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Social Media China Social media scenario in China is similar as most nations with the only difference of social

media platforms. After banning Facebook, twitter and YouTube, Chinese have created clones of these platforms in the form of QQ, RenRen and Youku. Chinese use social media to connect with others as is prevalent in most countries. However, 91% of the Chinese internet users are connected to social media as compared to 67% in US and 30% in neighbouring Japan. Use of Social media on Smartphone has been rising sharply in China. Line the all in one social networking site has more users than any other social networking site and its phenomenal growth clearly indicates the preference towards using Smartphone for social networks. Chinese social media starts with a QQ account and a Qzone account. These two platforms provide the complete social media package for most Chinese users with QQ being the instant messaging platform and Qzone providing the means to share multimedia content such as photos, videos, music and also a place to write blogs. One of the reasons why Smartphones are so popular for accessing social media is because majority of social media users are young. They spend their lives cramped in a schedule of studies, tuitions and similar other activities and through Smartphones they can access their online world on the go. While social media acts as a platform to raise voices, Chinese social media is highly monitored. This is also one of the reasons why popular global social networking sites are banned in China. The Chinese version of Twitter is monitored by more than 2000 government workers who do it every hour every day. Still social media has made its impact on the society in the sense that it has provided an outlet to the otherwise conservative Chinese people. Chinese social media users have also observed a shift in their preference among the social networking platforms. Many users have started moving to new social networking sites such as RenRen, the Chinese version of Facebook. While Qzone is still popular, its popularity is rivalled by the upcoming social networking sites. The shift is primarily driven by the fact that Chinese social media users now see the older social networking sites such as Qzone as immature and boring. The constant need to experiment in the social networking sites is not surprising since a young social media population is always looking to try out new things as have been observed in other countries as well. The current top social networking sites in China are given in the table below. Website Qzone Weibo (Tencent) Weixin (Wechat) Weibo (Sina) Renren Users 597 million 469 million 100+ million 368 million 140 million Application Blogs and multimedia sharing Celebrity news snippets Instant messaging and LBS Celebrity gossip and current news Profile based, sharing multimedia content

While Qzone numbers are big, they are self reported numbers and it is difficult to know how many users actually exist for Qzone alone. This is because there is a possibility that numbers for QQ the most popular Chinese social networking site may also be counted when Qzone is concerned.

Social Media in Hong Kong Hong Kong users are heavy social media users. They are also one of the biggest users of Facebook. A survey done by Blogher Facebook was accessed by 92% of the survey respondents, blogs also displayed a high interest with 77% reading blogs everyday and 52% writing a blog every day. Similar to China, Hong Kong social media users run on a very tight schedule and social media serves as an outlet for them. Also similar to China, Hong Kong social media users preferred device of access for social media is Smartphone. Social networking also has a big impact on purchasing decisions of Hong Kong social media users. It was reported that almost half the users make a purchase decision based on a blog they have read about the product or the service. The blogs therefore become very important for businesses especially those providing services because nothing works better than the word of mouth. Considering the life style of Hong Kong, this word of mouth is online and it can have a powerful impact, which could be positive as well as negative. When compared to other media types more than half the respondents of the survey rated social media as more influential than television in purchase decisions. The top social networking sites for Hong Kong as per comScore report are given in the list below Website Facebook Yahoo! Wretch Sina Microblogging Windows Live Profile LinkedIn Unique visitors (000) 3348 627 521 386 318 Average minutes per visitor 311.8 4.9 54.5 3 13.5

Apart from the above said websites YouTube is also very popular in Hong Kong with a reach of 67.4%. Twitter however has a long way to go with the current penetration being less than 1% in Hong Kong. Social medias importance has been recognized by the public and the private sector alike. Tourism board, restaurants, and similar other businesses are making sure that they make full use of social networking sites to promote their products and services. In order to gain a deeper insight into how social media is being used in Hong Kong, one needs to look into what Hong Kong users are doing on social networking sites. Apart from sharing about their personal lives on the blogs, they share news snippets, entertainment, food and recipes, technology & gadgets and health tips. While online platforms have always been a place for chit chat and gossip and to talk about things people like to discuss in masses such as politics. However in the case of Hong Kong, social media users here hardly discuss politics, as per the survey only 11% of the social media users in Hong Kong are discussing politics.

Social Media in Taiwan Unlike China, Taiwans policies towards use of digital media have been very liberal. Similar to China and Hong Kong though the penetration of mobile has been phenomenal. It is one of the leading devices to access internet and social media. 3G services were introduced in 2002 long before its Asian counterparts such as India. While microblogging is a popular activity in social media in Taiwan, twitter even though present does not lead the microblogging landscape. Plurk is the most popular microblogging platform in Taiwan. While Wretch was the most popular social networking site for Taiwan it was overtaken by Facebook in 2011. The table below lists the most popular social networking sites in Taiwan. Website Facebook Yahoo! Wretch Sina Yahoo Pulse Windows Live Profile Twitter Unique visitors (000) 11517 8300 1231 1044 639 Average minutes per visitor 338.5 31.1 1.9 3.3 6.7

Founded by the students from department of information engineering of National Taiwan University, PTT bulletin board system is possibly the biggest bulletin board system in the world. It is now administered by Electronic BBS society and boasts of 1.5 million members. There are sometimes as many as 150,000 users online at a time. The major instant messaging site in Taiwan is Skype. MSN messenger is also very popular. In case of video sharing, YouTube leads the other videos sites. Other popular video sharing sites in social media Taiwan are Tudou, mymedia.yarn.com, hichannel and youku. Social media has been a tool for activism for many in Hong Kong. A recent act of protest was against the media monopoly in Taiwan. The event where students organized protests was helped by social media platforms by serving as a tool to organize sit ins and protests faster and more efficiently than before when social media tools were unavailable. The rise in activism has also been attributed to the rising social network reach among the people in Hong Kong and many news articles have praised the role of social networks in creating awareness and helping people raise their concerns over issue such as the monopoly of media in Taiwan. It also helps people in getting their voice to the public administration peacefully. Even the government supports the role of this citizen journalism as an important part of keeping a watch over the traditional media. Governments participation is further highlighted through a website called Peopo which supports the open media environment in Taiwan. It allows for sharing of videos, photos and text. It combines the features such as TV channels, internet platform, workshops and other activities. Government officials have also realized the importance of social media and have started campaigning on the social media platforms. Most prominent names among these are Ma Ying-Jeou, Tsai Ing-wen, and James Soong. They have created presence on important social networking sites such as Facebook, Google+, Twitter and Plurk.

Social Media in Japan Social Media in Japan is undergoing transformation as the society goes under transformation. The very conservative nature of Japanese has gradually started to fade away and people have been more forthcoming with their views and opinion. This could be partly be attributed to social media which is bridging the gap between the world and Japan. While in terms of business this gap has closed quite some time ago, in terms of general Japanese people connecting to their counterparts around the world is largely social medias contribution to Japan. Like China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, Japanese social media is also largely Smartphone based. This is because Japanese started using social media long back before their western counterparts such as US did. Even in absence of smartphones the feature phone in Japan is fully capable of running internet and internet related applications just as well. Smartphone penetration is expected to pick up but in the mean time Smartphone based social networking sites such as Line have already picked up. Popular global social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are increasingly accepted in Japan now. In fact after the earthquake in Japan in 2011, the social media landscape dramatically changed from using networking sites which promoted anonymity to social networking sites which use real name and photos. After the earthquake people realized the importance of communication through social networking sites such as twitter and facebook to connect with their loved ones, as they proved to be more reliable source of information than the previously used social networking sites which had users aliases. Japan is possibly the only country where twitter is much more popular than Facebook. In response twitter has also released a special feature lifeline which informs of any breaking news, natural disasters or similar information and people can keep themselves updated with current events in real time. The top social networking sites in Japan are displayed through the table given below. Website Twitter Facebook Mixi Pixiv Hatena Bookmark Unique visitors (000) 21607 14382 13405 10094 5201 Average minutes per visitor 25.8 50 56.6 26.9 1.2

As previously stated Twitter rules the social media landscape in Japan. Mixi the previously popular social networking site in Japan has been losing its appeal. This is primarily due to the shift of perspective towards social networking sites among Japanese. Anonymity is no more the USP and this is where Mixi needs to work on. Social networking sites are not just platforms to raise voice in public or for connecting to friends and family but also an important emergency communication service in Japan. As social media further grows, one can expect to see Japanese social media users embracing more social media sites such as Pintrest, LinkedIn, possibly even Badoo. One thing is for sure though, that Japanese social media landscape is undergoing a change right now.

Social Media in South Korea South Korea has one of the highest penetration of internet in the world (95%) and to add to that 20 million smartphone users you would get a highly connected population. This is probably the reason why South Korea has many social networking platforms for people to share views, news and multimedia content. The blogging community is next only to China, and considering the difference in population in absolute numbers it is a big achievement. The rate at which Twitter is used is twice the world average rate. The political arena has long been affected by the sentiments of people on social media. An example of this is the loss of presidential election of Roh Moo-hyun in 2000. After his loss an online community was formed which illustrated the work done by Roh and possibly played a major role in his re-election in 2002. South Korean social media users have also used social media to raise their concerns over major public issues. To illustrate this argument we can look at the opposition of U.S. beef imports in 2008. A concern over mad cow disease being transmitted through beef from U.S. lead to online discussions and soon led to organization of demonstrations of protests throughout the country, possibly one of the biggest anti government protests in South Korean history.

Website Naver Cyworld Daum.net Facebook Nate.com

Unique visitors (000) 18575 17998 13294 7904 5183

Average minutes per visitor 56.9 64.6 93.4 157.7 39.2

The table above lists the top social networking sites in South Korea. While Facebook lies at 4th position, the most important medium of connecting with consumers by most South Korean companies. According to a survey done by KPR the sites which are aimed in order of their rank are given through the figure below.

Social Media in Singapore Social media in Singapore like most Asian countries relies heavily on mobile phones. According to a Neilson study almost 70% of the Singaporean social media users use mobile to access social networking sites. This is way above the global average of 47%. This is because of the very high penetration of smartphones and tablets in Singapore. Similar to the purchasing trends in Hong Kong, social media plays a major role in purchasing decisions of Singaporean social media users. According to Neilson, 68% of the Singaporeans made their decision about restaurants through the information obtained via social media sites and/or online reviews of the products. The highly social nature of Singaporeans means that they are well connected through social media and have a large peer circle. What this does is, it makes a lot of information available via social media to Singaporeans based on which their decisions are made. While there are good reviews, recommendations to friends and families, they are not hesitant to document online any unpleasant experiences with the product or the service. The involvement of consumers in Singapore does not just stop at reviews and recommendations with friends, but extends further to an active conversation online at brand pages with companies. They not only actively express their praise but also get involved when they have certain concerns regarding the product or the service. About 33% of Singaporean social media users interact with brands online. The major social networking sites in Singapore are given in the table below. Website Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Tumblr Windows Live Profile Unique visitors (000) 2235 528 385 319 202 Average minutes per visitor 278.4 32.2 19.4 85.4 2.7

As we can see here, Facebook is clearly the leader among social networking sites in Singapore. Lack of local social networking sites has allowed the global social networking sites create a strong footing in Singaporean social media landscape. Use of twitter is also rising in Singapore along with Facebook. Facebook launched facebook places in Feb. 2011. Taking advantage of its strong presence in Singapore, Facebook is trying to create applications and features which will allow it to compete with other social networking sites such as Foursquare. This way Facebook can maintain its dominant position and also improve on its offerings in Singapore. The position of Facebook currently and the active updates are a clear indicator to social marketers that Facebook is the platform to run the campaigns on. Not only it gives them the reach into a lot more audience, it also gives them more screen time. We can observe from the table above that Facebook also records almost 9 times the time spent by an average user. This basically simplifies the task of a social marketer in choosing a platform to engage with the audience.

Social Media in Indonesia Even though a highly fragmented geography limits the internet penetration in Indonesia, it still has managed to become one of the top countries for Facebook as well as Twitter. In 2011, it was Facebooks second largest market in the world and the third largest market for twitter. The fourth most populous country of the world is highly active on social media. It makes up for the loss of broadband by using mobile for its internet and social networking purposes. One of the reasons for internet being used on mobiles is also the price. Data use is very cheap in Indonesia because of the price wars between the three telecommunications giant in the country. The prices are so low that an Indonesian prefers buying an Indonesian sim even when in North America. Phones are cheap as well. The top social networking sites for Indonesia are given below. Website Facebook Twitter Multiply Yahoo! Pulse Slideshare Unique visitors (000) 10035 2877 1993 780 545 Average minutes per visitor 338.1 32.7 4.6 2.9 3.6

Facebook is clearly loved by the Indonesians as it registers almost 4 times the visitors than any other site and the time spent on Facebook is 10 times than any other social networking site. According to a report by Semiocast Jakarta the capital city of Indonesia was the number one city in terms of twitter produced in 2011. Considering the internet penetration, this is a huge. However, one thing is for sure that the social media population of Indonesia is at an experimental stage in terms of choosing their favourite social networking site. They hop from one site to another looking for the best experience. What this does is it provides opportunities to other social networking sites, global or indigenous to create a strong presence in Indonesia. Social networking sites such as Pintrest and Tumblr have already started cashing on the opportunity. For the social marketers though it creates a problem when considering long term contracts with any social networking site for their campaigns. While at present Facebook seems a safe bet, social marketers should be prepared to diversify their campaign plans in other social networking sites as well. The current distribution of social media users in Indonesia in terms of geographical presence can be a big help to social marketers. Most of the social media users are concentrated in big cities like Jakarta, and these will be the potential target demographics for various brands and their products. So campaigns which are city centric or geography centric would go a long way in Indonesia as compared to other countries where the social media users are more fragmented in terms of geographical location.

Social media in India Social media in India is dominated by the young segment and more particularly the young men segment which accounts for 84% of the 20.3 million active internet users in India. Of these 34% of the users come from the 8 major metro cities. Similar to its Asian counterparts, Indians are also more active on social media through mobile (82%) as compared to the internet users who access social media through devices other than mobile (72%). While email is still the top internet activity on mobile with 83% of the users from the top 35 cities accessing it, social media comes very close at 77% and may very likely take over becoming the top activity on internet in India. An overview of internet activities is given in the figure below.

The top social networking sites in India are given in the table below. Website Facebook Orkut LinkedIn Bharatstudent Twitter Unique visitors (000) 37600 9967 5775 5397 3546 Average minutes per visitor 221.8 21.4 15.2 3.2 8.2

As is always the case in a country without a strong local social networking site, Facebook leads the social networking sites by a fair margin both in terms of visitors and in terms of average minutes per visitor. While Orkut ranks second it is fast declining and makes it to the top 5 because of being an early entrant in the Indian social networking landscape. Considering Facebooks position in the list it is important to understand what social media users are doing on Facebook. The figure lists the top activities on Facebook as was recorded in a study done by IMRB.

Social Media in Russia Similar to China, Russian social media users have their own local favourites among social networking sites. While other global social networking sites such as Facebook or Twitter are not banned in Russia like in China, they are far behind the local competition. The table below lists the most popular social networking sites in Russia and we can observe that Facebook and twitter though make it to the top 5, they are nowhere near the most popular social networking site Vkontakte. Website Vkontakte Odnoklassniki Mail.Ru Facebook Twitter Unique visitors (000) 35473 27967 17312 10538 4097 Average minutes per visitor 491.7 339 31.6 28.7 9.5

Vkontakte and Odnoklassniki absorb the most time spent on social media by the Russian social media users. Vkontakte has 3 times the number of visitors when compared to Facebook and almost 9 times when compared to twitter. Another noteworthy point is the amount of time spent. When one sees the time spent on social networking sites by the Russian social media users you would notice that when seen in isolation, the average minutes spend on social networking site is more than social media users of most countries. In 2011, a dramatic surge was experienced during elections in social media activity. eMarketer estimated that there was a rise in the number of users by almost 25%. Even though the estimated rise turned out to be wrong, it did display how actively involved Russian social media users are, that their activity could give a false impression of actual number of users. While highly active social media population means a large audience for social media campaigns for brands, what social marketers should not forget, is that it also means a lot of engagement is required with the audience in terms of conversation. The whole campaign however successfully it might be initially, can backfire quickly if proper measures are not taken to deal with the audience in social media in Russia. It has been observed that online conversations have quickly gone viral and have grown sufficiently to form offline content. One of the examples of this would be Utkonos, which pushed content by paying bloggers. When this particular strategy became public that Utkonos was paying for positive reviews, the word Utkonos became a term in the blogging community. Anytime anyone was making extraordinarily positive comments about a brand, product or service, a question would be raised, are you utkonosing?. One good thing about Russian social networking sites are that they are demographically focused. For example, vKontakte has a younger population while Odnoklassniki has an older audience. This is helpful information for social marketers that need to target a particular demographics more suited for their brand.

Social Media in Canada In order to understand social media landscape of Canada completely one would need to understand that two types of social media users are present in Canada. The Anglo Canadians which primarily use the English stream of social media and French Canadians whose habits are slightly different than Anglo Canadians. Canadian users have been one of the most active users in social media from a long time. In fact Canadians were more active than even US users in 2011. While this did not stay for long nevertheless a new report by Ipsos says that 50% of Canadian population and 60% of online population in Canada now has a social networking profile. Another report of Media monitor says that every 3rd Anglo Canadian checks his social networking profile and updates on a daily basis. The table below lists the major social networking sites in Canada. Facebook leads the pack by a fair margin both in terms of unique visitors as well as time spent by an average user. Website Facebook Twitter Windows Live Profile LinkedIn Tumblr Unique visitors (000) 20114 4906 4676 4123 2491 Average minutes per visitor 470.1 19.9 4.2 16.3 105

The difference between Facebook and the second ranked Twitter in terms of unique visitors is almost 4 times, and in terms of time spent by an average user, Facebook records more than 20 times the average minutes spent. What is interesting in the table though is the position of Tumblr. While it is ranked 5th it still records 105 minutes of average visitor time compared to 19.9 minutes spent on second ranked Twitter. The demographics for users have also been changing. While young social media users (18-34) are more likely to have a profile on social networking sites (86%), other age groups have also been increasing getting in on the act. 62% of the users falling in the age category 35-54 now have a social networking profile and 43% of the 55+ years also have a profile on social networking site as has been found by Ipsos in their social media study in Canada. The rise in number of social media users was 4% in 2011, but what was significant was the number of times users visited social networking sites. Daily users of social networking sites increased by 10% and weekly users increased by 11%. Facebook while is the dominant platform, twitter and linkedin have been growing over the years. Twitter grew by 80% in 2011 and now one in every 5 user has a twitter account. One of the primary reason for more use of Facebook than twitter and linkedin is the ease of use. Twitter seems an alien platform for new users and linkedin also takes up a lot of time to get adjusted to. Canadian social media users have not restricted the use of social networking sites to just information gain and entertainment. They also use the social media platforms for emergencies as was found out by a survey done by Ipsos for Red Cross. The survey results show that emergency requests posted online get faster response as was felt by 1/3rd of the respondents. This is possibly due to increasing

use of social networking sites on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets in Canada. More than half of the respondents also felt it was necessary for emergency staff to have some sort of device to connect them to social media so as to help them respond faster and keep themselves updated. Social Media in Mexico Social media in Mexico has had slow growth owing to the lack of internet infrastructure. Another factor that hampers the use of internet and social media is that half the population of Mexico lies below poverty line. The current internet penetration of 40.5% is even lower than the Latin American average of 42.6%. As per eMarketers estimates, double digit growth is expected till 2016 and the current social networking population is approximately just over 30 million. The major social networking sites in Mexico are listed in the below table. Website Facebook Windows Live Profile Twitter Slideshare Fotolog Unique visitors (000) 18553 6060 3436 3075 2063 Average minutes per visitor 487 5.4 17.3 3.2 5.3

Facebook leads the social networking sites in Mexico with 18,553 users recording 487 minutes per visitor. Twitter while ranks third in terms of unique visitors, it records the second most time spent on a social networking site with 17.3 minutes. Twitter and Facebook play an unconventional media role in Mexico. In a country where conventional media is oppressed and subject to corruption, Mexicans have turned to social networking sites as their own information medium. While the social networks do not serve as a means to create awareness or organize protests, it is used more as a warning system. One example of this would be when in an underpass in Veracruz 35 bodies were dumped, instant messages appeared on twitter warning others to avoid the underpass. Warnings described a gunman with a mask standing at the underpass dumping bodies in rush hour. Mexican drug cartel also takes social media seriously putting a stop to any voices raised. The information disseminated through social media giving live updates about violent crimes in Tamaulipas, went dead within 24 hours. Similarly a twitter account @ValorTamaulipas suddenly disappeared after reporting the crimes in the state. In February 2012, a $47,000 reward was announced by the cartel for information on a social media account owner. The current state is not helped by the laws that are passed on social networking sites by the government. For example, Veracruzs state assembly declared using twitter or any other social networking sites a crime if used for undermining public order. It is expected that further such laws will be passed in other states as well. While constructive use of social media is present in Mexico with people using the platform to conserve old languages and connect with the world, the social media landscape of Mexico is more tilted towards violent crime reporting that anything else.

Social Media in Brazil Brazil the new social media capital of the world as is termed by the Wall street journal. Brazil has gained the title due to its young and vibrant social media population. Number of Facebook users in Brazil is only rivalled by US and it is also one of the top 5 markets for YouTube. Twitter also has quoted Brazil has one of its top markets. All this is happening at a time when Facebook is possibly reaching its maturity and has possibly started to leave its appeal. This is supported by the fact that while time spent on Facebook has decreased by 2%, in Brazil Facebook time has increased by more than 200%. Similar trend was seen for YouTube as it saw a drop in time spent globally (3%) there was a growth in time spent on YouTube in Brazil by 5%. Twitter time also increased by 41% in 2012 as compared to 2011. This vibrant social media landscape has attracted many agencies attention. According to Zenith Optimedia, the ad spending in Brazil is expected to grow by an additional $5.6 billion in the existing expected $76 billion. This figure surpasses the ad spending of countries such as India, Russia and Indonesia which are big markets for social marketers. Similar are expectations of eMarketer which predicts an additional $4 billion to be spent on ad spending. The major social networking sites in Brazil are given in the table below.

Facebook clearly leads the Brazilian social media landscape. However this was not the case for the initial years of Facebook in Brazil. Orkut was the biggest social networking site in Brazil initially and it still holds the second spot though the popularity of Orkut has been declining as Facebook grows. Growth has also been experienced by other social networking sites as has been previously discussed. Other social media sites which have shown growth are Vostu and Tumblr. Vostu gained 338% more visitors while Tumblr gained 206% more visitors. The rise in Vostus popularity brings the attention of many to the $2 billion that Brazilians spent on gaming in 2011. This will be another platform where social marketers can gain the target consumers attention by using and/or developing proper applications. Social media penetration n Brazil is very close to 100% of the internet users. There have been many reports quoting different penetration rates from 79% to 87%, but according to comScore the social media penetration is 97% in Brazil. Social media also plays a big role in purchase decisions among Brazilian social media users. A study by Oh! Panel found that 61.4% of the social media users look for information before buying a

product or service. Brazilians also use social media platforms to search for products (81%) and for discounts on products and services (75%). A highly active population is also very active with conversations with brands. The active conversations means that brands have a real opportunity to get in conversations with their target consumers. Any marketing campaign on social media needs to be ready to deliver a message and then get involved actively with the audience.

Social Media in Argentina Argentina recorded the maximum time spent by an average user on social networking sites in 2011 in Latin America according to a comScore report. When compared to the world it was second only to Russia. The time spent by different age categories tells us that young users spend the most time on social networking sites (15.4 hours) but other age categories also spend significant amount of time on social networking sites with an average of 8.25 hours. Female social media users are the major users of social networking sites with the average penetration of social media in female internet users is more than 90%. Argentina also ranks first in terms of time spent on social networking sites using a desktop. The time spent on social networking sites is 56% more than the world average of time spent on social networking sites by an average user per month as per a comScore report. The top social networking sites in Argentina in terms of unique visitors are given in the figure below

Major Social Networking Sites in Argentina

Badoo Sonico Fotolog T witter Windows Live profile Facebook

982 996 1607 2391 3059 11758

Total Unique Visitors

Facebook is the leader among social networking sites in Argentina. The popularity of facebook surpasses anyone by a fair margin, almost 4 times more visitors than the second ranked social networking site. Other popular social networking sites are windows live profile, twitter and fotolog. Use of social media has increased over the years in Argentina, and is catching up with the other popular internet activity using portals. Use of portal declined by 9% from 2010 to 2011 and at the same time use of social networking sites increased by 12.6%. Apart from entertainment which

marginally increased by 0.4% all the major internet activities on internet decreased. The increasing use of social networking sites has been slowly pushing back if not replacing other internet activities.

Social media in Chile Social media penetration among internet users in Chile is almost 98%. This penetration is more prominent in female social media users than in male social media users. Also here social media penetration is higher in 25-34 age group than the younger generation unlike most countries. Average time spent by a user on social networking sites is almost as good as Argentina with the youngest group recording 14.5 hours. Interestingly here the time spent on social networking sites fluctuates as we move up the age categories with more time spent by 45-54 age category than 35-44 age category. The major social networking sites are displayed through the table below.

Facebook leads as is common with all the Latin American countries. Other major social networking sites are windows live profile, twitter, fotolog and similar others. Social networking is quickly growing to be the most popular activity in Chile. Like Argentina, the most popular activity on the internet here previously was the use of portals however that is changing if we compare the figures of internet activities of 2010 vs. 2011. Use of portals declined from 34.2% to 25.3%, while the use of social networking sites had increased from 19.6% to 28.5%. Again like Argentina, entertainment is the only activity on internet which has shown slight growth, while all other activities such as instant messaging, use of portals, use of emails has declined. Social Media in Colombia While the time spent on social networking sites may not be as much in Colombian social media users, the social media penetration is nevertheless high (98.9%). Like the rest of Latin America, Female users are the major contributors towards this extraordinary high penetration of social media among the internet users in Colombia. In terms of time spent on social networking sites, apart from the youngest social media users age group (15-24) which spends on an average 11.5 hours, time spent on social networking sites by other social media users in the older age categories is significantly less, almost half the time spent when compared to the youngest social media users (6.2 hours). Also like Chile the time spent by social

media users in different age categories fluctuates because the 45-54 age group spends more time (6.4 hours) than 35-44 age group (5.8 hours). The major social networking sites in Colombia are given in the figure below.

No surprise here with Facebook being in the lead among all the social networking sites. Other major social networking sites are the same as the other Latin American countries with the exception being fotolog. Slideshare takes the fourth spot in the top social networking sites list. Social Media in Peru Social media in Peru is very similar to the Argentina in terms of pattern of usage and similar to Colombia in terms of figures. An average user spends 7.3 hours on the social networking sites but this figure is largely driven by the younger social media users of Peru. Youngest age group again leads with 13 hours. This is almost double the time spent by any other age category. The time spent then gradually declines from 7 hours for users in age group 25-34 to 6.8 hours, 5.8 hours and 4.9 hours in age groups 35-44, 45-54 and 55+ respectively. The major social networking sites in Peru are displayed through the figure below. The social networking sites are ranked in order of total number of unique visitors each site gets.

Facebook leads as usual however by not as large margin as we have seen in the case of other latin American countries. The margin however is still twice the number of visitors compared to the second ranked social networking site, windows live profile. Other major social networking sites are twitter, fotolog and Bligoo.

The internet population of Peru is just over 8 million in a population of almost 30 million. So there is a lot of potential for social networking sites as the internet infrastructure gets better more and more people would have access to the social networking sites. Social media penetration in Peru as of 2011 stood at more than 90%. This is again largely driven by the female social media users. social media penetration for age group 15-24 is 99.1% for female users, followed by a decline to 95.4% in 25-34 age group. After that the penetration increase in the next two age groups 96.6% from 35-44 and 98.3% for 45-54 for female users. It then again declines to 94.9% in the oldest age category 55+. While in the male users the decline is consistent with the only sudden increase in 55+ age group where it jumps to 96.5% from 92% penetration of 45-54 age group. Social Media in U.K. Social media landscape in U.K. is almost as developed as any other country. The importance of social media marketing has been recognized by the marketers in U.K. This is evident by the number of social media marketing companies present in U.K. and the plethora of social media monitoring tools available. Not only is the social media landscape developed, the social media user population in U.K. is also very vibrant. The statistics in social media be it the demographics or the time spent or the major social networking sites keep changing and it takes a lot of effort on the part of social marketers to keep up with the pace of changes. The major social networking sites in U.K. are listed in the table below. Website Facebook Windows Live Profile Twitter Slideshare Fotolog Unique visitors (000) 30068 7751 6202 4411 3166 Average minutes per visitor 456.9 23.9 23.5 5.3 7

Facebook leads the social networking sites with more than 4 times the unique visitors and almost 20 times the average minutes spent per visitor on social networking sites as compared to the second ranked windows live profile. While Facebook remains the dominant player among the social networking sites, rest of the social networking sites are close together, especially twitter and windows live profile. Google+ also has a growing number of users in U.K. In a survey done by IMRG 32% of the respondents said that they have a Google+ account. Social media users also use the platform to contact brands and interact with it. According to a study done by Mediasbistro in May 2012, 36% of the social media users use the social media platforms to interact with brands. Also a large proportion of the respondents (65%) prefer social media an interaction platform over call centres and 68% look at social media as their voice to the brands.

Social Media in Netherlands Netherlands is among the top 10 countries in the social media penetration in Europe as per a comScore report in 2011. From 15-54 almost 97% of the female population is actively involved in social media. For men, the participation declines after 45 (from 94% in 35-44 to 81.8% in 55+).

The major social networking sites are displayed in the figure below.

Facebook as can be seen leads the social networking sites in Netherlands. The local and previously first ranked social networking site Hyves stands at second position followed by twitter, linkedin and windows live messenger. However in terms of time spent Hyves still leads the social networking sites as is evident by the figure below.

Facebook took over Hyves in 2011 as the most popular social networking site, however unlike in other countries where the previously popular social networking site or the local social networking sites are experiencing decline, in case of Hyves, it is the growth rate which has been slower than Facebook.

Social Media in Germany Social Media in Germany has had different estimates from various agencies measuring the statistics for social media. While many say that the German social networking lags behind rest of Europe, according to eMarketer the expected 29.2 million in 2012 makes Germany the biggest social media user in Western Europe. The major social networking sites in Germany are given in the table below. Website Unique visitors (000) Average minutes per visitor

Facebook StudiVZ Sites Wer-KenntWen.de Deinpunkt.net Xing

36664 6702 4970 4316 4157

333.3 71.7 97.6 1.4 16.4

Facebook leads the social networking sites with 6 times the user than the second ranked StudiVZ sites and records almost 5 times the time spent by an average user. What is however noticeable here is that average minutes spent on all the top social networking sites is high. The only exception being Deinpunkt.net where average minutes spent per visitor is only 1.4. Social media users in Germany use social media platforms to interact with brands. As per a study by Tomorrow Focus Media, 66.8% of the respondents from a panel of social media were following a brand on social media and reading the posts and messages on the brand pages. A good percentage of the respondents (29.6%) shared posts and commented on the sites (26%). Expectations from brands on social media is very high among German social media users. 85.6% of the fans expect to be updated with information and offers, more than half of the brand fans (57.8%) expect customized content and 41% expect special offers on social media users. Social Media in France A new report says that French internet users spend on an average four hours on internet whether they are on a holiday, at work or on a weekend. 1.6 million new users joined social media in France in 2012. A report by Mediametrie gives us some quality insights into the French social media landscape. Some of the highlights of the report are given below 99% of the French population is aware about social media. 100% growth was experienced by Twitter in 2012. The twitter count has now reached 5.2 million, with 24% of them generating tweets every day. 3% of LinkedIns 150 million subscribers come from France. LinkedIn has consistently experienced a 60% growth in France, and 3 million visitors every month France is the best market for the videos sharing site Viadeo, accounting for 7 million of the total 50 million users of Viadeo.

French use social media for various purposes. The table below displays how much social media is used by French social media users to keep themselves updated.

The major social networking sites in France are displayed through the figure below.

Website Facebook Skyrock Windows Live Profile Viadeo Trombi

Unique visitors (000) 31638 8528 6185 3671 3658

Average minutes per visitor 320.7 39.6 7.2 9.6 3.7

Facebook as usual leads the social networking sites in France. It also records the most time spent by an average user on a social networking sites. Other major social networking sites are Skyrock, Windows Live Profile, Viadeo and Trombi. One interesting aspect of French social media landscape is that the awareness of social networks does not transform to participation in the social networking sites. This is evident by the following table below. Awareness Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Website Facebook YouTube Twitter Windows Live Messenger Copains Davant Daily Motion Google+ Deezer MySpace Picasa Percentage 95% 94% 89% 89% 84% 81% 79% 63% 61% 55% Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Participation Website Facebook Windows Live Messenger Copains Davant Deezer YouTube Google+ Picasa Trombi Twitter Viadeo Percentage 54% 46% 33% 25% 24% 21% 15% 14% 12% 11%

The table clearly displays that the awareness of popular social networking sites does not really mean that the French are actually using the site. For example, while 94% French know about YouTube only 24% actually use it. Similarly only 12% French social media users are actually using twitter while 89% show that they are aware about twitter. This could be attributed to the conservative nature of French population in general, where there is a considerable gap before information especially personal information or views are publicly shared. Social Media in Spain Social media in Spain has shown steady growth over the years. According to eMarketer social media penetration in the population of Spain has grown from 54% to 57% from 2011 to 2012 and is expected to grow to 66%, almost 2/3rd of the population by 2014. People use these platforms to share information in the form of videos, photos, reviews, even moods. It is used to connect with friends, family, and even to create and maintain a business network. The most active population on social media is the youngest age group (15-24) with almost 99% social media penetration among young internet users of Spain. This 99% penetration is also observed in the second age group of 24-34 year olds. However when it comes to time spent on social networking sites, the youngest generation (15-24) of social media users leave the 25-34 age group far behind

recording 9.4 hours compared to 6.1 hours on social networking sites. The propensity to share moods, reviews and knowledge sharing is also more in the youngest generation. However when it comes to sharing photos and their reviews the social media users of the age group 25-34 are more active than the youngest group. Something particularly interesting about the social media gender demographics is that male users display marginally more activity on social networking sites than female users. This is also true in case of social media penetration where the difference again is marginal, however significant in the sense that in most countries female users use the social media more and are more active on the activities on social networking sites. The major social networking sites in Spain are listed in the figure below. Website Facebook Tuenti Windows Live Profile Viadeo Trombi Unique visitors (000) 16630 7016 4491 3604 2254 Average minutes per visitor 290.3 316.5 6.2 20.9 17.1

Facebook leads the social networking sites in terms of unique visitors, however when it comes to time spent by an average users on the site, the second ranked social networking site Tuenti takes the lead. The new social networking site Tuenti is a major competitor of Facebook. The concept of the site sticks well with social media users in Spain, and this site has been gaining popularity. If the trend continues there is a good chance that it would take over Facebook in Spain in terms of unique visitors as well. Another interesting factor about social media landscape in Spain is that microblogging is more popular than profile based social networking sites in terms of time spent, where 12.9%people spent more than 2 hours as compared to 11.7% spending same time on personal profiles.

Social Media in Italy Social media in Italy has shown consistent growth and this growth is expected to continue. eMarketer predicts that almost 63% of the users will be on social media by 2014 growing from the present 52.5%. Social networking is already the third most popular activity on internet in Italy only behind search engines and portals. Social media in Italy is led by the female population, the only exception being the 25-34 year age group where male users beat the female users in terms of social media penetration by a small margin. While the social media penetration is higher in the 25-34 age category than the youngest age group (96% compared to 92%) the time spent by the youngest social media users (15-24) is almost double the time spent by the 25-34 age category (11.2 hours compared to 5.7 hours). While social networking sites gain popularity, the portals have been declining rapidly. This fall of portals can be attributed to the closure of the biggest blogging website splinter late in November 2011. Although the decline can be seen from 2009 or earlier, the closing of Splinter was a big blow to the Italian blogging culture. The major social networking sites in Italy are listed in the table below.

Website Facebook LinkedIn Splinder MySpace Windows Live Profile

Unique visitors (000) 19138 2499 2033 1821 1816

Average minutes per visitor 406 10 3.2 4.9 4.9

Facebook is unrivalled leader among the Italian social networking sites in Italy. It has 8 times more unique visitors and 40 times more time spent by an average user when compared to the second ranked social networking site LinkedIn. If Facebook is not considered among the list of top social networking sites, the competition between the rests of the sites is pretty even. In terms of time spent it would seem as if a big portion of the time spent on social networking sites is claimed by Facebook, as the average time spent on rest of the remaining top social networking sites is just about 6 minutes. There is however, a different top 5 social networking sites list if the results of a Neilson study are considered. These social networking sites are displayed through the figure below.

As we can see here Facebook remains the undisputed leader, but Twitter takes the second spot from LinkedIn pushing it to third position, and Badoo & Tumblr make to the list. In either case however, from a social marketers point of view, the social media platform to launch their brand campaigns remains the same, Facebook. Social Media in UAE Social media in UAE is more prominent than one would imagine. About 64% of the Arabs have a Facebook account. Almost 40% of Arabs are tweeting. 87% of these Arabs are following friends, 46% are following celebrities and 21% follow journalists. The friend circle of Arabs is however primarily restricted to their own country. This is indicated by the fact that 94% of the friends on facebook profile of Arab users come from their own country. What this tells us that while social media is used to connect with friends and family, it is not as much used to connect with the outside world. It could be said that in these terms Arabs are still restricted in their own space.

Arabs were avid bloggers with every second Arab social media user maintaining a blog. However that number has come down to 46% in 2013 when compare with 61% in 2012. Social media has however become one of the mainstream media for the Arab social media users. While most still see the news on television (72%) and social media accounts for a comparatively smaller portion of their media (59%), trust on sources of news from social media and internet is much greater. Social media has created waves in the political systems of UAE as well. A gulf activist Nabeel Rajab was arrested and is currently serving a three year prison term in Bahrain because of his poem posted online which called arab governments indiscriminate thieves. The Gulf states have passed a law making it a crime to post anything on the internet or social media which can cause damage to the state or its institutions, and the users found guilty will serve a three year prison term. Twitter has had its share of growth in Oman. According to Ahmed Al-Omran Saudi Arabia is growing at a phenomenal rate in terms of twitter users. He claims that twitter users increased by 3000% in one month in 2011. This growth is particularly impressive considering the fact that twitter was virtually non-existent in 2006. Simply a man and a woman involved in a conversation was once unthinkable in the gulf states but has now become possible. It is expected that even with the government regulations coming in the sheer amount of online content will be difficult to control, and this change driven by the young Arab social media users will continue to grow in the coming years. Social Media in Egypt Social media in Egypt has fuelled the ongoing revolution against tighter control exercised by the government. Because of that a lot of activity is seen on the social media and how people are acting on social media in Egypt are shown through the figures below.

The figure above shows the volume of traffic on social media in Egypt over time. What is noticeable here is that the traffic has been continuously decreasing after the Referendum day. The current state of affairs has also created many different conversation on social media and is represented through the figure below.

As we can see here that there are more negative sentiments online on different platforms such as twitter and facebook. This is largely driven by the ongoing unrest in the Egypt right now. The major language used on social media is 79.77% while only 14.08% use English. The peak hours for conversation on social media are between 8 p.m. to 11 p.m. Considering Facebook is the largest social network here this activity pattern is also seen on Facebook as can be seen in the figure below.

Twitter peak hours however differ slightly. Twitter peak hours are 01 a.m. to 03 a.m. and 01 p.m. to 04 p.m. Social Media in Turkey As of 2011 there were 23 million social media users spending 45.3 billion minutes on internet. Facebook is the top site where these minutes were spent. Facebook accounted for 13.1 billion minutes of the 45.3 billion minutes spent on internet. The social media penetration is high in Turkey with the female population driving the social media landscape. The figure below displays the social media demographics in terms of gender and age.

As we can see here the social media penetration is highest in the youngest generation (15-24) at approximately 97.3% of the internet users. Similar penetration is observed in the next age group 2534 year as well. While the penetration remains consistently above 95% among the female users, it declines from a peak of 98% in the youngest age group to 89.6% in the oldest age group.

Average engagement time on social networks also follows a similar pattern with 12.8 hours spent by the youngest social media users, and then the time spent declines sharply to 8. 3 hours. What is interesting though is that the decline is not consistent as we go up the age groups. The social media users falling in the age group 45-54 spent more time on social networks when compared with users from its younger counterparts age groups 25-34 and 35-44. Website Facebook Twitter Windows Live Profile Eksi Sozluk Uludag Sozluk Unique visitors (000) 21622 6347 5768 4591 3866 Average minutes per visitor 601.5 22.2 4.6 31.9 2.6

The major social networking sites in Turkey are given in the table above. As can be observed, 3 global social networking sites lead the pack here with Facebook being the undisputed leader among the social networking sites in Turkey. Facebook not only records more visitors but also significantly more time is spent by an average user on Facebook. One must note here that the fourth ranked Eksi Sozluk ranks second in terms of time spent leaving behind twitter and Windows live profile which are otherwise ranked before it in terms of unique visitors.

Social Media in Israel

Social media landscape in Israel is very similar to turkey in terms of demographics and time spent on social media. The figure below gives us the demographics in terms of gender and in terms of age. It displays the social media penetration among internet users in Israel.

As we can see here, that the age group 15-24 and 25-34 display the highest penetration of social media among internet users of Israel. While Female social media users display more social media penetration among all age categories, in the youngest age group, it is the male users which take a healthy lead displaying 99.5% penetration as compared to 87.8% among female users. Overall the social media penetration among internet users in Israel is consistently above 90% the only exception being the youngest female social media users.

Average engagement time is highest in the youngest social media users in Israel with 16.1 hours spent by an average user. While the time spent declines as we go up, it does not decline consistently across all age groups. In fact what we see here is that after 34 years the older age group show a marginal increase in the time spent on social networking sites with the age group 35-44 recording 9.7 hours compared to 8.8 hours in 25-34 age group. Similarly the users in age group 45-54 record a slight increase of 0.3 hours recording 10 hours spent by an average user in social networking sites in Israel as compared to 9.7 hours of the younger age group 35-44. The major social networking sites in Israel are displayed through the table below. Website Facebook LinkedIn Twitter MySpace Unique visitors (000) 3860 541 339 333 Average minutes per visitor 2589.6 25.2 2.7 4.1

DeviantArt

260

2.2

As is seen globally, Facebook accounts for more social media users in terms of number of visitors. It also records phenomenally more time than any other social networking site leaving the other sites in the list with an average of 8.5 minutes, and if LinkedIn is taken out of the equation, the average time spent is reduced to 3 minutes. Social Media in Kenya Social media in Kenya is high when looked in terms of social media penetration in internet users. However one must consider that internet access ins restricted not in just terms of infrastructure. Access to internet is also restricted by a poor economy where access to internet and thereby social media is a luxury for many in Kenya. The number of Kenyans using social networking sites such as Facebook and twitter stands at 1.6 million. Kenya also generated 2 million tweets in 2011. Despite these numbers, one will have to consider that using social media is a luxury for most Kenyans. In fact the cost of using a social media is so great that it equals to cost of feeding a family for couple of days. The internet access and the access to social media relies more on growth of mobile phone and data services. In a country with a population of 40 million, there are 29 million mobile phone subscribers. Kenyans have already shown their ease of using mobile services for e-commerce by using a service called M-PAISA, which allows them to transfer money to other mobiles. This service however does not require any internet, or SMS service. What can be taken away from Kenyas social media landscape is that since social media is a luxury, the most promising buyers of product and services will be the wealthy section, and this makes consumer targeting a little easier for social marketers with their brand campaigns on social media. Social Media in Nigeria Nigeria has the highest internet population in African continent. While the internet penetration is still on the lower side, the sheer number of internet users is enough to make it an important country in terms of internet and social media. Nigeria thereby also holds the most number of social media users in African continent. In fact of all the activities on internet, social media even tops the use of e-mails as has been reported in a study done by Eskimi. Social media in Nigeria is almost synonymous with Facebook and Twitter. While internet infrastructure is still in its nascent phase in Nigeria, Nigerian social media users have turned to mobile to access the social networking sites. 87.2% of the Nigerian social media users use a mobile device to access Facebook, which makes it the second largest population accessing Facebook via mobile in the world. In twitter, it produced 1,646,212 tweets in a 3 month period, ranking third among countries on the African continent in terms of number of tweets generated. Overall, more than half of the Nigerian social media users access social networking sites via mobile.

Social Media i South Africa

South Africa is one of the major countries in the African continent in terms of social media. With every 3rd person having access to internet in 2012, the number of social media users automatically increases. The following figure gives the social media penetration in South Africa in terms of age and gender demographics.

As we can see here the social media penetration among internet users in South Africa is consistently above 95% with the exception being the oldest female users of internet where the social media penetration is 92.9%. In the youngest age group the social media penetration is almost 100% ( 99.7% for male users and 99.4% for female users). Similarly among the users falling in the age group 25034 the social media penetration is 99.2%. With the exception of the youngest and oldest age group, Female users dominate the social media penetration rates.

The figure above displays the time spent by an average user on social networking sites. As we can see here, the youngest group spends the most time with 9.4 hours. The time spent then gradually decreases, as we go further up in the age groups. It slightly increases for the age group 45-54 to 5.3 hours compared to 5.1 hours as the time spent by users in the age group 35-44 but then it declines again to 3.7 hours for the oldest users of social media. The major social networking sites for South Africa are listed in the table below. Website Facebook LinkedIn Twitter MySpace DeviantArt Unique visitors (000) 4324 725 441 198 188 Average minutes per visitor 682.3 8.3 6 0.9 3.9

As can be observed from the table above, Facebook leads the social networking sites with almost 6 times the number of unique visitors and more than 8 times the time spent by an average visitor on the social networking sites as compared to the second placed LinkedIn. Other major social networking sites are Twitter, MySpace and DeviantArt. The average time spent on a social networking site if Facebook is taken off the list is less than 5 minutes. Clearly Facebook absorbs the majority of time spent on social networking sites by the South African social media users. Social Media in Scandinavia Social media in the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden is very similar, as the countries share a common cultural heritage, their online behaviour resembles each other. Social medias importance is recognized here as not only a platform for businesses to connect with their customers but also in Business to Business transactions. To start with Scandinavian countries boast of very high internet penetration with Norway recording 97% internet penetration, Sweden at 92% internet penetration, and Denmark at 89% internet penetration. Some of the facts about social media in Scandinavia are listed below. The most popular social networking site in Scandinavia is Facebook. Twitter and YouTube are both growing in Scandinavia. Sweden has been the key contributor to twitters growth. YouTube ranks fourth in terms of number of visitors in Scandinavia. LinkedIn and Google+ have also been growing. Goolge+ has mostly attracted young students as their most active users.

The various social networking websites cited above have had phenomenal growth in Scandinavia. Facebook ranks second in Denmark & Sweden and ranks first in terms of popularity among the social networking sites in Norway. Number of twitter users has doubled from 2011 to 2012 in Denmark, however the percentage of twitter users generating majority of tweets is relatively less. As of January 2012 there were 252,200 users of twitter in Norway of which 6,000 new accounts were registered every month. YouTube is the 4th most visited site in all the three countries. Brand activity on social networking sites especially Facebook is also very high. National brands are more popular in Denmark. Brands in Norway have an impressive 87% response rate to the queries of consumers, while Sweden has a 77% response rate. The major social networking sites for each country are displayed in the figure below. Denmark Website Facebook LinkedIn Windows Live Profile MySpace Twitter Sweden Website Unique visitors (000) Average minutes per visitor Unique visitors (000) 2872 639 316 280 223 Average minutes per visitor 328.5 15.8 3.4 2.5 4.5

Facebook LinkedIn Windows Live Profile MySpace Twitter Norway Website Facebook LinkedIn Windows Live Profile MySpace Twitter

4972 661 591 581 479

377.3 3.3 8.6 14.2 3.9

Unique visitors (000) 2593 389 340 327 237

Average minutes per visitor 419.5 13 12.9 4 2.6

The tables above list the top social networking sites as per comScores 2011 report on social media. As we can see here the top 5 social networking sites have Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter consistently in them, and while MySpace & Windows live profile are also present, they are likely replaced by YouTube and Google+ in 2012. Facebook however as always is in the lead, both in terms of unique visitors and in terms of time spent and the margin is large enough, so that one can safely bet, it will be a long time before Facebooks position will be challenged.

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