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Finding ajob in Europe

a guide for jobseekers

Social Europe

Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission may be held responsible for the use that may be made of the information contained in this publication. Photos: European Union For any use or reproduction of photos which are not under European Union copyright, permission must be sought directly from the copyright holder(s).

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More information on the European Union is available on the Internet (europa.eu). Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2013 ISBN 978-92-79-26900-4 doi:10.2767/82037 European Union, 2013 Reproduction is authorised if the source is acknowledged. Printed in Belgium Printed on totally chlorine-free bleached paper (tcf)

Working in another country

Set your sights on the future


Living and working in another country is an exciting option for Europeans of all ages. Indeed, more and more people are recognising the benefits of gaining professional experience in another European country.
Even so, still only 3% of Europeans live and work in a different Member State than their country of origin. Yet by working abroad, even for short periods, you can greatly increase your skill levels and boost your chances of finding abetter job in your own country.

The European Unions principle of free movement of workers* is considered one of the most important rights of EU citizens. It means that you canmove toany EU Member State, aswell as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Asa result, there are endless opportunities for themotivated and mobile jobseeker. And if you need advice and information along the way, there are also plenty of experts to guide you. What can you gain from living and working abroad? ,, An opportunity to develop new professional and personal skills. Learn anew language, add toyour professional experience, boost your self-confidence, and improve your ability to communicate with others. Living and working abroad really is the ideal solution for those that want some added value on their CV to impress future employers. ,, Greater understanding of other countries and cultures. Europe is a wonderfully diverse continent with lots to discover. By immersing yourself in life in another country, you can experience a new culture and lifestyle. At the same time, others can learn more about your own country.
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,, Valuable experience meeting new people  and new challenges. If youre not sure that working abroad is right for you, look into seasonal or temporary work. You dont have to commit to along-term contract, but will still gain valuable experience to open up future work opportunities.

Learning new skills and gaining international professional experience can only be beneficial. This easy-to-use guide provides you with top tips and useful information to help you if you have set your sights on Europe! Opportunity knocks Do you have a specific job skill? If your expertise and experience lie in sectors with hard-to-fill vacancies such as theenvironment, healthcare or ICT, you could find yourself inparticular demand in many European countries.
* Do you need awork permit? Some European citizens may have restricted access totheEuropean labour market for a certain period, depending on when their country joined the EU. EUREScantell you which countries you can move tofreelyandwhich will require awork permit.

Working abroad widens your horizons and gives you a taste of independent life. It also helps to build your self-confidence and enlarge your personal network. If you do move, beopen to the new culture, as well asready andwilling to learn new things. Jobseeker from Lithuania, living and working in Denmark

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Things to consider before moving abroad

If you are thinking about moving abroad, you need to give it some serious thought. Heres anoverview of a few things you might want toconsider before making the move.
,, Can you get a job? A good starting point when looking for a job abroad is to look at your options and apply for jobs whilst still in your home country. Carefully investigate inwhich countries there is a demand for workerswith your background and experience, or in the area of work you are interested in. Do some research on the labour market in those countries. Ensure that your CV is clear and concise, highlighting what you have already learnt or achieved, and its relevance to the position for which you are applying. ,, A career is just one option. Mobility can also mean further education, professional training and internships, amongst many other opportunities. The EU has support programmes in these fields. They include Leonardo da Vinci (vocational education and training), Erasmus (student exchange and placements abroad) andthe Rethinking education strategy which isfocused on developing skills for the labour market. See ec.europa.eu/education for more information.

,, Do you speak the language? Your employer will probably expect you to have some know ledge of the local language. Basic English, whatever country you are in, will also be an advantage. Consider taking a language course before you leave even if it is not mandatory for every job opening, it could enhance your opportunities. ,, Will your professional qualifications be rec ognised? If you are qualified to work in your home country, you can work elsewhere in Europe. Under the principle of free movement of workers, you can practise your profession inall EU Member States, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. But check each job specification carefully some employers may require certain diplomas, certificates or other qualifications. ,, What about educational qualifications?  There is currently no universal recognition ofeducational qualifications across Europe, meaning that an employer in one country may hesitate to hire a worker from another country if they do not recognise their level of qualification. You can find useful information in the Work and Retirement section of the Your Europe portal (europa.eu/youreurope/citizens). Alternatively,

Contacting EURES was the best thing Icould have done for my career. Last year Isent a letter to my local EURES Adviser explaining that Iwanted to do an internship in a winecompany in Italy. Three months later, EURES Italyhad found a position including accommodation andliving costs. The support continued throughout the internship. When I arrived inthe country, EURES helped me to complete all the necessary documents. Dalma, jobseeker from Hungary

you can visit the European Commissions European Qualifications Framework (EQF) website (ec.europa.eu/eqf). ,, Is your family moving with you? As aEuropean citizen, you and your family have the same rights as national workers. Your family can study or work in your country of destination, soit is worth exploring options for them too before leaving.

Who can help you to find a job abroad?

Youve decided to make the move and now need more information. For help and advice throughout the process, you can tap into the following resources: EURES, the European Jobs Network covers all Member States, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Ithas a network of partners, including public employment services, andis now being extended to include further partners in your home country. Information on these can be found on the EURES portal: eures.europa.eu
The EURES network offers a range of services tailored to your needs: ,, The EURES Job Mobility Portal: provides job vacancy information in 32 countries, and allows you to create a profile, register your CV, and access details on living and working conditions across Europe. The portal is featured on leading social media sites and has its own smartphone app. Ifyou need assistance with creating an account, building a CV or searching for vacancies, the EURES helpdesk is available via live chat, e-mail, phone or Skype. Visit eures.europa.eu fordetails.
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,, A network of EURES Advisers: EURES has over900 advisers in 32 countries working with national public employment services (PES) toprovide mobility information to jobseekers. Contact them by telephone, e-mail, or via afaceto-face meeting or at European Job Days events (see next page for details). ,, EURES in cross-border regions: working and living in two different countries is the most common form of labour mobility. EURES also operates in cross-border regions throughout Europe. Information for cross-border workers is available on the EURES Job Mobility Portal, fromyour local EURES Adviser and on page 11of this brochure. You can also take advantage of the following: ,, Private recruitment agencies: in your home or destination country, private recruitment agencies provide a wide range of information and an efficient job-matching service. Their advisers can guide you through each stage of arecruitment process. ,, Online job search engines: some job search engines allow you to create a CV, build ajobseeker profile, get notifications of interesting job offers, and view vacancies.
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The EURES Adviser gave me information about doing a greenhouse gardeners course inDenmark and combining it with aDanish language course and work on aDanish farm. Isaw it as an interesting opportunity and away to develop new skills and knowledge for my future professional life. It broadens your horizons, makes you more independent, buildsyour self-confidence andexpands your personal network! Sarunas, jobseeker from Lithuania

,, Social media: around half of EU Internet users have a social media presence. If you regularly use platforms such as Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn, you can use them to promote your jobskills and interests, as a sort of virtual CV. Just be careful what you do and say online, andreview settings to keep personal posts and photos private!

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How can EURES help?

EURES services are comprehensive and available to all European jobseekers before, during and after your job search.
They address every aspect of living and working abroad, from providing career guidance, reviewing and translating CVs, analysing offers, and facilitating video-conferencing for interviews, to providing information on the European labour market, giving legal and social security advice, organising job fairs, and advising on training opportunities, language learning and funding opportunities to name just a few! Broadly the services comprise the following: EURES Job Mobility Portal hosting more than one million job vacancies from all over Europe, almost as many CVs, and thousands of registered employers. It offers you tools to: ,, create a profile allowing you to tag interesting  sectors or countries, and receive e-mail notifications of relevant job vacancies; ,, build and maintain a CV in one or several lan guage versions and post it online, so it is visible to the 30000 employers registered on the portal;

,, search for information on living and working in  your country of choice; ,, search for European Job Days and other recruit ment events in your region; and ,, connect with other jobseekers and exchange tips  on job-hunting and living and working abroad. EURES Advisers and other recruitment professionals particularly in the EURES network can be contacted for information and advice at any stage of your job search and moving process. With specialised expertise in the practical, legal and administrative aspects of European labour mobility, they can: ,, recommend interesting opportunities based on  your profile and even seek to match your profile with a suitable employer in another European country; ,, assist you with your job application and pass on your CV to potential employers; ,, give you information on the living and working  conditions in your country of destination; and

,, help you get started in your new country by pro viding information on accommodation, social security and taxes, and on schools and healthcare for your family, if relevant. Please note that the services available may differ from one country or EURES partner organisation to another. You can find more information and contact details of your local EURES Adviser and other recruitment professionals on the EURES Job Mobility Portal.

European Job Days and other events Each year, hundreds of EURES events are held throughout Europe all easy to access and free of charge. The best-known are European Job Days, which provide an ideal environment for you to meet potential employers eitheron-site or online as well as to benefit from live Q&As and one-to-one video coaching with job mobility, and other relevant experts. EURES also hostsconferences, seminars andgeneral mobilityinformation days where EURES Advisers are on hand to provide expert advice on finding ajob in Europe. Check the Events calendar on the EURES Job Mobility Portal for moreinformation on events in your area.

Where can you find EURES across Europe?

 EU Member States: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia (from July 2013), Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom.  European Economic Area (EEA) = EU Member States + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. Switzerland.

EURES is represented in different regions andcross-border regions. For further details, visit theEURES portal. To find your nearest EURES Adviser, go toeures.europa.eu

The EURES Job Mobility Portal

Key sections
As a jobseeker, this is where you can find information on working abroad, preparing for an interview, settling into life in a new country, as well as information on the European Commissions education and training opportunities throughout Europe.
,, 1. What can EURES do for you? Here you can find all the services offered by EURES members and partners. ,, 2. Search for a job. Explains how to search for a job in 32 European countries, create and manage your online job search profiles and subscribe to e-mail notifications of interesting vacancies. ,, 3. Create your CV online. Allows you to create and manage your CV in several languages, freeof-charge, and in the Europass format if desired. ,, 4. Contact a EURES Adviser. Helps you to find  the contact details of a EURES Adviser close to you for personalised advice on job opportunities and living and working conditions in Europe.

,, 5. Living & Working. Contains practical, legal and administrative information on mobility. Look up current trends in the European labour market by country, region and sector of activity. ,, 6. Skills & Careers. Broaden your career pros pects by acquiring new skills that will set you on the right path. Find education and training opportunities throughout Europe. ,, 7. The Events calendar. Shows you upcoming events of interest in your region. Keep track of European Job Days and other recruitment events or general mobility information sessions with EURES Advisers. ,, 8. News. Packed with the latest articles and videos on European jobs and mobility, here you can watch inspiring success stories and pick up handy tips on everything from job-hunting to social security rights. ,, 9. EURES & You Newsletters. These are issued  every month and feature information on job mobility, current trends, upcoming EURES events and more. Read the newsletters online or receive them by e-mail.

,, 10. Job Opportunities for Graduates. Targets jobseekers from the university and polytechnic sectors. Certain job sectors are indemand in specific European countries, sohighly qualified jobseekers have good chances of finding a job abroad. ,, 11. Help & Support. Here you can find answers  to most of your questions. The EURES helpdesk is also on standby to answer your queries via telephone, e-mail, live chat and Skype. ,, 12. Links. Direct you to other websites dealing with European labour mobility, including national public employment services, as well as a range of publications that will guide you through your search. ,, 13. Mobile Apps. Download a free app offering easy access to many features of the EURES Job Mobility Portal. Check out jobs Europewide, find your nearest EURES Adviser for personalised assistance, or look up future EURES events.

The EURES Job Mobility Portal

Future development and other services


European Online Job Days enable jobseekers and employers to gather virtually and free-ofcharge, saving them the time and money involved in travelling to an on-site event. Participants can view potential employers presentations, submit vacancy applications, and meet directly with recruiters and EURES Advisers. See europeanjobdays.eu for details of upcoming Job Days online. Match and Map is a tool that automatically matches the information provided in your online CVwith available job vacancies. The result of the search will be a map of Europe showing you exactly where to find the opportunities you are looking for. Sectoral Skills Passports have been developed by European social partners and will allow workers with experience in a specific sector to highlight their skills in a way that is understood across Europe, irrespective of country or language. The hospitality sector will be launched first, with other sectors following.

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The job application process

Applying for a job


So youve found an interesting opportunity? Now you have to put together an application that makes you stand out from the crowd! EURES Advisers can help you with this or you can refer to the Job Mobility Portal for essential tips.
Typically an application will consist of a cover letter and your CV, though some employers may require you to complete a standard application form. Remember this is the first impression you make on the employer, so spend some time perfecting it. ,, The cover letter: should state why you are interested in the position, what in your background makes you suitable for the job, and what you can bring to the company. Make sure the language is clear, accessible and straight to the point. ,, Preparing for an interview: the interview could take place in person or over the phone: either way, thorough preparation is vital. Bring any necessary paperwork, such as your CV or identity card just in case.

,, Know the company: make sure you have researched the company with which you have an interview. Show that you are familiar with what it does and what it is looking for. Prepare some insightful questions about it and the position to prove you have done your research. ,, Know the job: the job description is the best clue you are given regarding what an employer will be looking for in the interview. Does it emphasise teamwork, the ability to take initiative or exibility? Show that you match these requirements with concrete examples and skills from your past experience. ,, Expect the unexpected: difficult or unexpected questions may be asked. Dont panic! Prove you can remain calm under pressure, by taking amoment to consider the question and answering calmly. It doesnt matter if you dont know the answer. An employer will be interested to see how you phrase your answer and how you would go about finding out new information.

The CV
,, List your most recent experience and qualifica tions first. ,, Use short sentences and positive language. ,, Highlight responsibilities applicable to the  desired job and use active verbs. ,, Make sure your CV is factual, up-to-date, and  accurate. ,, Keep your CV to a maximum of two pages. ,, Have the CV proofread by someone else, prefer ably a native speaker of the language in which you are applying.

Moving and arriving

Leaving your country and arriving in a new one can be a daunting experience. There are new administrative processes to deal with, people to meet perhaps a language to learn. You can contact your local EURES Adviser for advice and information before you leave.
Here are a few tips from EURES to smooth the process:

Arriving
,, Housing: it helps to research accommodation  options before you arrive in your new country, so you have an idea of areas that suit your budget and expectations. ,, Social security: all social security benefits linked to an employment contract in your new country are equally granted to all EU Member States, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland citizens. The same applies to posted workers, employed in one EU Member State but temporarily sent to work in another Member State (see the Policies and activities section at ec.europa.eu/social). Social benefits cover sickness and maternity leave, unemployment and family benefits, accidents at work and occupational benefits, invalidity and retirement pensions. Contact your social security institution before you leave your home country for the necessary information and the required EU forms. Also check out the EUs Mutual Information System on Social Protection (Missoc) at the website above. ,, The European Health Insurance Card (EHIC): is available free-of-charge to all citizens of EU/ EEA countries plus Switzerland. Itensures that you will get the same access to emergency

public-sector healthcare (such as doctors, pharmacies, hospitals) as nationals of these countries. You should still look into obtaining national health insurance in your new country as soon as you arrive. ,, Pension: if youre receiving a State pension from one or more EU Member States and move to another country of the EU, or Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway or Switzerland, you can carry on receiving the entire amount of your State pension there. To find out more about how your social security rights are protected, visit: ec.europa.eu/social-security-coordination ,, Taxation: European countries have concluded bilateral tax agreements, to prevent their citizens from paying twice for the same activity or income in another European country. Contact the relevant authorities in your home country for personalised advice.

Moving
,, Ensure all your loose ends are tied up and can cel any contracts with service providers. ,, Inform your local authority you are leaving, ifthis is a requirement. ,, Change your postal address and leave your for warding address for any mail that may arrive after your departure. ,, Remember to bring important documents with you valid passports or identity cards for you and your family members.

EURES can give you more information onall these topics. Visit the Job Mobility Portals Living and Working pages or contact your local EURES Adviser.

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First steps for budding entrepreneurs

Before moving abroad, prepare a solidbusiness plan with a description of the product orservice to be offered, the target audience and existing competition, and amarketing strategy. And dont forget afinancial plan not just for the business, but a personal plan too. If you go abroad intending to retire in your own country, you must consider what your pension accrued in another Member Statewill beworth backthere. EURES Adviser, the Netherlands

Making up more than 99% of Europes business, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) arethe backbone of its economy, and an ever-growing number of European citizens have plans to set up their own business in another country.
If youre buzzing with ideas to start a business elsewhere in Europe, here are some recommendations: ,, Create a business plan: ensure you know exactly what your business will be, how much it will cost to establish, the time that will be involved, and the administrative processes you have to go through. Dont leave your planning until you arrive in a new country it will be easier to do in your home country. Contact your local Chamber of Commerce, as many offer courses in creating a comprehensive business plan. ,, Familiarise yourself with your new country:  plan a few trips to your country of destination before the final move. Get to know the banking system, the legal and administrative practices, and the people and culture. Do you need to learn a language? Then enrol in a course in your home country, so you have a good grasp of the language before you move.

,, Get advice from a fellow entrepreneur: contact someone who has set up their own business in your country of destination. No one will be able to give you better advice than someone who has already experienced what you are about to. Your local EURES Adviser may be able to put you intouch with a relevant person or organisation. Or go to: ec.europa.eu/enterprise/initiatives/ sme-week to learn more about successful EU entrepreneurs in each country. ,, The Enterprise Europe Network: helps small businesses take advantage of the open European market. As an entrepreneur, you can find a wide range of information from any of the 600 member organisations across the EU and beyond. Visit: portal.enterprise-europe- network.ec.europa.eu ,, The European Progress Microfinance Facility: is an EU initiative which makes it easier for people who want to start or develop their own small business to access credit up to EUR25000. Download a leaflet (ec.europa.eu/social).

I was invited to a recruitment meeting with EURES at the Public Employment Office inGothenburg, Sweden. I had an interview with the Seven Seas Group which was looking forcrew for several cruise ships. After a useful information meeting and subsequentinterview, I was offered a job some months later onaCaribbean line my preferred choice! Stefan, jobseeker from Sweden

Cross-border commuting

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A cross-border labour market is an area in which workers living in one country can commute daily or weekly to work in a neighbouring country. This arrangement is popular throughout Europe: more than 600000 people work ina different European country from where they live.

In cross-border regions, EURES is available to:


,, match jobseekers with suitable vacancies in  aneighbouring country; ,, provide information on living and working in two  different European countries and help with the legal, administrative and practical aspects; and ,, monitor the labour markets in both countries,  therefore providing up-to-date vacancy information to jobseekers.

Being a cross-border worker hasits advantages:


,, The labour market in the neighbouring country  may be stronger than that of your own. ,, There is no need for your family to move with  you, so partners can keep their jobs and children can stay in education in their own country. ,, Health insurance and social security in your  home country can usually be maintained, making the process easier. Of course, cross-border commuting comes with some challenges, such as differing national administrative and legal practices. But there are plenty of services to help commuters with these issues.

We support hundreds of cross-border workers on a daily basis with questions such as: Where do I pay my taxes? Where can Iclaim child benefit? Can I use the health service?This helps make the transition easier for mobile workers moving to another country. EURES Adviser, Cross Border Partnership Ireland/Northern Ireland

EURES operates in over 20 cross-border partnerships across more than 13 countries. Tomeet the need for information andcoordination between countries, EUREScross-border partnerships bring together public employment and vocational training services, trade unions, local authorities and otherinstitutions dealing with employment and training.

I already knew some things about life in Hungary, as I had studied there, but EURES helped me with the more technical details ofliving life between two countries, such as the differences between tax systems and social security systems. When you move somewhere new, you dont know what to expect. Each country has its own uniqueness, and its invaluable to get this advice. Marcel, jobseeker from Germany, living in Hungary, commuting to work in Austria

For more information, visit About Us at: eures.europa.eu


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The added value of EURES

A personal, professional, allround service


There are more than 900 EURES Advisers across 32 countries, all experts in European labour mobility. They are available to provide personalised advice based on your skills, qualifications and desired occupation, ensuring support throughout the moving process. Visit the EURES Job Mobility Portal for the contact details of your local EURES Adviser.

European Job Days


These events take place across Europe several times a year, from Norway to Cyprus and from Portugal to Romania. They offer the ideal opportunity for jobseekers to meet with EURES Advisers as well as potential employers, either on-site or online. Participants can discuss their plans and address their questions to a range ofexperts in European job mobility via real (or virtual) seminars, debates, workshops and one-on-one meetings.

These events offer something for every European interested in making the move to anew country. Check the Events calendar on the EURES portal for details of upcoming events near you.

Special EURES initiatives


There are a number of targeted job mobility schemes that support jobseekers and job-changers aged 18-30 in finding work in other European countries regardless of their qualifications, skills or experience by providing different funding opportunities. This service also provides significant benefits to employers as it opens up their business to aworkforce they may be unable to find at local, regional or national level, and helps them to find suitable candidates for hard-to-fill positions (see ec.europa.eu).

A European Job Day is, for many jobseekers, aninteresting first approach that allows them to come into contact with companies offering jobs and to hand over their CV directly. Theon-site presence of different temporary work agencies is also useful, as well as the availability of EURES Advisers who can helpwith job mobility applications. EURES Adviser, Luxembourg

I attended a job fair in Basel and met aEURES Adviser from Luxembourg. Hegavemepractical and useful advice, includinginformation onthe labour market, the living and working conditions in the country, and on how toapply for jobs as well as the steps to be taken before moving abroad. Jobseeker from Switzerland, living and working in Luxembourg

European Commission Finding a job in Europe a guide for jobseekers Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union 2013 12 pp. 14.8 21 cm ISBN 978-92-79-26900-4 doi:10.2767/82037 This publication is available in printed format in allEU official languages, as well as in Icelandic and Norwegian.

KE-30-12-897-EN-C

Are you interested in thepublications of the Directorate-General forEmployment, Social Affairsand Inclusion?
, If so, you can download them or take out a free subscription at: ec.europa.eu/social/publications ,  You are also welcome to sign up to receive theEuropean Commissions free Social Europe e-newsletter at: ec.europa.eu/social/e-newsletter ,  You can subscribe to the EURES newsletter at: eures.europa.eu

The key EU websites and programmes featured in this brochure are listed below:
,  EURES Job Mobility Portal: eures.europa.eu ,  Enterprise Europe Network: portal.enterprise-europe-network.ec.europa.eu , EU entrepreneurs: ec.europa.eu/enterprise/initiatives/sme-week ,  European Job Days: europeanjobdays.eu ,  Questions about EU: europa.eu/europedirect ,  European Progress Microfinance Facility. Download a leaflet at: ec.europa.eu/social ,  European Qualifications Framework (EQF): ec.europa.eu/eqf , Support programmes in education: ec.europa.eu/education

,  Mutual Information System on Social Protection: ec.europa.eu/missoc , Posted workers: ec.europa.eu/social , Social security rights: ec.europa.eu/social-security-coordination ,  Your Europe. Help and advice for EU nationals and their families: europa.eu/youreurope/citizens ,  Your first EURES job: ec.europa.eu/social

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doi:10.2767/82037