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DR.

PRADIPDUTTA DepartmentofMechanical Engineering IndianInstituteofScience Bangalore

WhatisHeatTransfer?
Energyintransitduetotemperaturedifference. Thermodynamicstellsus: Howmuchheatistransferred(dQ) Howmuchworkisdone(dW) Finalstateofthesystem Heattransfertellsus: How(withwhatmodes) dQistransferred Atwhatrate dQistransferred Temperaturedistributioninsidethebody Heattransfer
complementary

Thermodynamics

MODES:
Conduction needsmatter molecularphenomenon(diffusionprocess) withoutbulkmotionofmatter Convection heatcarriedawaybybulkmotionoffluid needsfluidmatter Radiation doesnotneedsmatter transmissionofenergybyelectromagneticwaves

APPLICATIONSOFHEAT TRANSFER
Energyproductionandconversion steampowerplant,solarenergyconversionetc. Refrigerationandairconditioning Domesticapplications ovens,stoves,toaster Coolingofelectronicequipment Manufacturing/materialsprocessing welding,casting,soldering,lasermachining Automobiles/aircraftdesign Nature(weather,climateetc)

(Needsmedium,Temperaturegradient)
T 1

...... .......... ..... ........... ............ ...... .............. ..... ........... solidorstationaryfluid ..... .......

T >T 1 2

T 2

RATE: q(W)or(J/s)(heatflowperunittime)

Conduction (contd)
x

Rateequations(1Dconduction): A q DifferentialForm q=kAdT/dx,W k=ThermalConductivity,W/mK 2 A=CrosssectionalArea,m T=Temperature,KoroC x=Heatflowpath,m q DifferenceForm q=kA(T )/(x ) 1 T 2 1 x 2

T 1

T 2

2 Heatflux:q=q/A=kdT/dx(W/m )

(negativesigndenotesheattransferinthedirectionof decreasingtemperature)

Conduction (contd)
q Example: The wall of an industrial furnace is constructed from 0.2 m thick fireclay brick having a thermal conductivity of 2.0 W/mK. Measurements made during steady state operation revealtemperaturesof1500and1250Kattheinnerandouter surfaces, respectively. What is therateof heat loss througha wallwhichis0.5mby4monaside?

movingfluid

T >T s T q T s

vEnergytransferredbydiffusion+bulkmotionoffluid

Rateequation (convection)
U y U u(y) q
Heattransferrateq=hA(T T )W s
2 Heatfluxq=h(T T )W/ m s 2 h=heattransfercoefficient(W/m K)

y T

T(y) T s

(notaproperty)dependsongeometry,natureofflow, thermodynamicspropertiesetc.

Convection (contd)
Freeornatural convection(inducedby buoyancyforces) Convection Convection Forcedconvection (inducedbyexternal means)

Mayoccurwith phasechange (boiling, condensation)

Convection(contd)
2 Typicalvaluesofh(W/m K)

Freeconvection

gases:225 liquid:50100

Forcedconvection

gases:25250 liquid:5020,000

Boiling/Condensation

2500100,000

q 1 q 2

T 1 T 2

RATE: q(W)or(J/s)Heatflowperunittime.
2 Flux:q(W/m )

Rateequations (Radiation)
RADIATION: HeatTransferbyelectromagneticwavesorphotons(no mediumrequired.) Emissivepowerofasurface(energyreleasedperunitarea):
4 (W/m 2 E=esT ) s

e=emissivity(property) s=StefanBoltzmannconstant

Rateequations (Contd.)
T sur q rad. T s q conv. Area=A

Radiationexchangebetweenalargesurfaceand surrounding
4 4 2 Q = es (T T )W/m rad s sur

Radiation(contd)
q Example: Anuninsulatedsteampipepassesthrougharoominwhichthe airand walls are at 25C. The outsidediameterof pipe is 80 mm,anditssurfacetemperatureandemissivityare180Cand 0.85, respectively. If the free convection coefficient from the 2 surfacetotheairis6W/m K,whatistherateofheatlossfrom thesurfaceperunitlengthofpipe?