? Control of the
positioning of adverts
advert can be referred
back to
?? Good pass on
?? Longer life span &
reference value
?? Good supplement to
TV: magazines reach
special target groups
which is not possible
only through TV ads.
editor, rather than the
?? Lengthy lead-time
between advert being
placed and magazine
being published
?? High repeat exposure
to advert hence long
?? Relatively low cost
?? Low levels of
competition, in terms
of advertising clutter
?? It offers geographic
selectivity. The
marketer can vary the
ad message according
to the particular
segment of the
?? Little audience
selectivity / targeting
?? Static media, not
suitable for product
?? Difficult to monitor
?? Potential for damage,
via weather and
?? Outdoor advertising
when employed on a
national basis proves
to be expensive.
All of the above media share one common characteristic, and as
a result one common
weakness, in that they are one-way communication, not
requiring the audience to respond
and thus not motivating the audience to pay attention in the
same way required of twoway
After understanding the various aspects of each media separately
and the
advantages and the limitations of each, we can conclude that no
media would be able to reach the target population individually.
The advertisers need to prepare an extensive media mix in order
accomplish their objective of maximum reach and frequency.
Considering the
advertising company’s marketing objectives will arrive this at,
its target market, media
characteristics, and it’s matching with the target market. Also,
the overall advertising
budget does influence the nature of such a mix, in addition to t
he available gross
The primary need for a combination of media naturally arises
from the necessity to reach
more people in more ways than any single medium can
encompass. There are few other
needs too.
?? The need for getting the campaign message over to different
types of public, such
as professional people as well as consumers, or retail traders as
well as both.
?? The combination of a short term and a long term element in
the campaign’s
objective, which cannot be satisfied within the limits of a single
medium; e.g., the
need for building up the product’s reputation while giving
reminder at point-ofsale.
?? The superimposition of a piece of marketing news, such as a
new size or a special
pack, on top of a steady long-term development of the brand
?? The combination of a need for detailed and perhaps technical
specifications with a
more superficial appeal to a much wider market.
?? The different attitudes which different sections of the
population bring to the
choosing of a given product, and the consequent need to catch
each section in the
appropriate mood.
?? Competitive circumstances which necessitate a strong
temporary impact
superimposed on the steady long-term effort.
?? Differences of buying psychology at different times of the
year, e.g., holiday
seasons compared with normal seasons.
The importance of media can not be underestimated when
considering planned
communications. Each of the main classes and types of media
that are available to
advertisers have their own strengths and weaknesses. In
addition, each media type has its
own properties that are important to each situation faced by
individual advertisers. Hence
each selection and deployment should be based on a
contingency approach.
The general media are facing increased competition from the
technology driven media.
This has resulted in the fragmentation of the market and
increased choice for advertisers
in order to customize messages for particular, precise and well
defined target markets.
The place to start is, understanding media language. Some terms
apply to all media; some
apply only to broadcast or print.
Cost per thousand: It is the cost to reach 1,000 things,
whether households or
women or children. CPT reduces a variety of different
audiences, costs and
delivery to one common denominator. Always ask “Cost per
thousand what?”
Number HH Watching ÷ 1000
If a television spot costs Rs.30,00,000 and reaches 3 lac homes,
the cost per thousand
homes is Rs. 1000(Rs.30,00,000 divided by 3,00,000)
The CPT allows cross comparison across different media types
and media vehicles.
Impression: They represent the total number of messages
delivered by a media
plan, whatever the media used-the number of people who see a
multiplied by the number of times they see it. The gross sum of
all media
exposures (numbers of people/homes) without regard to
Frequency: frequency refers to the number of times the
member of the target
audience is exposed to a media vehicle.
Factors determining the need for frequency
• Complex messages need more frequency
• More demanding advertising objectives need more frequency
• Highly effective advertising generally requires lower
• When theory calls for exposure close to the purchase, higher
frequency is needed
Reach: reach refers to the percentage of target audience
who are exposed to the
message at least once during the relevant time period. If your
media plan gets to
four out of five homes, it is said to have an 80% reach.
MMe ee ddi iiaaa RRe ee aaa c cchh I IInn MMe ee t ttr
rrooo s ss
PPr rre ee s ss s ss TTVV Cable and
RRa aaddd i iiooo
4 mega metros 93.8 67.2 85.6 35.2 30.1
8 Mini metros 93.2 67.6 85.1 32.6 18.5
11 Other metros 91.9 67.6 81.8 37.7 20.4
23 Metros (overall) 93.3 67.4 93.3 34.8 24.9
Overall Media Reach
TV Press TV (C&S) Radio
All India 45 34 21 12
Urban 76 59 23 31
Rural 33 24 20 05
Coverage: it is a term often used for reach, however should
not be confused with
reach. Coverage refers to the size of a potential audience that
might be exposed to
a particular media vehicle. For media planers, coverage (the size
of the target
audience) is very important. Reach will always be lower than
coverage., as it is
impossible to reach 100% of the target audience.
For example, the size of the target audience may be 5 lakhs and
the numbers of
individuals who actually see the advertisement are 3.5 lakhs.
Then in this case5 lakhs is
the coverage and 3.5 lakhs is the reach of the media vehicle.
Impact: impacts refer more to TV than to the press.
Impact =the total number of people who see the ad multiplied by
the number of times
they saw it.
Opportunity to see (OTSs): OTSs are the number of
exposures or opportunities
that a particular audience has to see a particular advertisement.
Two Philosophies of Media Planning
• Both assume a fixed budget, with a forced trade-off between
reach and
•Traditional philosophy is to determine frequency needs, and let
that drive reach.Current
movement is toward maximizing reach and frequency.
Circulation: The number of distributed copies of a
publication .
Primary audience: The number of users who get a
magazine at a newsstand or in
the mail as subscribers.
Secondary audience (Pass-along readers): Readers who
obtain the publication
second hand, (i.e. from a reception room, from a
friend/neighbor, etc.) in other
words those who do not pay for the publication they are reading.
Total audience: It is the total o primary as well as
secondary audiences.
Coverage: The percentage of a population group reached
by a publication.
Readership: Total number of individuals in a selected
group (e.g., adults, males,
females 18-34) that are estimated to recognize, or to have read
or looked into a
particular publication within an issues life cycle. The technical
definition varies,
depending on the method used to measure it. However it is
measured, readership
is a more useful tool for advertisers than is circulation.
Television Rating Points:
These points were introduced in 1986 to assess the viewer ship
of DD programmes by
IMRB. The TRP survey is conducted in nine key metropolitan
cities of India .The System
reports on the daily viewer ship of individuals aged 8 years and
above residing in TV
owning homes of these cities.
The panel consists of 3214 adult members. Earlier each panel
member recorded the
viewer ship of different TV programmes in the diary specially
given to him. The data
then analyzed.
The panel has two groups: Primary audience from TV owning
household and secondary
audience from non-TV owning households but who watch TV at
least once a week.
Programme’s rating point is the percentage of panel members
who viewed those
programmes. One TRP is equal to one percent of TV audience.
To illustrate, if Ramayana gets 75 TRPs it means 75% panel
members watched
Ramayana during that week. TRP Weekly Reports provide data
on the weekly viewer
ship city wise for different programmes. The data are broken
down for both the primary
audience and the total audience (primary audience plus
secondary audience). TRP
Monthly Reports give data of frequency of viewing, overlapping
of viewership amongst
programmes, cumulative reach for different episodes of the
same programme. They also
give viewer’s profit. TRP reports are a good help for media
planners. DD has started
publishing weekly TRPs of its programmes. Feedback on
viewership data is still not
adequate. TRP is not representative enough
This diary based system reports on the Quarter Hour ratings for
Cable and, Satellite TV
channels as well as the state owned terrestrial network.
Currently, IMRB is in the process of phasing out this diary
system by gradually
launching its People Meter based TRP People Meter System.
The TRP PeopleMeter
System is currently operational in four major metros and is
being extended to report on
viewership at an All India level with a sample of 5,500 metered
TRP Constant Watch System
The country's only electronic TV audit system currently
monitors the advertising and
programming appearing on 10 key channels. This system
records the precise start and end
times for each programme and commercial appearing on these
channels. The commercial
information is further classified by product category, brand and
variant, execution and
main message. Similarly, the programming information is also
supplemented by
programme type, language of programme and main/repeat
In order to understand the calculation of the Rating it is
necessary to understand a few
Television households (TVHH):
With households as the focus of most television ratings, this
term was developed to
express the number of households which have a television set in
The TVHH does not take into account whether the television set
is being used. It is
simply a hard count of households which contain a TV set and
thus have the potential to
watch television at all. This is, in effect, the population of TV
households in a market (for
local ratings) or the nation (for national ratings).
Households using television (HUT):
The number of households using television at a given time. HUT
measures the number of
households with their televisions on at this moment, regardless
of who's watching.This
varies by the time of day, the day of the week, the season of the
year, and the area of the
Television viewing goes up in the evening, and in the winter,
raising the potential
audience (and cost) for your commercial.
It measures the number of households tuned into a particular
program, as a percentage of
the total households which exist in the local market (local
ratings) or in the nation
(national ratings).
The Nielsen Television Index (NTI) is an example of a rating
point index for national
televisions. The Nielsen Station Index (NSI) is an example of a
rating point index for
local television ratings. Whatever the name, the formula is as
RATING = Households Viewing Program × 100
?? Example #1: If there are 250,000 television households in the
city of Banglore,
and 12,500 of them are tuned into a given television program on
a particular
evening, it can be said that the program has a 5% rating.
?? Example #2: The same rating in different markets makes a
substantial difference
in the audience delivered to an advertiser. All of the following
ratings are the
same, but the number of households delivered varies
Market TVHH Rating Number of Homes
Mumbai 6,000,000 5 300,000
Chennai 1,300,000 5 65,000
Tamil nadu 381,200 5 19,060
Total target market
Target Rating Points = Total target market exposures
Target market population
Gross Rating Points: This is the sum of rating points for a
selected group of
programs which an advertiser may wish to sponsor. The
following schedule
would give the advertiser exactly 14 "points" at a cost of
Program Rating Points Cost Per Spot
(in ‘000s)
Program A 3.4 40.00
Program B 5.8 150.00
Program C 4.8 60.00
Gross Totals: 14.0 250.00
How to use reach and frequency
1. Use them to determine if the media plan can achieve the goals
of your strategy.If
your advertising objective is to get 50 percent of homes to be
aware of your
product or to try it, it can’t be done if your reach is less than 50
2. Recognize that reach and frequency are interrelated. As reach
goes up, frequency
comes down. You can’t have both unless you add more money
and go to a
different media plan. Determine the best balance for your
The relationship between reach, frequency and rating points is
expressed in this formula:
R x F = GRP
If your plan delivers a 90 reach and a 4 frequency, the total
GRPs in a four-week period
will be 360, or 90 per week.
3. Be aware that the same words in different contexts can mean
different things. A
medium that reaches young people or the frequency of
newspaper advertisements
in a schedule is not the same consumer exposure concept
expressed in reach and
frequency figures.
Two keys to success: frequency and continuity
People’s memories are short. That was the finding of a German
psychologist, Hermann
Ebbonghaus, in 1885. What Professor Ebbinghaus learned was:
People forget 60 percent of what they learn within a half-
The more repetition, the better retention.
Forgetting is rapid immediately after learning, and then
levels off.
These facts are fundamental to two media issues: first, the
relative importance of
frequency versus reach: second, the value of continuous
People forget quickly.
Advertisers who seek to reach a broad audience at the expense
of sufficient frequency
among key prospects risk wasting all their advertising.
If your product is one that people are always in the market for-
soap or toothpaste-the
need for “reminder” advertising is obvious. But frequency is just
as important for
products purchased only occasionally-cars, headache remedies.
The message must be
there when people are ready to purchase.
Repetition aids retention.
Most of the great advertising success stories are ones of
frequency. Even low-spending
brands usually succeed by concentrating messages against a
select audience.
Don’t aim for a broad target with a small budget. Better to
reduce the reach objective and
aim for a smaller audience-with sufficient frequency to be
effective. This may mean
advertising in fewer markets, advertising some products but not
others, or advertising
only in vehicles that reach a precisely defined group of people.
Your message needs continuity as well as frequency, it it’s to be
remembered. If money
were no consideration, plans would all call for continuous
advertising for 52 weeks at
high levels.
Since that isn’t practical, compromises must be made between
effective levels and
budgets. And a compromise is reached between bursts and
continuous advertising.
Each product’s need for frequency depends on its purchase
cycle, its stage of
development, competition, and the advertising copy.
The various stages through which a media plan evolves within
an agency are quite
complex. They will vary from agency to agency, and within
agencies, from account to
account. The variations will depend on the size of the problem to
be tackled, the agency’s
organization and its relations with its clients. The following
figure illustrates the
sequence, which will be followed, more or less, in the planning
of most large campaigns
conducted by sophisticated advertising agencies on behalf of the
sophisticated clients.
The initial planning meeting is usually a large one and will
comprise senior people
working on the account, and possibly the agency management:
the account director and
his team, and creative and media personnel will take part. In
some cases the client may be
The purpose of this meeting is formally to evaluate the current
progress of the brand,
and its market, and the intentions for the period under review
(usually the following
financial year).
The outcome or end result of the meeting should be a draft
marketing strategy, which
outlines the way in which the agency feels the brand’s targets
should best be achieved.
This draft will then be discussed with the client, the agency
being represented possibly by
the management, certainly by the account team. When approved,
the marketing
objectives from the basis of both creative and media work.
At the next stage the creative and media departments work
separately, although it is
necessary for them to confer together as frequently as possible.
The media plan for the
current year will be critically examined for its strengths and
weaknesses and the
evidence of any available media tests considered.
Changes that have taken place in the media scene since the
current plan was developed;