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Hypersonic Flight and (Re)-Entry in Germany Overview and Selected Projects

Klaus Hannemann
German Aerospace Center, DLR Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology 37073 Gttingen, Germany
17th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference 11 14 April 2011 The Grand Hyatt San Francisco, San Francisco, USA


Institutions involved in Hypersonic Flight and (Re) Entry Tools and Tool Development Selected Applications, Research Activities, Projects

Institutions involved in Hypersonic Flight and (Re)-Entry

EADS Astrium MT Aerospace OHB HTG, HST LFK Bayern Chemie IABG Kayser Threde TALIS ENTERPRISE GmbH Astos Solutions GmbH Aerospace Innovation GmbH

RWTH Aachen University Universitt Stuttgart Technische Universitt Mnchen Universitt der Bundeswehr Mnchen Technische Universitt Braunschweig Technische Universitt Berlin

German Aerospace Center, DLR

Braunschweig Bremen Gttingen Kln Stuttgart Lampoldshausen Oberpfaffenhofen

Tools and Tool Development:

Flight Experiment

Ground Based Testing


Ground Based Testing

Cold hypersonic facilities Arc heated tunnels for qualification of hot structure components Shock tunnels for re-entry aerothermodynamics, hypersonic flight and scramjet propulsion Aerodynamics in rarefied gas environment Connected tube facilities for dual mode ram-/scramjet combustion Thermo-mechanical component testing
Air Dryer Auxiliary Air Supply

H2K, DLR Kln

Heater 1 Screw Compressor

Heater 2

Heater 0

Combustion Chamber

Supersonic combustion test facility, ITLR Stuttgart

HEG, DLR Gttingen

Ground Based Testing

Hypersonic shock tunnel TH2, Shock Wave Laboratory, RWTH Aachen

Trisonic Test Section TMK, DLR Kln

Low density facilities VXG, DLR Gttingen

Arc-heated wind tunnels L2K and L3K, DLR Kln

Numerical Methods
Aerodynamic design and multi-disciplinaryoptimization tools CFD including multidisciplinary coupling (structure mechanics, flight mechanics, combustion, chemsitry ) CFD for continuum and free molecular regime System analysis Atmospheric re-entry including aerothermal break-up

TAU code, DLR

SCARAB (spacecraft atmospheric re-entry and aerothermal break-up), HTG

Flight Testing
SHEFEX I (flight: 2005), DLR SHEFEX II (flight scheduled: 2011), DLR SHEFEX III (project in preparation), DLR EXPERT (flight scheduled: 2011), ESA with German participation HIFiRE flight program, cooperation AFRL / DLR SCRAMSPACE I, The University of Queensland, DLR member of international consortium
SHEFEX I launch, DLR

SHEFEX III aerothermodynamics study, DLR

EXPERT (European eXPErimental Re-entry Testbed), ESA

Measurement Techniques, Hardware Manufacturing Measurement techniques


Flow diagnostics in wind tunnels Flight instrumentation

Hardware manufacturing

CMC materials for hot structures (nose caps, body flaps, )

IXV in H2K, DLR Kln

EXPERT flap, MT Aerospace

EXPERT payload 6, DLR Kln

EXPERT nose cap, DLR Stuttgart

Selected Applications, Research Activities, Projects

EC co-funded research projects - LAPCAT II - ATLLAS II - FAST20XX DFG funded Graduate School 1095/2 ESA flight experiment EXPERT Hayabusa re-entry radiation measurements BL Transition study on HIFiRE I configuration DLR SHEFEX II flight experiment

EC - co funded Projects LAPCAT II, ATTLAS II, FAST20XX

General Objectives:
Assessing the potential of high-speed cruisers and high-altitude suborbital vehicles independently within Europe Identification, development and acquisition of critical technologies, knowhow and disciplines Laying out a basis for a core of experts and researchers involved in the development of the above technologies within Europe

Three complementary projects (coordinated by ESA) were initiated studying alternative concepts fulfilling different goals and objectives

EC - co funded Projects LAPCAT II, ATTLAS II

Cruisers up to antipodal range; flight speeds from Mach 3 to 8
Hydrocarbon Hydrogen
5.0 5.0

3.5 3.5

6.0 6.0

8.0 8.0

4.5 4.5

8.0 8.0

8.0 8.0

LAPCAT II (Long-Term Advanced Propulsion Concepts and Technologies II)

German Contributions (EADS-Astrium, DLR, Universitt Stuttgart):
System analysis (M8 vehicle, airbreathing engine cycle analysis) Nose-to-tail aerothermodynamics (CFD and ground based testing) Hypersonic intake aerothermodynamics Supersonic combustion experiments in connected tube and free-jet facilities Air-turbo-rocket gas generator combustion experiments and CFD modeling Penetration, mixing and supersonic combustion modeling NOx reduction and environmental chemistry modeling

Mid-term review was successfully performed in March 2011

HyShot II in HEG, DLR Gttingen

Generic ram-/scramjet combustor, ITLR Stuttgart

LAPCAT II small scale M8 configuration; to be tested in H2K and TMK, DLR Kln and HEG, DLR Gttingen

ATLLAS II (Aerodynamic and Thermal Load Interactions with Lightweight Advanced Materials for High Speed Flight II)
German Contributions (EADS-Innovation Work, DLR, Universitt Stuttgart):
Detailed design of Mach 5-6 vehicle (general structural and thermal protection layout, structural sizing, vehicle optimization (MDO)) Durability of metallic materials at high thermal and structural loads (titanium matrix composites characterization, aero thermal ground testing) Durability of non-metallic materials at high thermal and structural loads (CMC material samples for characterization: SiC/SiC, and WHIPOX, anti-oxidation coatings) Mechanical integration technologies for structures and materials Combustor and material integration (durability of non-metallic liners, fuel injectors, cooling techniques) Aero-thermal-structural loads at high-speed (unsteady SWBLI loadings on control surfaces, intermittency based transition modeling)

Kick-off scheduled for May 2011

FAST20XX (Future High-Altitude High-Speed Transport 20XX)

Suborbital flights (100km and higher); consideration of two vehicle concepts Low Energy Concept: Low Range High Energy Concept: Large Range

Space Liner, DLR Bremen

Space vehicle launched from an airplane; low-energy ballistic flight using hybrid propulsion (based on EADS Astrium RLV demonstrator Phoenix)

Vertically launched two-stage rocket space vehicle; identification of the conditions and constraints experienced during high-energy suborbital ultra-fast transport

FAST20XX (Future High-Altitude High-Speed Transport 20XX)

German Contributions (DLR, Aerospace Innovation GmbH, Astos Solutions GmbH, TU Berlin, EADS Astrium):
System analysis for DLR Space Liner concept; trajectory optimization Analysis of ground operation and launch facilities Guidance, navigation & control technologies Generation of experimental data base on dynamic stability derivatives and lateral stability, aerodynamic data base consolidation Control of laminar turbulent boundary layer transition Aerodynamics in rarefied flow Ascent and descent trajectory calculations Transpiration cooling technology using porous CMC materials and structures (sample manufacturing, ground verification) Consideration of metallic / composite airframe technologies; subsystem technologies and design Definition and modeling of hybrid rocket motor; design, manufacturing and ground test of scaled hybrid motor Medical issues of human suborbital space flight

EXPERT (European eXPErimental Re-entry Testbed), ESA

German Contributions (DLR, Universitt Stuttgart, HTG, MT Aerospace):
Scientific Payloads
DLR Stuttgart, HTG, IRS Stuttgart IRS Stuttgart


#01 #02 #03 #04 #05 #06 #07 #08 #10 #11 #12 #13 #15 #18


IRS Stuttgart


FADS Flush Air Data System PYREX Nose Heating PHLUX Catalysis Natural transition Roughness induced transition SWBLI onto Flaps SWBLI ahead of Flaps Flap Heating RESPECT Shock-layer chemistry through spectrometry Nose-TPS Step Junction Base Flow SFS - Skin Friction Sensors Flying Winglet - Sharp Hot Structure SHS Inter-metallic TPS Flight Experiment

EXPERT (European eXPErimental Re-entry Testbed), ESA

Scientific Payloads 6, 7 and 8

Hardware of payload 6

payload 7, CIRA (Italy), SWBLI ahead of flap

payload 8, RUAG/ETH (Switzerland), infrared camera to measure the flap rear surface temperature payload 6, DLR Kln, flap and cavity instrumentation

Study of BL Transition on the HIFiRE I Configuration in HEG

DLR Project IMENS-3C and DLR-JAXA cooperative Task: High Enthalpy Aerothermodynamics JAXA cone model
- 7 half-angle cone - nose radii 2.25 mm and 5 mm - length 1100 mm - equipped with thermocouples and pressure transducers

Second mode instability

- Predicted by means of stability calculations using the DLR code NOLOT - Confirmed by measurements in HEG using fast PCB 132A37 pressure transducers - Confirmed by high speed Schlieren visualization

DLR Flight Experiment SHEFEX II

Suborbital flight Rocket system VS 40 (brasilian) Controlled hypersonic flight Mass approx. 400 kg Velocity app. M = 11 Re-entry duration 50 s Passenger experiments (EADS ASTRIUM, MT-Aerospace, IRS (Universitt Stuttgart), AFRL)

DLR Flight Experiment SHEFEX II

Involved DLR sites and institutes:
Mission analysis, navigation technology, avionics
Institute of Space Systems Bremen

Aerodynamic vehicle layout, fairing structure, parachute control system, aerodynamic flight Braunschweig Institute of Flight Systems control Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology

Hypersonic wind tunnel tests

Gttingen Kln-Porz
Institute of Materials Research

Flight instrumentation and hypersonic wind tunnel tests, MHD-System, oxide based TPS

Program coordination, vehicle design, TPS and hot structures

Institute of Structures and Design

Rocket design, subsystems, RCS-control, operation

Mobile Rocket Base

DLR Flight Experiment SHEFEX II

New ablative fin Hybrid navigation system

Aerodynamic control Instrumentation: TC, heatflux, pressure, pyrometer (app. 150 gauges), 2 cameras, COMPARE (IRS)

Hybrid CMC/metallic canards

9 TPS systems 1 actively cooled segment 4 Hot antennas

DLR Flight Experiment SHEFEX II

Instrumentation Section A - B

A0 A1 A3 A5 A7 B1 B3 B5 B7

3 1 1 1 1 3 3 5 3

PRS PYR Remark

8 Massive C/C-SiC nose (FADS)

1 1 1 1 1

SiC-Tex (Astrium) C/SiC (Astrium) 2 TS in PRS sensor C/SiC (MT-Aerospace)

TS : Sheath thermocouple type S PRS : Pressure port for pressure measurement PYR : Pyrometer measurement

DLR Flight Experiment SHEFEX II

Instrumentation Section C - E
Tile TS
C1 C3 C5 C7 D1 D2 D3 D5 D6 D7 E1 E3 E5 E7 2

3 11 3 9 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 3 3 3

PRS HF Remark
1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SPFI (Astrium) 1 1 WHIPOX (DLR) 1 Metal-TPS (Astrium) 1 1 1 Panel Panel Panel ACTIVE Experiment 2 TS in PRS sensor ACTIVE reference

TS : Sheath thermocouple type S PRS : Pressure port for pressure measurement

TK : Sheath thermocouple type K HF :Heat flux sensor (VATELL HFM)

DLR Flight Experiment SHEFEX II

Instrumentation of fin section
Fins Canards Camera location

Possible camera system Cameras will be embedded in a separate small fin High temperature insulation and a quartz window will be used to thermally isolate the camera Two cameras looking forward will be installed; one camera will be focused on the canards, the other one (with a wide angle lens) will be able to see the front edges of the fins and the horizon

DLR Flight Experiment SHEFEX II current Status

All hardware and experiments available Final acceptance tests in July 2011 Pre-campaign at Andoya rocket range in June 2011 Start of campaign and system assembly at Andoya Rocket range in August 2011 Opening of launch window September 12th, 2011 ANDOYA rocket range Proposed trajectory and impact region

Thank You!