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Common Machining Processes

FIGURE 8.1 Some examples of common machining processes.

Slab milling (d) End milling(c)

(b) Cutting off(a)

Straight turning

common machining processes. Slab milling (d) End milling(c) (b) Cutting off(a) Straight turning Tool Tool End
Tool
Tool
Tool
Tool
End mill
End mill
Cutter
Cutter
common machining processes. Slab milling (d) End milling(c) (b) Cutting off(a) Straight turning Tool Tool End

with a well-defined shear plane, also known as the Merchant model; (b) Orthogonal cutting without a well-defined shear plane.

cutting process, or orthogonal cutting. (a) Orthogonal cutting

Schematic illustration of a two-dimensional

Orthogonal Cutting

FIGURE 8.2

of a two-dimensional Orthogonal Cutting FIGURE 8.2 t c Shiny surface Rough surface Tool face Chip
t c Shiny surface Rough surface Tool face Chip - + Tool Shear plane Rake
t
c
Shiny surface
Rough surface
Tool face
Chip
-
+
Tool
Shear plane
Rake angle
V
Flank
Relief or
t
clearance
o
angle
Workpiece
Shear angle
(a)
t
c
Rough surface
Tool face
Chip
Tool
-
+
Rake angle
Primary
Flankshear
zone
V
Relief or
clearance
t
angle
o
Rough
surface

(a) Schematic illustration of the basic mechanism of chip formation in cutting. (b) Velocity

(b)

V

Chip Formation

(a)

FIGURE 8.3

in cutting. (b) Velocity (b) V Chip Formation (a) FIGURE 8.3 (90° - ฀ + )
(90° - ฀ + ) V c ( ฀ - ) V s ฀ (90°
(90° - ฀ + )
V c
( ฀ - )
V s
(90° - )
฀฀
Rake angle, Chip Tool d A C ฀ Workpiece B C Shear A ฀ plane
Rake angle,
Chip
Tool
d
A
C
Workpiece
B
C
Shear
A
plane
( ฀- )
O
B
Workpiece B C Shear A ฀ plane ( ฀- ) O B diagram in the cutting
diagram in the cutting zone. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid
diagram in the cutting zone.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Types of Chips

their

edge; (d) segmented or nonhomogeneous chip; and (e) discontinuous chip. Source:

micrographs: (a) continuous chip with narrow, straight primary shear zone; (b) secondary shear zone at the tool-chip interface; (c) continuous chip with built-up

and

cutting

(c)

metal

(e)(d)

in

produced

chips

(b)

of

types

Basic

(a)

8.4

FIGURE

(e)(d) in produced chips (b) of types Basic (a) 8.4 FIGURE BUE Secondary shear zones Chip
BUE
BUE
Secondary shear zones Chip Tool Primary zone shear
Secondary shear zones
Chip
Tool
Primary zone
shear
Tool Chip Primary shear Workpiece zone
Tool
Chip
Primary
shear
Workpiece
zone
FIGURE 8.5 Shiny (burnished) surface on the tool side of a continuous chip produced in
FIGURE 8.5 Shiny (burnished) surface
on the tool side of a continuous chip
produced in turning.
(burnished) surface on the tool side of a continuous chip produced in turning. Low shear strain
Low shear strain High shear strain
Low
shear
strain
High
shear
strain
(burnished) surface on the tool side of a continuous chip produced in turning. Low shear strain

edge are as much as three times harder than the bulk workpiece. (b) Surface finish in turning 5130 steel with a

FIGURE 8.6 (a) Hardness distribution in the cutting zone for 3115 steel. Note that some regions in the built-up

built-up edge. (c) Surface finish on 1018 steel in face milling. Source: Courtesy of Metcut Research Associates, Inc.

Hardness in Cutting Zone

(b)

(c)

(a)

Associates, Inc. Hardness in Cutting Zone (b) (c) (a) Chip 316 Built-up edge Hardness (HK) 474
Associates, Inc. Hardness in Cutting Zone (b) (c) (a) Chip 316 Built-up edge Hardness (HK) 474
Associates, Inc. Hardness in Cutting Zone (b) (c) (a) Chip 316 Built-up edge Hardness (HK) 474
Chip 316 Built-up edge Hardness (HK) 474 306 661 372 329 588 289 492 565
Chip
316
Built-up
edge
Hardness (HK)
474
306
661
372
329
588
289
492
565
588
286 331 325
289
371
418
604656
684
432 589 512 578567
383
656
466
261 327 306 361 386
281
704
289
587
639704
565
281
704
308
734 770655
341 410
297 409
503544
377
231
317
229
201
266
251
Workpiece
230

breaker. Note that the chip breaker decreases the radius of curvature of the chip. (b) Chip breaker clamped on the rake face of

a cutting tool. (c) Grooves on the rake face of cutting tools, acting as chip breakers. Most cutting tools now are inserts with built-in chip-breaker features.

(a) Schematic illustration of the action of a chip

(d)

(c)

Chip Breakers

(b)

FIGURE 8.7

(d) chip hits tool shank and breaks off. Source:

workpiece and breaks; (c) continuous chip

turning: (a) tightly curled chip; (b) chip hits

moving radially outward from workpiece; and

in

produced

0° rake

(b)

chips

Positive rake

(c) Various

Chip breaker

(a)

rake (b) chips Positive rake (c) Various Chip breaker (a) Before Chip Rake face of tool
Before Chip Rake face of tool Clamp After Tool Chip breaker Tool Workpiece
Before
Chip
Rake face
of tool
Clamp
After
Tool
Chip breaker
Tool
Workpiece
(a) Before Chip Rake face of tool Clamp After Tool Chip breaker Tool Workpiece Rake face
(a) Before Chip Rake face of tool Clamp After Tool Chip breaker Tool Workpiece Rake face
(a) Before Chip Rake face of tool Clamp After Tool Chip breaker Tool Workpiece Rake face
(a) Before Chip Rake face of tool Clamp After Tool Chip breaker Tool Workpiece Rake face
(a) Before Chip Rake face of tool Clamp After Tool Chip breaker Tool Workpiece Rake face
Rake face Radius FIGURE 8.8
Rake face
Radius
FIGURE
8.8
Oblique Cutting z a Top view Tool t c Chip i o a Tool i
Oblique Cutting z a Top view Tool t c Chip i o a Tool i
Oblique Cutting z a Top view Tool t c Chip i o a Tool i
Oblique Cutting
z
a
Top view
Tool
t
c
Chip
i
o
a
Tool
i
= 0°
y
Chip
i
= 15°
o
i
Workpiece
i = 30°
Workpiece
x
(a)
(b)
(c)
FIGURE 8.9
(a) Schematic illustration of cutting with an oblique tool. (b) Top view, showing the
inclination angle, i. (c) Types of chips produced with different inclination angles.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

(a) Schematic illustration of a right-hand cutting tool for turning. Although these

tools have traditionally been produced from solid tool-steel bars, they are now replaced by inserts

(b)

Right-Hand Cutting Tool

of carbide or other tool materials of various shapes and sizes, as shown in (b).

Cutting edge Back-rake angle, + (BR)

Side-cutting edge angle (SCEA)

Nose radius

Clearance or end-relief angle

Flank

Face

Side-relief angle

(a)

Axis

FIGURE 8.10

Side-rake angle, + (SR)

End-cutting

angle

(ECEA)

edge

Axis

Side-rake angle, + (SR) End-cutting angle (ECEA) edge Axis Toolholder Clamp screw Clamp Insert Seat or
Toolholder Clamp screw Clamp Insert Seat or shim
Toolholder
Clamp screw
Clamp
Insert
Seat or shim
Shank Axis
Shank
Axis
angle, + (SR) End-cutting angle (ECEA) edge Axis Toolholder Clamp screw Clamp Insert Seat or shim
angle, + (SR) End-cutting angle (ECEA) edge Axis Toolholder Clamp screw Clamp Insert Seat or shim
angle, + (SR) End-cutting angle (ECEA) edge Axis Toolholder Clamp screw Clamp Insert Seat or shim

circle to determine various forces acting in the cutting zone. Source: After M.E. Merchant.

a

cutting tool in two-dimensional cutting. Note that the resultant forces, R, must be collinear to balance the forces. (b) Force

(a) Forces acting on

µ = tan = F F t c +F F c t tan tan

Friction coefficient

FIGURE 8.11

(b)

V

(a)

t a n tan Friction coefficient FIGURE 8.11 (b) V (a) Cutting Forces Chip V F
Cutting Forces Chip V F s Tool F c ฀ F t R F Workpiece
Cutting Forces
Chip
V
F
s
Tool
F c
F t
R
F
Workpiece
N
Tool Chip R F F t F c N F s F n R Workpiece
Tool
Chip
R
F
F
t
F c
N
F s
F
n
R
Workpiece
N Tool Chip R F F t F c N F s F n R Workpiece
Cutting force F c = R cos ( − ) = sin wt o cos
Cutting force
F c = R cos ( − ) = sin wt o cos cos ( ( + − − ) )
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

24

30

25

32

25

31

107

124

103

103

108

96

266

289

249

312

225

342

390

450

356

328

415

385

t o = 0.037 in.; w = 0.25 in.; tool: cemented carbide.

217

283

326

168

263

385

384

360

416

329

303

356

27

44

30

33

48

39

0.64

0.58

0.95

1.11

0.51

0.81

2.7

2.4

3.9

3.5

3.1

3.1

Cutting Data

21.5

16.5

19

19

25

22

637
1160

1186 400

400 642

-10

tools and in controlling the stability of the cutting

cold-rolled steel. Note that at high rake angles, the

angle and feed in orthogonal cutting of AISI 1112

important implications in the design of machine

thrust force is negative. A negative thrust force has

E.G.

and

Kobayashi

S.

After

Source:

Thomsen.

process.

has E.G. and Kobayashi S. After Source: Thomsen. process. F t (lb) TABLE 8.1 Data on
F t (lb) TABLE 8.1 Data on orthogonal cutting of 4130 steel. mm/revmm/rev 0 0.1
F t (lb)
TABLE 8.1 Data on orthogonal cutting of 4130 steel.
mm/revmm/rev
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
u
200
t
= 5°
(in.-lb/in 3
800
α
φ
γ
µ
β
F c (lb)
F t (lb)
×10 3 )
u s
u f
u f /u t
(%)
25 ◦
20.9 ◦
2.55
1.46
56
380
224
320
209
111
35
150
10°
35
40
31.6
1.56
1.53
57
254
102
214
112
102
48
35.7
1.32
1.54
57
232
71
195
94
101
52
100
45
41.9
1.06
1.83
62
232
68
195
75
120
62
15°
400
t o = 0.0025 in.; w = 0.475 in.; V = 90 ft/min; tool: high-speed steel.
20°
50
25°
30°
(N)
0
0
35°
40°
TABLE 8.2 Data on orthogonal cutting of 9445 steel.
250 0
2200
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.010 0.012
Feed (in./rev)
α
V
φ
γ
µ
β
F c
F t
u t
u s
u f
u f /u t
(%)
FIGURE 8.12
Thrust force as a function of rake
+10
197
17
3.4
1.05
46
370
273
400
292
108
27

FIGURE 8.13 (a) Shear force and (b) normal force as a function of the area of the shear plane and the rake angle for 85-15 brass. Note that the shear stress in the shear plane is constant, regardless of the magnitude of the normal stress, indicating that the normal stress has no effect on the shear flow stress of the material. Source: After S. Kobayashi and E.G.Thomsen.

Shear Force & Normal Force

(b)

(a)

and E.G.Thomsen. Shear Force & Normal Force (b) (a) (N) mm 2 0 1 32 320

(N)

mm 2 0 1 32 320 280 1200 240 200 20° 25 160 30 120
mm
2
0
1
32
320
280
1200
240
200
20°
25
160
30
120
35
40
800
400
80
40
0
0
1
32
4
5
6
A s (in 2 x 10 -3 )

F t (lb)

(N)

2 mm 0 1 32 320 280 1200 = 20° to 40° 240 200 160
2
mm
0
1
32
320
280
1200
= 20° to 40°
240
200
160
120
800
400
80
40
= 50,000 psi
0
0
0
1
32
4
5
6
A s (in 2 x 10 -3 )

F s (lb)

to 40° 240 200 160 120 800 400 80 40 = 50,000 psi 0 0 0

FIGURE 8.14 Schematic illustration of the distribution of normal and shear stresses at the tool-chip interface (rake face). Note that, whereas the normal stress increases continuously toward the tip of the tool, the shear stress reaches a maximum and remains at that value (a phenomenon known as sticking; see Section 4.4.1).

Flank face

Shear Stress on Tool Face

Tool tip

Stresses on tool face

Tool face

Sticking

Sliding

; see Section 4.4.1). Flank face Shear Stress on Tool Face Tool tip Stresses on tool
Tool
Tool
; see Section 4.4.1). Flank face Shear Stress on Tool Face Tool tip Stresses on tool
; see Section 4.4.1). Flank face Shear Stress on Tool Face Tool tip Stresses on tool
; see Section 4.4.1). Flank face Shear Stress on Tool Face Tool tip Stresses on tool
; see Section 4.4.1). Flank face Shear Stress on Tool Face Tool tip Stresses on tool
; see Section 4.4.1). Flank face Shear Stress on Tool Face Tool tip Stresses on tool

of

studies have resulted in better agreement

cutting

experimental and theoretical shear-angle

between the shear angle and the friction

Relation

analytical

Comparison

speeds. Source: After S. Kobayashi.

and

(b)

recent

alloys

data.

(a)

More

Mizuno [Eqs. (8.22)-(8.23]

experimental

various

= for > 15

= 15 for < 15

8.15

relationships.

Shear-Angle Relationships

for

FIGURE

angle

with

(b)(a)

Merchant [Eq. (8.20)]

Shaffer [Eq. (8.21)]

= 45 + 2

2

(8.20)] Shaffer [Eq. (8.21)] = 45 ◦ + 2 − 2 60 40 = 0 20
60 40 = 0 20 0 = 10 30 50 70 (deg.) 2µ=0 0.5 1
60
40
= 0
20
0
= 10
30
50
70 (deg.)
2µ=0
0.5
1

(deg.)

Aluminum Eq. (8.21) angle,Shear (deg.) Tin Eq. (8.20) 50 Copper Lead 40 30 20 Mild
Aluminum
Eq. (8.21)
angle,Shear
(deg.)
Tin
Eq. (8.20)
50
Copper
Lead
40
30
20
Mild steel
10
0
50230
220
210
0
10
6020
30
40
( - )
steel 10 0 50230 220 210 0 10 6020 30 40 ( - ) = 45
= 45 ◦ + − Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid
= 45 ◦ + −
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

TABLE 8.3 Approximate Specific-Energy Requirements in Machining Operations

multiply

hp-min/in 3

0.15-0.4

0.15-0.2

1.0-3.4

0.6-2.0

1.1-1.9

0.5-1.2

1.8-2.5

1.1-1.5

1.1-3.5

1.2-3.1

Specific Energy

Specific Energy

80% eciency;

W-s/mm 3

4.9-6.8

2.7-9.3

1.4-3.3

3.8-9.6

0.4-0.6

3.3-8.5

1.6-5.5

3.0-5.2

3.0-4.1

0.4-1.1

the energy by 1.25 for dull tools.

motor, corrected for

Material Aluminum alloys Cast irons Copper alloys High-temperature alloys Magnesium alloys Nickel alloys Refractory alloys Stainless steels Steels

At drive alloys

Titanium

alloys Refractory alloys Stainless steels Steels A t d r i v e a l l
alloys Refractory alloys Stainless steels Steels A t d r i v e a l l

that

Note speed: After

Source:

of cutting

interface.

surface.

Temperatures in Cutting

(b)

function

as tool-chip

ank

a

at the

that the

turning

in along

500
400

600

700

is higher than

tool, workpiece, and chip as a function of the cutting speed. Note that most of the cutting energy is carried away by the chip (in the form of heat), particularly

Proportion of the heat generated in cutting transferred to the

temperature

K.J.Trigger.

and

rake-face

Chao

B.T.

the

FIGURE 8.18

and r a k e - f a c e Chao B.T. t h e FIGURE

°C

0 0 3 0 0 2 1100 2000 1800 900 1600 1400 700 1200 1000
0
0
3
0
0
2
1100
2000
1800
900
1600
1400
700
1200
1000
500
800
600
400
300
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Fraction
of tool-chip
contact
length
measured
in the direction of chip flow
55
n
0
f
i
t
/
m

(°F)interfacetool-chipattemperatureLocal

°C

mm 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 1400 n Work material: AISI 52100 Annealed: 188 HB Tool
mm
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
1400
n
Work material: AISI 52100
Annealed: 188 HB
Tool material: K3H carbide
1300
i
0
1200
m
1100
1000
Feed: 0.0055 in./rev
(0.14 mm/rev)
0
/
t
900
f
800
0
5
700
2
0
.008 .016 .024
.032
.040
.048 .056
5
0
Distance from tool tip (in.)
=
V
0
3
(a)
FIGURE
8.2
Temperature
distribution
(a)
flank
temperature;
(b) temperature

(°F)temperaturesurfaceFlank

650 600 500 700 600 650 360 Chip 400 Temperature (°C) 380 450 500 Tool
650
600
500
700
600
650
360
Chip
400
Temperature (°C)
380
450
500
Tool
600
130 80 30
Workpiece
FIGURE
8.1
Typical
temperature
distribution in the cutting zone. Note the
severe temperature gradients within the
tool and the chip, and that the workpiece is
relatively cool. Source: After G.Vieregge.
T = 1.2Y c f 3 Vt o
K
Chip Cutting speed e c Tool e i p r k o W
Chip
Cutting speed
e
c
Tool
e
i
p
r
k
o
W

(%)Energy

FIGURE 8.19 Terminology used in a turning operation on a lathe, where f is the feed (in mm/rev or in./rev) and d is the depth of cut. Note that feed in turning is equivalent to the depth of cut in orthogonal cutting (see Fig. 8.2), and the depth of cut in turning is equivalent to the width of cut in orthogonal cutting. See also Fig. 8.42.

Terminology in Turning

cutting. See also Fig. 8.42. Terminology in Turning Feed (mm/rev or in./rev) Depth of cut (mm
Feed (mm/rev or in./rev) Depth of cut (mm or in.) Chip Tool
Feed
(mm/rev or in./rev)
Depth of cut
(mm or in.)
Chip
Tool
cutting. See also Fig. 8.42. Terminology in Turning Feed (mm/rev or in./rev) Depth of cut (mm

TABLE 8.4 Range of n values for various cutting tools.

0.1-0.15

0.08-0.2

0.5-0.7

0.2-0.5

Taylor tool life equation:

Tool Wear

VT n =C

High-speed steels Cast alloys Carbides Ceramics

(e) Examples of wear in cutting tools. (a) Flank

wear; (b) crater wear; (c) chipped cutting edge; (d) thermal

cracking on rake face; (e) flank wear and built-up edge; (f)

(c)

Crater wear

Flank face

Flank face

(a) Rake face

BUE

(d)

FIGURE 8.20

wear Flank face Flank face (a) Rake face BUE (d) FIGURE 8.20 Flank wear Depth-of-cut line
Flank wear Depth-of-cut line VB max VB Flank face
Flank wear Depth-of-cut line
VB max VB
Flank face
Rake face Crater Crater Rake face wear wear depth Tool Nose R radius (KT) Flank
Rake
face
Crater
Crater
Rake face
wear
wear
depth
Tool
Nose
R
radius
(KT)
Flank
Flank
wear
face
Depth-of-cut line
R radius (KT) Flank Flank wear face Depth-of-cut line Rake face Flank wear Flank face (b)
R radius (KT) Flank Flank wear face Depth-of-cut line Rake face Flank wear Flank face (b)
Rake face Flank wear Flank face (b) Thermal cracking Rake face
Rake face
Flank wear
Flank face
(b)
Thermal
cracking
Rake face
Flank wear Flank face (b) Thermal cracking Rake face catastrophic failure (fracture). Source: Courtesy of
catastrophic failure (fracture). Source: Courtesy of Kennametal, Inc. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering
catastrophic
failure
(fracture).
Source:
Courtesy
of
Kennametal, Inc.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

FIGURE 8.21 Effect of workpiece microstructure on tool life in turning. Tool life is given in terms of the time (in minutes) required to reach a flank wear land of a specified dimension. (a) Ductile cast iron; (b) steels, with identical hardness. Note in both figures the rapid decrease in tool life as the cutting speed increases.

Effect of Workpiece on Tool Life

(b)

(a)

speed increases. Effect of Workpiece on Tool Life (b) (a) M P e ar a lit
M P e ar a lit r e- t fe e rr it n e
M
P
e
ar
a
lit
r
e-
t
fe
e
rr
it
n
e
s
i
t
i
c
S
p
h
er
oi
di
z
e
d
m/s
0.40.1
0.2
0.3
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Cutting speed (ft/min)

(min)lifeTool

m/min 50 100 150 200 250 120 e a (min)lifeTool 80 b c d 40
m/min
50
100
150
200
250
120
e
a
(min)lifeTool
80
b
c
d
40
0
100
300
500
700
900
Cutting speed (ft/min)
Hardness
(HB)
Ferrite
Pearlite
a. As cast
b. As cast
c. As cast
265
20%
80%
215
40
60
207
60
40
d. Annealed
183
97
_ 3
e. Annealed
170
100
As cast b. As cast c. As cast 265 20% 80% 215 40 60 207 60

temperature during cutting and tool life (flank wear). Note that high cutting temperatures severely

(a) Tool-life curves for a variety of cutting-tool materials. The negative inverse of the

slope of these curves is the exponent n in tool-life equations. (b) Relationship between measured

Tool life criterion: 0.024 in. (0.6 mm) flank wear

reduce tool life. See also Eq. (8.30). Source: After H. Takeyama and Y. Murata.

Tool-Life Curves

(b)

°C

(a)

FIGURE 8.22

and Y. Murata. Tool-Life Curves ( b ) °C (a) FIGURE 8.22 800 1000 1200 1400
800 1000 1200 1400 400 200 Feed constant, speed variable 100 Speed constant, 60 feed
800
1000
1200
1400
400
200
Feed constant,
speed variable
100
Speed constant,
60
feed variable
40
20
10
4 6
2
1
0.6
0.2
1500 1800
2100 2400
Temperature (°F)
Work material:
material: Tungsten
Heat-resistant
Tool
carbide alloy
(min)lifeTool
Cast alloy High-speed steel Carbide Ceramic m/min (min)lifeTool 50 300 3000 300 100 20 10
Cast alloy
High-speed steel
Carbide
Ceramic
m/min
(min)lifeTool
50
300
3000
300
100
20
10
5
n
1
100
300
10,00050001000
Cutting speed (ft/min)

of

Source:

the

Compare this pattern with the temperature

FIGURE 8.23 Interface of chip (left) and rake face of cutting tool (right) and crater wear in cutting AISI 1004 steel at 3 m/s (585 ft/min).

pattern.

temper). Note how the crater-wear pattern

Crater wear

Rake face

(loss

indicates

8.16.

discoloration

temperature

Fig.

tool

in

Courtesy of P.K.Wright.

the

the

shown

high

of

with

Discoloration

of

distribution

coincides

presence

Allowable average wear lands for

Source: After

that crater wear increases rapidly within a

wear rate and average tool-chip interface temperature in turning: (a) high-speed-steel

tool; (b) C1 carbide; (c) C5 carbide. Note

Relationship between crater-

Allowable Wear Land (mm)

Average tool-chip interface

cutting tools in various operations.

narrow range of temperature. K.J.Trigger and B.T. Chao.

temperature (°F)

°C

FIGURE 8.23

TABLE 8.5

and B.T. Chao. temperature (°F) °C FIGURE 8.23 TABLE 8.5 Tool Wear Chip Flank face 500
Tool Wear Chip Flank face
Tool Wear
Chip
Flank face
500 700 900 1100 6- ) a (in 3 10x/min b c 20 0.30 10
500
700
900
1100
6- )
a
(in 3
10x/min
b
c
20
0.30
10
0.15
00
1200 1600800
2000
mm
3 /min

ratewearCrater

Operation High-Speed Steels Carbides Turning 1.5 0.4 Face milling 1.5 0.4 End milling 0.3 0.3
Operation
High-Speed Steels
Carbides
Turning
1.5
0.4
Face milling
1.5
0.4
End milling
0.3
0.3
Drilling
0.4
0.4
Reaming
0.15
0.15
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

indirectly monitoring wear rate in various cutting processes without interrupting the operation. Source: After M.S. Lan and D.A. Dornfeld.

FIGURE 8.25 Relationship between mean flank wear, maximum crater wear, and acoustic emission (noise generated

during cutting) as a function of machining time. This technique has been developed as a means for continuously and

Acoustic Emission and Wear

as a means for continuously and Acoustic Emission and Wear depthcraterMaximum mm in. in. mm 1.5

depthcraterMaximum

mm in. in. mm 1.5 0.15 0.050 0.005 1.0 0.5 0.040 0.004 0.030 0.020 0.003
mm
in.
in.
mm
1.5
0.15
0.050
0.005
1.0
0.5
0.040
0.004
0.030
0.020
0.003
0.002
0.1
0.05
0.010
0
0
0 0.001
0
(mV)RMSMean
1500
rC
1000
ta
re
alF
w
kn
ae
w
r
ae
r
500
500
10
20
30
40
60
Elapsed machining time (min)

wearflankMean

rC 1000 ta re alF w kn ae w r ae r 500 500 10 20

obtained in various machining processes. Note the wide range within each group, especially in turning

roughnesses

Surface Finish

surface

and boring. (See also Fig. 9.27).

of

Range

8.26

FIGURE

and boring. (See also Fig. 9.27). of Range 8.26 FIGURE Roughness (R a ) µm 50
Roughness (R a ) µm 50 25 12.5 6.3 3.2 1.6 0.8 0.40 0.20 0.10
Roughness (R a )
µm
50
25
12.5
6.3
3.2
1.6
0.8
0.40
0.20
0.10
0.05
0.025
0.012
Process
µin.
2000
1000
500
250
125
63
32
16
8
4
2
1
0.5
Rough cutting
Flame cutting
Average application
Snagging (coarse grinding)
Less frequent application
Sawing
Casting
Sand casting
Permanent mold casting
Investment casting
Die casting
Forming
Hot rolling
Forging
Extruding
Cold rolling, drawing
Roller burnishing
Machining
Planing, shaping
Milling
Broaching
Reaming
Turning, boring
Drilling
Advanced machining
Chemical machining
Electrical-discharge machining
Electron-beam machining
Laser machining
Electrochemical machining
Finishing processes
Honing
Barrel finishing
Electrochemical grinding
Grinding
Electropolishing
Polishing
Lapping
Superfinishing
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

microscope: (a) turned surface, and (b) surface produced by shaping. Source: J.T. Black and S. Ramalingam.

Surfaces produced on steel in

machining, as observed with a scanning electron

Surfaces in Machining

FIGURE 8.27

(b)

(a)

scanning electron Surfaces in Machining FIGURE 8.27 (b) (a) Tool MachinedWorkpiece surface depthIncreasing cutof
scanning electron Surfaces in Machining FIGURE 8.27 (b) (a) Tool MachinedWorkpiece surface depthIncreasing cutof
scanning electron Surfaces in Machining FIGURE 8.27 (b) (a) Tool MachinedWorkpiece surface depthIncreasing cutof
Tool MachinedWorkpiece surface depthIncreasing cutof
Tool
MachinedWorkpiece
surface
depthIncreasing
cutof
FIGURE 8.28 Schematic illustration of a dull tool in orthogonal cutting (exaggerated). Note that at
FIGURE 8.28
Schematic illustration of a dull tool in orthogonal
cutting (exaggerated). Note that at small depths of cut, the rake
angle can effectively become negative. In such cases, the tool may
simply ride over the workpiece surface, burnishing it, instead of
cutting.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

machining steels. (a) Manganese-sulfide inclusions in AISI 1215 steel. (b) Manganese-sulfide inclusions and glassy manganese-silicate-type oxide (dark) in AISI 1215 steel. (c) Manganese sulfide with lead particles as

tails in AISI 12L14 steel. Source: Courtesy of Ispat Inland Inc.

in AISI 12L14 steel. Source: Courtesy of Ispat Inland Inc. Inclusions in Free-Machining Steels (a) (b)
Inclusions in Free-Machining Steels (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 8.29 Photomicrographs showing various types of inclusions
Inclusions in Free-Machining Steels
(a)
(b)
(c)
FIGURE 8.29
Photomicrographs showing various types of inclusions in low-carbon, resulfurized free-
Steels (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 8.29 Photomicrographs showing various types of inclusions in low-carbon, resulfurized free-
Steels (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 8.29 Photomicrographs showing various types of inclusions in low-carbon, resulfurized free-

treatments

materials as a function of temperature (hot hardness). The wide range in each group of tool materials results

cutting-tool

and

various

compositions

of

Hardness of Cutting Tools

Hardness

available for that group.

of

variety

8.30

the

FIGURE

from

°C

for that group. of variety 8.30 the FIGURE from ° C HRC High-speed steels s l

HRC

High-speed steels s l e e t s l o o t n o b
High-speed steels
s
l
e
e
t
s
l
o
o
t
n
o
b
ar
s
C
ll
oy
Ceramics
Carbides
a
t
s
100
300
500
700
a
C
95
90
70
85
80
65
60
55
50
75
70
45
40
35
65
30
25
60
55
20
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
Temperature (°F)

(HRA)Hardness

50 75 70 45 40 35 65 30 25 60 55 20 0 200 400 600

7000-8000 HK

Diamond

500-2000

820-1050

120-150

Crystal

1.5-4.8

Single

< 0.2

3500

6900

1350

1300

1000

0.13

< 2

700

95

4000-5000 HK

105-200

Nitride

Boron

Cubic

< 0.5

1300

2400

1000

3500

6900

0.13

< 5

700

850

125

4.8

13

95

6-8.5 is higher.

91-95 HRA

2750-4500

4000-4500

Ceramics

0.14-0.16

345-950

310-410

400-650

50-135

45-60

< 0.1

3600

2000

100

< 1

Tool Materials

29

strength, which

91-93 HRA

5500-5800

3100-3850

1380-1900

0.79-1.24

0.2-0.22

450-560

310-450

200-275

45-65

except impact 7.5-9

2550

1400

7-11

TiC

17

TABLE 8.6 Typical range of properties of various tool materials.

Carbides

10,000-15,000

90-95 HRA

4100-5850

1050-2600

0.36-0.54

0.34-1.35

520-690

600-850

150-375

75-100

42-125

70-90

lower, 4-6.5

1400

2550

3-12

WC

diamond are generally

82-84 HRA

8000-8700

1500-2300

1380-2050

0.34-1.25

0.29-0.31

200-300

220-335

Alloys

10-20

Cast

3-11

High-Speed

83-86 HRA

4100-4500

2400-4800

600-650

350-700

1.35-8

12-70

30-50

Steel

8600

1300

2370

7-15

0.31

200

30

12

values for ×10 polycrystalline 6

/ C

temperature

Thermal conductivity,

W/mK Coecient of thermal

Property Hardness Compressive strength MPa psi ×10 3 Transverse rupture strength MPa psi ×10 3 Impact strength

Modulus of elasticity

Melting or decom-

Volume of hard

expansion,

phase (%)

psi ×10 6

◦ ◦ position

kg/m 3

lb/in 3

J in.-lb

Density

GPa

The

F C

i o n , phase (%) psi × 10 6 ◦ ◦ p o s i

that hardness is directly related to compressive strength (see Section 2.6.8) and hence, inversely

Effect of cobalt content in tungsten-carbide tools on mechanical properties. Note

Properties of Tungsten-Carbide Tools

FIGURE 8.31

Note Properties of Tungsten-Carbide Tools FIGURE 8.31 (HV)hardnessVickers C o m p r e s Har

(HV)hardnessVickers

C o m p r e s Har si dne v ss e st re
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
Har
si
dne
v
ss
e
st
re
n
gt
h
600
HRA 92.4
1750
500
90.5
1500
400
88.5
1250
300
85.7
1000
200
750
htg
100
ne
rts
500
e
ru
0 0
tp
ur
5
10
15
20
25
30
-e
sr
Cobalt content (% by weight)
e
v
s
n
a
r
T
W
ae
r

2 )

(kg/mmstrengthrupture

transverse-andcompressive(mg),Wear

) (kg/mmstrengthrupture transverse-andcompressive(mg),Wear to wear [see Eq. (4.6)]. Manufacturing Processes for
to wear [see Eq. (4.6)]. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid
to wear [see Eq. (4.6)].
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Examples of inserts mounted using threadless lockpins, which are secured with side screws. Source:

Methods of mounting inserts on toolholders: (a) clamping, and (b) wing lockpins. (c)

(c)(b)

Inserts

Insert

Seat

Lockpin

(a) FIGURE 8.32

(c) (c)(b) Inserts Insert Seat Lockpin (a) FIGURE 8.32 Shank Toolholder Clamp screw Clamp Insert Seat
(c) (c)(b) Inserts Insert Seat Lockpin (a) FIGURE 8.32 Shank Toolholder Clamp screw Clamp Insert Seat
Shank
Shank
Toolholder Clamp screw Clamp Insert Seat or shim
Toolholder
Clamp
screw
Clamp
Insert
Seat
or shim
Shank Toolholder Clamp screw Clamp Insert Seat or shim Courtesy of Valenite. Manufacturing Processes for
Courtesy of Valenite. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008,
Courtesy of Valenite.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

FIGURE 8.34 Edge preparations for inserts to improve edge strength. Source: Courtesy of Kennametal, Inc.

Increasing edge strength

Insert Strength

for

Strength refers to that of the cutting edge shown by the

shapes.

tendency

included angles. Source: Courtesy of Kennametal, Inc.

various

Increased chipping and breaking

and

with

Increasing strength

strength

inserts

edge

of

breaking

Relative

8.33

and

chipping

FIGURE

inserts edge of breaking Relative 8.33 and chipping FIGURE 60° 35°55° 80° 100° 90° Positive honewith
inserts edge of breaking Relative 8.33 and chipping FIGURE 60° 35°55° 80° 100° 90° Positive honewith
inserts edge of breaking Relative 8.33 and chipping FIGURE 60° 35°55° 80° 100° 90° Positive honewith
60° 35°55°
60°
35°55°
80°
80°
100° 90°
100°
90°
8.33 and chipping FIGURE 60° 35°55° 80° 100° 90° Positive honewith Positive sharp Negative honed
Positive honewith Positive sharp
Positive
honewith
Positive
sharp
Negative honed Negative sharp
Negative
honed
Negative
sharp
Negative landwith honeand Negative landwith
Negative
landwith
honeand
Negative
landwith

Note that, within one century,

machining time has been reduced by two orders of magnitude. Source:After Sandvik Coromant.

indication of the year the tool materials were introduced.

indication of the year the tool materials were introduced. Historical Tool Improvement 100 Carbon steel 26
Historical Tool Improvement 100 Carbon steel 26 High-speed steel (min)timeMachining 15 Cast cobalt-based alloys 6
Historical Tool Improvement
100
Carbon steel
26
High-speed steel
(min)timeMachining
15
Cast cobalt-based alloys
6
Cemented carbides
3
Improved carbide grades
1.5
1
First coated grades
First double-coated grades
First triple-coated grades
0.7
0.5
Functionally graded triple-coated
1900 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 00
Year
FIGURE 8.35
Relative time required to machine with various cutting-tool materials, with
40 50 60 70 80 90 00 Year FIGURE 8.35 Relative time required to machine with

made. Coating

Source:

separated by very thin layers of titanium nitride. Inserts with as

µm.

10

been

to

range of 2

have

coatings

the

Courtesy of Kennametal, Inc.

in

of

thicknesses are typically

layers

Coated Tools

13

as

many

cutting

tools. Note that flank wear is lower for the

FIGURE 8.36 Wear patterns on high-speed-steel

titanium-nitride-coated

and

coated tool.

uncoated

titanium-nitride-coated and coated tool. uncoated TiN TiC + TiN Al 2 O 3 TiN Al 2
TiN TiC + TiN Al 2 O 3 TiN Al 2 O 3 TiN Al
TiN
TiC + TiN
Al 2 O 3
TiN
Al 2 O 3
TiN
Al 2 O 3
TiC + TiN
Carbide substrate
FIGURE
8.37
Multiphase
coatings
on
a
tungsten-carbide
substrate. Three
alternating
layers
of
aluminum
oxide
are
Rake face Tool TiN coated Uncoated Flank wear
Rake
face
Tool
TiN coated
Uncoated
Flank wear
substrate. Three alternating layers of aluminum oxide are Rake face Tool TiN coated Uncoated Flank wear

boron-nitride or diamond layer on a tungsten-carbide

Construction of polycrystalline cubic-

Properties of Cutting Tool Materials

FIGURE 8.39

insert.

Tungsten-carbide insert Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride Braze or diamond layer Carbide substrate
Tungsten-carbide
insert
Polycrystalline
cubic
boron nitride
Braze
or diamond layer
Carbide substrate
resistancewearandhardnessHot Diamond, cubic boron nitride Aluminum oxide (HIP) Aluminum oxide + 30% titanium carbide
resistancewearandhardnessHot
Diamond, cubic boron nitride
Aluminum oxide (HIP)
Aluminum oxide + 30% titanium carbide
Silicon nitride
Cermets
Coated carbides
Carbides
HSS
Strength and toughness
FIGURE 8.38
Ranges of properties for various groups of cutting-tool
materials. (See also Tables 8.1 through 8.5.)
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Commercial tolerances (±mm) Fine: 0.05-0.13 Rough: 0.13 Skiving: 0.025-0.05

Characteristics of Machining

0.025-0.15

0.05-0.13

0.08-0.13

0.075 0.13-0.25

0.025

0.8

Characteristics Turning and facing operations are performed on all types of materials; requires skilled labor; low production rate, but medium to high rates can be achieved with turret lathes and automatic machines, requiring less skilled labor. Internal surfaces or profiles, with characteristics similar to those produced by turning; stiness of boring bar is impor- tant to avoid chatter. Round holes of various sizes and depths; requires boring and reaming for improved accuracy; high production rate, labor skill required depends on hole location and accuracy specified. Variety of shapes involving contours, flat surfaces, and slots; wide variety of tooling; versatile; low to medium production rate; requires skilled labor. Flat surfaces and straight contour profiles on large surfaces; suitable for low-quantity production; labor skill required de- pends on part shape. Flat surfaces and straight contour profiles on relatively small workpieces; suitable for low-quantity production; labor skill required depends on part shape. External and internal flat surfaces, slots, and contours with good surface finish; costly tooling; high production rate; labor skill required depends on part shape. Straight and contour cuts on flats or structural shapes; not suitable for hard materials unless the saw has carbide teeth or is coated with diamond; low production rate; requires only low skilled labor.

Broaching

Shaping

Turning

Planing

Drilling

Process

Sawing

Milling

Boring

production rate; requires only low skilled labor. Broaching Shaping Turning Planing Drilling Process Sawing Milling Boring

Variety of machining operations

Lathe Operations

that can be performed on a lathe.

FIGURE 8.40

Operations that can be performed on a lathe. FIGURE 8.40 Depth of cut Tool Feed, f
Depth of cut Tool Feed, f (a) Straight turning (b) Taper turning (c) Profiling (d)
Depth
of cut
Tool
Feed, f
(a) Straight turning
(b) Taper turning
(c) Profiling
(d)
Turning and
(e) Facing
(f) Face grooving
external grooving
(i) Drilling Workpiece (l) Knurling
(i) Drilling
Workpiece
(l) Knurling
(h) Boring and internal grooving
(h)
Boring and
internal grooving
(g) Cutting with a form tool
(g)
Cutting with
a form tool
(k) Threading
(k)
Threading
(j) Cutting off
(j)
Cutting off
Workpiece (l) Knurling (h) Boring and internal grooving (g) Cutting with a form tool (k) Threading

symbols for a right-hand cutting tool. The designation “right hand” means that the tool travels from right to left,

and

Side and end cutting edge

10

15

45

15

15

15

15

15

15

5

Designations

Carbide inserts

15-20

relief

Side

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

as shown in Fig. 8.19.

20-30

relief

End

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

8.41

rake

Side

-5-5

15

-5

-5

-5

0

0

0

5

5

FIGURE

Back

rake

-5-0

-5

-5

-5

0

0

0

0

0

5

Side and end cutting edge

10

10

15

15

15

15

15

5

5

5

High-speed steel

Tool Angles

15-20

15-20

relief

Side

10

8

5

5

5

5

5

5

20-30

20-30

relief

End

12

8

5

5

5

5

5

5

rake

Side

8-10

20

10

10

10

15

12

0

0

5

Back

rake

20

10

0

0

0

0

0

5

5

5

Aluminum and magnesium alloys Copper alloys Steels Stainless steels High-temperature alloys Refractory alloys Titanium alloys Cast irons Thermoplastics Thermosets

Material

recommendations for tool angles

G e n e r a l

8 . 8

in turning.

TA B L E

for tool angles G e n e r a l 8 . 8 in turning. TA
End cutting-edge angle (ECEA) Rake face Nose Nose radius angle Side cutting-edge angle (SCEA) (c)
End
cutting-edge
angle
(ECEA)
Rake face
Nose
Nose
radius
angle
Side
cutting-edge
angle
(SCEA)
(c) Top view
Back rake angle (BRA) Wedge Shank angle Flank face End relief angle (ERA) (b) Side
Back rake
angle (BRA)
Wedge
Shank
angle
Flank face
End relief
angle (ERA)
(b) Side view
Side rake angle (RA) Side relief angle (SRA) (a) End view
Side rake
angle (RA)
Side relief
angle (SRA)
(a) End view

F c is the

FIGURE 8.42 (a) Schematic illustration of a turning operation, showing depth of cut, d, and feed, f. Cutting speed

cutting force; F t is the thrust or feed force (in the direction of feed); and F r is the radial force that tends to push

the tool away from the workpiece being machined. Compare this figure with Fig. 8.11 for a two-dimensional cutting operation.

is the surface speed of the workpiece at the tool tip. (b) Forces acting on a cutting tool in turning.

(b)

Turning Operations

(a)

Chuck

a cutting tool in turning. (b) Turning Operations (a) Chuck N F c F Ft r
N F c F Ft r Tool Feed, f
N
F
c
F Ft
r
Tool
Feed, f
N Workpiece d D o D f Tool Feed, f
N
Workpiece
d
D o
D f
Tool
Feed, f
tool in turning. (b) Turning Operations (a) Chuck N F c F Ft r Tool Feed,

Approximate Ranges of Recommended

mets. Speeds for diamond tools are significantly higher than any of the values indicated in the table.

Speeds for high-speed-steel tools are lower

than indicated. The higher ranges are for coated carbides and cer-

Note: (a) The speeds given in this table are for carbides and ce-

Feeds, f , are generally in the range of 0.15-1 mm/rev (0.006-

Depths of cut, d, are generally in the range of 0.5-12 mm (0.02-

160-1000

200-3000

160-2300

650-3300

160-1600

65-1300

200-500

300-800

ft/min

30-330

Cutting Speed

Cutting Speeds for Turning Operations

Cutting Speeds for Turning

200-1000

m/min

20-400

50-300

50-700

60-150

10-100

60-900

90-240

50-500

Workpiece Material Aluminum alloys Cast iron, gray Copper alloys High-temperature alloys Steels Stainless steels Thermoplastics and thermosets Titanium alloys Tungsten alloys

ramic cutting tools.

TABLE 8.9

0.040 in./rev).

0.5 in.).

(b)

(c)

cutting tools. TABLE 8.9 0.040 in./rev). 0.5 in.). (b) (c) (ft/min)speedCutting mm/rev 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.50
(ft/min)speedCutting mm/rev 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.50 0.75 3000 900 2000 Cubic boron nitride, diamond, and
(ft/min)speedCutting
mm/rev
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.50
0.75
3000
900
2000
Cubic boron nitride,
diamond, and
ceramics
600
Cermets
1000
300
Coated
carbides
150
500
Uncoated
carbides
100
300
m/min
200
50
0.004
0.008 0.012
0.020 0.030
Feed (in./rev)
FIGURE 8.43 The range of applicable cutting
speeds and feeds for a variety of cutting-tool
materials.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Longitudinal & transverse feed

General view of a typical lathe, showing various major components. Source: Courtesy of

Tailstock quill

Dead center

Lead screw

Handwheel

assembly

Feed rod

Tailstock

control

Clutch

Bed

Lathe

Compound

Spindle selector

Headstock assembly

Feed selector

Tool post

Split nut

Cross slide

speed

Apron

Clutch

Chip pan

Spindle (with chuck)

FIGURE 8.44

speed Apron Clutch Chip pan Spindle (with chuck) FIGURE 8.44 rest Carriage Ways Heidenreich & Harbeck.
rest Carriage Ways
rest
Carriage
Ways
pan Spindle (with chuck) FIGURE 8.44 rest Carriage Ways Heidenreich & Harbeck. Manufacturing Processes for
Heidenreich & Harbeck. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008,
Heidenreich & Harbeck.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

spindle speed than other lathes in order to take advantage of advanced cutting tools with enhanced properties;

(a) A computer-numerical-control lathe, with two turrets; these machines have higher power and

(b)

(b) a typical turret equipped with ten cutting tools, some of which are powered.

CNC Lathe

(a)

FIGURE 8.45

tools, some of which are powered. CNC Lathe (a) FIGURE 8.45 Multitooth Drill cutter Tool for
Multitooth Drill cutter Tool for or turning boring Reamer Individual motors Drill
Multitooth
Drill
cutter
Tool for
or turning
boring
Reamer
Individual
motors
Drill
CNC unit Chuck Round turret for OD operations End turret for ID operations Tailstock
CNC unit
Chuck
Round turret for
OD operations
End turret for ID operations
Tailstock
Individual motors Drill CNC unit Chuck Round turret for OD operations End turret for ID operations

FIGURE 8.46 Typical parts made on computer-numerical-control machine tools.

Typical CNC Parts

(b) Inner bearing race

machine tools. Typical CNC Parts (b) Inner bearing race 50.8 mm 23.8 mm (2") (0.938") 53.2
50.8 mm 23.8 mm (2") (0.938") 53.2 mm (2.094") Material: 1020 Carbon Steel Number of
50.8 mm
23.8 mm
(2")
(0.938")
53.2 mm
(2.094")
Material: 1020 Carbon Steel
Number of tools: 8
Total machining time
(two operations):
5.41
minutes
(c) Tube reducer
235.6 mm (9.275")
235.6 mm
(9.275")
78.5 mm (3.092") Material: 52100 alloy steel Number of tools: 4 Total machining time (two
78.5 mm
(3.092")
Material: 52100 alloy steel
Number of tools: 4
Total machining time
(two operations):
6.32
minutes
87.9 mm 67.4 mm (3.462") (2.654") 98.4 mm (3.876") 85.7 threads mm (3.375") 32 per
87.9 mm
67.4 mm
(3.462")
(2.654")
98.4 mm
(3.876")
85.7 threads
mm (3.375")
32
per in.
Material: of Titanium
Number
tools: 7 alloy
Total machining time
(two operations):
5.25
minutes
(a) Housing base
Material: of Titanium Number tools: 7 alloy Total machining time (two operations): 5.25 minutes (a) Housing

TABLE 8.10 Typical production rates for various cutting operations.

one or more parts per hour; medium is approximately 100 parts per hour; very high is 1000 or more parts per hour.

Note: Production rates indicated are relative: Very low is about

Typical Production Rates

Very low to low Low to medium Low to medium Low to medium Medium to high High to very high Very low Low to medium Low to medium Very low Low to medium Medium to high Very low to low

Rate

Operation Turning Engine lathe Tracer lathe Turret lathe Computer-control lathe Single-spindle chuckers Multiple-spindle chuckers Boring Drilling Milling Planing Gear cutting Broaching Sawing

lathe Single-spindle chuckers Multiple-spindle chuckers Boring Drilling Milling Planing Gear cutting Broaching Sawing
lathe Single-spindle chuckers Multiple-spindle chuckers Boring Drilling Milling Planing Gear cutting Broaching Sawing

FIGURE 8.47 Schematic illustration of the components of a vertical boring mill.

illustration of the components of a vertical boring mill. Boring Mill Cross-rail Tool head Workpiece Work
Boring Mill Cross-rail Tool head Workpiece Work table Bed Column
Boring Mill
Cross-rail
Tool head
Workpiece
Work table
Bed
Column
of the components of a vertical boring mill. Boring Mill Cross-rail Tool head Workpiece Work table

Two common types of

for

of the pair of margins is to provide a bearing surface for the drill against walls of the hole as it penetrates into the workpiece. Drills with four margins

and because chips tend to break up easily, they are suitable for producing deep holes.

improved drill guidance and accuracy. Drills with chip-breaker features are

drills.

These drills have good centering ability,

drills: (a) Chisel-point drill.The function

FIGURE 8.49 Various types of drills and drilling operations.

available

Crankshaft

are

(b)

(double-margin)

available.

FIGURE 8.48

also

Chisel edge

Clearance

diameter

Web

Body diameter

Drills

clearance

Chisel-edge

Lip

Lip-relief

(b) Crankshaft-point drill

Helix angleFlutes

angle Margin Land
angle
Margin
Land
Tang drive
Tang drive
angle Neck Shank Straight diameter shank Shank length Flute length Body Overall length (a) Chisel-point
angle
Neck
Shank
Straight
diameter
shank
Shank length
Flute length
Body
Overall length
(a) Chisel-point drill
High-pressure coolant Drilling drillingCore drillingStep Counterboring Countersinking Reaming drillingCenter
High-pressure
coolant
Drilling
drillingCore
drillingStep
Counterboring
Countersinking
Reaming
drillingCenter
drillingGun
coolant Drilling drillingCore drillingStep Counterboring Countersinking Reaming drillingCenter drillingGun
coolant Drilling drillingCore drillingStep Counterboring Countersinking Reaming drillingCenter drillingGun
coolant Drilling drillingCore drillingStep Counterboring Countersinking Reaming drillingCenter drillingGun

1100-3000

500-1500

800-1500

500-1500

400-1500

800-3000

12.5 mm

(0.5 in.)

500-800

150-500

250-500

Spindle speed (rpm) Drill Diameter

Note: As hole depth increases, speeds and feeds should be reduced. Selection of speeds and

4300-12,000

6400-12,000

4300-12,000

3200-12,000

6400-25,000

9600-25,000

(0.060 in.)

4300-6400

1300-4300

2100-4300

Speeds and Feeds in Drilling

1.5 mm

0.10 (0.004)

0.13 (0.005)

0.25 (0.010)

0.30 (0.012)

0.30 (0.012)

0.30 (0.012)

0.30 (0.012)

0.15 (0.006)

0.18 (0.007)

12.5 mm

(0.5 in.)

Feed, mm/rev (in./rev) Drill Diameter

TABLE 8.11 General recommendations for speeds and feeds in drilling.

feeds also depends on the specific surface finish required.

1.5 mm (0.060 in.) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001) 0.010 (0.0004) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001)

100-200

150-400

100-400

ft/min

60-200

50-200

60-100

60-200

20-60

40-60

Surface

Speed

m/min

45-120

30-120

20-60

30-60

20-60

20-30

15-60

10-20

6-20

Workpiece Material Aluminum alloys Magnesium alloys Copper alloys Steels Stainless steels Titanium alloys Cast irons Thermoplastics Thermosets

alloys Magnesium alloys Copper alloys Steels Stainless steels Titanium alloys Cast irons Thermoplastics Thermosets
alloys Magnesium alloys Copper alloys Steels Stainless steels Titanium alloys Cast irons Thermoplastics Thermosets

FIGURE 8.50 Terminology for a helical reamer.

(b)

Reamers and Taps

Chamfer

relief

(a)

Cutting edge

Heel

Land width

Margin

width

Radial rake

FIGURE 8.51 (a) Terminology for a tap; (b) illustration of tapping of steel nuts in high production.

Chamfer length

Helix angle, -

Chamfer relief

Chamfer angle

e n g t h Helix angle, - Chamfer relief Chamfer angle Primary relief angle Tap
Primary relief angle
Primary
relief
angle
angle, - Chamfer relief Chamfer angle Primary relief angle Tap Nut Rake angle Hook angle Land
Tap Nut Rake angle Hook angle
Tap
Nut
Rake angle
Hook angle
Land Flute
Land
Flute
Chamfer angle
Chamfer
angle
angle, - Chamfer relief Chamfer angle Primary relief angle Tap Nut Rake angle Hook angle Land

holes

Drilled and

FIGURE 8.52 Typical parts and shapes produced by the machining processes described in Section 8.10.

tapped

Typical Machined Parts

(c)

Stepped

cavity

(b)

(a)

tapped Typical Machined Parts (c) Stepped cavity (b) (a) (d) (e) (f) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering
tapped Typical Machined Parts (c) Stepped cavity (b) (a) (d) (e) (f) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering
tapped Typical Machined Parts (c) Stepped cavity (b) (a) (d) (e) (f) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering
tapped Typical Machined Parts (c) Stepped cavity (b) (a) (d) (e) (f) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering
tapped Typical Machined Parts (c) Stepped cavity (b) (a) (d) (e) (f) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering
tapped Typical Machined Parts (c) Stepped cavity (b) (a) (d) (e) (f) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering
(d) (e) (f) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008,
(d)
(e)
(f)
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7
Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7
Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

FIGURE 8.53 (a) Illustration showing the difference between conventional milling and climb milling. (b) Slab-milling operation, showing depth of cut, d; feed per tooth, f; chip depth of

cut, t c and workpiece speed, v . (c) Schematic illustration of cutter travel distance, l c , to reach full depth of cut.

Conventional and Climb Milling

(c)

(b)

milling

Climb

Workpiece

Cutter

(a)

Conventional

milling

(c) (b) milling Climb Workpiece Cutter (a) Conventional milling D d Cutter v Workpiece ll c
D d Cutter v Workpiece ll c
D
d
Cutter
v
Workpiece
ll
c
D t c N d f v
D
t
c
N
d
f
v
(c) (b) milling Climb Workpiece Cutter (a) Conventional milling D d Cutter v Workpiece ll c
(c) (b) milling Climb Workpiece Cutter (a) Conventional milling D d Cutter v Workpiece ll c
(c) (b) milling Climb Workpiece Cutter (a) Conventional milling D d Cutter v Workpiece ll c

showing (a) action of an insert in face milling; (b) climb milling; (c) conventional

Face-milling operation

milling; (d) dimensions in face milling.

FIGURE 8.54

Terminology for a face-

FIGURE 8.55

milling cutter.

Face Milling l c f Workpiece f Insert Workpiece l v v v w D
Face Milling
l
c
f
Workpiece
f
Insert
Workpiece
l
v
v
v
w
D
l
d
Cutter
w
Cutter
Machined surface
l
c
(c)(a)
(b)
(d)
Peripheral relief End cutting-edge angle (radial relief) Corner angle Axial rake, 1 End relief Radial
Peripheral relief
End cutting-edge angle
(radial relief)
Corner
angle
Axial rake, 1
End relief
Radial
(axial relief)
rake, 2

decreases, but the length of contact (and hence the width of the chip) increases. Note that the insert must

the

chip

undeformed chip thickness in face milling. Note that as

be sufficiently large to accommodate the increase in contact length.

chip)

on

undeformed

the

angle

of

thickness

lead

(c)

the

of

effect

increases,

Desirable

the

hence

The

angle

(and

Cutting Mechanics

8.56

lead

thickness

FIGURE

the

(b)

Undeformed chip thickness

Insert

(a)

FIGURE the (b) Undeformed chip thickness Insert (a) Lead angle f Depth of cut, d Feed
Lead angle f
Lead
angle
f
Depth of cut, d
Depth of cut, d
Feed per tooth, f
Feed per tooth, f
Insert (a) Lead angle f Depth of cut, d Feed per tooth, f Undesirable - +
Undesirable
Undesirable
-
-
+ Cutter Milled surface
+
Cutter
Milled
surface
FIGURE 8.57 (a) Relative Workpiece position of the cutter and the insert as it first
FIGURE
8.57
(a)
Relative
Workpiece
position of the cutter and
the
insert
as
it
first
engages
the
Exit
Re-entry
workpiece
in
face
milling,
(b)
Entry
Exit
insert positions at entry and exit
near
the
end
of
cut, and
(c)
examples of exit angles of the
insert, showing desirable (positive
or negative angle) and undesirable
(zero
angle)
positions.
In
all
Cutter
figures,
the
cutter
spindle
is
(a)
(b)
perpendicular to the page.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Note: (a) These speeds are for carbides, ceramic, cermets, and diamond cutting tools. Speeds for high-speed-steel tools are lower than those indicated in this table.

Depths of cut, d, are generally in the range of 1-8 mm (0.04-0.3 in.). Feeds per tooth, f , are generally in the range of 0.08-0.46 mm/rev (0.003-0.018

Approximate range of recommended cutting

1000-10,000

100-1800

200-1500

300-1600

300-3300

300-4500

300-4200

130-500

Cutting Speed ft/min

300-3000

90-1400

90-1000

90-1300

m/min

30-550

60-450

40-150

90-500

Milling Operations

speeds for milling operations.

Workpiece Material Aluminum alloys Cast iron, gray Copper alloys High-temperature alloys Steels Stainless steels Thermoplastics and thermosets Titanium alloys

TABLE 8.12

in./rev).

(b)

(c)

Arbor

straddle

milling; (b) form milling; (c) slotting; and (d)

Straddle milling (b) Form milling(a)

Slotting (d) Slitting(c)

(a)

for

Cutters

8.58

FIGURE

(a) Slotting (d) Slitting(c) (a) for Cutters 8.58 FIGURE slitting operations. Manufacturing Processes for
(a) Slotting (d) Slitting(c) (a) for Cutters 8.58 FIGURE slitting operations. Manufacturing Processes for
(a) Slotting (d) Slitting(c) (a) for Cutters 8.58 FIGURE slitting operations. Manufacturing Processes for
(a) Slotting (d) Slitting(c) (a) for Cutters 8.58 FIGURE slitting operations. Manufacturing Processes for
(a) Slotting (d) Slitting(c) (a) for Cutters 8.58 FIGURE slitting operations. Manufacturing Processes for
(a) Slotting (d) Slitting(c) (a) for Cutters 8.58 FIGURE slitting operations. Manufacturing Processes for
slitting operations. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson
slitting operations.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

(a) Schematic illustration of a horizontal-spindle column-and-knee-type milling

machine. (b) Schematic illustration of a vertical-spindle column-and-knee-type milling machine.

(b)

Milling Machines

(a)

FIGURE 8.59

milling machine. (b) Milling Machines (a) FIGURE 8.59 Work Head table Column Workpiece Saddle T-slots Knee
Work Head table Column Workpiece Saddle T-slots Knee Base
Work
Head
table
Column
Workpiece
Saddle
T-slots
Knee
Base
Overarm Arbor Work table Column Workpiece Saddle T-slots Knee Base
Overarm
Arbor
Work table
Column
Workpiece
Saddle
T-slots
Knee
Base
Work table Column Workpiece Saddle T-slots Knee Base Source: After G. Boothroyd. Manufacturing Processes for
Source: After G. Boothroyd. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid ©
Source: After G. Boothroyd.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

broaching. The heavy lines indicate broached surfaces; (c) a vertical broaching machine. Source:

(a) Typical parts finished by internal broaching. (b) Parts finished by surface

(a) and (b) Courtesy of General Broach and Engineering Company, (c) Courtesy of Ty Mi les, Inc.

(c)

Broaching

(b)

(a)

FIGURE 8.60

(b) Courtesy of General Broach and Engineering Company, (c) Courtesy of Ty Mi les, Inc. (c)
(b) Courtesy of General Broach and Engineering Company, (c) Courtesy of Ty Mi les, Inc. (c)
(b) Courtesy of General Broach and Engineering Company, (c) Courtesy of Ty Mi les, Inc. (c)
(b) Courtesy of General Broach and Engineering Company, (c) Courtesy of Ty Mi les, Inc. (c)
(b) Courtesy of General Broach and Engineering Company, (c) Courtesy of Ty Mi les, Inc. (c)
(b) Courtesy of General Broach and Engineering Company, (c) Courtesy of Ty Mi les, Inc. (c)

diameter

Follower

(a) Cutting action of a

features. (b)

Rear pilot

Semifinishing teeth

various

Terminology for a broach.

FIGURE 8.61 broach, showing

Overall length

Root diameter

Shank length

Broaches

Pull end

(b)

FIGURE 8.62 Terminology for a pull-type internal broach, typically used for enlarging long holes.

internal broach, typically used for enlarging long holes. Rake or Land hook angle Pitch Backoff or
Rake or Land hook angle Pitch Backoff or clearance angle Tooth depth Root radius
Rake or
Land
hook angle
Pitch
Backoff or
clearance angle
Tooth
depth
Root radius
Chip gullet Cut per tooth Workpiece (a)
Chip gullet
Cut
per
tooth
Workpiece
(a)
Root radius Chip gullet Cut per tooth Workpiece (a) Front Roughening Finishing pilot teeth teeth Cutting
Front Roughening Finishing pilot teeth teeth Cutting teeth
Front
Roughening
Finishing
pilot
teeth
teeth
Cutting teeth
Root radius Chip gullet Cut per tooth Workpiece (a) Front Roughening Finishing pilot teeth teeth Cutting
Root radius Chip gullet Cut per tooth Workpiece (a) Front Roughening Finishing pilot teeth teeth Cutting
Root radius Chip gullet Cut per tooth Workpiece (a) Front Roughening Finishing pilot teeth teeth Cutting
Root radius Chip gullet Cut per tooth Workpiece (a) Front Roughening Finishing pilot teeth teeth Cutting

saw teeth. (b) Types of saw teeth, staggered to provide clearance for

(a) Terminology for

the saw blade to prevent binding during sawing.

(b)

FIGURE 8.63

M2 HSS 64-66 HRC

Electron-beam weld

Flexible alloy-steel backing

Saws and Saw Teeth

(b)

angle (positive)

(a)

backing Saws and Saw Teeth (b) angle (positive) (a) Tooth set Straight tooth Raker tooth Wave
Tooth set Straight tooth Raker tooth Wave tooth
Tooth set
Straight tooth
Raker tooth
Wave tooth
Back edge Tooth spacing Width Tooth face Gullet Tooth (flank) back Tooth back clearance angle
Back edge
Tooth
spacing
Width
Tooth face
Gullet
Tooth (flank)
back
Tooth back
clearance angle Tooth rake depth
Carbide insert
Carbide
insert
FIGURE 8.64 (a) High-speed-steel teeth welded on a steel blade. (b) Carbide inserts brazed to
FIGURE
8.64
(a)
High-speed-steel
teeth
welded on a steel blade. (b) Carbide inserts
brazed to blade teeth.
(a)
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed.
Kalpakjian • Schmid
© 2008, Pearson Education
ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

of gear generating with a pinion-shaped gear cutter. (b) Schematic illustration of

cutter reciprocates vertically. (c) Gear generating with a rack-shaped cutter. (d)

gear generating in a gear shaper, using a

the

Three views of gear cutting with a hob. Source: After E.P. DeGarmo.

(a) Schematic illustration

that

Manufacture

note

Gear

cutter;

pinion-shaped