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Schematic Application Sketch

- Electrical controlled switch - Controlling of heavy load with low control energy - Galvanic separation between control and load circuit

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 2

Technical Requirements
Purpose The main function... The need... Control of electrical energy Amotor to operate with the control signal Separation of control and load Electrical connection Adaptation to surrounding Aspects Contact number and dimensions Voltage DC / AC Protection class creepage/clearence PCB, Plug in Realised by Contacts Coil

The consequence... The interface...

Insulation Pin configuration

The conditions...
General Purpose Relays EMEA

Space, packing, Dimensions ambient temperature


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Block Diagram
Primary Side Galvanic separation Contacts Secondary Side

Input

Relay coil

Output

Control: Coil voltage

Intermediate signal: Magnetic circuit

Contact switching voltage/current


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General Purpose Relays EMEA

Application Areas

Electromechanical Relays

Telecom Current: Voltage: Coil: Insulation: Load: low low DC low well defined

Automotive high low DC low well defined tough

General Purpose low to high low to high DC or AC high huge range of different loads able to switch mains voltage
Relay_Basics0900 Page 5

High lights: small


General Purpose Relays EMEA

Typical Application Area


Voltage [V] Contactors General Purpose Relays 10 Signal Relays 10
-1

General Purpose Relays: Load range: 5V DC ... 300V DC 5V AC ... 230 / 400V AC

10

10

0.1A ... 30A

10

-2

10

-1

10

10

Switching Current [A]

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 6

Principal Designs

Method of connection: PCB


General Purpose Relays EMEA

Plug in (need a socket) or PCB


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Magnetic Systems - Coils

DC-systems

AC-systems

monostable

bistable

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 9

DC - Relay Systems
Monostable Relays Bistable Relays

one coil operated UA1-A2 = Uin released UA1-A2 = 0V low power consumption 0.2 0.7W
General Purpose Relays EMEA

one or two coils SET: UA2 (-) / A3 (+)

RESET: UA1(-) / A3 (+) Hold by permanent magnet or remanent core

Relay_Basics0900 Page 10

DC - Bistable Relay Systems


Bistable Polarized Relays Bistable Remanent Relays

one or two coils SET: UA2 (-) / A3 (+) SET:

one or two coils UA2 / A3 (+-/-+)

RESET: UA1(-) / A3 (+) low power consumption approx.0.4W


General Purpose Relays EMEA

RESET: UA1 / A3 (-+/+-) high power consumption 1.2W

Relay_Basics0900 Page 11

Operating Voltages -Terms

UCoil [Volt]

UMAX

UNominal UPull-in Relay On state

UNon-operate

Relay in a not specified state

UHold URelease

Relay OFF state


General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 14

Coil Operating Range


nom inal

Voltage range depends on ambient temperature

200%

Coil voltage [ % of V

O perating range

V ma x V o p era te E=V nom E=0


V ho ld

100%

0% -40 -20 0 +20

Drop-out range +40 +60 +80

V releas e

Am bien t tem peratu re [ C ]


General Purpose Relays EMEA
Relay_Basics0900 Page 15

Electrical Contact, Designation


Contact Number Designation Make Contact Normally Open Contact (N/O) Schlieer Break Contact Normally Closed Contact (N/C) ffner Changeover Contact (C/O) Double Throw Wechsler Double Make Brckenschlieer (D/M) D 1 GB A USA SPST-NO Symbol

SP

Single Pole

21

C/O or SPDT SPST-NO DM

Make Contact Normally Open Contact (2N/O) Double Pole Schlieer All other configuration like 1pole possible

2A

2SPST-NO

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 19

Influences on Electrical Contact

Influences electrical

Parameters
z current z voltage

thermal z arc mechanical z friction z pressure ambient z dust conditions z gases chemical
z oxidation

Effect heating, melting, material migration, chemical reactions, fritting, electrical discharge, contact resistance melting of contact material, material migration deformation, wear, cold welding, contact resistance increased wear, particles, formation of chemical layers an corrosion contact resistance, inorganic and organic layers, corrosion

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 25

Influences on Switching Contact Depending on Load Range


Load range Main influences Contact material dry circuit zmechanical zgold plated <100mV, <10mA zchemical materials lowlevel switching <1V, <10mA zAgNi 0.15 intermediate level zmechanical zAgNi 10 zchemical <15V, z(AgSnO2) zelectrical <300mA z(AgCdO) power contacts zAgNi 0.15 z chemical z electrical zAgNi 10 10-400V zAgSnO2 300mA-30A zAgCdO Considerations
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Relay_Basics0900 Page 26

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Electrical Arc

RArc

Contact current U Supply voltage

Load

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 27

Electrical Arc - Effects with Ag Contacts


60 50 40 Switching Voltage [V] 30 20 10 No ignition of Arc 0 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Switching Current [A] 2.5 3.0 Cannot maintain Arc

Stable Arc Contact Distance [mm]

0.3 0.1 Arc extinguishes 0

General Purpose Relays EMEA

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DC Breaking Capacity
1000 500 W

DC Load Voltage [V]


200 W 100 W 50 W

100 10 W

20 W

10 0,1

DC Load Current [A]

10

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 29

Typical Loads for General Purpose Relays


Cooking plates, oven heatings Heatings, valves and motors in washing machines and dish washers Compressor motors for refrigerator or air condition Valves, ignition transformers, pumps in oil or gas heating systems Building control: several lamp loads, elevators, rolling shutters

q q q q q

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 31

Capacitive Load
Capacitive DC-Load
Capacitive AC-Loads

U,I

U R C

Ipeak U

Load

t
I I,U U

Delay of voltage rise

I=

U Re -t/T

= RC

rise time in ms

Preferred contact material: DC-Loads AgSnO, AgNi90/10 AC-Loads AgSnO, AgNi90/10

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 32

Inductive Load

$UF

I =

U R( 1-e-t/T) rise time in ms

L = R

Preferred contact material: DC-Loads AgNi, (AgSnO) AC-Loads AgCdO,AgSnO


Relay_Basics0900 Page 33

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Load Characteristics
Incandescent Lamp Load II/IN=10-15 Capacitive Load II/IN=20-40 (-100)

Motor Load II/IN=5-10

Solenoid Load II/IN=(3)-10-20

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 34

Relay Switching Behaviour

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 35

Contact Lifetime
Main influences:
Op e r a t i o ns

- Switching current

1.0E+ 07

Parameter: - Load voltage - Inrush current - Power factor - Ambient temperature - Switching cycle

1.0E+ 06

1.0E+ 05

1.0E+ 04 0 1 2 3 4 S w i tc h in g 5 6 c u r r e n t [A ]

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 36

Reduction of Lifetime at inductive AC-Loads

0,9 0,8 Reductionfactor F 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 1 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 Powerfactor cos
General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 37

Range of Application for Different ContactMaterials


Application range of different contact materials overlaps
Contact Material

Au AgNi 0.15 AgNi90/10 AgCdO

Choice of contact material is optimized according to relay construction


10
-3

AgSnO
10
-2

10

-1

10

10

Current [A]
General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 38

Strength of Contact-Materials
Load Character DC resistiv DC-inrush DC-inductiv DC / AC-low level AC-medium AC-heavy AC-inrush AC-inductiv AgNi0,15 ++ ++ ++ + AgNi 90/10 + + + + + + AgCdO AgSnO2 ++

++ ++ ++

+ + ++ +

Enviromental aspects

--

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 39

Application Range Silver Alloy Gold Plated


Voltage [V]

- Suitable for low level loads - Limited use at main loads according base contact material

10

10

1
Grey range: No electrical wear White range: Permanence of gold plating depends on number of operations

10

-1

10

-2

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

Switching Current [A]

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 40

Insulation Terms and Classification


Insulation characteristic Basic insulation Purpose Insulation for : Contact-contact in one circuit Insulation between different contact circuits Insulation Class 0 and Class 1 between : - Control and load circuit Supplementary insulation together Insulation Class II for : Protection against electrical shock with basic insulation Safe separation of load and control Double insulation circuit at safety extra low voltage Reinforced insulation

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 41

Insulation Terms and Classification

Contact behaviour Relays with micro contact gap Air-gap relay, cut-off relay (3mm contact gap) Safety relays

Purpose Switching of load, under insulation aspects the load circuit is to see like closed For separation of load and voltage supply Defined behaviour in case of failure

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 42

Insulation Requirements
Insulation is determined by appliction standards and depends on

q q q q q

Length of clearence Length of creepage Material data (CTI = Comparative Tracking Index) Environmental influence / polution degree Control and load voltages

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 43

Safety Relays
N.O. and N.C. contacts shall not close at the same time also when a spring breaks

Normal relay

Safety relay

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 44

Safety Relays
N.O. and N.C. contacts shall not close at the same time when N.O. is welded

Normal relay

Safety relay

> 0,5mm

General Purpose Relays EMEA

Relay_Basics0900 Page 45