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MCT-212: DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN

EXCLUSIVE OR GATE
The output of the XOR gate is high whenever the two inputs are different.

X=A

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

0 1 1 0

EXCLUSIVE NOR GATE


The output of the XNOR gate is high whenever the two inputs are identical
X =

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

0 1 1 0

BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND LOGIC DESIGN


The need for Boolean Algebra for logic design?
A B X

= + +

1
0 1

0
1 1

0
1 1

BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND LOGIC DESIGN


The need for Boolean Algebra for logic design?

= + + = + = +

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

1 0 1 1

BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
zero one zero one zero

BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
Mathematics of digital systems. Important in the analysis of digital circuits. Binary Variable : A symbol (letter) used to represent a logic quantity. Example - binary variables and their values:
A=1
Z=0

Complement : Inverse of a variable.


A = 1 , A= 0 / (A = 0)

BOOLEAN ADDITION
A literal is a variable or its complement. The addition is equivalent to OR operation. The sum of terms is 1, if one ore more literals are 1. The sum is zero is each literal is 0.

Determine the value of A, B, C that will make the sum term 0. + + = ? A = 0, B = 1, C = 0.

BOOLEAN MULTIPLICATION
In Boolean algebra, multiplication is equivalent to AND operation. The product will be 1 only if all of the literals are 1.

What are the values of A, B, C that will make the product term . . = A = 1, B = 0, C = 1

BOOLEAN OPERATIONS
Addition 0+0=0 1+0=1 0+1=1 Multiplication 0*0=0 1*0=0 0*1=0

1+1=1

1*1=1

LAWS AND RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


What rules?

LAWS AND RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9/e

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved

COMMUTATIVE LAWS
Applied to addition and multiplication. Commutative law for addition: In terms of the result, the order in which variables are ORed makes no difference.

+ = +
Commutative law for Multiplication: In terms of the result, the order in which variables are ANDed makes no difference.

. = .

COMMUTATIVE LAWS
Commutative law for addition: + = +

Commutative law for Multiplication: =

ASSOCIATIVE LAWS
Also applied to addition and multiplication. Associative law for addition: When ORing more than two variables, the result is the same regardless of the grouping of the variables.

+ + = + +
Associative law for Multiplication: When ANDing more than two variables, the result is the same regardless of the grouping of the variables.

. . = . .

ASSOCIATIVE LAWS
Associative law for addition: + + = + +

Associative law for Multiplication: . . = . .

DISTRIBUTIVE LAW
The distributive law is the factoring law. A common variable can be factored from an expression just as in ordinary algebra. . + . = . ( + )

VENN DIAGRAMS
The rules of Boolean algebra can be explained using Venn Diagrams. The variable A is shown as an area.

The rule + = can be illustrated easily with a diagram. Add an overlapping area to represent the variable B.
The overlap region between A and B represents AB

VENN DIAGRAMS
The rules of Boolean algebra can be explained using Venn Diagrams. The diagram visually shows that

+ =

VENN DIAGRAMS
What does this famous diagram say?? =D

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 1: +

X = A+B

0 1

0 0

0 1

0
1

1
1

1
1

OR Truth Table

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 2: +

X = A+B

0 1

0 0

0 1

0
1

1
1

1
1

OR Truth Table

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 3: .

X = A.B

0 1

0 0

0 0

0
1

1
1

0
1

AND Truth Table

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 4: .

X = A.B

0 1

0 0

0 0

0
1

1
1

0
1

AND Truth Table

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 5: +

X = A+B

0 1

0 0

0 1

0
1

1
1

1
1

OR Truth Table

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 6: +

X = A+B

0 1

0 0

0 1

0
1

1
1

1
1

OR Truth Table

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 7: .

X = A.B

0 1

0 0

0 0

0
1

1
1

0
1

AND Truth Table

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 8: .

X = A.B

0 1

0 0

0 0

0
1

1
1

0
1

AND Truth Table

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 9:

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 10: +

Proof using Truth Table?

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 11: +

= +

Proof using Truth Table?

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 12: ( + )( + ) Proof using Venn Diagram? Proof using Truth Table?

= +

RULES OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


RULE 12: ( + )( + )

= +

DEMORGANS THEOREM
DeMorgans 1st Theorem: The complement of a product of variables is equal to the sum of the complemented variables.

= +

A B

0 0 1 0 0 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1

DEMORGANS THEOREM
DeMorgans 2st Theorem: The complement of a sum of variables is equal to the product of the complemented variables.

+ = .

A B +

0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1

1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

Use DeMorgans Theorem to solve the following: . +

SIMPLIFICATION USING BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

Dont look here, simplify the expression written on the board..!

STANDARD FORMS OF BOOLEAN EXPRESSIONS


Basssss hogyi hai ab to :(

STANDARD EXPRESSIONS FROM TRUTH TABLE


Truth tables show all possible inputs of a function and the values that the output takes for all those inputs. Given n inputs, there are 2 possible input combinations.
A B C F(A,B,C)

0 0 0

0 0 1

0 1 0

0 0 1

0
1 1 1 1

1
0 0 1 1

1
0 1 0 1

1
0 0 1 0

STANDARD EXPRESSIONS FROM TRUTH TABLE


Domain of a Boolean expression: The set of variables contained in the expression in either uncomplemented and complemented form
The sum-of-product (SOP) form

X = AB + CD + EF
Domain: A,B,C,D,E,F The product of sum (POS) form = ( + + )( + + ) In both forms, the over bar cannot extend over more than one variable.

SUM OF PRODUCTS FORM


An expression is on a sum-of-products form if it is formed by the sum of products, and all the products are formed by single variables only. Examples: AB + CDE + ACE; ABC + DEFG + H

The following products:

expressions

are

not

sum-of-

(A+B)CD + EF ; (X + Y)(X + Z) Each of the products in the sum-of-products form is called a minterm. Thus the form is also called sum-of-minterms.

SUM OF PRODUCTS STANDARD FORM


In SOP standard form, every variable in the domain must appear in each term. This form is useful for constructing truth tables or for implementing logic in PLDs. You can expand a nonstandard term to standard form by multiplying the term by a term consisting of the sum of the missing variable and its complement.

TRUTH TABLES TO MIN-TERM EXPRESSIONS

How would you create a min-term expression from a truth table?


NOT, AND , and OR

The need for making standard expressions?

PRODUCT OF SUMS FORM


Similarly, a product-of-sums is formed by the product of sums in which all the sums are formed by single variables only. Examples: (A + B)(C + D + E)(A + C + E) (A + B)(C + D +E)F Each of the sums in the product-of-sums form is called a maxterm. Thus the form is also called product-ofmaxterms.

The following expressions are not sum-of-products:


(A+B)CD + EF A + B + C + DE

PRODUCT OF SUMS STANDARD FORM


In POS standard form, every variable in the domain must appear in each sum term of the expression. You can expand a nonstandard POS expression to standard form by adding the product of the missing variable and its complement. Making POS from truth table?

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT GATES

DIGITAL LOGIC FAMILIES


TTL Transistor Transistor Logic ECL Emitter Coupled Logic MOS Metal Oxide Semiconductor CMOS Complementary Semiconductor Metal Oxide

Two major Fixed Function Logic families are TTL and CMOS.

FIXED FUNCTION LOGIC


Packaging for fixed function logic is shown:

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved

Some common pin configuration are shown:

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS Propagation delay Time DC Supply Voltage (VCC) Power Dissipation Input and Output Logic Levels Speed-Power product Fan-Out and Loading

PROPAGATION DELAY
Delay in the output change after the input changes.

FAN-OUT AND LOADING


Maximum number of ICs that can be driven from the output of a single IC.

ANY QUESTIONS?

Anyone willing to present? Time allowed : 5 mins Topic : Any Bonus Points : +3

REFERENCES
Chapter no 1: Binary Systems
Digital Logic Design by Morris Mano

Chapter no 1: Digital Concepts


Digital Fundamentals by Floyd