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INTERNATIONAL EDITION

MILITARY LAW ENFORCEMENT SECURITY

N E W

n1 JANUARY 2013

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES HISTORICAL WEAPONS


LEE-ENFIELD

Recognition and Identification

TACTICAL TRAINING
Different Countries Same Goal

FIRE TEST

tactical gear Arcteryx LEAF

CUSTOM A S U N I MADE
FOCUS ON of EOD the current world FOCUS ON ECMS- EAD01

VISIT US BOOTH 27303 SHOT SHOW january 15-18 LAS VEGAS

EDITORIAL EDITORIAL EDITORIAL EDITORIAL EDITORIAL ED

OUR HISTORY...

THE ITALIAN VERSION EDITION September 2010: Mr. Mirko Gargiulo, a marketing and communications entrepreneur armed with a strong passion and deep knowledge of military and defense, decided to venture into the difficult world of publishing. The very first step has been initiating the collaboration his lifelong friend Mr. Giovanni Petretta. January 2011: Issue N 1 of Tactical News Magazine, the first Italian magazine dedicated to the world of tactics and operations, goes on sale. Tactical News Magzine is proud to count in its staff current and former members of the Special Forces, the police force, private security experts, ballistics and equipment experts as well as analysts of intelligence and geopolitics. Each month, Tactical News Magazine provides Italian readers with a full 360 degrees of information on this whole specialized sector. August 2012: After only 19 publications, Tactical News Magazine has become a point of reference for operators and general enthusiasts within this specialized field. Sensing the potentially strong international appeal of Tactical News Magazine, Mr. Mirko Gargiulos new challenge is to make his magazine available worldwide. This is a a daring quest shared by his good friend Mr. Danilo Amellotti, a former Special Forces member and together they establish A&G Publishing favoring Germany as the headquarters and offices of this new publishing house. An early decision is to opt for an English language version as the international edition.

TACTICAL NEWS MAGAZINE


INTERNATIONAL EDITION January 2013: Tactical News Magazine - International Edition is the first and only international magazine written in English, dedicated to the world of tactics and operations covering extensively the role of the man on the ground, his powers, his tools and his psycho-physical condition. Edited by A&G Publishing GmbH, TNM - International Edition offers the reader an unprecedented opportunity to gather information through the following: reviews and field testing of equipment; weapons and accessories; technical sections on armed and unarmed combat; columns on tactical/operational procedures in security plus military environments; a section solely dedicated to the Special Forces; case studies and real-life stories of workers and former workers; exclusive reports from the hottest conflict areas of the globe; sections on Criminology and Forensic Science; articles on the legalities surrounding operational procedures; geopolitical analysis; an historical section examining the continual evolution of special operations and tactics and much more. Our mission is to create a monthly magazine with an international flavor, appealing worldwide to highly trained professionals and interested followers of this unique area. To achieve this, TNM uses experts from many nations who are exemplary in their field of operations. Our team consists of current and former operators of Special Forces from different countries, police officers from operational departments, global experts in security and anti-terrorism, experts in equipment and weapon systems and world-renowned martial Arts instructors. The majority of our employees work in elite departments at major international institutions or government agencies and are fully committed to the fight against crime and terrorism worldwide. We can safely say that TNM is a magazine for and written by professionals and it is only by following this credo that we can truly meet the demanding standards of all our readers. In doing this we also guarantee our sponsors the possibility of reaching a truly exclusive target. Mirko Gargiulo (Editor-in-Chief)

DITORIALE

INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX


2 editorial 6 NEWS 22 HOT POINT
Gun ban in BRAZIL

34 FOCUS ON
the current world of explosive ordnance disposal.

42 FIRE TEST
CUSTOM MADE IN USA

TNM
Art director Matteo Tamburrino tambetti@gmail.com facebook: mt@work Graphic echocommunication.eu Editorial staff Jae Gillentine USA Jeremy Pagan USA Stickman USA Daniel Sharon Israel Robert Shaw UK Zoran Milosevic Serbia Joshua A. Haarbrink USA Bartosz Szolucha Poland Lucas Silvera Brasil Roger Higby USA Paolo Grandis Italy Jacopo Guarino Italy Peter Capyo Belgium Steph Macniven UK Giuseppe Marino Italy Norbert Ciano Germany Marco Bandioli Italy Tinus Etsebeth South Africa
Edit by:

ALWAYS ON FRONT LINE


Military - Law Enforcement - Security n1 - january 2013 www.tacticalnewsmagazine.eu Editor-in-Chief Mirko Gargiulo mirko.gargiulo@tacticalnewsmagazine.eu Advertising Sales Manager & Public Relation Danilo Amelotti danilo.amelotti@tacticalnewsmagazine.eu

26 TACTICAL TRAINING
DIFFERENT COUNTRY - SAME GOAL

50 operational procedures
Recognition and Identification

32 COMPANY PROFILE
CHIAPPA FIREARM A SHORT HISTORY OF HARD WORK

58 Mobile security
A Global Problem

60 FUTURE warfare
Artificial neural networks

64 FOCUS ON
GERMAN INNOVATION

72 TACTICAL TRAINING
Maine-Based HammerFour

78 TACTICAL KNIVES
EXTREMA RATIO SHRAPNEL OG - SHORT... SHARP AND SIMPLE

82 historical weapons
LEE-ENFIELD

88 FOCUS ON
A MILITARY SYSTEM WINNER... Azerbaijani Armed Forces

82 tactical gear
ARCTERYX LEAF KNEE CAPS

A&G Publishing GmbH Mangoldstr 10A - 78462 Konstanz, Germany www.agpublishing.de


Printed by: Heidel Print Co. Ltd. 4-2 Sunae-dong, Doosan 1-203 Bundang, Seongnam 463-020 South Korea Partner:

82 OPERATION REPORT
OPERATION FRESHMAN

100 FOCUS ON
BATTLE BRIEFING

110 international memorial day

Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission from the editor is prohibited.

BAE Wins U.S. Navy Aircraft Maintenance Contract


British defense group BAE Systems has won a $400-million (306-million-euro) aircraft maintenance contract with the U.S. Navy, the company said Dec. 13. BAE Systems has been selected by the U.S. Navy to maintain and service T-34, T-44 and T-6 trainer aircraft under a contract valued at approximately $400 million over five years, the group said in a statement. The company will perform scheduled inspections, along with required repairs, modifications and logistical support, for more than 300 aircraft operated by the Chief of Naval Air Training. The London-listed company added that the contract was awarded by the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), based at Naval Air Station Patuxent River in Maryland.The U.S. market accounts for about half, or 45 percent, of BAEs total group revenues, making it the biggest foreign supplier of military goods to the Pentagon. Earlier this year, BAE failed to merge with European aerospace giant EADS after the deal collapsed under the weight of political wrangling and unexpectedly strong opposition from Germany.
TNM 6

Oman Will Soon Buy Typhoons


BAE Systems is preparing to close a deal with Oman to supply Typhoon fighters and Hawk jet trainers to the countrys air force. The deal, signed in Oman on Dec. 21, is part of a wider defense pact due to be inked by the two governments that day, said industry sources who asked not to be named.Twelve of the Eurofighter Typhoons will be delivered to Oman to replace aging Jaguar aircraft, which make up part of Omans strike force.The number of Hawk trainers involved in the deal is unknown. Oman operates five old Mk103 Hawks alongside PC-9 and Mushak training aircraft.In a statement, BAE said it had positive discussions on Typhoon with the Omani Ministry of Defence but has not yet signed the contract.A spokeswoman declined to answer questions about the Hawk sale. The training package sale would be a boost for the Hawk program, coming on the heels of a 1.6-billionpound ($2.6 billion) sale of Hawks and other training aircraft to Saudi Arabia this year. BAE is also positioning the aircraft for a key competition to re-equip the U.S. Air Force with trainers.The two Omani deals will provide a multi-billion pound fillip for the British company following the collapse of merger talks with EADS this year.The deal will also be a boost for British Prime Minister David Cameron, who has been active supporting defense export efforts in the region and elsewhere. Cameron was recently in the UAE helping BAEs campaign to sell the Typhoon. The two governments also signed a defense cooperation pact during a Cameron visit, which also took place in Saudi Arabia.A similar arrangement might be in the cards for Oman, the source said.The news of the upcoming Omani deal was tempered, though, when the company issued a statement Dec. 19 saying it was unable to conclude negotiations with Saudi Arabia over the pricing of 72 Typhoons.The contract was signed in 2007, but changes to the specifications of the aircraft and abandonment of a scheme to assemble many of the aircraft in

Saudi Arabia have led to lengthy negotiations over new pricing. Twenty-four of the aircraft have been delivered to the Saudis, and more aircraft are on the assembly line after a hiatus caused by the pricing talks. BAE said in a statement that deliveries would recommence next year. Oman will receive the latest Tranche 3 version of the Typhoon coming of assembly lines at BAE and other Eurofighter partner

nations Germany, Italy and Spain. The Omani fast jet fleet is built around the Lockheed Martin F-16. The Gulf state operates 12 of the fighters and around this time last year ordered a further dozen aircraft from the U.S. manufacturer.Aside from Oman and Saudi Arabia, Austria is the only other Typhoon export customer. BAE and its partners are also pursuing possible orders in the UAE, Malaysia and elsewhere.

Dassault CEO: Next Thales Chairman Will Be Former Vivendi Exec


A board meeting of the French defense electronics company Thales slated Dec 20 will appoint Jean-Bernard Levy as chairman and chief executive, said Dassault Aviation Chief Executive Charles Edelstenne. Edelstenne spoke to reporters Dec 19 on the sidelines of a news conference on the second flight of the French-led Neuron UCAV demonstrator program. Levy will be asked to make a tour and bring calm to the company, Edelstenne said.Levy is a former chief executive of Vivendi, a French multi-media company that owns Universal film studios. Dassault owns 26 percent of Thales, and the French government holds a 27 percent stake. Levy will replace Luc Vigneron at Thales. A government official said of the expected appointment that it is better to pose questions on strategy than to have a company stopped in its tracks. Levy knows international business and technology, the official said.

Norway is confident in choice of the US-made F-35


The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the The F-35 program is of vital importance to both the United States and Norway in ensuring that we fulfil our future operational requirements. I am therefore very pleased and reassured by the recent process in the development of the F-35 says Norwegian Minister of Defence Anne-Grete Strm-Erichsen, during a meeting with the US Defense Secretary Panetta. We have a long standing defence relationship with the United States, both through organizations such as NATO but also on a bilateral basis. It is based on a common commitment to work for a more stable and peaceful world and finding areas where we can work together to promote our common security. I find meetings like this to be essential in developing our relationship further and I believe today has been very useful in this regard. The meeting addressed several important issues, including developments in Afghanistan and the opportunities for US and Norwegian forces to work and exercise more closely together. The F-35 and future integration of the JSM, however, were central to the discussions as Norway is about to begin preparations for the order of the main body of the procurement. Our goal is to introduce a bill to Parliament early 2013 which allows us to receive the first aircraft to Norway in 2017. We have already ordered two aircraft for training purposes that are to be delivered in 2015, followed by another two in 2016, but these are to be based in the US. This new order is therefore a new major milestone for us. Since we are at this critical juncture I have also taken the opportunity to reiterate to Secretary Panetta the vital importance to Norway of securing integration of the JSM onto the F-35 in order to ensure that we meet our future operational needs. We truly appreciate his offer of support, but it is critical that the process moves forward. We had very good discussions on this subject says Ms Strm-Erichsen. Norways support for the F-35 program remains as strong as ever, and we look forward to seeing this through to the end. Our cost estimates remain stable and we are confident in our choice. I understand that some partner nations are currently making an effort to ensure that their respective fighter procurement processes are as comprehensive and as well structured as they can be, and this is to be expected this is after all a major investment. We have no doubt, however, that this is a necessary investment and that it will help strengthen the ability of our Armed Forces to contribute to Norwegian security for several decades to come concludes Ms Strm-Erichsen

Bahrain rejects Iranian DFMs accusations of use of toxic gases by Bahraini government
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Bahrain deplores the false statements and allegations made by Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister in Arab and African Affairs Hossein Amir-Abdollahian during a press conference held in Moscow where he referred to the use of toxic gases by the Bahraini government. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is surprised to see such false claims aimed at covering up the catastrophic situation in the Islamic Republic of Iran and the suffering of the Iranian people under severe unfortunate and deteriorating economic conditions. The ministry confirms that the reform process led by His Majesty King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa which began in 2001 and is commended by the international community as a whole, will continue to make sure that the Bahraini community enjoys full freedoms, democracy and respect for human rights. Emphasizing at the same time on its firm and resolute refusal of any intervening in the internal affairs of the kingdom as it represents an infringement of its sovereignty, calling at the Iranian government and its officials the immediate stop of such allegations and to abide by the rules of diplomacy and principles of good neighborliness.
TNM 8

America will not turn away from Afghanistan, says US Defense Secretary Panetta
Following a bilateral meeting with President Karzai, US Defense Secretary, Leon Panetta appeared at a joint news conference and said that Afghanistan should not doubt US resolve to continue to help Afghanistan and said his country is committed for long haul.He called the challenges as long-term as they were engaged in a war, but made it clear that the US will be there for long-term as well. let me assure you that the commitment of the United States and the international community to Afghanistan is not just in the short term, but in the long term. Just as the strategic partnership agreement signed by President Obama and President Karzai made clear, America will not turn away from Afghanistan. We will continue to have an enduring presence beyond 2014 into the future. he added. On the speculations that the US was departing from Afghanistan, Secretary Panetta said, We have learned the lessons of history. Our two governments are now working together on a bilateral security agreement that will establish the terms for our long-term security presence, to include a joint agreement on that enduring presence that I discussed. He also repeated a formal invitation that he said the United States has issued to President Karzai from President Obama to meet in Washington early January to discuss a shared vision of Afghanistan beyond 2014, and said they ook forward to his coming to Washington. Panetta said, I want to strongly reaffirm that the United States supports the aspirations of the people of Afghanistan to fully secure and govern themselves. Indeed, that shared goal is what we are all working for and fighting together to achieve, alongside forces from 49 other nations. He praised President Karzai as a capable leader and said, The United States has an enduring respect for his commitment to lead this proud and sovereign nation out of decades of war, now almost approaching 11 years of war, and before that -- many more years of war, and toward a peaceful and prosperous future for the Afghan people. Thats what the Afghan people want and thats what the Afghan people deserve. Also in the conference, President Karzai

welcomed Secretary Panetta to Afghanistan and called him a good friend with whom many issues of mutual interest including the need for stronger afghan force and the transfer of prisoners were discussed in a spirit of friendship. In response to a question on the need to remove the safe havens that terrorists enjoy on Pakistani side of the border, Secretary Panetta said, I think it is very important for the international community, for Afghanistan, for the United States to continue to put pressure on Pakistan to ensure that it does everything possible to eliminate those safe havens for terrorism on that side of the border.Were not departing Afghanistan. We are going to maintain an enduring presence in Afghanistan beyond 2014. Well be drawing down our forces. Obviously, the Afghan army will assume full responsibility for the security of the country. But we will be there to provide support, to provide training,

to provide assistance, to provide help on counterterrorism, and to provide support for the forces that are here. So we will be maintaining an enduring presence here. We have made clear that one of the threats to peace in Afghanistan is the threat that comes from the safe havens across the border in Pakistan. We have continued to make clear to the Pakistanis that they have a responsibility to deal with terrorism on their side of the border. Answering a question on the issue of immunity to US troops, President Karzai said, he understands that immunity from Afghan laws for those remaining Americans is of immense importance to Washington, but he added that he has his own conditions. Give us a good army, a good air force and a capability to project Afghan interests in the region, Karzai said, and then he would be ready to argue with ease and with reason

Afghanistan and Poland sign Cooperation agreement in Kabul


H.E. Dr. Zalmai Rassoul and his Polish counterpart, H.E. Radoslaw Sikorski signed a cooperation agreement between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Republic of Poland in Kabul. The signing of this agreement will further enhance and strengthen the relations and the wide range of cooperation between the two countries, said Dr. Rassoul. Over the past ten years Poland has had a significant contribution to the reconstruction of and securing peace in Afghanistan. The signing of this agreement today will provide investment opportunities by the Polish side in Afghanistan. Expressing satisfaction about the progress made in the past ten years in Afghanistan, Foreign Minister Sikorski said Poland will remain by the side of the Afghan people. He emphasised that he will encourage Polish companies to invest in and benefit from the extensive trade opportunities in Afghanistan. The new cooperation agreement covers extensive relations and cooperation in a broad range of areas, including political, security, economic, development, education and cultural cooperation and exchanges between the two countries.

No ships hijacked by pirates off the coast of Somalia for the last six months
There have been no ships hijacked by pirates off the coast of Somalia for the last six months, according to officials of NATO, one of the international bodies involved in providing international warships to provide security along the Somali coasts.This reflects a significant fall in activity by pirates along the Somali coast and in the Gulf of Aden, one of the worlds busiest shipping routes. Pirates, however, still hold five ships and 136 hostages seized in previous years. NATO officials attribute these successes against pirates in part to the continuing efforts of the international fleet in the area, combined with better security measures by merchant ships, most of which now have armed guards aboard. Equally, the establishment of the new government and administration, including the election of a Parliament and a President and the appointment of a Prime Minister and a cabinet and above all the greatly improved security situation within Somalia itself and the successes against Al-Shahaab as well as increased anti-pirate activities by Puntland security forces and other pressures against pirate areas, have played a major role.Significantly, recent AMISOM and Somali Armed Forces successes have included the capture of a number of the ports along the Somali coast. Meanwhile, the head of Somalias Supreme Court, Aydiid Abdullahi Ilka Hanaf, is reported to have said that any Somali pirates seized by international ships or security forces can now be tried inside the country.He said that the justice system in Somalia is now able to handle the trials of Somali pirates.It is now no longer for pirates to face justice in foreign countries like Kenya or the Seychelles or even further afield.

Direct diplomatic relations between Afghanistan and Poland were established during Ghazi King Amanullah Khans visit to Warsaw in 1928. The Afghan embassy in Poland was established in 1962. At present, Poland has 1600 troops in Afghanistan, who are engaged within the ISAF/NATO framework in providing security and reconstruction in Ghazni and Paktika provinces.
TNM 10

President Obama details deployment of US Armed Forces abroad


Dear Mr. Speaker: (Dear Mr. President) I am providing this supplemental consolidated report, prepared by my Administration and consistent with the War Powers Resolution (Public Law 93-148), as part of my efforts to keep the Congress informed about deployments of US Armed Forces equipped for combat. MILITARY OPERATIONS AGAINST AL-QAIDA, THE TALIBAN, AND ASSOCIATED FORCES AND IN SUPPORT OF RELATED US COUNTERTERRORISM OBJECTIVES Since October 7, 2001, the United States has conducted combat operations in Afghanistan against al-Qaida terrorists, their Taliban supporters, and associated forces. In support of these and other overseas operations, the United States has deployed combat-equipped forces to a number of locations in the US Central, Pacific, European, Southern, and Africa Command areas of operation. Previously such operations and deployments have been reported, consistent with Public Law 107-40 and the War Powers Resolution, and operations and deployments remain
TNM 12

White House - Letter from the President - War Powers Resolution


ongoing. These operations, which the United States has carried out with the assistance of numerous international partners, have been successful in seriously degrading al-Qaidas capabilities and brought an end to the Talibans leadership of Afghanistan. United States Armed Forces continue to pursue and engage remaining al-Qaida and Taliban fighters in Afghanistan while transitioning to an Afghan security lead. The Afghanistan Force Management Level is approximately 66,000, under the 68,000 level directed by June 2011 Presidential guidance. Approximately 61,000 of these forces are assigned to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The U.N. Security Council most recently reaffirmed its authorization of ISAF for a 12-month period until October 13, 2013, in U.N. Security Council Resolution 2069 (October 9, 2012). The mission of ISAF, under NATO command and in partnership with the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is to prevent Afghanistan from once again becoming a safe haven for international terrorists. Fifty nations, including the United States and all NATO members, contribute forces to ISAF. These forces, including the US surge forces, all of which had redeployed by the end of last summer, broke Taliban momentum and trained additional Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). The ANSF are now increasingly assuming responsibility for security on the timeline committed to at the 2010 NATO Summit in Lisbon by the United States, our NATO allies, ISAF partners, and the Government of Afghanistan. United States Armed Forces are detaining in Afghanistan approximately 946 individuals under the Authorization for the Use of Military Force (Public Law 107-40) as informed by the law of war. On March 9, 2012, the United States signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Afghan government under which the United States is to transfer Afghan nationals detained by US forces in Afghanistan to the custody and control of the Afghan government within 6 months. Since the MOU was signed, approximately 3,100 detainees have been transferred to Afghan control.

The combat-equipped forces, deployed since January 2002 to Naval Base, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, continue to conduct secure detention operations for the approximately 166 detainees at Guantanamo Bay under Public Law 107-40 and consistent with principles of the law of war. In furtherance of US efforts against members of al-Qaida, the Taliban, and associated forces, the United States continues to work with partners around the globe, with a particular focus on the US Central Commands area of responsibility. In this context, the United States has deployed US combat-equipped forces to assist in enhancing the counterterrorism capabilities of our friends and allies, including special operations and other forces for sensitive operations in various locations around the world. In Somalia, the US military has worked to counter the terrorist threat posed by al-Qaida and associated elements of al-Shabaab. In a limited number of cases, the US military has taken direct action in Somalia against members of al-Qaida, including those who are also members of al-Shabaab, who are engaged in efforts to carry out terrorist attacks against the United States and our interests. The US military has also been working closely with the Yemeni government to operationally dismantle and ultimately eliminate the terrorist threat posed by al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), the most active and dangerous affiliate of al-Qaida today. Our joint efforts have resulted in direct action against a limited number of AQAP operatives and senior leaders in that country who posed a terrorist threat to the United States and our interests. The United States is committed to thwarting the efforts of al-Qaida and its associated forces to carry out future acts of international terrorism, and we have continued to work with our counterterrorism partners to disrupt and degrade the capabilities of al-Qaida and its associated forces. As necessary, in response to the terrorist threat, I will direct additional measures against al-Qaida, the Taliban, and associated forces to protect US citizens and interests. It is not possible to know at this time the precise scope or the duration of the deployments of US Armed Forces necessary to counter this terrorist threat to the United States. A classified annex to this report provides further

information. MILITARY OPERATIONS IN CENTRAL AFRICA In October and November 2011, US military personnel with appropriate combat equipment deployed to Uganda to serve as advisors to regional forces that are working to apprehend or remove Joseph Kony and other senior Lords Resistance Army (LRA) leaders from the battlefield, and to protect local populations. The total number of US military personnel deployed for this mission, including those providing logistical and support functions, is approximately 79. United States forces are working with select partner nation forces to enhance cooperation, information-sharing and synchronization, operational planning, and overall effectiveness. Elements of these US forces have deployed to forward locations in the LRA-affected areas of the Republic of South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central African Republic to enhance regional efforts against the LRA. These forces, however, will not engage LRA forces except in self-defense. It is in the US national security interest to help our regional partners in Africa to develop their capability to address threats to regional peace and security, including the threat posed by the LRA. The United States is pursuing a comprehensive strategy to help the governments and people of this region in their efforts to end the threat posed by the LRA and to address the impacts of the LRAs atrocities. MARITIME INTERCEPTION OPERATIONS As noted in previous reports, the United States remains prepared to conduct maritime interception operations on the high seas in the areas of responsibility of each of the geographic combatant commands. These maritime operations are aimed at stopping the movement, arming, and financing of certain international terrorist groups, and also include operations aimed at stopping proliferation by sea of weapons of mass destruction and related materials. MILITARY OPERATIONS IN EGYPT Approximately 694 military personnel are assigned to the US contingent of

the Multinational Force and Observers, which have been present in Egypt since 1981. US-NATO OPERATIONS IN KOSOVO The U.N. Security Council authorized Member States to establish a NATOled Kosovo Force (KFOR) in Resolution 1244 on June 10, 1999. The original mission of KFOR was to monitor, verify, and, when necessary, enforce compliance with the Military Technical Agreement between NATO and the then-Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now Serbia), while maintaining a safe and secure environment. Today, KFOR deters renewed hostilities in cooperation with local authorities, bilateral partners, and international institutions. The principal military tasks of KFOR forces are to help maintain a safe and secure environment and to ensure freedom of movement throughout Kosovo. Currently, 22 NATO Allies contribute to KFOR. Eight non-NATO countries also participate. The United States contribution to KFOR is approximately 760 US military personnel out of the total strength of approximately 5,989 personnel, which includes a temporarily deployed operational reserve force. REGIONAL SECURITY OPERATIONS As noted in my report of September 14, on September 12 a security force deployed to Libya to support the security of US personnel in Libya. Further, on September 13, an additional security force arrived in Yemen in response to security threats there. These forces will remain in place until the security situation no longer requires them. I have directed the participation of US Armed Forces in all of these operations pursuant to my constitutional and statutory authority as Commander in Chief (including the authority to carry out Public Law 107-40 and other statutes) and as Chief Executive, as well as my constitutional and statutory authority to conduct the foreign relations of the United States. Officials of my Administration and I communicate regularly with the leadership and other Members of Congress with regard to these deployments, and we will continue to do so. Sincerely, BARACK OBAMA

only FOR GOOD GUYS

5.11 Tactical Screen Ops Tactical Gloves. Rugged protection that still allows you to operate touchscreen devices. Heavy-duty Gloves for the modern operator. These feature special fingertips that allow you to use most cell phones, touch screen computers, pads and tablets, GPS, and more - while still providing A1 protection. Kevlar knit fabric and perforated leather knuckle reinforcement makes these true multi-role Gloves for military professionals. Fingertips are specially constructed to enable the wearer to operate capacitive resistance touch screen devices compatible with most cell phones, touch screen computers, pads and tablets, GPS, etc Full Made in USA Kevlar knit fabric and perforated leather knuckle reinforcement for protection and durability. Tactical Touch seamless fingertip construction that provides superior dexterity, fit, and comfort. Seamless goatskin palm and fingers for durability and tactility; Full-length cuff with VELCRO brand closure for a perfect fit.

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PRISM 200 deployed in over 40 countries around the world


Prism 200 is a lightweight, durable and highly sophisticated through-wall radar. It is designed to provide police, special forces and the emergency services with accurate covert intelligence of the location and movement of people in situations where it would otherwise be impossible to gain such insight. Using ultra-wide band radar, Prism 200 provides a 3D view through brick, block and concrete walls, and doors, and over a range of up to 20 metres, providing comprehensive coverage of internal spaces. It can be used for the rapid evaluation of room occupancy or it can be used for more detailed intelligence gathering. It is currently deployed in over 40 countries around the world. Laptop application The Windows based application provides the capability of remotely monitoring and recording the intelligence collected by Prism 200 and then displaying it on a laptop computers screen. It also provides extra features, such as recording and playback of surveillance data for training and post-mission analysis, and historical tracking, providing operators which the ability to monitor long-term movement patterns. This can be used by both operators and command staff to enhance the operational flexibility of the system.

www.cambridgeconsultants.com
TNM 14

A little 12-gauge shotgun From Tampa Florida


The SUPER-SHORTY is based on a Mossberg Maverick (also available on Mossberg 500 or Remington 870 at additional cost) 12-gauge shotgun which came from the factory with a pistol grip. Because of this, the SUPER-SHORTY is considered an AOW (Any Other Weapon) and can be transferred with a $5 stamp! The gun holds two 2-3/4 or 3 shells in the magazine, plus one in the chamber. The 16.5 overall length, 6.5 barrel and spring-locked foregrip, which pivots out of the way when not in use, make for a very compact package. As far as we know, this is the shortest 12-gauge pump shotgun available. All parts for the SUPER-SHORTY are made in-house on our own CNC machinery using materials ideally suited to the task. All welds are done by the TIG process, and the manganese phosphate finish is MIL-spec. The SUPER-SHORTY is currently being used by various law enforcement agencies and military units worldwide. If you like the idea of concealed carry with a 12-gauge, or like a lot of bang in a small package, or just want the most compact breaching weapon available, then this is the gun for you. You wont find a better made AOW pump shotgun than the SUPER-SHORTY!

www.serbu.com

SOD Shell - Viper - Combat Pro thermal Fight Parka


The short cut is studied for giving the maximum compatibility to the use of first articulated lines or rescue shaped belt combat.The frontal closing is submitted to a mighty spiral zipper YKK gr 8 in pattern. A present elastic cordino on the inferior edging allows to optimize the length and therefore the confort. The shaped hood allows great comfort and thermal protection. The hull entirely dressed again of a special plot of transpiring Cordura protects the underlying layers from the abrasion and from the extreme uses. The waterproof and windbreaker pellicle of last generation confer to the Viper characteristics that exceed every specification of the declared heads windbreaker. The reinforcements of cordura 500 in pattern post along the whole perimeter of the jacket, they relieve the outline besides guaranteeing a notable reinforcement in the zones of great usury. The zippers YKKs in pattern regulate and they close the openings under the arms, very comfortable when, besides the Viper, possible ballistic protections are worn. The 3 external pockets and the inside pocket , are closed with zippers YKK in pattern. The pectoral pocket is set to the right for facilitating its use with the aimed weapon. The jacket enjoys of a good transpiration. The seams are insured from nylon threads very resistant. The structure is strengthened in the points of great solicitation up to 64 points and height up to 0,5 cms.

www.sodgear.com

Arsenal Firearms Group Finally Available A Grenade proudly announces the You Can Send Through The Mail official distribution to America of the whole line of double barrel
On november the 14th, the us department of justice, bureau of alcohol, tobacco, firearms and explosives (batfe) has officially granted import permission and sale in the united states of america of the af 2011-a1 second century double barrel pistol, with a total score of 120 points, according to form 4590.

Developed in conjunction with Mountain Shepherd Survival School, the Rocky S2V Grenade debuted during OR Summer Market as a component of their new S2V clothing line. A survival tool, the Grenade cocoons a variety of basic survival tools within a 550 cord fob. Now, the Grenade is available for order as a stand alone item. Available in Black, Brown or Olive.

rockys2v.com

For The Ladies Magpul Releases Pink MOE Accessories


Arsenal Firearms Group proudly announces the official distribution to America of the whole line of double barrel firearms and dedicated accessories starting on January the 1st 2013, through the appointed US Importer of Record, Apex International LLC of Middletown, CT and according to a Dealer Direct Distribution. Arsenal Firearms also announces the USA launch of the whole line of firearms and accessories at the forthcoming Shot Show 2013 in Las Vegas, to be held between the 15th and 18th of January at the Sands Convention Center. Arsenal Firearms will welcome all the US dealers and followers to booth n 12251, main hall. The Company wishes to take this opportunity to thank warmly the millions of followers, enthusiasts and supporters in the United States of America and worldwide: they are part of the dream and indeed our main reason to be.

Magpul has just announced that they are shipping Pink MOE Carbine Stock, Pink MOE Grip, and Pink MOE Carbine Handguard. Each will be priced the same as the other color options and Pink is currently planned as a limited release. Pink XTM Enhanced Rail Panels and XTM Handstop Kits are also planned to be produced.

www.Magpul.com

www.sodgear.com

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PACKING IN PINK PARTNERS WITH BLADE-TECH INDUSTRIES TO OFFER U.S. MADE PINK HOLSTERS AND GEAR
Packing in Pink, a leading female oriented firearms related retailer with products designed by and for women, is proud to announce it will offering a whole line of pink U.S. made holsters and mag pouches. The new line of pink gear will be manufactured for Packing in Pink by Blade-Tech Industries, the leading U.S. manufacture of custom thermoplastic holsters and tactical goods. All of the new items to be offered are made in the U.S.A by hand. The new pink product array will consist of gear that can be used for day to day concealment or out on the range during competition. All holsters are IDPA & IPSC legal for female shooters. Just because I shoot like a man, doesnt mean I have to look like one. Packing in Pink is founded on the philosophy that, Just because I shoot like a man, doesnt mean I have to look like one. This new offering of quality handmade Pink gear is an extension of that philosophy. The new line is available now, but will be officially launched at the 2013 Shot Show in Las Vegas. Check out the new gear at www.packinginpink.com or come see them at the Blade-Tech booth (1625) at Shot Show. Blade-Tech Industries is the leading manufacturer of custom, production thermoplastic, injection molded tactical holsters, knife sheaths and magazine pouches. Blade Tech also produces its own line of high quality field knives. Our injection molded and Kydex holsters are the culmination of rigorous field testing by Law Enforcement, Military Personnel and also at Gunsite Academy, one of the worlds premier firearms institutions. Our holsters, pouches and knives are in daily use by members of law enforcement departments, Special Ops, civilians, competition shooters and military agencies worldwide. Blade-Tech also manufactures OEM equipment for 5.11 Tactical, Taser International, Gunsite Academy, Cold Steel, Spyderco, Al Mar, Micro-Tech, Ka-Bar, Camillus, Strider, Buck, Boker, Gatco/Timberline, Ontario, Mission, Chris Reeve and Gerber/Fiskars.

www.blade-tech.com

FIRST SPEAR - Strandhgg SAPI Cut Plate Carrier


Cut edge-to-edge to specifically fit SAPI/ESAPI/SPEAR Cut Plates sizes S-XL, this system can be worn with or without a soft armor panel depending upon ballistic requirements, threat conditions and the type of plate utilized. Maximizing the new lightweight 6/12 technology and rapid closure systems provided by The Tubes, the SAPI Cut Plate Carrier can be rapidly donned or doffed and is capable of accepting the integrated inflatable floatation cummerbund from the Maritime 6/12 Plate Carrier. Using a streamlined fit throughout, along with state of the art materials and production technology, the 6/12 SAPI Cut Plate Carrier is easily tailored for comfort, ventilation and fit. The interior pocket includes foam for added comfort when used with a standalone plate. The internal foam is easily removable and replaced with cut-to-fit soft armor inserts for use with ballistic plates. Taking its name from an Old Norse Viking term for a lightning raid, Strandhgg was one of the first formalized battle tactics to use covert infiltrators in advance of an actual raiding operation. Strandhgg was a tactical game changer in its time, just like the technological advances FirstSpear is bringing forward in this line of plate carriers. Soft Armor Ballistic Inserts complying with NIJ Category IIIA.06 or specific Military Specification requirements are available from FirstSpear for an additional fee. Color: Black - Ranger Green - Coyote Tan - Multicam

www.first-spear.com

MIXON TARGETS
We just got a box of these this past week and cant wait to shoot em up! These deserving copyrighted Mixons Targets come in boxes of 500, printed on high-quality paper using top-notch ink for better visibility. Mixons Targets is a California based company started in 2006 by former law enforcement officer, Brian Mixon with a goal to develop better firearm training skills. Whether a beginner or a professional, developing good muscle memory skills is essential for good target sight acquisition, and Mixons Targets make the process easier.

mixonstargets.com

FIRST SPEAR - Padded AGB Sleeve 6/12


This sleeve fits over the AGB or similar gun belt to provide support, comfortable padding and additional load-bearing capability; compatible with both standard MOLLE-style pouches and the ultralightweight FirstSpear 6/12 pouch line. D-Rings included to attach to multiple suspension system harnesses. colors: Black - Ranger Green - Coyote Tan - Multicam

www.first-spear.com

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KAPAP the Israeli Tracker


The knife is design by Avi Nardia, a martial artist, KAPAP, a related to it hand to hand combat system Lotar and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu instructor. Avi served in the Israel Defense Forces as an official hand-tohand instructor and safety officer both during his duty service and reserve service. In theIDF he trained Israeli special forces and earned a rank of Major. He spent 7 years in Japan studying Karate, Jiu-Jitsu and Kendo. When he came back to Israel he started to train Israeli police special Yamam unit. During his years in Yamam he has substantially improved and enriched modern KAPAP. Today he serves as an expert to SWAT schools in different countries and as an officiatl instructor holding master classes on defensive tactics and operational behavior worldwide. This is a survival knife to be used in all extreme condition, it comes with a cordura sheath including the survival kit. Blade: Stainless steel N690 Hardness: HRC 58-60. Blade thickness: mm 6 0,24 Blade length: mm 195 7,63 Overall length: mm 320 12,6 Weight: 390 gr. 13,76 oz Blade coating: BLACK IDROGLIDER Handle: G10 black Sheath: nylon with survival kit

SILYNXS RELEASES U94 WIRELESS PTT


Silynxs sof micro u94 is the worlds first u94 chest ptt with weapon mounted micro wireless push-to- talk(wptt). Silynx Communications, Inc. (Silynx), a global leader in tactical communications systems, is proud to announce that the new SOF Micro U94 now is now in full production. Silynxs SOF Micro U94 is the worlds first U94 chest PTT with weapon mounted Micro Wireless Push-toTalk (WPTT). The Micro U94 was specifically designed as a PTT upgrade for the ComTac headset and is interoperable with MBITR/JEM & AN/PRC152. For the first time ever, the Micro U94 allows you toUnleash Yourself from wired PTTs. Silynx Communications, Inc. is a world leader in software defined micro soldier systems with hearing protection/ enhancement capability. Designed by war fighters for war fighters, Thier products have been developed hand in hand with the Special Forces community and deployed in combat regions for the past five years. Thier innovative communication systems are in use and adopted by the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), USASOC, NSW, MARSOC, AFSOC, FBI SWAT and first tier NATO Special Forces.

www.silynxcom.com

www.foxcutlery.com

vkc8 cavalry
Compact thigh holster, belt loop with turn buckle for a better movement, single no slip elastic leg strap. Polymer holster with inside lining for a gun protection, turn safety lace. Colors: black, green, coyote

www.vegaholster.com

serie uwh401 shirt-holster

Vega Under Shirt Holster is a carry concealment system where it is possible introduce Pistols as Documents, Radio and different accessories he Shirt is constructed in a microfiber fabric treated with an antimicrobial/dry quickly/odor control treatment. 4 reinforced pockets in Mesh padded fabric. Two big pockets on the right and left sides just for to carry a Pistol (Medium and Large auto). Two small pockets on the right and left sides just for to carry Magazines, Knives, Flash light, Handcuffs and all object of similar dimensions. Vega Shirt Holster is available in 3 sizes: I, II and III. Available in White or Black color.

www.vegaholster.com

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HECTOR Small Utility Folder


This Utility knife has been developed by Fox Knives to provide a useful tool to carry every day and can be used under any circumstances. The light way and the high cutting performance is the main feature that distinguish Hector from all other knives. Its available with Brown Idroglider coating and Stonewashed finishing. Blade: N690 Hardness: HRC 58-60. Blade thickness: mm 3 0,12 Blade length: mm 90 3,54 Overall length: mm 203 8,0 Weight: 80 gr. 2,82 oz Blade and Handle coating: BROWN IDROGLIDER OR STONEWASHED Handle: stainless steel

www.foxcutlery.com

SAGE Control Ordnance, Inc. HTM66 tri-Canister Series Hand-thrown Munitions


SAGE Control Ordnance, Inc. (SCOI) is pleased to announce their new SAGE 66mm Tri-Canister Hand Thrown Munitions (HTM66). SCOI is well known for their range of very effective and high quality 40mmx46mm NATO, 37mm SAGE Rifled/ARWEN and 37mm Smooth Bore launched ammunition. Recent demand by SCOI users for handthrown munitions has prompted SCOI to design, develop, and manufacture a new line of 66mm hand-thrown munitions. The HTM66 Tri-Canister Series of handthrown munitions forms part of this drive to compliment the SAGE less-lethal family of less-lethal launchers and launched munitions. The HTM66, 66mm, is a separating continuous discharge pyrotechnic munition. It is available in CS irritant smoke and is also offered in a white training smoke variant. The HTM66 Tri-Canister Series design consists of three separate canisters pressed together with internal separating charges. Upon deployment the canisters separate and land roughly 20 to 25 feet apart affording a greater area of coverage than similar single source munitions. This munition can be hand thrown or launched from a shotgun cup mounted delivery system. The average burn time of each separating charge range between 20-30 seconds and this enhances the ability of the HTM66 to quickly saturate the desired area with CS or white smoke.

www.sageinternationalltd.com

HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HO

Gun ban in
BY LUCAS SILVERA

BRAZIL
Gun control influences several dimensions of peoples life, particularly the consolidation of the democratic regime. In Brazil, the most violent country in the world, considering the number of homicides, the gun ban has impacted relevant features. The economy, the public safety and the politic regime have been suffering the effects of gun control in Brazilian law. There are about 50.000 homicides per year against a large population of men, women and children. The Brazilian police solves a very small part of these crimes, only 8%. That means, in absolute numbers, that one year in Brazil is comparable to 40 years in Afghanistan War. a law that would transform the countrys gun politics in one of the most restrictive ever seen. It is called Estatuto do Desarmamento, that means Disarmament Act.

Since 2003, carrying a gun is a federal crime, punished with a penalty from 2 up to 6 years in reclusion. It is estimated that 90% of the Brazilian internal trade of Despite that, Brazilians do not have a violent nature. firearms had been extinguished. Many industries and Most crime in Brazil is committed by few well-armed men, against defenseless law-abiding citizens, that had stores shut down and those remaining now depend on exportation to run. In the Disarmament Acts terms, their guns confiscated by the Government. people should have the right to buy a gun and keep it Even when Brazil was a military dictatorship, until home. Despite that, the exigencies are so unreasonable 1985, it was relatively easy for a citizen to have a that many people just desist from trying. concealed carry permit. Until 2003 this authorization In addition, there is an incredible taxation over guns was given by the local police, automatically. and ammo. A pistol that costs 500 Dollars in USA is In 2003, Brazilian Government decided to promulgate
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OT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POI

Most crime in Brazil is committed by few well-armed men, against defenseless law-abiding citizens, that had their guns confiscated by the Government.

sold in Brazilian market for about 2000-2500 Dollars. In a country with a monthly per capita income under 1.000 Dollars, it means that just a small part of the citizens could actually afford a firearm. The motivation of the recrudescence in Brazilian gun politics is unclear. Besides the official standpoint, which affirms that it is a public safety solution, the data available from other countries and even from Brazilian experience fail in corroborate this idea. Studies show an increase in the murder rates and robbery in territories where restrictive gun laws are implemented. Coincidence or not, the debates about gun ban started in a period when there were several denunciations of corruption. Congressmen and politicians were accused, many of them kept a close

relationship with the Ex-President Luis Incio Lula da Silva. Many people believe that the imbroglio around gun ban was just an attempt to dissimulate those crimes, most of them, judged only in 2012. Other frequent beliefs for the gun ban include the suspicion of a global attempt for a new world order beginning with the weakness of the people. This would explain why many countries are trying to approve restrictive gun laws. A third part of people believes the disarmament is really a concern about public safety. They assume the reduction of the number of guns with the citizens would be able to diminish the violent crime rates. Therefore, the disarmament represents the wills of just a small part of the citizens. In 2005, there was a referendum
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HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HO
From humble beginnings as a small tool manufacturer in Porto Alegre, Brazil over 60 years ago, TAURUS soon became a major factor in the South American market and experienced continuous growth. The company produced its first revolver in 1941. Now TAURUS has become a diversified, international company and one of the largest small arms manufacturers in the world.

Associations like DEFESA.ORG, supported by private funds, make their own campaigns. In counterpart of the Disarmament Campaign, civil society created the Armament Campaign. In April 2012, the first liberal law project has been created in the history of the country. It has been a struggle against power and shady benefits. And this effort has just begun. Brazil still does not know when this law will be voted. And, if voted, people still do not know if their freedom will be respected. The disarmament of law-abiding citizens is not a local problem. It is a worldwide battle against those who pretend to defend the peace, taking away from the victims their last chance of defense. Every law against guns approved puts a nail in the door of freedom. Once people give up one single right, it takes a very long time to have it back. Freedom is unnegotiable, indeclinable. Liberty must be defended. Brazilian gun restrictions raised in an unreliableness scenario. Even against the democratically shown public opinion, it is kept by the political forces that use the economic power of the treasury for its own benefit. Gun restrictions are seen in a worldwide scale and there was never one case that actually improved the public safety conditions. The Brazilian experience should serve as an advice to the rest of the world. Free people shall never be debarred of the use of guns. People must give up and protect their civil rights, specially the one that could be their last chance of defense. Historically the democracy has never been given for free, it had to be deserved, conquered. Undermining people can be the backdoor for totalitarianism and must be seen warily. Thus civil society must be constantly organized to maintain its force and liberty. The price of freedom is eternal vigilance. (Thomas Jefferson)

about the gun ban in the country. People voted to decide if the market of firearms should be prohibited. Despite all the government wills, almost 60 million Brazilians, 64% of the citizens, voted against the gun control. It was the biggest defeat ever suffered by the major Brazilian political forces. Freedom won and tyranny lost. Well, this is what all expected to happen. Though in a democracy peoples wills should be respected, that was not what happened in Brazil. Once token, government did not intend to give the right to bear arms back to the people. Since 2005, against all public reactions, and inadvertently using the treasury; instead of revoke the disapproved law, the State began an enormous publicity strategy. Called Campanha do Desarmamento (Disarmament Campaign), the publicity program of the government tried to convince the citizens to give up their firearms. Paying actors, singers and soccer players to claim for disarmament, the Disarmament Campaign fails year after year. The last survey made by Brazilian Congress had shown that 95%, instead of the earlier 64%, of the Brazilians are now against gun control. The society woke up to their rights. Some gun rights associations were created. Using internet through sites like Facebook and Twitter, people now demand the right to buy and bear arms.
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OT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POINT HOT POI

THE IMPORTANCE OF MAKING THE RIGHT CHOICE.


YOUR LIFE COULD DEPEND ON IT Vega Holster has the widest range of holsters for professional use. Designed to meet tough operating requirements, made using the top materials and tested by the best national and international tactical teams.
duty concealment

TOP

shockwave D

shockwave c

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Safety level 4-Draw level 2

Safety level 3 - Draw level 3

Safety level 2 - Draw level 2

Safety level 1-Draw level 1

GUARDIAN

ACTION

rescue

Fast

Safety level 3-Draw level 3

Safety level 2-Draw level 4

Safety level 3-Draw level 3

Safety level 1-Draw level 1

EXTREME

DUTY

Short

Half

Safety level 2-Draw level 4

Safety level 2-Draw level 3

Safety level 3-Draw level 3

Safety level 1-Draw level 1

The Safety level refers to the risk of the weapon being accidentally extracted or extracted by third parties and ranges from a minimum of 1 (minimum safety) to a maximum of 4 (maximum safety). The Draw level refers to the speed of extraction and ranges from a minimum of 1 (minimum speed) to a maximum of 4 (maximum speed).

www.VEGAHOLSTER.com
Visit our website www.vegaholster.com or contact an authorised Vega Holster retailer: MAKE THE RIGHT CHOICE.
tel: ++39 0587 489190 fax: ++39 0587 489901 info@vegaholster.it TNM 25

TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAININ

Shooti

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NG TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING

Pa

andis olo Gr

- Tadp

oles T

actics

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by er Hig BY Rog

TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAININ

Tadpoles Tactics with US Marshals

Over the years, I have been blessed with the opportunity to work with police and military groups throughout the United States, Europe, South America, and Asia. These opportunities repeatedly show that although we may speak a different language, we have the same common goal of improving our skills as weapons handlers, tacticians and instructors. A few years ago, a long time friend, Roscoe Presley, mentioned to me that he had just completed teaching a tactics course to students, including two individual attendees from Italy named Jacopo Guarino and Paolo Grandis. These two are the founders of an innovative weapons and tactical training company called Tadpoles Tactics. Although the firm is relatively new, the quality of instruction has already resulted in
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Warming up drill

earning contracts with both Italian and foreign clients. For a more detailed description of Tadpoles Tactics, please visit www.tadpolestactics.com.

In the summer of 2011, I had the opportunity to meet Jacopo while my family and I were traveling through Italy. In the short time I spent with him, I realized that we share

NG TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING


Back to the target with chrono drill (special targets)

the same deep rooted passion for weapon instruction. We exchanged our contact information and have continued to share our mutual interest in weapons, tactics, and training on a routine basis. This common interest blossomed into putting together a nine (9) day trip to California in March 2012. Jacopo and Paolo flew to California to participate as students in a two day advanced carbine course conducted in Modesto and Coulterville, California. It was obvious that both Jacopo and Paolos skills with a carbine were such that they could easily have taught the course. Two Deputy U.S. Marshals, who also participated in the course, were quick to note the skill level of our Italian guests and they spent time exchanging different recipes for weapons instruction.

Following the carbine course, an advanced transition course was held with a three man team of the firearms instructors from the 131st Para-Rescue Squadron, California Air National Guard. The para-rescue jumpers, commonly referred to as PJs, seldom get the opportunity to interact with weapons instructors from foreign countries; therefore, they readily accepted the offer to spend a day at the range learning different approaches to weapons training. One of the main missions for PJs is to be inserted into hostile territory to retrieve a pilot that has been shot down behind enemy lines, and quite possibly injured. In addition to requiring superior medical skills to provide life-saving treatment to any wounded pilot (or solider on the battlefield), PJs are required to hone their skills with various weapons necessary to provide protection to themselves

One of the PJs after a carbine/pistol transition

and/or their patient until they are either extracted by the rescue helicopter, known as Jollys, or they move the patient to a safer area for either extraction, or the safety of friendly forces, so that the patient can receive advanced

TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAININ


Tadpoles Tactics instructors Paolo Grandis & Jacopo Guarino Tadpoles Tactics instructors in a full 360 environment exercise

life-saving treatment. Because of these demands, PJs are constantly challenged to improve both their medical and weapons skills. When the PJs and our two Italian guests finally came together at the firing range, it quickly became apparent to all that Jacopo and Paolo are well versed in weapons tactics and weapons instruction. At last count, there were less than 400 PJs world-wide and they have consistently been a tight-knit group. Under normal circumstances PJs hesitate in interacting with outsiders due to the secretive nature of their work. Any reservations between the two groups quickly melted away and by the end of the day the PJs even shared a few of their own training tips to the two Italian instructors. Without divulging their signature methods for teaching weapons tactics, let me state that Jacopo and Paolo have a novel approach to different drills. Some of these drills included cover and concealment, target acquisition, critical decision processing (akin to OODA-Loop), stress induced
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drills, muscle memory, and weapons transition. Although they cover some of the more common drills, such as shoot and scoot, challenging peers/colleagues, reloading, or malfunction drills, they have a unique style that induces a refreshing look to what could otherwise be a mundane subjectmatter to a veteran weapons handler. One of the unique drills that they presented is geared for a linear assault, such as a train, bus, or airplane. The drill is simple, the instructions clear and concise, and yet the student will quickly learn that even a simple drill will have even an advanced student asking, Where did I go wrong? The real litmus test to the teaching skills presented by these two individuals was when the 131st Rescue Squadron commander asked when Jacopo and Paolo would be returning to California to teach a minimum of a two day course to the PJs. The quality of instruction Jacopo and Paolo is excellent and the techniques used by both instructors leave students wanting more of their unique lessons. With over 50 years of weapons training, I must state that I was thoroughly impressed with their refreshing approach to weapons training. A day at the range with these two instructors is time well spent.

Roger Higby
San Jose, California November 2012
The author began his law enforcement career over 50 years ago and is currently a police lieutenant serving as the watch commander for an agency located in the San Francisco Bay Area. Until he was commission in the military reserves, he was the superintendent for the 129th Rescue Wing of the California Air National Guard. One of his four different college degrees includes one in Small Arms, as well as two teaching credentials. He also has spent over four years as an apprentice gunsmith with a custom gun maker and has been court-certified as a weapons expert. He is a member of multiple associations related to firearms and training.

NG TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING

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COMPANY PROFILE COMPANY PROFILE COMPANY PROFILE CO

BY GUNS&TACTICS

CHIAPPA FIREARM A SHORT HISTORY

OF HARD WORK
CHIAPPA FIREARM COMPANY IS AN INCREDIBLY MODERN AND PROGRESSIVE COMPANY OPERATING OUT OF BRESCIA, ITALY. IT EMPLOYS HIGH-TECH TYPES AND OLD SCHOOL TRADITIONAL CRAFTSMEN TO TURN OUT A WIDE VARIETY OF HIGH-QUALITY FIREARMS, BUT WHO REALLY ARE THESE GUYS?
The company was started by Ezechiele Chiappa. To keep this simple, thankfully, he preferred going by Oscar, so that is how we will refer to him from now on. In the early 1950s Oscar started in his career with Tanfoglio as a production line worker. But within four years at the ripe old age of 22 he was promoted to manager of all production which at that time was revolvers for the most part. In 1958 the owner of Tanfoglio became ill and abruptly passed away and his wife decided to sell the company. As can happen with such things after the sale Oscar was removed from his management position so he decide to resign and move on.
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OMPANY PROFILE COMPANY PROFILE COMPANY PROFILE COMPAN

However, his life-long love of firearms and their use in sporting activities along with his machining expertise kept him in the industry and he formed his own company to do subcontract work for other companies. Eventually this new business lead to more production and at 29 Oscar founded his own company, Armi Sport. Armi Sport mostly manufactured replica firearms such as black powder and early western models as used in Americas Wild West. These were and still are popular thanks to movies and television. And back then American westerns were very popular with Europeans. Eventually Oscars replica firearm business bled over into the huge U.S. market. At about the same time he originated a high-quality line of realistic blank firearms (Kimar brand name). In many countries in Europe you cannot have home defense firearms (or hand guns), but realistic blank guns are legal and have actually been used to convince criminals to buzz off. Oscars son Rino (pronounced Reeno) virtually grew up in the gun industry and by going to dads factory when possible, Rino learned early on how to make firearms at Armi Sport. By the age of 10 Rino was able to correctly operate most of the machines. This all took place before the plethora of laws in both Europe and the U.S. preventing children from learning factory, trade, retail and even farm work from parents in the family business. Rinos manufacturing education continued at the family business after hours, through high school and during summer vacation from school. It was at this time, when Rino was around 19, that the old Tanfoglio Company that dad, Oscar worked in went bankrupt. This presented an opportunity to the Chiappa family to pick up more firearm orientated milling machines for their growing company. Rino like any young guy working for family knew best and pressed for the family to buy these machinesand as if

that was not enough to restructure the current Arim Sport. Ahhhh, the nonemotional and quiet family discussions those always easy going Italians had around the dinner table At age 21 Rino married his sweetheart Susannaand the restructuring discussions took a day off for the wedding. However, Oscar was never real enthused about the day to day running of the company as he

revolutionary like the Rhino Revolver) and retained production of their quality replica and blank firearms. Currently Chiappa makes over 70,000 firearms a year out of their new ultra-modern 108,000 square foot main plant which employs 80+ employees and exports to 62 countries world wide. Chiappas replica firearm unit reverse engineers vintage firearms and then using modern equipment creates

preferred a hands on approach of making firearms himself. A year or two later Oscar informed Rino if he wanted to run the company he could and Oscar would turn it over to him and he (Oscar) would stay on making guns and acting as a consultant to the company. In the mid-80s Rino took over management with dad Oscar watching to make sure he did not screw things up. But Rino had things well in hand and was growing the company and now granddad Oscar was teaching his young grandchildren (Rinos and Susannas kids) how to make guns. In 2002, work was nearly completed on the new current super modern factory when Oscar took sick and passed away; he never saw the new factory completed later that year. The company was growing very quickly and now with the name of Chiappa Firearms they expanded production further into modern firearms (some

accurate high-quality replicas. Uniquely Chiappa machines (mills or turns) all the parts and components from solid bar stockno castings. All wood parts are hand oiled 3 to 4 times and hand polished. This is old country quality combined with modern day technology producing beautiful quality firearms. Rino and wife Susanna are incredibly friendly, speak, read and write fluent English among other languages. They (especially Rino) travel to the U.S. often. Rino is an active NRA member and he is not just a gun maker and designer; he is an avid hunter, shooter and President of SASS in Europe. Rino will be at the Chiappa and MKS Supply 2013 SHOT Show exhibits IN LAS VEGAS for meets and greets with anyone interested in visiting. If that sounds like an invitation; it is. Visit www.mkschiappa.com to learn more about Chiappa Firearms.
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FOCUS ON FOCUS ON FOCUS ON FOCUS ON FOCUS ON FOCUS O

the current world of explosive ordnance disposal


what is it, where is it and what does it mean to you?
by ROBERT Shaw MSc (U.K.)
The world of Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) forces and services and that of existing traditional security are in many ways synergetic and have increased its visibility and importance as a skill set since 9/11 and the opening of the Global War on Terror (GWOT). More than ever before, across the globe, military and civilian EOD organisations, intelligence agencies and commercial or humanitarian EOD companies are improving their capabilities through organisational change,
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seconds to go, the operator cuts another wire to stop the clock and save the world (or at least him and his team mate). Another image that might come to mind is that of the image made famous in World War 2, that of the operator leaning over an enemy aircraft bomb, normally with a stethoscope to see if the fuse is ticking. Or maybe its the engineer, lifting mines from a minefield by hand. The realities of EOD operations are, of course, very different to that portrayed in the movies and some techniques and equipment have certainly moved on from WW2, even if its just the variety of enemy weapons and their tactics! So what is EOD as we understand it today? The current world of EOD consists of the following fields: Demining and improved training and smart Battlefield Area Clearance (BAC), equipment acquisition. But what Conventional Munitions Disposal does this mean to you? What exactly is EOD and what fields does (CMD) and Counter Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED) which it consist of? contains Improvised Explosive The immediate image that most people have when someone thinks Device Disposal (IEDD), Counter Terrorist Search and Weapons of EOD is that of the Improvised Intelligence (WIT/WTI or WIS). Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD) Underpinning these fields are the operator, who, in the movies, strands of training, personnel and is typically leaning over an improvised explosive device (IED) equipment which add up to the that has curly wires (coloured red capability of the EOD force. and blue)leading to an electronic Although normally not associated with EOD, the field of ammunition timer. The operator always has to decide which wire to cut, which he storage and ammunition stockpile management has grown closer. will discuss with his team mate It is now associated with EOD (who is invariably sat next to him) due to the security concerns of and then they end up tossing a coin anyway! Having cut a wire, the governments that do not want unsecured or even surplus clock adds to the excitement by ammunition items of countries counting down even quicker than before, until finally, with single falling into terrorist hands to be

used in IEDs, or as part of complex attacks, such as a hand held surface to air missile (SAM) being used against commercial airliners. The effort to prevent the spread of military grade ordnance into terrorist or even criminal hands is known as counter proliferation. All fields of EOD are more and more under the spotlight recently due to the current focus on counter insurgency across the world and the lasting legacy and long term impact of explosive remnants of war (ERW) from previous conflicts and the way these two aspects have been connected in recent times. This means the spectrum of EOD is relevant right across the board from post conflict countries and developing countries to those of the first world, and encompasses operations of military, civilian, commercial and intelligence forces. Demining and BAC There are legacy mine and battlefield area clearance tasks dating from World Wars One and Two through to the Vietnam War and Falklands conflicts and to modern Afghanistan and Korea. Each of the mine issues has evolved as the weapons and mines in use have developed in each conflict and the ground over which the conflict occurred. For example in World War One when we say mines, we are not talking about minefields but actually tunnels that were dug beneath the surface by specialist engineer units with personnel drawn from the coal and other mineral extraction industries.

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clearance operations, some of these mines are still presenting a hazard, such as modern day Libya where hundreds of kilometres of British, German and Italian mines on the border with Egypt are left in place due to the dry weather conditions preserving the mines, and the fact that it was not deemed necessary to conduct clear-up operations since there was a sparse population in the affected area and the minefields were perceived to preserve border integrity! As weapon systems evolved, so did the task of demining which had to encompass area clearance of ERW on the surface. Munitions such as those that are air delivered at first became larger due to the constantly increasing lift capability of military aircraft. But not only have they got progressively smaller due to increasing accuracy and the desire to avoid collateral damage, but sub munitions also came into more widespread use. The fusing systems on both aircraft bombs and sub munitions also evolved to become smarter to increase the time that it takes the EOD force to clear them. Sub munitions tend to be delivered by air to create an explosive obstacle similar to a minefield. Within the field of demining is also Mine Risk Education and resettlement of mine victims. The demining tasks in contaminated countries will be slowly completed through humanitarian demining companies, but they traditionally By WW2, mines had evolved from The tunnelling companies dug have very limited resources, tunnels filled with explosive underneath their own front line due to funding, so the rate of across no mans land, and onwards charges to fields of mines designed clearance will always ebb and underneath the enemies positions. to provide or enhance an obstacle flow. Other factors in the time to enemy personnel and armoured it takes to clear land of mines There they filled the end of the tunnel with large amounts of vehicles. The mines within these and ERW is the type of ground, obstacles evolved from metal explosive that were subsequently which dictates whether the use of detonated on the eve of large scale casings to wooden as typical mechanical clearance equipment counter measures like search attacks to destroy trenches and is feasible, whether clearing by concrete emplacements and create equipment (metal detectors), hand is the only option, and the gaps in the wire obstacles that also evolved. Despite the passage security of company personnel. couldnt be achieved with artillery. of time and immediate post war Funding for these activities is a

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mix of international donors, like governments and the UN, through to humanitarian projects and commercial clearances paid for by companies (such as oil, gas or construction) that require land to be assessed and cleared prior and /or concurrently with other expensive building activities. Apart from commercial companies requiring clearance activities, due to the downsizing of military forces worldwide alongside the increased demand for housing, there is now an ongoing requirement for clearance of ranges and training areas globally. Humanitarian demining and battlefield area clearance is a use of EOD skill sets in a post conflict environment by civilian EOD operators and their staff. Ammunition Management and Counter Proliferation Traditionally, the storage of ammunition and weapon systems

has also connected to EOD. A countrys own storage facilities were a logistical function, but when it came to dealing with large scale captured enemy stocks and ammunition storage areas (ASAs), in wartime, then it was the job of the military EOD force. As well as dealing with stocks of enemy ammunition, the EOD operator would also have to deal with any unexploded ordnance fired in the fighting for the ASA, which could also include air craft bombs that have failed to detonate. The clearance of these areas can be a long term operation, a problem now faced in Libya where their ASAs were hit hard by NATO aircraft bombs and most of the bunkers are now unusable. The areas are also covered with UXO, are sometimes surrounded by protective minefields, and have unexploded NATO aircraft bombs in them as well! Humanitarian and commercial demining companies

have had to move into the field of the ASAs and ammunition management as the current post conflict countries they are clearing up contained a large amount of ammunition stockpiles. The countries of Iraq, Afghanistan and Libya all contained stocks on a scale beyond that which was required for national defence and the size of their armed forces. This, in part, was due to the large stock being a status symbol for the countrys leaders and to intimidate their neighbours throughout the region. Of course, arms companies and foreign governments exacerbated the issue by pushing the sale of large amounts of ammunition and weapon systems as well. This situation, has brought the clearance of ASAs into the realm of a counter proliferation issue, as during any post conflict power vacuum, there are genuine concerns that the ammunition and weapon stockpiles will fall

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into the hands of insurgents and terrorists to increase their capabilities. This includes, not just simple ready use items, such as small arms ammunition (SAA) and RPGs but, more worryingly, military grade plastic explosive, man portable air defence systems (MANPADS) and even chemical and biological ammunition. This situation is currently seen in Syria, where extremist Islamic
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terrorists fighting to overthrow the government might well gain access to and control the countries chemical weapons. These could then, in theory, be sold and smuggled across the world to be used in IEDs against European nations or the USA. Conventional Munitions Disposal (CMD) Conventional Munitions Disposal

is really the basis of the skill sets used in wartime by military forces and in peacetime by the humanitarian or commercial EOD companies. Conventional munitions are those manufactured by the state and range from nuclear weapons, conventional aircraft delivered bombs and sub munitions, through to rockets, missiles and artillery shells to mortar bombs, grenades and SAA.

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or another technique, and blow them up in place. Alternatively, the items for disposal may not have been fired at all and might be surplus or obsolescent stock. These means of disposal usually take place on a licensed demolition ground and in large quantities. This part of CMD is known as logistic disposal. Both types of CMD require procedures that limit the amount of expensive, serviceable high explosive used to initiate the unserviceable or blind items and minimise the amount of fragmentation and debris created by the detonation. Where the filling of the ammunition is chemical or biological, then specific procedures and equipment are used and this field is termed Biological and Chemical Munitions Disposal (BCMD). If the weapon is a nuclear one, then it is termed Nuclear Weapons Disposal (NWD). In both the cases of BCMD and NWD the items to be disposed of are state manufactured and have fusing systems that provide safety in storage, transit and firing. If they are used with a different, improvised fusing system, then that comes under the realm of the Improvised Explosive Device (IED). C-IED, IEDD, Search and Weapons Intelligence C-IED is a relatively new term that has been coined and developed during the GWOT. In the past, IEDs were used by indigenous criminal and terrorist groups with some spread of technology but were used in relatively small numbers. The campaign by Irish nationalist groups, such as the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA), in Northern Ireland is a case in point. In more recent campaigns, such as Iraq and Afghanistan, where the conflict was more that of an insurgency, the IED has become the weapon and tactic of choice, used in ever greater numbers, to cause casualties to

All of the ammunition items that normally carry high explosive (HE) can, of course, carry biological and chemical fillings. These items are normally termed Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) or blinds. This means they have been fired, either in wartime or in training on ranges and have not functioned as intended. As the items are generally unsafe to move, the EOD operator will use a donor charge,

coalition forces, whilst reducing the casualties of the insurgents, which would lose the fight in any symmetrical battle due to our technological edge. To protect the security forces against the increased use of IEDs, forces are trained from the early stages of their careers, through pre-deployment training to constant refresher training during operations in all necessary skill sets: counter insurgency mission planning, urban and rural patrolling, vulnerable point (VP) search, patrol search,5 and 20 m checks isolation drills, suicide devices, insurgent tactics and weaponry (including IEDs), vehicle check points (VCPs), medical and EOD reporting, mine awareness, the use of Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) and incident management. The ethos of C-IED is to prevent casualties by thorough training, to protect our forces by providing them with the right equipment to mitigate IED effects, to detect IEDs before they have detonated with the right tactics and search equipment and finally to exploit the information presented by recovered devices and other forms of intelligence, which in turn, leads us to develop tactic, techniques and procedures (TTPs) that help us prevent, protect, detect and exploit! As part of the protect field we have the skill of IEDD, which is where the EOD operator uses specific equipment and knowledge to disrupt the IED and tries to safely recover as much of the component parts (in the form of evidence)as possible to feed into the intelligence chain. Where as an EOD operator dealing with conventional ammunition has a recognised fusing system and munitions to deal with and thereby has a standard Render Safe Procedure (RSP), the IEDD operator has to assess the IED he faces and create his own and
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Robert Shaw MSc

unique RSP to match the unique device. To protect the operator, he generally wears a protective suit and where possible uses remote means (robotics) to disrupt the device. However, in assault IEDD, where the operator is seamlessly integrated into a Special Forces (SF) assault team, the use of the suit and robotics is inappropriate and therefore specialist training is required. Another sub field of IEDD is that of CBRNe. This is where chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear material is used in an IED instead of purely HE and fragmentation. In some cases these devices would have to be dealt with by assault IED forces, especially if they were located in a non permissive environment. Again, the skills and equipment used to safely disrupt these types of devices is very specialist and requires intensive and long term training. Weapons Intelligence

(WIS/WTI/WIT) is the term generally given to those forces, concerned with post attack scene investigation. Made up of IEDD operators, intelligence and police personnel, their job is to collect components or even complete IEDs and, once rendered safe, ensure they are exploited for any intelligence, which is then fed into the lessons learnt domain where it influences future friendly TTPs and equipment acquisition. Summary The world of EOD is quite large and its operators can be specialists in all aspects of its fields or, more normally, specialise in one or two of them. All of the fields are equally pertinent and are in constant use in conflict, post conflict and peacetime by military and civilian assets. In the next article we will look more closely at the training of EOD operators and their skill sets.

I am currently a training consultant and director of Optimal Risk EOD Services, running capabilities and training in various fields of EOD, Security and Intelligence. As a member of the Territorial Army, I run training in Patrolling and Close Quarter Combat. My previous post was managing a multicultural C-IED training department for ISAF in Afghanistan which has the responsibility for analysing insurgent weapons, tactics, techniques, technology and procedures, developing these into force protection and security training packages and then delivering them to ISAF and ANSF forces. The branch was a mix of military and civilian personnel, drawn from ISAF nations. In 2009 I completed a MSc in Global Security at Cranfield University. During this period I have been able to put my tactical experience of challenging and multicultural/ multiagency operations into context with the strategy and theory of Security policies. The course also included a breadth of disciplines from international relations, diplomacy, arms control and intelligence all the way down to applications of current and future weapons technology. My previous employment with the UN in Kabul and its provinces was as a project manager within a Security Sector Reform and disarmament project. I expertly oversaw the successful smooth running of a major project and led a multiethnic/ multicultural team to complete this project on time and within budget. My post broadened my experience of mentoring and advising senior government ministers and persuading different agencies with conflicting priorities to work together to a common aim. By improving the understanding of the project amongst all stakeholders I was able to both extend and increase the projects international funding. I also assisted CSTC-A and the US State Department in the design and implementation of national EOD training policy. During my Army career, I worked as an ATO and HT IEDD/ WIS Operator requiring the management and coordination of personnel of all arms, in various fields, in support of Airborne Forces, Special Forces and Defence Intelligence. Whilst in Afghanistan, my post included developing and maintaining close working relationships with various members of the international intelligence and military community to ensure alignment and coordination of efforts on a variety of Security Operations issues.

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by Guns & Tactics and Jeremy Pagan (SEATTLE - USA) PHOTO BY Stickman

Few acronyms bring to mind such potent images as one in particular: SWAT. Special Weapons and Tactics teams represent the elite of American law enforcement, deployed in situations that are beyond the capabilities of normal patrol officers. Equipped with body armor, top of the line weapon systems, stun grenades, armored vehicles, and a myriad of other specialized gear, these highly trained men and women bring their expertise to bear against anyone who would threaten the public peace. While their primary goal is to end all conflicts peacefully, when the hammer drops, every SWAT officer must be able to rely on their primary weapon, the rifle, to function flawlessly and without pause. In the 70's and 80's SWAT teams primarily employed pistol caliber weapons, especially the Heckler and Koch MP5, made famous by the SAS in the Iranian embassy raid of 1980. However, after the 1994 North Hollywood shootout, involving a pair of heavily armored gunmen, a paradigm shift was needed. While effective against unarmored opponents, sub-machine guns performed inadequately against armored targets, and as more and more criminals donned body armor, law enforcement turned to their bigger brother, the military for inspiration. In their arsenal, they found the weapon they needed: the carbine. The M16 rifles that were initially adopted proved to be effective against body armor, but were designed for war on an open battlefield at medium to long range. SWAT teams conversely, operated in a very different environment, the world of Close Quarters Combat (CQC). Unwieldy 20 barrels proved to be a hindrance, and even the

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shorter 14.5 barrels of the M4 carbine proved too long for cramped halls and tight doorways. Teams turned to a very specialized kind of carbine, the Short Barreled Rifle (SBR). Originally the weapon of choice for Special Forces operators, these weapons offered the compact dimensions of a submachine gun, with the ballistics of rifle, providing the best compromise of handling and lethality for short range engagements. We had a chance to catch up with Darrion Holiwell, a 12 year SWAT veteran, on one of his practice days and take a look at his duty weapon. W ith 18 years of Law Enforcement experience, he is the assistant SWAT team leader and chief firearms instructor for the largest Sheriffs department in Washington State. Due to the nature of his work, he requires a rifle built for the rough and ready world of high-risk warrants and active shooters, configured to be utterly reliable, regardless of environment. Forming the heart of the rifle is a full Centurion Arms upper receiver group. At its core is 11.5 1-in-7 twist cold hammer forged barrel, chambered in 5.56x45mm NATO. Profiled from barrel blanks usually reserved for M249 machine guns, it has been high pressure tested and magnetic particle inspected, to guarantee flawless construction. Featuring M4 feed ramps, extra thick chrome lining, and mil-spec phosphate coating, this barrel is built to meet and exceed every U.S. Military specification, providing triple the typical service life of a standard barrel. Thanks to the hammer forging process it is exceptionally accurate, despite its short length, and has no issues grouping 1MOA at 100 yards with quality ammunition. Exceptional performance and durability has become the hallmark of Centurion Arms, and this barrel is no exception. Capping the barrel is an Advanced Armament Company (AAC) Blackout muzzle brake. While sonically aggressive, it negates vertical recoil, aiding Darrion in putting multiple
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rounds downrange accurately in a very short period of time. As an added bonus, this brake is suppressor compatible, enabling Darrion to affix any AAC 51 tooth suppressor. While primarily designed to muffle sound signature, suppressors also eliminates flash signature, an important consideration when breaching criminal compounds such as methamphetamine labs, which can be full of flammable vapors. Feeding the rifle is a Centurion Arms bolt carrier group, which has been meticulously machined, magnetic particle inspected, and mil-spec phosphate coated, to ensure utter reliability. Darrion has fired over 10,000 rounds of ammunition through his rifle, with a less than 0.1% stoppage rate, an exceptional metric by any measure. Surrounding the barrel is a Centurion Arms C4 10 free-float quad rail. Designed to work with a stock AR barrel nut, this rail is lightweight, yet extremely strong thanks to its 6061 T6 aluminum construction and mil-spec type-3 hard anodized coating. The long rail to

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Darrion has fired over 10,000 rounds of ammunition through his rifle, with a less than 0.1% stoppage rate, an exceptional metric by any measure.

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Darrion Holiwell, a 12 year SWAT veteran. With 18 years of Law Enforcement experience, he is the assistant SWAT team leader and chief firearms instructor for the largest Sheriffs department in Washington State

t Forming the hear ll of the rifle is a fu per Centurion Arms up its core receiver group. At cold is 11.5 1-in-7 twist rrel, hammer forged ba chambered in 5.56x45mm NATO.

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barrel length compliments Darrion's squared up, extended support arm stance, allowing him to grip the end of the weapon and exert superior control over muzzle orientation. Featuring generous linear rail space, it has more than enough room to accommodate any accessories Darrion would need to mount. Darrion operates primarily in close quarters situations, and as such has chosen his optic and iron sights to best suit this environment. Choosing a non-magnified Aimpoint T-1 Micro 4MOA red dot as his primary sight, he values its minimal physical profile, light weight, 50,000 battery run time, and legendary durability. Thanks to its diminutive size, Darrion can retain the majority of his peripheral vision, an important consideration in visually cluttered urban environments. The optic is mounted in a unique GG&G absolute co-witness mount,

which features flip lens caps, a rare feature in T-1 mounts. While a seemingly nominal feature, they become important during extended standoffs outdoors for their ability to keep the optic dirt and moisture free, yet remain expedient to remove. The mount is tall enough to still give Darrion a sight picture when wearing a gas mask, and features a quickdisconnect cam locking lever. The mount is designed to hold its zero, and Darrion reports it does so reliably. In case his optic fails, Darrion has mounted Magpul MBUS backup sights. These were chosen for their lightweight, durable design, and easy to deploy spring-loaded action, even while wearing gloves. Target identification is of utmost importance to a SWAT officer, especially in hostage situations. Providing tactical illumination is a Surefire M600C Scout Light, secured with a thumbscrew

mount, and activated by a SR07 Remote Dual Switch. CNC machined from high-strength aerospace aluminum and mil-spec anodized, the flashlight is fully weatherproofed and ruggedized to withstand excessive abuse. The light is so tough that despite its close proximity to the aggressive blast of the muzzle brake, it functions flawlessly. With 200 lumens of illumination, this tactical light is not only bright enough to identify a target from dozens of yards away, but to also blind and disorient, aiding the shock and awe tactics employed by Darrion and his SWAT teammates. A Lewis Machine Tool (LMT) Defender 2000 lower receiver forms the basis of the bottom end, and was chosen due to its reputation for reliability, and LMTs excellent customer service. It features an LMT 2-Stage trigger that enables precise shots when needed, and a fast reset when a faster cadence of fire is required. While many SWAT officers employ full-auto weapons, Darrion prefers a semi-auto fire control group. A shooter of his skill level can still manipulate the trigger very quickly, putting seven rounds center mass of a 25 yard target in less than one second, while maintaining strict control on the number of rounds fired. Of particular note is the ambidextrous setup of this rifle, as Darrion is a lefthanded shooter. Fulfilling magazine release duties is a Knights Armament Company (KAC) ambidextrous magazine release. Darrion described trying out many other drop-in magazine release designs, but found only the KAC unit featured easily accessible controls, while still maintaining a distinct tactile feel differentiating it from the bolt release. An LMT ambidextrous safety completes his fire controls. To manually manipulate the bolt of his weapon, Darrion selected the new Rainier Arms Raptor ambidextrous charging handle. Made of tough 7075 aluminum, with steel latches and mil-spec anodization, this handle is a
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Darrion operates primarily in close quarters situations, and as such has chosen his optic and iron sights to best suit this environment. Choosing a non-magnified Aimpoint T-1 Micro 4MOA red dot as his primary sight, he values its minimal physical profile, light weight, 50,000 battery run time, and legendary durability.

unique design manufactured by AXTS Weapon Systems. The Raptor utilizes a novel interlocking latch design that ensures with todays one-handed techniques it will always evenly pull straight back, regardless which side it is being manipulated from. Completing the rifle is a full complement of Magpul Industries polymer furniture. Darrion chose the STR stock for its durable construction, superior cheek weld, and battery storage capability. The MIAD pistol grip provides modular capability, allowing him to tailor its size to fit his hands, and the MOE Trigger Guard enhances comfort, while providing an enlarged trigger area for gloved operation. An AFG2 fore grip is mounted at the end of the Centurion Arms rail to complement Darrions shooting style, providing a repeatable index point and enhanced ergonomics. Since Darrion often operates in tight quarters, he prefers a single-point sling setup, using a Magpul MS3 sling, attached to an ASAP sling plate. When a mission
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calls for the use of both hands, as in maritime or rappelling operations, he attaches a RSA sling plate, giving him the capability of converting his sling to a two-point setup and slinging his rifle out of the way. To keep his rifle fed, Darrion dons a Tactical Tailor Fight Light Plate Carrier, with a triple magazine panel full of smooth-pulling Magpul E-Mags. Part of an emerging category of plate carriers, it is a minimal design built to be as lightweight as possible while still providing full SAPI ceramic plate protection. Made of 500 denier Cordura, lined with flame retardant material, and featuring molded foam channels and air mesh for cooling, it is a top of the line carrier designed to be as rugged as it is comfortable. As the actions and gear of criminals have evolved, so have the tactics and equipment of SWAT officers. Centurion Arms, LMT, and many other fine manufacturers have provided the law enforcement community with the parts to construct an SBR of exceptional performance and pedigree. Best of all, the equipment listed is available to the private citizen (NFA laws notwithstanding), enabling any responsible firearms owner to enjoy the same quality and performance available to Darrion, and all of our top tier law enforcement officers.

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Recognition and Identification:

Lessons not learned lessons ignored


by PETER CAPYO (petrani@t-online.de)
The military skill of recognizing and identifying serves two purposes: As a result, trained personnel in the field is able to give accurate information which enables commanders 1. You recognize and identify to cut time in the decision your enemy in a theater making process during of operations in order an ongoing operation. to destroy him. (correct Situational awareness for the troops on the ground is target assessment and a side-effect bonus. target confirmation) 2.You recognize and identify Lessons learned is a term your allies in order were all familiar with in the to avoid Blue on Blue military world. It is, in fact a incidents
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management and evaluation of situations, successes and failures. The assessment and the avoiding of such failures could show the right way of handling, training and instructing for new operations. Therefore we adapt training and instruction, techniques and procedures. In other words: we learn from our mistakes and from our successes. But sometimes

we choose to ignore the latter for different reasons. This article about the military skill of Recognition is about a lesson not learned and / or completely ignored in the last ten years. History and evolution To understand the importance and evolution of Recognition or Reco as it is called by the insiders, we must look back into the

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military history. Spartan warriors in 424 BC had experienced already the danger of what we call today FRIENDLY FIRE. On the ancient battlefields, one could easily mistake friend for foe, due to the fact that basically everybody was using the same type of weapons and shields. To reduce this hazard, Spartans adopted uniform gear. They also painted large devices on their shields for identification, the most famous being the Greek letter lambda. Looking like an inverted V, this was the first letter in Lacedaemon, which was the ancient Greek name for Sparta. The Coat of Arms that nobles wore over their chain mail in medieval times made sure one was recognized by friend and foe. Displaying your coat of arms was proof of bravery and chivalry. Since in medieval battles, knights

fought in small groups in order to capture an opponent for ransom, their status demanded to be recognized and identified. Banners and flags were used for what we would call now Battlefield situational awareness. The position of the banner indicated the position of a troop on the battlefield. If one got lost in the confusion during the fight, the banner of his lord showed him the right direction. If the banner fell, the lord was captured or dead and this meant mostly that the battle was lost. Regimental colours and flags had the same purpose in the 17th till the end of the 19th century. Speed, mobility and industrialization were the major factors that changed the meaning of Recognition. And even then, there was a slow evolution. In the beginning of the

20th century, most of the industrial powers produced their own weapons systems. Armies were now identified through weapons gear, helmets and uniforms. During the first world war, fighter pilots were supposed to recognize their opponents in a matter of seconds. Therefore they studied the silhouettes and shapes of enemy aircraft and learned about their capabilities. It was the first time that instructors and manuals appeared in (mainly air force) units. Cockades appeared on the fuselages and the tails in order to avoid friendly fire.Trench warfare had no need for Recognition. If one came

from the wrong direction, he belonged to the enemy. This changed during the second WW, where speed and mobility added to the confusion on the battlefield. Recognition training was intensely pushed because Axis and Allied forces fielded extensive inventories of aircraft, trucks and tanks. A soldier was supposed to distinguish American and British tanks from German tanks, but he also needed to recognize what particulary tank he was facing. Again, it were instructors who, by means of manuals, models, silhouettes and photos, teached this skill.

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Obviously, Recognition saw its absolute highlight in the cold war period. Specialized units like Long Range Recce Patrols (LRRPs) and others were extensively trained in the recognition of armoured vehicles and organization of the enemy units.This time the instruction became more organized. Students were sent to schools or specialized centra.The international Long Range Recce Patrol School(ILRRPS) in Weingarten, Germany, gained a solid international reputation in developping courses for these units. Soon, every country was following this exemple and set up its own school. And while all these students were undergoing mentally very demanding courses in Recognition, their goals were quite simple: Know your enemy and distinct your allies. In the first gulf war Blue on Blue incidents or Friendly Fire frequently happened. Since this was an international operation, politicians of different countries became nervous due to the possible political fall-out. Extra instruction by schools or centers was suddenly ignored and the solution for the problem was sought in technology. Systems, like the Blue Force Tracker, were proposed by the industry to their respective countries. It was there that the idea was born that Recognition training was no longer necessary. Assymetric warfare in Afghanistan and Iraq instantly changed warfare. Opponents did not use

armored vehicles of any kind. Units started to focus on counter insurgency techniques. And all over the sudden, there was no need anymore for that very special military skill called Recognition. Well, that was a statement of several high ranking Officers of different nationalities. Politicians even went one step further and proclaimed that the days of large scale battles in a classical way were over!

nice to have, these days every battallion uses them and needs them. They have become a very helpful tool but they cannot replace the trained eyes on the ground. The Kosovo bombings (March 24 to June 11, 1999) were a perfect example of how things could go wrong. Since there were no eyes on target on the ground and as thus no target assessment and target confirmation, NATO dropped hundreds of bombs on fake targets. Since then, these systems But is that really so?? have become much better Are we not supposed to and the men and women train for any future handling these systems conflict? are doing precisely what It is a fact that the focus of the eyes on target on the Recognition has changed ground have been doing due to assymetric warfare. before them: recognize We learned to look for and identify. The difference and recognize IEDs, is, they do it through a live crew manned weapons stream of video imagery. But and concentrations of what we have right now is a insurgents in the last ten whole generation of young years. The troops on the soldiers, NCOs and Officers ground were therefore that has never seen or backed-up by a large fleet trained on classical warfare, of UAVs and its operators. let alone are able to tell the In the 90s the UAV was a difference between a M1

Abrams and, for example, a C1 Ariete. If ever these men are trown in a Middle East conflict, lives will be lost due to the lack of this specific training. The statement that large conflicts with armored vehicle clashes will never happen again is as odd as saying that it will never rain again in Germany. Most people seem to forget that Afghanistan and Iraq started as classical warfare. As I write this article, cities in Syria are burning and the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) is just withdrawing from the Gaza strip with lots of armour. The unrest in that part of the world is still growing and due to Iran, the whole regio could turn into one large powderkeg. It was interesting to see during the revolutions in Tunisia, Lybia, Egypt and the rest of the Middle East that a lot of cold war equipment is still in use and that plenty of new equipment turned up in regios we didnt expect. As a matter of fact, a lot of the older stuff is used in
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a classroom and it is given by instructors. Computers are just an aid to help out these dedicated men and women. I am convinced that Blue Force Tracker (BFT) systems have a role to play but, due to my experience, I know that classroom instruction cannot be replaced because it trains the human brain. Technology can be countered as the Israelis found out in 2006 in Lebanon where the Hizbollah was able to jam some of their radio communications. Transmitter systems like Blue Force Tracker can Can technology malfunction under certain replace Recognition circumstances(Battle of training? Recognition training starts in Nasiriyah, Iraq 2003), can Africa as well. But we dont teach that anymore and this could result in serious problems in a near conflict. Luckily, the U.S realized this some time ago. They prepare for Hybrid warfare, a mix of classical operations slowly turning into counter insurgency. Different units already underwent training in Hohenfells, Germany. The question is: will European armies follow this exemple or will they wait until it is too late?

TRAIN THE TRAINER


Train the Trainer is a unique concept that was developed by the senior instructor of the Recognition Division at the International Special Training Centre(ISTC) in Pfullendorf, Germany in 2010. Starting from the point of view that most units have different goals, but that Recognition should be a necessary military skill, a special software was developed . It is user friendly and easy to work with. All you need is a laptop. The aim of the Recognition Train the Trainer course is to train future instructors from every type of unit in the specialized field of teaching and training the skills of Recognition. This will enable units to implement their own Recognition programme,adapted at their needs and it will ensure they have the flexibility to conduct regular training and pre-deployment training. The objectives of the course are clear and simple: Provide future instructors with the ability to create,implement and maintain a Recognition course/training in their unit. Familiarize future instructors with the fundamentals of the new software. Instruct future instructors how to create classes,reviews, tests, exercises and conduct practical training. Through practical exercises, develop the instuctors skills to understand the Recognition environment, to teach, acquire and work with the tools. Provide units with a qualified instructor. The managment is now in private hands and the course was given several times with great satisfaction of the participants. This one week course can be given on your location or on the managments location. For more information: petrani@t-online.de

reinforced the rumour that this was only for freaks) These courses however had almost no value for a unit since most units had no way of teaching or training. There is now a solution for that.(see article Train the Trainer) step 3: Let the training be directed by the S2 of the unit. Were talking about correct information and intell. So let that office be in charge. It brings the advantage that the S2 finally understands what the guy at the front is So, what should be the telling him because now road to take? they will speak the same step 1: lets agree for language and have the once and for all that same training.(too often Recognition should be I saw the desperation on a necessary military the S2s faces because skill. (like shooting, they didnt understand the planning and tactics are). incoming messages) During my career as a step 4: Instruct regulary, Recognition instructor, all train regulary with students frequently asked qualified instructors. why this skill was not Training is not as hard trained in their units.They as a lot of people seem all saw the benefit of it but to think. The good news mostly their commanding about it is that it is not Officers saw this as a even expensive! And the hobby for freaks. It is not! more you train, the more Due to a good training, soldiers will like it. troops on the ground can take a quick decision, give Conclusion accurate information and Ignoring the Recognition as such become a small lessons from the last 30 but important part of the years, could prove to be intell chain. desastrous. Recognition step 2: Train the trainer!! training should continue, Give units a chance not to say should be picked to develop their own up again, but not by schools programme. Schools or centers. Let units create and centers all made the their own programs by same mistake in the last giving them a package with 30 years: they offered which they can start and heavy, but interesting train for the worst situation courses for the happy possible. few. With this I mean that our students were mostly * If you want to react on this article: pertani@t-online.de volunteers who wanted * check Wikipedia- friendly fire to study this subject.(this

be partially destroyed by artillery fire or can be jammed (our potential enemy is not sleeping). Just imagine the partial break down of such a system during an ongoing battle. An absolute nightmare considering the fact that young tankers have to rely on computers and are not trained anymore in Recognition. And anyway, as long as not every component in an allied force uses a compatible system, Blue on Blue incidents will continue to harass such forces.*

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perational procedures operational procedures operatio

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Mobile security Mobile security Mobile security M

m e l b o r P A Global
iven (info by Steph Macn
Many of the technological advances designed for our convenience can easily be used against us, mobile phones being especially at risk. People are simply unaware that their smartphones can be as vulnerable as their PCs. Voice Interception is not an if, it is a when, where and by whom? While there has been heavy investment in protecting data networks from cyber threats, IP-based voice has been somewhat overlooked. VoIP is a rapidly growing area due to the huge cost-saving potential but organisations often fail to consider the security impact. The strengths of VoIP bring with them new security challenges that cannot be met by the existing security architecture. Because VoIP runs over the public Internet, users become extremely vulnerable and privacy of voice communications cannot be guaranteed. Who and what is at risk Privacy is a growing concern with todays technology, especially with how we communicate. Most long distance telephone communications go over the air waves, and any signals in the air can be, and frequently are, intercepted. Have you considered who is listening to your business conversations? If eavesdropping on you could affect someone elses power, wealth or influence, then you are a potential target. Even from a personal perspective, for the large percentage of us that use our mobile phone as our only primary phone, talking to banks, giving secret passwords to accounts for verification, giving out personal financial information, placing orders, etc. while previously we were told was pretty safe on a mobile phone, no longer is. Even for the casual criminal, it is a cheap way to harvest a wealth of information. Large enterprises, busybodies and criminals are able to use interception to collect competitive, economic and industrial intelligence, while nation states monitor these, political and military areas of interest. Even with telecom operators that are trusted, there still is a risk that staff have access to your conversation. This is quite common in high risk countries where privacy laws are not regulated. One should assume that any transmission over a public network is not secure. Tactical and Secure Communications on both public and private networks The Public Sector has made considerable progress in the use of wireless communications over the past decade, recognizing the problems with proprietary systems and limited interoperability capabilities.

g.d @agpublishin

e)

The Departments of Defense (DOD) and Homeland Security (DHS) are exploring the use of new applications based on cellular technologies with the increase in bandwidth and proliferation of smartphones and tablets. However, Government users are not always able to realize the full benefit of these new applications and devices given that they are typically operating in a non-secure environment limiting full critical information flow. The network is not secure The question of security and data integrity arises when information is transferred across a public network. Mobile networks claim to be secure but that is not always the case and many of the applications riding

Traditional mobile networks are vulnerable

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Mobile security Mobile security Mobile security Mobile

on the network are not secure, using unencrypted SIP sessions for voice and data communications which are then exposed to anyone having access to that network.

specific location picking up wireless data. Running standard packet sniffer or protocol analyser software on any laptop or other When the first and second device attached to a VoIP generation mobile standards network segment allows were created, no-one anyone with no more than The public has access expected them to be very the most basic computer to technologies that popular or still in use 20 skills to identify and put companies and years later. With outdated capture all voice traffic. governments at risk. This technology and encryption, This also applies to mobile kind of interception used to the GSM Association is data networks as once a cost millions but now it is advising its 750 operator subscriber has access to possible to do for as little members to improve the data network it is no as $1,500, just beyond the security on networks as they different than the open range that people can start are upgraded. internet or a wifi hotspot buying them for personal and any voice traffic is at use and listening in on their Voice over Internet Protocol risk of attack. neighbours. (VoIP) traffic is subject to even greater confidentiality Spoofing The standard GSM and privacy risks as your A homemade mobile encryption protocol has calls are over the wide phone tower antenna can been cracked making open Internet, offering spoof itself as a legitimate mobile call interception infinitely more ways for GSM network to intercept easy and as 2G remains eavesdroppers to intercept all outgoing calls. It the most widely used and and record your calls: tricks mobile phones into extremely vulnerable mobile connecting to their antenna technology worldwide, this Sniffing rather than the mobiles own poses a major security The simplest of all attacks, carrier, allowing recording problem. Mobile calls can be sniffing is an easy process of phone conversations by easily intercepted using very of intercepting wireless data intercepting the audio and cheap radio components that is being broadcasted then routing it through a making it simple to target on an unsecured network. specific activities, businesses There is even an activity or individuals. known as Wardriving that involves driving around a Third-generation 3G networks boast far superior security protocols but will not replace 2G networks in most countries for well over a decade. Over 5 billion GSM mobile subscriptions are active worldwide, but just over 700 million of those have access to 3G service (14%), according to Informa Telecoms and Media. 3G service is an add-on to existing 2G networks, not a replacement and so, a 3G phone will regularly switch to 2G for voice calls to conserve energy. 3G Signal Blockers are also

used to jam 3G signals and force phones to fall back to 2G mode so they are easily susceptible.

VoIP system, whilst the targets wont even know they are being spied on. Backhaul Interception One of the most overlooked aspects of network security is the backhaul network, specifically a microwave backbone of which is predominant in most countries. The Radio Frequency air interface by default provides encryption, however, the microwave links do not. Many operators in emerging markets do not enable this encryption to utilize the available bandwidth. Even though microwave links are pointto-point, the waves scatter and can be intercepted if within proximity. Since this is not encrypted, the traffic is pure bearer traffic and can easily be intercepted. Conclusion Simple security measures can eliminate the risk of voice interception to protect yourself from unwittingly exposing mobile voice conversations to insecure networks and people outside of your private network. In next months issue, we look at guidelines for managing and securing your mobile communications.

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FUTURE warfare FUTURE warfare FUTUEW warfare FU

by Giuseppe MARINO

Artificial neural ne t works


and their potential military application
Though the term neural network traditionally refers to a complex system of biological neurons, with the passing of years and the scientific breakthroughs they bring especially in the field of computational information handling this term has found new applications, even in the field of mathematics. Within biological organisms, there are nerve cells capable of recognizing, memorizing and reacting to external stimuli. In order for biological neural networks to carry out these processes, there is an incredibly high number of simple computational elements neurons that are tightly interconnected so as to react appropriately to external stimuli. All this is due also to what has been experienced in time. These neurological processes, which could be referred to collectively as learning, provide an example for potential replication in real-world applications. Thus, the one peculiar trait of biological structures that artificial neural models specifically seek to reproduce is the capacity to learn.
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More specifically, the concept of artificial neural networks composed of elementary elements called artificial neurons, which have been identified by using complex mathematical models, has been introduced (where?... arent we trying to be specific here?). Today, these artificial neural networks are able to carry out complex calculations, with a strongly developed capacity for learning that is largely similar to that of their biological counterparts. More precisely, artificial neural networks are mathematical models that can represent logical and causal interconnections between identifiable, definite elements, called neurons. These artificial neurons, which are the elementary units of artificial neural networks, are mathematical constructs that reproduce, within certain limits, the data processing characteristics typical of biological neurons. Such extremely complex mathematical models have found applications in the science and engineering sectors, creating

a sort of artificial intelligence that can help in resolving issues of calculation and technical/ scientific analysis. In practice, artificial neural networks could be implemented by creating suitable software to process a significant amount of information according to trainable calculus algorithms.

UTURE warfare FUTURE warfare FUTUEW warfare FUTURE w

The unique potential of these neural networks lies in the possibility to upload pertinent fixed data sets in order to further enhance the networks computational functions and accuracy. All this takes place in a virtually trained neural network. These networks are usually pre-trained with input data

sets for which the trainer supplies the expected output. Thus, when implemented operationally, a neural network will recognize any input data that matches the patterns for which it was trained, and supply the preset output. Furthermore, if the data analysed by the network displays a tendency toward the

preset input data, a neural network can even serve a forecasting function, in addition to its more simple recognition functions. Thus, thanks to their great potential for calculation, neural networks may suit various applications in sectors requiring forecasting functions or the identification of
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FUTURE warfare FUTURE warfare FUTUEW warfare FU


One example for the military sector currently in the R&D phase is the application of neural networks to vocal control systems found in the cockpits of modern multirole combat planes.

operational patterns of certain phenomena, all by using system inputs of relevant sets of available data. Practical examples of applied neural networks are: in financial and/or meteorological forecasting, in the logistical sector, and more specifically in the field of Condition Based Maintenance the optimization of maintenance and its implementation timeframes based on the behaviour of the system under analysis in the field of bioinformatics, in seismology and in many other sectors. And of course there are even potential scientific applications, many of which are already in place, that directly impact the military sector. For example, artificial neural networks could be applied to the analysis of signals from radar, sonar or other detection devices, in order to recognize and differentiate these signals. One example for the military sector currently in the R&D phase is the application of neural networks
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to vocal control systems found in the cockpits of modern multirole combat planes. These planes have highly complex systems, and pilots are known to bear heavy workloads and high levels of stress, especially during combat. The duties entrusted to pilots are complex enough to saturate their mental, sensorial and functional capacities, which is why the all-around implementation of a suite of vocal commands providing complete, facilitated aircraft management was proposed. If applied, neural networks could guarantee the proper functioning of the vocal recognition system. Furthermore and here is the true technological leap forward when properly trained these neural networks could predict possible future commands, based on the situation surrounding the aircraft deduced from on-board sensors and the type and sequence of orders given by the pilot. Thus, a neural network can enact commands before they are spoken or propose them for execution, optimizing and expediting aircraft management

to the best of the planes avionic and wartime potential. Now, let us assume, in a potential operational scenario for the onboard system described above, that surrounding conditions detected by the onboard sensors (specifically the radar) lead the network to forecast a potentially hostile encounter. Following the detection of closerange hostile contact with an offensive flying profile, the neural network could forecast imminent hostile engagement and ready the aircraft and weapons systems to assist the pilot in the event of actual engagement. In closing, this article merely touches upon such highly complex topics, but perhaps the enormous potential of artificial neural networks comes across. Such potential is demonstrated in the progressive development of real artificial intelligence and in the ever greater success of such contextually applied technologies in modern society, particularly within the military sector.

UTURE warfare FUTURE warfare FUTUEW warfare FUTURE w

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to support your operations


by Norbert Ciano (norbert.ciano@tmr-training.de)

ECMS- EAD01 EXternal Fast Roping and Rappelling Device


Helicopter based missions are an important pillar in modern special forces operations. The following sections give a brief introduction to procedures and systems available to special forces teams

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Rappelling Rappelling is an operational method for secured and quick access by rope from greater heights (typically up to 50m, possibly more). This procedure is applied when access is hindered by ground obstacles reaching to heights ruling out a helicopter landing or fast rope access. The External Attachment Device supports rappelling operations with up to four simultaneously deployed ropes. Rappelling allows for permanent securing measures during the entire procedure and is therefore considered safer than fast roping. However, it requires individual ropes and harnesses for each team member and does not offer immediate operational readiness after reaching the ground. Fast Roping Fast Roping is an operational procedure enabling special forces to deploy special forces quickly from up to two ropes simultaneously from low heights (<20m). During fast roping, the special force team members are not secured to the helicopter or rope and thus achieve quickest access and immediate operational readiness when reaching the ground. Because of the lack of securing possibilities, Fast Roping requires special and continued training and the use of suitable equipment. In order to minimize the hazard of collision with the helicopters landing gear, the EAD01 can optionally be fitted with Retractable Interface Adapters. The RIA option allows do be swivelled outward to a sufficient distance to safely clear the landing skid during descent. Fast Roping capability can only be established by teams equipped with suitable rope types, connectors and personal equipment, and after passing through an extensive training process.

Fast roping is an operational procedure enabling special forces to deploy special forces quickly from up to two ropes simultaneously from low heights (<20m)

Mission scenario Consider the following scenario: A helicopter-based special operations unit consisting of four team members, cabin operator and pilots is called to a derelict eight storey building after reports of a gunman firing at civilians. It is decided to enter the building from the air with simultaneous support of a ground team. Since the building rooftop does not permit a helicopter landing, the air team must access the rooftop by rope. After the air team has rappelled down onto the roof, the ropes are jettisoned. Suddenly, the ground team reports that fire has been set to the building by the gunman and is spreading rapidly upward. The air team must be evacuated. The cabin operator lowers two fixed rope systems. Within moments, the air team is flown away from the building, suspended from the helicopter in their harnesses. While the ground

team secures the front exit, the air team is being set down by the helicopter at the rear exit of the building just in time to apprehend the gunman. This hypothetical scenario can show which mission capabilities may be required for a helicopter based special operations team: Flexibility in choice of helicopter operations for insertion, quick preparation of the helicopter, and a fast and effective means of extracting and re-positioning the team in an emergency situation. The Concept Behind ecms: ecms products are aimed at a very specialized market; A market of helicopter operators that conduct missions in often difficult terrain and involve human external cargo (HEC). These special missions require highest performance of crew, machine and equipment. ecms

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Fast roping capability can only be established by teams equipped with suitable rope types, connectors and personal equipment, and after passing through an extensive training process.

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The systems can be fitted to the helicopter by its crew in a matter of minutes to allow for full mission flexibility

offers the high end equipment that will not only make these rescue, police and military missions possible, but also make them safe and efficient.Cargo hooks are commonly used for external cargo and hoists for human external cargo. The financial as well as operational gap between these two options is large. Normally, cargo hooks cannot be safely or legally used for HEC and expensive hoists have operating limits when it comes to insertion/extraction of Special Forces or mass evacuations.Both these options bring with them technical and operational risks that we have been able to eliminate with patented key technologies. Most of our products are developed together with Special Forces and helicopter crews to integrate their wishes for better operation. In this field of work, mission objectives change quickly and the equipment needs to be multifunctional. The same team can be called in to raid a building were hostages are being held and shortly thereafter be on a mission to evacuate persons from a flooded area. What makes ecms devices so state of the art is the multitude of applicability, the easy operation, the minimal maintenance requirements, and of course the full certification of all devices, which is extremely rare in this industry. Often users are forced to operate and train with these sorts of devices within legal gray areas, putting their crew and operation at risk. ecms devices are vigorously tested, use high-grade aviation materials and fulfill highest quality standards. Eurocopter was the first major helicopter manufacturer to recognize the potential of these systems and offers these to their customers as optional equipment. That is why, as you may notice looking through this brochure, many of our equipment is fitted to Eurocopter models, however our technologies are independent of

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The EAD01 is the standard device for safe and simple fast roping and rappelling used mainly in police, military, and rescue operations. The system of a mere 12 kg (26 lbs) is mounted to the outside of the fuselage on the rescue hoist adapter points and is therefore completely independent of the cabin configuration

completely independent of the cabin configuration. Two devices can be installed without tools within just two minutes. Since the EAD01 requires no additional modification to the fuselage, the device is easily moved from one helicopter to the other or quickly attached when needed for a mission. The single hand operation of the device is safe and simple. It is set up to be intuitive to the operating crew and is Night Vision Goggle compatible. It has a sophisticated, easy to operate self locking coupling mechanism for highest security and an emergency release function for the worst case scenario.In combination with the LifeLine or Varioline load attachment devices, the EAD01 can be turned into an efficient external load system capable of supporting 2x 270kg (2x 600lbs) HEC or NHEC loads per helicopter. The EAD01 can be used in combination with the retractable adapters of the RIA series, bringing the primary rope point out of the skid range, making fast roping operations much safer. What can the EAD01 be used for? Fast Roping: Simultaneous operation with up to four ropes per helicopter with up to 155 kg (345 lbs) each. Rappelling: Simultaneous operation with up to four ropes per helicopter with up to 155 kg (345 lbs) each. Insertion, Extraction and Transfer: Set down and pickup of special forces (in combination with LifeLine) Installation Ecms fast roping/rappelling devices are installed to the helicopter with a minimum of fixed provisions and normally do not require any tools for installation. The systems can be fitted to the helicopter by its crew in a matter of minutes to allow for full mission flexibility.Where available, existing hardpoints (e.g. rescue

helicopter type and can be adapted to any model and customized to meet your specific needs. EAD01 External Fast Roping and Rappelling Device The EAD01 is the standard device

for safe and simple fast roping and rappelling used mainly in police, military, and rescue operations. The system of a mere 12 kg (26 lbs) is mounted to the outside of the fuselage on the rescue hoist adapter points and is therefore

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hoist interfaces, seating hardpoints, mooring points) are used for installation.The systems designed for the Eurocopter helicopter family are mounted externally and can be accessed through the sliding doors. For Bell helicopters, the systems are mounted inside the helicopter cabin and may be extended through the opened cabin door. Couplings The fast roping and rappelling systems designed by ecms feature a unique design of self securing couplings including emergency release capability. Latching of rope rings is performed with a single hand in a single sweep motion without opening the couplings first. Once latched, the rings remain securely fixed until the coupling is deliberately opened.Depending on helicopter type, the payload capabilities of the couplings vary between 155kg up to 280kg per coupling. The devices feature two couplings on each side of the helicopter. Both sides of the helicopter may be equipped with a fast roping/rappelling device, adding up to four couplings in parallel operation. Some coupling types are designed to latch two rings simultaneously, allowing for quick sequential rappelling of eight special operations team members in two waves of four. Thus, a team size of eight can safely be inserted in less than 20 seconds.

Ecms fast roping/rappelling devices are installed to the helicopter with a minimum of fixed provisions and normally do not require any tools for installation

Approvals Many police operators now Additional equipment require civil aviation approvals Normally, fast roping and rappelling for their equipment. Without is a one way street away from the approvals covering technical and helicopter. In order to allow for a operational aspects, performing Emergency release quick extraction of forces, ecms operations training may become With traditional attachment fast roping/rappelling devices difficult for insurance reasons. methods of ropes, there is no can be outfitted with fixed rope or ecms devices are subjected to possibility for quick emergency variable rope systems, and thus a full certification process in release while the rope is under load. be converted into full HEC-capable co-operation with the European Should ropes become entangled with external load systems. A selection aviation authority EASA. ground obstacles, a quick release of EASA-approved personnel Systems and operational limits option is essential for helicopter and carrying devices completes the are approved by EASA under a team safety. ecms systems feature support chain from the helicopter supplemental type certificate for a mechanical emergency release down to the external crewmember. each helicopter type separately. system as a standard, which is Where necessary, national operated by the cabin operator. As SWAT Support approvals (e.g. USA/FAA) are an optional feature, an additional SWAT teams often operate silently also possible. ecms is an EASApyroelectric emergency release and unrecognized - and often with approved design organisation.

system is available which puts rope separation at the touch of a button for the pilot. Pyroelectric systems are self-contained and permanently monitored through an electronic control box mounted in the cockpit. Mechanical and pyroelectric emergency release systems are designed as redundant fail-safe dual action devices, thus efficiently preventing undesired load release. Thus, the systems fulfil the external load systems requirements defined by the European aviation authority EASA in paragraphs CS27.865 and CS29.865.

the aid of ecms products. Secrecy is part of their job, and wed like to keep it that way. Let us therefore just briefly say that ecms is co-operating with various teams helping to find solutions to equipment problems, arranging training facilities and analyzing and optimizing team procedures.If youre part of such a team, ecms may be an interesting partner for you when it comes to helicopter-based SWAT team operations.

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TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAININ

Maine-Based HammerFour
Fills Voids in Tactical Training Market
BY SCOTT HILL
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NG TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING

HammerFour has crafted a teaching style called F.i.T.e. (Fundamental, Immersion, Training, evolved) which bridges the gap between the standard one-day try this out style of class and professional level experiences only paralleled in the armed forces

BETHEL, Maine (September 1, 2012) According to statistics provided by the NRA, it is estimated that there are over 283 million privately owned firearms in the United States. Many owners believe that being trained to use their firearms is not only a responsibility but an obligation. However, most personal development stops after general proficiency is achieved. Individuals that want to increase their skills often times do not have access to affordable, advanced-level classes. Maine-based HammerFour believes everyone is entitled to top-tier education, and their goal is to bring it to you. Three individuals have joined forces to address what they believe is a major gap in the training industry: access to affordable, progressive training that

accentuates fundamentals, repetition, and accuracy over speed. Most training groups or private schools in the market believe that you have to shoot thousands of rounds as fast as possible to become a better marksman, said Scott Hill, HammerFour co-owner, founder and lead instructor. Our training is based on building an accurate shooter from the ground up through an immersive reintroduction to the fundamentals and thousands of dry-fire repetitions. We dont stop there. We make sure that we also foster the proper mindset to act responsibly in any situation. There is absolutely nothing else like this. Hill started his career in the Marine

Corps, becoming part of the Fleet Anti-Terrorism Security Team (FAST Company) and earning the Instructors Choice award in 1989 at the US Marine Corps Close Quarters Battle School. He has been teaching ever since, evolving the methods he learned over time, and adapting them for students all over the world. He recently completed two deployments in Afghanistan where he served as Lead Close Quarters Battle Instructor for the Afghan Special Police Unit - Counter Terrorism/Narcotics (SPU). He has also been serving as a law enforcement officer in Maine for 18 years, so he has seen firsthand the need for high level, practical training in the US. Being able to use a firearm is only
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TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAININ


HammerFours mission is to build responsible, aware students from any background that can perform with precision in stressful situations, what they call direct response mitigation

part of the equation, Hill states. Through our training, our students learn to work in teams strategically, accomplish objectives, and spend more time actually thinking about the problem in front of them than wasting time figuring out weapon manipulation skills. After a few days with us, the manipulation becomes second nature. HammerFour has crafted a teaching style called F.I.T.E. (Fundamental. Immersion. Training. Evolved.) which bridges the gap between the standard one-day try this out style of class and professional level experiences only paralleled in the armed forces. The F.I.T.E. System is comprised of a series of multi-day classes that advance in difficulty and complexity covering shooting skills, hand to hand techniques, and emergency medical responses. HammerFours mission is to build responsible, aware students from any background that can perform with precision in stressful situations, what they call direct response mitigation. HammerFour is aiming to give students the educational experience that smaller local companies and large high-volume schools struggle to provide. Matt Stagliano, co-founder and
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instructor says, Small schools that teach the NRA curriculum are a great start, but there is a limit to what you can learn in those courses. At the other end of the spectrum, the large volume schools tend to teach high-speed skills and make you run through thousands of rounds of ammunition in a short period, but dont spend enough time on fundamentals. Our method bridges that gap. We are able to take you beyond what you have learned in the past, keep your costs low, and give you a tangible skill that you can retain and use in all of Stagliano and Hill began talking your other training. about forming a company where Hills methods could be evolved and Stagliano explains that helping taught outside of Maine. Through their start this company was a natural discussions, they realized that there progression in his career. Ive spent was an obstacle to overcome and a over 15 years working in the Fortune large missing element in the industry: 50 traveling the world performing the ability to bring advanced tactical mergers and acquisitions. In all of that training to women that were willing to time, I realized that the thing I loved train just as hard as anyone else. more than anything was connecting with other people, educating them, Enter Tatiana Whitlock. and helping them grow. Shooting was just a passion. Being able to combine Tatiana Whitlock grew up in southern the two is a dream come true for me. Maine, spending the majority of her As a civilian shooter, he adds, time in the outdoors exploring the the minute I started training in this woods, fishing and hunting. After method, I knew it was different from graduating with a degree in Fine every class I had ever taken. The Arts from the Rhode Island School of skills needed for tactical shooting Design, she has created an extensive were suddenly demystified. I thought portfolio of industrial design work, to myself, How can I teach others to holding 6 patents, with 12 more pending do this? in media packaging, medical devices,

NG TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING

manufacturing systems, and more. She also started training in martial arts at age 10, achieving a black belt in Shaolin Kenpo by the age of 18. While mutually training in Krav Maga, Stagliano recognized that Whitlock would be the missing piece in their puzzle and was quick to introduce himself and explain what he and Hill were trying to create. I was all-in immediately, says Whitlock. The three of us were all thinking along the same lines at the same time and it was a natural fit to capitalize on our collective experience. Achieving world-class accuracy in our training is paramount, she adds, but the experience of the class, the satisfaction of completing it, and the camaraderie formed amongst the graduates is an unexpected reward and

TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAININ


The F.i.T.e. system is comprised of a series of multi-day classes that advance in difficulty and complexity covering shooting skills, hand to hand techniques, and emergency medical responses.

About HammerFour
HammerFour is a Maine based firearms training and development firm specializing in elite tactical training services. The company is dedicated to providing military, law enforcement officers, and civilians with the skills necessary to perform in life-threatening situations, adhering to one of the highest marksmanship standards in the world. With a combined 50+ years business and training experience in over 40 countries, the HammerFour team is prepared to provide the most superior level of training found anywhere. For more information, visit www.hammerfour.com

HammerFours staff (from left to right) Matt Stagliano,Tatiana Whitlock and Scott Hill

detract from a shooters accuracy.

Wasted body movement during training is wasted money, says Whitlock. You may think you performed a drill perfectly, flawlessly, until you see yourself on the big screen. The video footage and thousands of still images allow us to illustrate problem students can return to class for areas and fine tune students in real minimal cost to maintain, validate, and add to their skills on a regular basis. time. says Whitlock. These types of skills are perishable. Contact & Media Inquiries: Were one of very few groups in the Hill agrees. The true measure of an PO BOX 394 Bethel, ME, 04217 instructor is his or her ability to impart industry to provide this level of ongoing, 207-200-6784 progressive, personalized training as their knowledge on the student and info@hammerfour.com for the student to demonstrate exactly part of the curriculum, adds Whitlock. www.hammerfour.com what has just been taught to them. You HammerFours team has over will never hear us say we are better 50 years of combined instruction, why our students keep coming back for than any student. In fact we want our entrepreneurial, and corporate students to be better than us. The more. The mental transformation that experience in many industries in over only difference between us and our you undergo in such a short period of students is that we happen to be more 40 countries, positioning them uniquely time is indescribable. consistent on a daily basis. Using video in the market. helps develop that consistency. In addition to targeted instruction, the There are a lot of good, high profile team utilizes Video Coaching: a method schools out there, but training isnt Such intense attention to detail is Stagliano developed that captures all just about a brand or name or what already yielding positive results for training in High Definition video that instructor is teaching what course, the small outfit. Since their launch in helps review student kinesthetics, September 2012, HammerFour counts says Hill. Training is about following a similar to how professional athletes philosophy. Its a mindset. I have taught among its students individuals from review game films. Each student is law enforcement, the military, Federal versions of this new method around the filmed as soon as they begin a class world and I can honestly say that with services, and civilians, where word is so that there is a baseline for the instructors to reference. As the classes spreading quickly about their methods. the evolution of the F.I.T.E. System, there is not another public outfit in progress, more film is recorded and this country that is doing what we are HammerFour also offers F.I.T.E.TM reviewed during breaks through the graduates Sustainment Days where doing. day, pinpointing body movements that
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NG TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING TACTICAL TRAINING

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TACTICAL KNIVES TACTICAL KNIVES TACTICAL KNIVES TAC

EXTR

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CTICAL KNIVES TACTICAL KNIVES TACTICAL KNIVES TACTICAL K

REMA RATIO SHRAPNEL G - SHORT...


THE KNIFE IS AN EVERYDAY TOOL USED BY HUMANS FOR CENTURIES. IN THIS REVIEW, WE INTRODUCE YOU TO A DESIGN THAT BELONGS TO ONE OF THE YOUNGEST KNIFE MAKING BRANCHES THE BACKUP KNIFE
BY GUNS&TACTICS

ARP AND SIMPLE

The purpose of a backup knife is to provide its user with an extra tool for any emergency situation, which negatively influences the availability or interoperability of the users primary knife. To fulfill this task with no excuses, the backup knife has to be versatile, compact, sharp and an overall robust piece of equipment. And, one such knife were familiar with matches these expectations perfectly. Meet the Shrapnel, from Italian Extrema Ratio Knives Division. FIRST IMPRESSIONS Just picking up the Shrapnel and griping it in your hand, the knife feels very simple. This is a good feeling, simple is good. After spending time with the Shrapnel one quickly realizes that it can be successfully
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deployed even in the worst possible conditions. Without a doubt, this knife scores super high on durability and effectiveness. The classic full tang design (the blade continues to the end of the handle and beyond) and a short spear-point blade keep the cutting edge useful in the kitchen and in the forest, all the while maintaining its needle-sharp point. Plus, the

6.3 mm thick main blade steel makes the Shrapnel practically unbreakable for any rapid or emergency use in all environments, including the most demanding outdoor or battlefield scenarios. CONSTRUCTION A Thermoplastic Elastomer material called Forprene is used for handle, which provides excellent protection against various damaging factors such as abrasion, high and low temperatures, UV aging or chemical agents (bases, acids, alcohols, detergents, water solutions etc.). However, we did find that the smooth surface of the handle and the overall length could contribute to an unsafe grip with a dirty or wet hand. Its not the most comfortable knife to hold in your hand for a long period of time either. On the brighter side, the Extrema Ratio designers have equipped the Shrapnel with state-of-the art solution that definitely enhances the safety and working values of the knife. For example, take a closer look at the hilt and its easy to notice the eyelet. Beyond the handle youll find another one actually a standard feature of widely used fixed knives in Military and Law Enforcement. These two simple holes, with a piece of paracord, make an improvised hand-guard that will firmly keep the knife in place, whatever youre up to. As a result, working with the Shrapnel can be safe and efficient. All Extrema Ratio knives are sharpened by hand, but theyre never razor-sharp out of the box and we wondered why. What we learned is that the

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SPECIFICATION
Full tang construction Weight: 200 grams Total length: 210 mm Blade length: 110 mm Blade thickness: 6,3 mm Steel: N690 (58 HRC) Grip material: Forprene Cutting edge: Plain Blade type: Single-edged spear-point (leaf) Black coated blade Price: approximately $275.00 Two year warranty

manufacturer determines the strength of a knife based on a variety of factors including the type of steel, shape or cut, and whetting angle. The Shrapnel is crafted with extreme sharpness for all applications except shaving. Even more crucial, the N690 steel keeps a proper cutting edge and sharpness for very, very long time. APPLICATION The Shrapnel will accomplish most camp tasks that require a strong and reliable blade, as well as fulfill the expectations that combat knives are subjected to in the field. Its specific shape and superior tip provide high value when stabbing a soft ballistic panel in textile cover, certified for IIIA standard (NIJ 0101.06). The Shrapnel, with little help of human muscles, pierces and cuts through smoothly and inevitably. The Extrema Ratio Shrapnel comes with a hardshell sheath designed for easy and rapid access in emergency situations. The included Tec-Lock attachment enables mounting the knife on a duty belt or load bearing system, considering different heights and angles for maximum personalization. So, thats the Shrapnel. Too large for casual EDC, but never too small for getting the job done out in the field. Its certainly one of the best backup tools that weve carried. Please visit Extrema Ratio Shrapnel to learn more.
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LEE-ENFIELD
Text by 308 sniper - Photo by Marta NobilI

A british classic
military bolt-action rifle of the day. The current world record for aimed bolt-action fire was set in 1914 by a musketry instructor in the British Army-Sergeant Instructor Snoxall-who placed 38 rounds into a 12-inch-wide (300 mm) target at 300 yards (270 m) in one minute. Some straight-pull bolt-action rifles were thought faster, but lacked the simplicity, reliability, and generous magazine capacity of the Lee-Enfield. First World War accounts tell of British troops repelling German attackers who subsequently reported that they had encountered machine guns, when in fact it was simply a group of trained riflemen armed with SMLE Mk III rifles. The Lee-Enfield was adapted to fire the .303 British service cartridge, a rimmed, high-powered rifle round. Experiments with smokeless powder in the existing Lee-Metford cartridge seemed at first to be a simple upgrade, but the greater heat and pressure generated by the new smokeless powder wore away the shallow, rounded, Metford rifling after approximately 6000 rounds. Replacing this with a new squareshaped rifling system designed at the Royal Small Arms Factory (RSAF) Enfield solved the problem, and the Lee-Enfield was born.
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The Lee-Enfield rifle was derived from the earlier Lee-Metford, a mechanically similar black powder rifle, which combined James Paris Lees rear-locking bolt system with a barrel featuring rifling designed by William Ellis Metford. The Lee action cocked the striker on the closing stroke of the bolt, making the initial opening much faster and easier compared to the cock on opening of the Mauser design. The rear-mounted lugs place the operating handle much closer to the operator, over the trigger, making it quicker to operate than traditional designs like the Mauser. The rifle was also equipped with a detachable sheet-steel, 10-round, double-column magazine, a very modern development in its day. Originally, the concept of a detachable magazine was opposed in some British Army circles, as some feared that the private soldier might be likely to lose the magazine during field campaigns. Early models of the Lee-Metford and Lee-Enfield even used a short length of chain to secure the magazine to the rifle. The fast-operating Lee bolt-action and large magazine capacity enabled a well-trained rifleman to perform the Mad minute firing 20 to 30 aimed rounds in 60 seconds, making the Lee-Enfield the fastest

historical weapons historical weapons historical w

weapons historical weapons historical weapons histori

historical weapons historical weapons historical w

By the late 1930s the need for new rifles grew, and the Rifle, No. 4 Mk I was first issued in 1939 but not officially adopted until 1941. The No. 4 action was similar to the Mk VI, but lighter, stronger, and most importantly, easier to mass produce. Unlike the SMLE, the No 4 Lee-Enfield barrel protruded from the end of the forestock. The No. 4 rifle was considerably heavier than the No. 1 Mk. III, largely due to its heavier barrel, and a new bayonet was designed to go with the rifle: a spike bayonet, which was essentially a steel rod with a sharp point, and was nicknamed pigsticker by soldiers. Towards the end of
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the Second World War, a bladed bayonet was developed, originally intended for use with the Sten gunbut sharing the same mount as the No. 4s spike bayonetand subsequently the No. 7 and No. 9 blade bayonets were issued for use with the No. 4 rifle as well. During the course of the Second World War, the No. 4 rifle was further simplified for massproduction with the creation of the No. 4 Mk I* in 1942, with the bolt release catch replaced by a simpler notch on the bolt track of the rifles receiver. It was produced only in North America, by Long Branch Arsenal in Canada

and Savage-Stevens Firearms in the USA. The No.4 Mk I rifle was primarily produced in the United Kingdom. In the years after the Second World War the British produced the No. 4 Mk 2 (Arabic numerals replaced Roman numerals for official designations in 1944) rifle, a refined and improved No. 4 rifle with the trigger hung from the receiver and not from the trigger guard, beech wood stocks (with the original reinforcing strap and center piece of wood in the rear of the forestock on the No.4 Mk I/Mk I* being removed in favour of a tie screw and nut) and brass buttplates (during World War II, the British

weapons historical weapons historical weapons histori


Models/marks of Lee-Enfield Rifle and service periods

Model/Mark
Magazine Lee-Enfield Charger Loading Lee-Enfield Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mk I Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mk II

In Service
18951926 19061926 19041926 19061927

Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mk III/III* Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mk V Rifle No. 1 Mk VI Rifle No. 4 Mk I Rifle No. 4 Mk I* Rifle No 5 Mk I "Jungle Carbine" Rifle No. 4 Mk 2 Rifle 7.62mm 2A Rifle 7.62mm 2A1

1907 present 19221924 (trials only; 20,000 produced) 19301933 (trials only; 1,025 produced) 1939 present (officially adopted in 1941) 1942 present 1944 present 1949 present 1964 present 1965 present

replaced the brass buttplates on the No.4 rifles with zinc alloy (Zamak) ones to reduce costs and to speed up rifle production). With the introduction of the No. 4 Mk 2 rifle, the British refurbished many of their existing stocks of No. 4 rifles and brought them up to the same standard as the No. 4 Mk 2. No. 4 Mk 1 rifles so upgraded were re-designated No. 4 Mk I/2, whilst No. 4 Mk I* rifles that were brought up to Mk 2 standard were re-designated No. 4 Mk I/3. The C No.7 Rifle is a .22 single shot manually fed training version of the No.4 Mk I* rifle manufactured at Long Branch.
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A MILITARY SYSTEM WINNER...

Azerbaijani

Armed Forces
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The Azerbaijani Armed Forces were re-established according to the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Armed Forces from 9 October 1991. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) had originally formed its own armed forces from 26 June 1918. However these were dissolved after Azerbaijan was absorbed into the Soviet Union as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic from 28 April 1920. After the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991-92 the armed forces were reformed based on Soviet bases and equipment left on Azeri soil. The armed forces have three branches: the Azerbaijani Land Forces, the Azerbaijani Air and Air Defence Force, and the Azerbaijani Navy. Associated forces include the Azerbaijani National Guard, the Internal Troops of Azerbaijan, and the State Border Service, which can be involved in state defense under certain circumstances. Land Forces According to the Azerbaijani media sources the military expenditures of Azerbaijan for 2009 were set at $2.46 billion USD, however according to SIPRI, only $1.473 billion was spent in that year. IISS also suggests that the defence budget in 2009 was $1.5 billion. Azerbaijan has its own Defense Industry, which manufactures small arms. In the future, Azerbaijan hopes to start building tanks, armored vehicles, military planes and military helicopters. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan has been trying to further develop its armed forces into a professional, well trained, and mobile military. Azerbaijan has been undergoing extensive modernization and capacity expanding programs, with the military budget increasing from around $300 million in 2005 to $2.46 billion in 2009. The total armed forces number 116,000

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as a non-nuclear weapons state. Azerbaijan participates in NATOs Partnership for Peace. Azerbaijan joined the U.S.-led coalition against Iraq in 2003. It sent 250 troops to Iraq, and later 34 troops to Kosovo. Azeri troops are still serving in Afghanistan with 94 troops. Azerbaijans defence budget, which now doubles Armenias entire state budget. today azerbaijan has a strong structural diciplined and almost professional army, Today National Hero of Azerbaijan is the highest national title in the country, awarded for outstanding services of national importance to Azerbaijan in defense, as well as other deeds in other spheres. Air forces The Azerbaijani Air and Air Defence Force is a single unified service branch. Some 8,000 men serve in the air force and air defence force. The Azerbaijani Air and Air Defence

men in the land forces, 8,000 men in the air force and air defence force, and 5,000 men in the navy. There are also 19,500 personnel in the National Guard, State Border Service, and Internal Troops. In addition, there are 575,000 reserve. The military hardware of Azerbaijan consists of 820 tanks, an additional
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162 T-80s were acquired between 2005 and 2010, 1500 armored combat vehicles and 800 artillery systems. The air force has about more than 200 aircraft and more than 85 helicopters. Azerbaijan has acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

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Force has around 106 aircraft and 35 helicopters. The country has four major airbases. Nasosnaya Air Base has fighters, Kyurdamir Air Base a bomber regiment, Ganja Air Base transports, and Baku Kala Air Base the helicopter unit. There are also four other airbases which do not appear to have aircraft based there. These are Dollyar Air Base, Nakhichevan Airport, Sanqacal Air Base, and Sitalcay Air Base.The Azeri Air Force uses MiG-21, MiG-23, Su-24 and Su-25 aircraft, as well as the MiG-29 purchased from Ukraine in 2006 and Il-76 transport aircraft. The MiG-29 have been designated as the standard aircraft for the AzAF. Azerbaijan is holding talks with either the Peoples Republic of China or Pakistan to purchase JF-17 Thunder aircraft. MiG-25s previously in service have been retired GAMMON) batteries near Baku seemingly in the 2007-09 period. and Mingachevir; the S-300PMU-2 represents a logical replacement Azerbaijans helicopter force is for these systems offering coverage concentrated at Baku Kala Air of the majority of the nation. The Base and according to the IISS country also has about 100 NATO consists of a single regiment with designated SA-2 Guideline (original around 14-15 Mi-24, 12-13 Mi-8 and name S-75), SA-3 Goa (S-125 7 Mi-2. Janes Information Group Pechora-2M), and the SA-5 Gammon and the IISS give figures which (S-200) are in static installations. agree with only a single aircrafts These may be around Baku and difference. Recently, end of 2010 the central part to cover the whole Russian Rosvertol announced that Azeri aerospace.However, August Azerbaijan armed forces signed 2011 investigations shows that after a deal for 24 pieces of Mi-35M purchase of S-300 surface to air (Hind-E) gunships what would missiles, the largest apparent gap in further enhance the Azeri ground Azerbaijans air defense system may attack formations.The Air Force has have been filled. L-29 and L-39 advanced training aircraft in store. The Azerbaijan Also in Azerbaijan there is a former Border Guard and Voluntary Society Soviet early warning radar. The of Defense, Patriotism and Sport Qabala Radar is a bistatic phasedhave Yakovlev light training aircraft. array installation, currently operated by the Russian Space Air defense Forces under a contract until 2012. Azerbaijan has missile and radar The contract was signed in 2002 and systems intended to defend Azeri will expire in 2012 where it would airspace. There are at least 2 be given back to the Azerbaijani divisions of S-300PMU2. Thereby government. The contract costs the country has one of the most Russia $7 million per year. The capable SAM [surface-to-air missile] radar station has a range of up to system in the region. Azerbaijan 6,000 kilometres (3,728 mi), and was also operates two S-200 (SA-5 designed to detect intercontinental

ballistic missile launches as far as from the Indian Ocean. Whether the Russian Government shares any of the stations radar data with Azerbaijan is unknown. Training and education Azerbaijani pilots are trained in the Azerbaijan Air Force School and then developing their skills in operational units. Azerbaijan has an experience exchange with Turkey, Ukraine, the United States and a number of NATO countries. The Turkish Air Force School has a great role in the training of Azeri military pilots. Azerbaijani pilots are also trained in Ukraines Pilot Training School. Navy The main naval base of the Soviet Union in the Caspian Sea was based in Baku. When the Soviet Union collapsed, Azerbaijan inherited the naval base and parts of the Caspian Fleet. The Azerbaijan Navy has about 2,200 personnel. The navy has a Petya class light frigate, Qusar (G 121), and a number of patrol craft, including one Turk class, Araz, P 223, one Brya (Project 722) class, P 218, one Shelon (Project

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1388M) class, P 212, one Poluchat class (Project 368), P 219, one Luga class (Project 888), T 710, and four Petrushka (Polish UK-3 class), P 213, P 214, P 215, and P 216. There are four minesweepers consisting of 2 Sonya class minesweeper and 2 Yevgenya class minesweepers. The Navy is also attributed with 5 landing craft, 3 Polnochny and 2 Vydra,(IISS 2007) plus three research ships, 1 Project 10470, A 671, ex Svyaga, 1 Balerian Uryvayev class survey vessel (AG) and one Vadim Popov class survey vessel (AG).The U.S. Navy has helped train the Azeri Navy. There is also an agreement to provide US support to refurbish Azeri warships in the Caspian Sea. In 2006, the US Government donated 3 motorboats to the Azerbaijani navy. In 2007 an agreement between Azeri Navy and a US military company was concluded, which stated that a part of the Azeri Navy would be equipped with advanced laser marksmanship systems. The US company specialists were also to give training on the use of the new equipmen A number of separate U.S. programmes are underway under the Caspian Guard Initiative, focused mostly on enhancing Azerbaijani and Kazakh maritime border security. In May 2011, President of the State

Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic Rovnag Abdullayev stated that Azerbaijan to start production of national warships after 2013.The Naval Intelligence of Azerbaijan maintains the 641st Special Warfare Naval Unit. The special forces were trained by the Navy Seals of the U.S. and both special forces have participated in joint naval exercises, headquartered at the Azerbaijani Naval Station on the island of Wolf in the Bay of Baku. Unit 641 has several midget submarines such as Triton-1M and Triton 2 at their disposal as well as underwater tool motion for individual divers. The special unit is composed of 3 reconnaissance groups, 2 groups for mountainous warfare and one

diving group. Obligatory training includes parachute jumping day and night, on land and on water. SPECIAL FORCES There is also unconfirmed reports of a Tigers special warfare unit. It is said that the Tigers unit was established in cooperation with the Turkish Navy in 2001. The training and structure of the Tigers are similar to Turkish special forces, Su Alti Taarruz and United States Special Forces who have close training relationships with them. The first Tiger units were established at Ganja following a joint training program with Turkey. The Special Forces are equipped with the Israeli IMI Tavor TAR-21.

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tactical gear tactical gear tactical gear tactical

Arcteryx LEAF Military Kne

gear tactical gear tactical gear tactical gear tactica

BY GUNS&TACTICS

IN THIS REVIEW WE TAKE THE ARCTERYX LEAF KNEE CAPS FOR A TEST DRIVE IN THE PERFECT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT WEATHER OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST
Most days I wake up with a can-do spirit ready to take on the world and leave my mark. And, in doing so Ive decided Im going to wear these Arcteryx knee caps so I dont f@#$ up my knees along the way! With a gobag loaded full of gear, my trusty Raptor Man and I headed out to Puyallup, Washington today to take care of business. Its about 58 degrees with a light drizzle. Of course, just like any other rainy day in Washington, it was the perfect opportunity to deploy my Arcteryx Theta AR jacket. The Gore-Tex 3L Pro Shell fabric of the Theta AR makes it completely waterproof and windproof without sacrifice of breathability. This is by far the most durable, comfortable, lightweight, go-anywhere and do-anything jacket Ive had the opportunity to wear. The Theta AR is also the longest length jacket from Arcteryx and offers the most coverage. With its Helmet-compatible Drop Hood and tall collar, the Theta AR provides quick access for protecting your bucket of brainpower. I often get comments from admirers about the jacket, almost like joining a BMW club or something. As you might have already guessed, the same quality and craftsmanship that you enjoy in one or any of the fine Arcteryx jackets or apparel can also be found in their LEAF line or products. The Arcteryx LEAF line is a division of product development and manufacturing dedicated to Law Enforcement and Armed Forces. Trust us, this is product that any operator or soldier will fall in
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ee Caps

tactical gear tactical gear tactical gear tactical

love with. Scientifically engineered for performance and built for speed. The Arcteryx LEAF Military Knee Caps are todays treat. Available in black, coyote, and crocodile, these surprisingly soft Kydex hardshell knee pads are state-of-the-art gear, directly integrating with the Arcteryx LEAF line of tactical combat pants like the Talos, Sphinx, and Gryphon tactical pants. Anatomically designed to keep your dirty knees safe from harm, theyre lightweight and extremely durable. The T-lock quickrelease tri-glide buckle in matte finish helps to reduce light reflection, and the adjustable straps are both comfortable and sturdy. I was actually very impressed with the performance of the straps and buckle, finding them to be very quiet, too.

STANDING With the Arcteryx LEAF Military Knee Caps strapped over my tactical pants, I found my knees fit very comfortably into the pocket shape of the knee pad. The smooth shape of the Kydex hardshell plastic and slightly squishy padding behind it gave me immediate comfort when kneeling. I kept recalling the scene in Act of Valor when during a gunfight the operator slides on his knees into a kneeling shooting position before taking out more bad guys after a speed reload. These are that kind of product.
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A bit of information about the rifle that appears in these photos. This is a Seekins stripped lower receiver equipped with a Rock River Arms lower parts kit & Two stage Trigger, a Spikes Tactical Buffer Tube Kit, VLTOR IMOD Standard Stock, B.A.D selector switch, a Rainier Arms Raptor Ambidextrous Charging Handle, and finally a Rainier Arms UltraMatch Upper 5.56 16.

gear tactical gear tactical gear tactical gear tactica

Reliable, durable, and capable of extreme exposure. The knee pads are functionally lightweight and can be comfortably worn all day or all night without sacrifice to performance. KNEELING Kneeling in the Arcteryx LEAF Military Knee Caps felt solid. The knee pads provided not only padding, but also gave me more stability and balance. This is super important when youre positioning your body as a shooting platform while under intense stress and/or adrenaline. Kneeling on wet pavement and on solid surfaces, the knee pads were just soft enough that they produced the right amount of grip but didnt let me go sliding out of position or posture. Kneeling on jagged rocks, small boulders, concrete barriers, in the woods and on forest grounds, the Arcteryx LEAF Military Knee Caps proved to simply suck it up so I wouldnt have to.

PRONE Arcteryx LEAF Military Knee Caps make it easy to drop into the prone position. Once on the ground, theyre pleasant to reside in as you dial in the scope or just take a battle nap until the bombing stops. Theyre

easy to crawl in and the straps do a good job of keeping them in position. I especially like the bit of shin protection just below the knee cap as well; again, its just enough comfort and design to perfectly compliment the protection this gear provides.

No matter if you are a soldier, police officer, hunter, shooter or just about anyone else who may need to operate from ground positions, youre absolutely sure to find satisfaction in these Arcteryx LEAF Military Knee Caps. As part of this exercise, I also wore a fresh pair of Danner 3 Canteen Melee duty boots. This is Danners lightest and most flexible tactical boot, featuring a unique outsole design.

OPERATION REPORT OPERATION REPORT OPERATION REPOR

di Giovanni Di Gregorio Direttore Studi Strategici del CeSA - Geopolitica by alberto dolci (anecdoteswwii.blogspot.it)

OPERATION
A little shed. A little olive drab plywood shed was what in 1985 in Fyljesdalen, Norway, four men from Royal Air Force (RAF) and one historian from Norwegian Army were looking at. The little scraped DP349 sign in a corner let them eyes shine. They found it! The Horsa glider that in 1942 tried to stop the Nazis run to the atomic bomb was in front of them. The poor remains, rotten and bloated of water were the last token of a daring attempt to stop insanity.

FRESHMAN
Everything started on the 22nd of June 1940 when Sir Winston Churchill, seen the success of German airborne divisions on the attack of Eben-Emael fort, wrote a memorandum to the War Office trying to get in line an allied airborne division. On the 12th of September 1941 the final prototype of the Airspeed Horsa glider did the maiden flight replying to the X.26/40 specification of Air ministry. The furniture trade were responsible for all

production of building the HS51, this the code name of the aircraft. In less than ten months already 2345 aircrafts have been built! On the night of 19th November 1942 the baptism of fire happened. Immediately a daring operation was committed to this new wars tool. The purpose of the raid was to destroy the heavy water plant in Rjukan, Norway (The operations against this heavy water plant formed the basis of the Hollywood film The Heroes of Telemark). The plan expected to use gliders to drop in the area Royal engineers equipped with devices and knowledge to destroy the plant. Then they were expected to escape through the Norwegian border into Sweden. In May 1940, shortly after the German occupation of Norway, British Intelligence learnt that the Vemork plant had been

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ordered to increase production of heavy water to 3,0001b per year, a figure advanced to 10,0001b in January 1942. Six weeks later, a group of young Norwegians planning to join one of their units in Britain hijacked the coastal steamer Galtesund and sailed her to Aberdeen. Among them was Einar Skinnarland on one months annual holiday from the Vemork plant.

on the intelligence Skinnarland had provided until the autumn of 1942. He, meanwhile, befriended the chief engineer of the plant, gleaned from him additional information necessary for a coup de main operation and relayed this by radio to the Special Operations Executive (SOE) in London.
Everything started on the 22nd of June 1940 when Sir Winston Churchill, seen the success of German airborne divisions on the attack of Eben-Emael fort, wrote a memorandum to the War Office trying to get in line an allied airborne division

The layout of the plant was already known in Britain, thanks to information provided by Professor Lief Tronstadt, a Norwegian scientist who had escaped before the occupation. But Skinnarland was able to provide details of the German guarding system and, even more important, was prepared to return to Vemork to act as guide for a future sabotage operation. After a comprehensive debriefing on the current situation at Vemork and very basic parachute training, he was dropped over the Hardanger Vidda Mountains by an RAF aircraft on March 28, 1942. This was 11 days after he had reached Aberdeen and just in time for his return to work. Because of the mountainous terrain and swiftly changing weather conditions, Skinnarlands return was only the second operation the RAF had been able to accomplish on behalf of Special Forces in Norway at that stage of the war. Moreover, the summer nights were too short to give adequate cover, so no attempt could be made to capitalise

A four-man team of the Norwegian SOE, led by Lieutenant Jens Anton Poulsson, had been dropped successfully in October and established contact with Skinnarland. Their task was to select and prepare landing sites for two gliders carrying British Royal Engineers and, based on latest information from Skinnarland, guide them to the Vemork plant. On 19th of November 1942 two Horsa gliders and two towing Handley Page Halifax took 28 Royal Engineers over Norway. Unfortunately the bad weather conditions saw two gliders and one Halifax crashed. Consequentely the operation was a fail. Twenty-three men survived to the impact but they have been executed by German troops behind Generaloberst Nickolaus von Falkenhorst command. This led to war crime trial against him after the war. In 1985 an operation was lead to recover the remnants of the aircrafts. The pieces found (300 circa) are conserved as memorial at the Assault Glider Trust, United Kingdom. An official report wrote by RAF in 1942 is visible here www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/fman_report.htm

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by Marco BANDIOLI

WHAT IS A

? G N I F E BRI

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Before Anglo-Saxon terminology found its way into Italian military lexicon, the tactical/operational meeting held before or after a mission was referred to as a rapporto ufficiali, an officers report. Then, due to the growing need for a common language among the Armed Forces of different nations and among all the military contingents of different nationalities operating under a single command, the military and technological terminology of the English language was chosen a sort of lingua franca. Military meetings were given a new name: briefing. In spite of the words various nuances brief implies concise, but also summary the term is now universally used for a meeting (not always brief as the term would have it). More specifically, it denotes a meeting with an aim to: define the objectives and other operational aspects of a given initiative; supply information, define the courses of action and issue directives. Within the military, the term debriefing is also used to indicate a meeting held at the end of an operation. In a debriefing, those gathered focus on what has been accomplished and seize any opportunities for future improvement, discussing how to avoid repeating any errors made the socalled lessons learned. All organizations, from
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the most expansive and complex to the smallest and most specialized, must arrange personnel meetings, for the purpose of supplying information about work to be done and issuing directives. Naturally, due to the nature and number of topics addressed, the Presidents Daily Briefing in the USA differs greatly from the daily briefing at a private company that produces and exports concrete tetrapods! CATEGORIES OF MILITARY BRIEFINGS Firstly, it is important to note that a briefing can be more or less professional based on four substantial parameters: the technical/didactic aids used for an accurate audio-visual presentation, the proper amount of supporting information and documentation, the professionalism of those preparing and arranging the briefing, and the operational background and communicative ability of those presenting the briefing itself. More comprehensive briefings may naturally require more than one briefer in order to divide the workload. Military briefings can be separated into four categories in adherence to general NATO standards: Information Briefing: this briefing is intended solely for situational updates or the sharing of information that is new and pertinent or requires immediate attention for the proper execution of operational activities. This is also the time to review any information pertaining to subsequent activities of deconfliction. Decision Briefing: this briefing consists of the presentation of facts, the identification and analysis of a problem and its possible solutions, the formulation of resolutions, the discussion of any and all possible courses of action and the resulting orders to be issued according to decisions made; Mission Briefing: in this briefing the various commanders concerned with the mission meet with the heads of all the specific departments involved. It

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serves to illustrate the entire operation and its objective in detail, focusing on the most important and/or delicate points in order to supply detailed instructions on the various tactical aspects of the entire mission and to determine the issuance of operational orders of command, coordination and control.

Staff Briefing: this briefing convenes the commander of the entire operation with the heads of the various departments involved. It regards all the operational aspects of the mission, the various tasks assigned or assignable, and the orders to be given. The aim is to provide a situational update and to synchronize all the correlated

activities and phases of the operation. The staff briefing is considered the most complete briefing, allowing for the modification of prior decisions and immediate in-depth analysis of even the most detailed aspects of the mission. Incidentally, the duties and responsibilities

regarding command and control are subdivided into three different levels of responsibility Strategic, Operational and Tactical making it possible to assign different roles of command and control to different Commands. Yet, for operational purposes, it can often be extremely advantageous to merge the operational and tactical
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levels. The resulting tactical-operational level allows for strong decisionmaking and in-depth planning by providing an overall analysis of the conceptual, organizational, directional and conduct aspects of the operation in highly tactical technicaloperational detail. Finally, there is one further type of briefing that is not officially codified: the Battle Briefing. At the beginning of this battle briefing, there is often a Meteo Briefing (Meteorological briefing or Weather Forecast Briefing) regarding meteorological and marine weather conditions that may occur during the mission. DECISIONS AND PLANNING A Battle Briefing may be: a complete, standTNM 104

alone, comprehensive briefing, if organized completely autonomously by an operative unit not answering to highlevel commands (e.g. a paramilitary unit planning its own mission); a briefing that comes at the end of an extensive decision-making and planning process already led by a superior command from which the briefer must receive orders and directives (e.g. A tactical group planning the mission assigned to its command). Clearly, a briefing prepared by two or three people differs from that prepared by thirtysome representatives, as thorough preparation is commensurate with the availability of

personnel and time. Yet, a professional briefing must meet a high quality standard regardless of the number of people involved. The distinctive feature of the battle briefing is that, despite its very specific name, it may take into consideration all the operational aspects that theoretically contribute to the decision-making and planning process. This process includes a situation analysis, a mission analysis (duty + aim: the objective and purpose), and the development of the CONOPS (Concept of Operations, a.k.a. commanders concept), the OPLAN (Operation Plan), and the OPORD (Operation Order). In short, this process produces a comprehensive plan of

the duties to be assigned, according to men and transportation available, logistical support and the required actions of coordination and control. Understandably, briefings may differ depending on the circumstances, from a combat patrol operating deep within enemy territory to a mechanized recognizance group mobilized in the desert to a naval group involved in maritime interdiction operations (MIOs). Regardless, the outline of the briefing, remains essentially the same. As for certain shortcomings in this article (e.g. the Intelligence sector will not be covered), it is important to highlight that briefing structure, for reasons of disclosure, has herein intentionally been limited. In fact, various sectors and aspects pertaining to briefing structure and the confidentiality of information deliberately have not been taken into consideration. BEFORE READING The following is a rough guide to the structure of a battle briefing, bearing in mind the large variation in pertinent (or nonpertinent) topics that can be included or excluded from any given briefing. Though parts may need to be added or removed according to the type of mission addressed, this is a guide that aims to supply the briefer with a conceptual instrument of the greatest versatility and adaptability. Incidentally, hundreds of books on public

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speaking provide us with a vast amount of legitimate advice regarding everything from the posture and smile of the speaker to the psychological effects he or she can have on the audience, though such suggestions may or may not apply in the context of a battle briefing. STRUCTURE OF THE BATTLE BRIEFING Introduction. If the briefer or any other attendee is unknown to those convened, an introduction (or self-introduction) is recommended. If there are limits on time, a reminder as to the maximum duration of the briefing and the maximum length of any single contributor is given. A code name is officially assigned to the operation, indicated: doctrinal if not previously done. publications, tactical norms, operational Time zone. The time norms, general directives zone to be used for and those specific to the communications and mission, and any updates official reports via and orders received prior message traffic is to the briefing. established. Generally, there are two options Meteorlogical situation. available: the time zone Weather forecasts and of the operational activity update criteria covering the area (Local Time), or entire period of the mission international Zulu time, are presented. Forecasts based on the Greenwich analyse temperature, prime meridian, the latter humidity, cloud cover, of which is systematically winds, fog, sea conditions used in NATO operations. and precipitation (rain, hail or snow). Classification. Everyone is reminded of the secrecy Astronomical situation. level assigned to the briefing Sunrise and sunset are and, consequentially, to the calculated, along with mission. moonrise and moonset, dawn (start and finish), and References. All supporting dusk (start and finish) for documentation used the entire duration of the to plan the briefing is mission.

Geographical conditions of the operating theater. An overview is presented of the entire geographical area in which the various phases of the operation are carried out. An orographic evaluation determines the lands navigability and exploitability for movement, staging and concealment. It evaluates vegetation, rivers, lakes, mountains, inclines, altitudes, landmarks, and prevalent meteorological conditions in the period and location in question. Geographical, topographical and nautical charts, maps and photographs (aerial and satellite) are gathered regarding all the areas of possible interest. Hydrographic and

oceanographic conditions. The action areas tides are calculated, and beaches and coastline are evaluated, along with depths, density, temperature and salinity levels of the waters in which submarines may need to operate. Analysis of the general situation. This is the close examination of the political, military, economic, financial, industrial and social situation of the country involved in operations. Threat analysis. The enemys military capacity and all their possible technical and operational abilities are analysed in detail. The positioning and military capacities of enemy forces, their
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branches and structures of Mission analysis. This part command and control are of the briefing focuses also analysed. on the objective (or objectives) to accomplish Operational theater. in the mission. The Presentation of the proper formulation of the terrain, naval space mission is determined, and air space involved and the various duties are in operations, tactically assigned. The mission is subdivided into air, thus analysed, taking into SOTOAREE, DIRETTRICI, consideration any limits on and landmarks with the time or space due to the names/acronyms assigned circumstances and/or to the means of transport and to them.
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their readiness. Orders for staging, movement and combat are established for all deployed forces and means of transport. Aspects such as speed, fuel consumption, autonomies and coverable distance are discussed, as well as load and firepower capacity, etc. etc. The in-depth analysis of the mission often includes various preparatory

activities as well, such as exploration and advanced recognizance. Situational analysis. All the factors pertaining to the mission are identified, analysed, and judged and final operational conclusions are drawn. Thus the weaknesses and strengths of allied forces are identified, along with those of enemy forces.

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Specific operations. Every activity that is somehow connected to the mission (including collateral operations and operations of tactical support) must be planned down to the last detail, and the descending Rules of engagement and Internal organization. orders must be arranged use of force. Operational Based on small on a timeline, as much as conduct in situations of change organizational possible. Recognizance enemy engagement is requirements, it can and patrols, along with determined according be extremely practical land, sea, air, amphibious to political constraints. to physically reposition and special operations Thus, the ROE (Rules (when and where possible) are properly assessed of Engagement) are operators, video terminals, and evaluated down to the established, and directives computers and radio and last operational detail, are issued specifying the telephone apparatus in potentially anticipating circumstances and limits order to make information the need for further within which allied forces more instantaneous, sub-briefings requiring can initiate and/or sustain available 24 hours a day. the participation of field combat with opposing While the structure of specialists (e.g. demining forces. If the operation the operational centre of and Force Protection requires a gradual use command or even that of a activities, air-drops and of force for certain crisis ship is clearly not modifiable helicopter landings). situations (excluding lethal (both have already been force), the Rules of the Use optimized during their Battle rhythm. To optimize of Force (RUF) are drawn up. creation), an improvised control of all phases of operational centre based in operational activity (often Specification of the a tensile structure or spread simultaneously), a small end of operations. The among various shelters team of people may be state or situation is certainly is. assembled within the specified in which the Operational Centre to mission objective can Weapons, munitions, monitor the so-called be determined officially equipment, devices Battle Rhythm 24 hours reached (and mission and gear. Should the a day. This team can accomplished) and all mission require particular immediately call attention correlated operations can weapons, weapons to any lags or delays in the be terminated. systems, munitions or timing of all activities and/ explosives, or equipment, or operations, alerting the Identifying courses Organizing the use of devices or gear that chain of command and of action. All possible forces assigned. Once the require particular control, who then responds actions are determined, forces made available to knowledge to use, this by intervening with suitable both for allied forces accomplish the mission should be mentioned corrective measures so the and enemy forces. These during the briefing. are specified, the use of operational mechanism are compared, and the the forces are organized, can run according to the OPLAN is evaluated for its assigning their nominative Modifications to means plans rhythm without hitch feasibility, sustainability of transport. The time or delay. identification and code and practicality. required for readying the names. Once the far mission is forecast in Message traffic and operational theatre has Conops formulation. This the event that vehicles, reports. A set of been reached, the initial is the OPLAN to be adopted structure of a given aircraft, or amphibious preformatted messages for the completion of the vehicles need to be and forms are established, ground force, naval mission. modified according to along with forwarding group, air force (or even
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Conops analysis. The OPLAN is analysed, and the duties and activities deriving from the activation of the operation are established. The development and execution of the OPLAN is analysed in detail.

single patrol) may need to be modified in order for it to fit into a different military structure, be integrated within the scope of wider structures or be broken into smaller units, rendering the initial structure null and void.

particular requirements.

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Final considerations. The briefer, or commander responsible for the entire operation, thanks those gathered for their Medical aid. The various attention and focuses medical and nursing activities are provided for, on the more delicate and salient points of including evacuations of the mission. He or she the fallen and wounded criteria and a list of is drawn up, assigning the from the operating theatre. establishes the terms of recipients that, for various various radio and computer the next briefing and may reasons, are to be included devices to set frequencies for conclude with his or her within the communications each specific duty. This plan Organizational own general assessment. shortcomings. network. denotes the nominatives Shortcomings are bound to And now for the tricky part to be used, the anticrop up in the preparation of any briefing: all that is Communications. Once the interception systems to be left is to hope there is no necessities of command, activated, the hours at which phases of an operation. overzealous participant These may or may not coordination and control to change frequencies ... there for the Q&A that be compensated for. Any have been pinpointed, the and other communicational closes the briefing. shortcomings that cannot Communications Plan technicalities.
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Logistics. This section provides for a series of administrative and combat support activities and logistical resupply: fuel, water, provisions, weapons, munitions, medicines, replacement parts, equipment and gear. Duties of personnel rotation are also attributed to the logistics sector.

be overcome and may negatively impact the completion of the mission must be noted, with the understanding that it is not always possible to begin a mission in the maximum state of efficiency.

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international memorial day international memorial

Y A D L A I R O M ME
FOR POLICE BY POLICE
BY Teno-E (Tinus Etsebeth)
Finally, something everyone can relate to. If you call for help they are there. If you dial 911, 999, 112, 111, 10111 or any emergency number someone will be on the others side answering your call. They face the dangers; they are the ones leaving someone behind. Will you be willing to risk your life, your lively hood for someone else? No matter the nick names, words or gestures.On this day fly the world flags at halfmast. Admit it, we need them.Teno-E (Founder of International Memorial Day) People from around the world Andrew Faull (Author) Doctoral Researcher at Centre for Criminology, University of Oxford and author of Behind the Badge... says: We know that many police feel silenced by the organisations in which they work, misunderstood and unappreciated by their public. This kind of symbolic gesture would likely mean a lot to police officers, serving as a reminder that many people acknowledge the debt that is owed to them. .I would think that for some it would serve as a reminder of the contested nature of policing, working in organisations which are often viewed as illegitimate by the public. Some would acknowledge they have no pride, others would rally around it. May-Britt Rinaldo National President IPA Sweden, Member of International Professional Commission... says The World Police Memorial Day we stand shoulder to shoulder, each and every Police Officer, to remember our fallen colleagues that paid the ultimate price when protecting the rest of the society from violence. Citizens will gather around our Thin Blue Line and we will be united in memory and fight for a better future. I am proud to be part of the Thin Blue Line as it show how we few fight to stop violence against citizens and Police Officers. Be proud to be a protector of Human Rights and peaceful daily life for each and every citizen. Police Officers worldwide join IPA and build bridges for understanding and exchange. We all need each other when we step by step move forward. Stop violence against Police Officers and honour the World Police Memorial day. Daily, nobody knows the sorrow. Only the families left behind, dismaying the final battle

INTERNATIONAL

l day international memorial day international memori

of duty. Their duty, not to be forgotten; only people who wishes pain and death upon others should be punished and does who die protecting others will be known as heroes. This day is for them, all the law enforcement officers, peace officers and police in our small world all 15 822 000.I have seen that around the world there are many memorial days remembering them in their countries they sworn to protect and serve. However, crime has no borders and therefore memorial will have no borders. Who is Teno-E? He is man behind am idea, an idea that crime has no borders and those who stand and fight against it should be proud of their duty in the community. He is a police officer from South Africa, working for the South African Police Force in Cape Town with the rank of sergeant. He is 33 years old and has been a police officer for 10 years and has received numerous awards for outstanding work. However, the idea of losing his follow officers saddened him. He is the man by behind the symbol of 15 822 000 police members. He is a member of the International Police Association www.ipa-iac.org with staggering 400000 members worldwide with the head office based in the United Kingdom. Above all he is a strong supporter of causes against animal cruelty. His aim is to let the day recognised the United Nations, after all we are all here for the same cause for peace and prosperity, but darkness is all around us. Some people do not believe in peace, their intentions are clear- self-enrichment, even if it is to take a life. What must I do on this day? This day do not for parades or shows, the only thing we ask is fly the flags of your country at half mast at every law enforcement agency in the world to remember those who gave it all, so that those that were left behind; the family, friends, sons, daughters mothers see their loss was not in vain. Remember them. Be proud. Honor Sacrifice Duty Remembrance

Info on IPA Who is the International Police Association? The International Police Association is an independent body made up of members of the police service, whether on active duty or retired, and without distinction as to rank, sex, race, colour, language or religion. Its purpose is to create bonds of friendship and to promote international co-operation. The IPA was founded Arthur Troop (Lincoln, December 15, 1914 - November 30, 2000) was a sergeant in the police force in Lincolnshire, England. It is committed to the principles set out in theUniversal Declaration of Human Rightsas adopted by theUnited Nationsin 1948 and recognises that any form of torture is absolutely inconsistent with these principles. Its aims include the development of cultural relations amongst its members, a broadening of their general knowledge and an exchange of professional experience. In addition, it seeks to foster mutual help in the social sphere and to contribute, within the limits of its possibilities, to the peaceful coexistence of different peoples and to the preservation of world peace. The Association undertakes to encourage personal contacts by organising exchange visits of individuals and groups, arranging group holidays and initiating pen-friendships; to promote among the police services of all the member Sections respect for law and order; to develop social and cultural activities and to encourage the exchange of professional experiences; to enhance the image of the police in the countries of its member Sections and to help improve relations between the police and the general public; to foster youth exchanges and international youth meetings with a view to promoting greater tolerance and understanding between people, and understanding for the work of the police; to facilitate a regular exchange of publications between the National Sections and to provide an information service for the National IPA publications containing news on all subjects of relevance to the Association. www.internationalmemorialday.com
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