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(LR-25049) TORQUE-TEISION RELATIONSHIPS AND-2, : STATIC PRELOAD LOSS OF HIGH STRENGTH, t l i i A i ! :. RESISTANT , A N D CORROSION RESISTANT AIHCP AET !

' '' ALLOY FASTENERS (Lockheed-California C o . ) .,

REPORT NO. DATE MODEL TITLE COPY NO.

Lfi L 3 u r 7

12-23-71

. i

TORQUE -TENSION RELATIONSHIPS STATIC PRELOAD LOSS OF HIGH ST HEAT RESISTANT, AND CORROSION RESISTANT AIRCRAFT ALLOY FAST

LOCKHEED * CALPFOIWNIA
A
DIVISION OF LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT

COMPANY
CORPORATION

IIEVISIOI\IS

I.

ABSTRACT

This r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d by the P a r t s and Equipment D e p a r t m e n t under


a n Independent Development P r o g r a m . It d e s c r i b e s t o r q u e - t e n s i o n and s t a t i c

preload. l o s s t e s t s conducted on high s t r e n g t h , heat r e s i s t a n t , and c o r r o s i o n r e s i s t a n t f a s t e n e r s that a r e c u r r e n t l y used o r intended f o r f u t u r e u s e i n Lockheed-California Company a i r c r a f t . R e s e a r c h and Testing C o r p o r a t i o n . Lockheed. A l l t e s t i n g w a s conducted by A l m a y

All f a s t e n e r h a r d w a r e w a s supplied b y

The r e s u l t s of t h i s r e p o r t m a y be u s e d to d e t e r m i n e the installation

t o r q u e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r optimum joint p r e l o a d .

The t e s t d a t a r e s u l t i n g f r o m this p r o g r a m w a s g e n e r a t e d b y wrenching the nut and w a s l i m i t e d to two installation c y c l e s . added l u b r i c a n t s w a s d e t e r m i n e d . The effect of two different

T h e s e l u b r i c a n t s w e r e MIL-T-5544, a

g r a p h i t e b a s e lubricant, and MIL-L-23398 (LAC -C34-1209A), a d r y f i l m

The conclusions of t h i s r e p o r t a r e that the installation torque r e q u i r e m e n t s of f a s t e n e r s v a r y due to f a s t e n e r m a t e r i a l s , l u b r i c a n t s u s e d , r a t e d s t r e n g t h of the f a s t e ~ e r ,f i n i s h e s , and installation cycle n u m b e r . In addition, e a c h

i n s t a l l e d f a s t e n e r i s subject to a l o s s of p r e l o a d d u r i n g the f i r s t 7 2 h o u r s a f t e r installation; t h i s l o s s m a y b e a s m u c h a s 11 p e r c e n t of the i n i t i a l p r e l o a d .

FORM 4020

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REVISIONS

11.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

T h e a u t h o r s w i s h t o acknowledge t h e valuable a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h i s p r o g r a m b y t h e following f a s t e n e r c o m p a n i e s : E l a s t i c Stopnut D i v i s i o n of A m e r a c e E s n a C o r p o r a t i o n , K a y n a r M a n u f a c t u r i n g C o . , I n c . , O m a r k I n d u s t r i e s P r e c i s i o n F a s t e n i n g S u b s i d i a r y , P. B. F a s t e n e r s D i v i s i o n of P a u l R . B r i l e s , Inc.

S t a n d a r d P r e s s e d S t e e l Co. , V a l l e y T o d e c o , I n c .

Sub-

s i d i a r y of T h e L a r n s o n S e s s i o n s Co. a n d Voi-Shan, a d i v i s i o n of VSI C o r p o r a t i o n

T h e a u t h o r s f u t h e r acknowledge t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of A l m a y R e s e a r c h a n d T e s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n i n p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e t e s t i n g , w h i c h w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d

SECTION ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T A B L E O F CONTENTS LIST O F T A B L E S INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE CONC LUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS PARTS TESTED TEST SPECIMENS T E S T PROCEDURE DISCUSSION O F T E S T RESULTS APPENDIX LIST O F R E F E R E N C E S BIBLIOGRAPHY

PAGE

ii iii

I D C , , P E 7 0 / 5 2 2 , J. B . B i e r b o w e r to G,. V?. D a v i s , D a t e d 7-28-70, Subject: T o r q u e - T e n s i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p E n g i n e To P y l o n A t t a c h B o l t s


DISTRIBUTIGN LIST

FORM 4 0 2 0

LOGRHEED
A
D I V I S I O N O F

CdLIFOIWMIIA
LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT

COMPAEQY
CORPORATION

REVlSlONS

IV.

LISTOFTABUS

TABLE

TITLE TORQUE-TENSION TEST SPECIMEN COMBINATIONS

PAGE

I1

PRELOAD- LOSS TEST SPECIMEN COMBINATIONS

L O C K H E E D * CALlIleORlPaBlIA
A

COMPANY
CORPORATION

DIVISION

OF

LOCKHEED

AIRCRAFT

REPORT NO.

LR

49

S h e a r , tension, and fatigue c r i t i c a l bolts and nuts r e q u i r e different installation torque l i m i t s i n o r d e r L o achieve optimum joint preload. Fatigue-

sensitive, highly loaded joints a r e subject to p r e m a t u r e failure of the s t r u c t u r e o r f a s t e n e r i f the f a s t e n e r installation torque i s below optimum. An installation

torque g r e a t e r than optimum can c a u s e p r e m a t u r e fastener failure by inducing preloads g r e a t e r than the f a s t e n e r yield strength.
'1. P

Torque -tension relationships

for alloy s t e e l , cadmium plated bolts and s t e e l , cadmium plated, d r y film l u b r i c a t e d nuts a r e well documented (1). T h e s e established relationships a r e available to d e s i g n e r s via various r e f e r e n c e manuals. The f i r s t objective of

this test p r o g r a m was to establish torque-tension relationships for f a s t e n e r s of m a t e r i a l s other than those a l r e a d y documented. It had been suggested that This l o s s

fastener p r e l o a d attained f r o m torque i s subject to a l o s s with t i m e .

m a y be a r e s u l t of relaxation in the joint o r r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e c r e e p i n the fastener. T h i s phenomena h a s not been investigated to any g r e a t degree by The second objective of this p r o g r a m was to d e t e r m i n e

p r i o r investigators.

the magnitude of p r e l o a d l o s s a s a function of t i m e for f a s t e n e r s that a r e c u r r e n t l y i n use.

After this t e s t p r o g r a m was initially defined a recent torque-tension t e s t r e p o r t ( 2 ) p r e p a r e d by Almay R e s e a r c h and Testing Corporation under a NASA contract was m a d e available to us. After review of this t e s t r e p o r t our proposed The two p r o g r a m s now comple-

p r o g r a m was r e v i s e d to eliminate duplication. ment each other.

'::Numbers in p a r e n t h e s i s r e f e r to r e f e r e n c e s l i s t e d in the Appendix,

FORM 4OZD

BOCKHEED
A D I V I S I O N O F

~ A L I F O R M I A COMPANY
L O C K H E E D AIRCRAFT CORPORATION REPORT NO. PAGE NO.

REVISIONS

V.

INTRODUCTION (C ontinued)

Almay R e s e a r c h and T e s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n w a s s e l e c t e d to conduct the t e s t i n g f o r t h i s p r o g r a m . A l m a y w a s chosen because:


1 ,

they h a d j u s t

completed the torque -tension study f o r NASA (which r e s u l t e d i n a r e p o r t of o v e r 700 p a g e s , s e e Ref 2), 2. they w e r e located i n the L o s Angeles

a r e a s o t e s t i n g could be m o n i t o r e d and coordination could be conducted e a s i l y , and 3. t h e i r e s t i m a t e of c o s t w a s i n line with budget predictions.

T e s t i n g w a s conducted u n d e r the s u p e r v i s i o n of M r . H a r r y S. B r e n n e r , D i r e c t o r of R e s e a r c h . Mr. B r e n n e r o f f e r e d to provide a w r i t t e n r e p o r t , It w a s

b e s i d e s the t e s t data r e q u i r e d b y c o n t r a c t a t no additional charge.

f e l t that t h i s r e p o r t , which i n c l u d e s o b s e r v a t i o n s , photos, d e s c r i p t i o n of t e s t equipment, and c o m m e n t s , would add g r e a t l y to the value of t h i s program. F o r t h i s r e a s o n M r . B r e n n e r l s offer w a s accepted. His

r e p o r t ( 3 ) h a s b e e n submitted to the Lockheed-C a l i f o r n i a C ompany l i b r a r y

OBJECTIVE

The f i r s t objective of t h i s p r o g r a m was to provide torque-tension d a t a f o r bolts and nuts f r o m which installation torque r e q u i r e m e n t s could be determined.

The second objective of this p r o g r a m was to d e t e r m i n e the magnitude of any s t a t i c p r e l o a d l o s s , a s a function of t i m e , so that i t s significance could
be established.

FORM 4320

LOCKHEED * C A L l F O R N l A
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COMPANY
CORPORATION

D I V I S I O N

O F

LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT

REVISIONS

VII.

CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS

The t e s t r e s u l t s will provide a i r c r a f t d e s i g n e n g i n e e r s with a c c u r a t e


torque--tension r e l a t i o n s h i p s f r o m which f a s t e n e r o p t i m u m i n s t a l l a t i o n torque l i m i t s (can be d e t e r m i n e d .

The d a t a g e n e r a t e d b y this t e s t p r o g r a m m a y r e s u l t in: ( 1 ) longer lived, m o r e r e l i a b l e a i r c r a f t , ( 2 ) i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of i n s t a l l a t i o n

torque l i m i t s and m e t h o d s , and ( 3 ) extending the life of the f a s t e n e r wrenching surfaces.

It i s r e c o m m e n d e d that f u r t h e r torque-tension t e s t s be conducted on high s t r e n g t h , heat r e s i s t a n t , c o r r o s i o n r e s i s t a n t f a s t e n e r s . The object of

t h e s e t e s t s would be to d e t e r m i n e the influence on joint p r e l o a d due to:

( 1 ) F a s t e n e r yield to ultimate r a t i o c a u s e d b y flush, hex, and


12-point bolt head configurations, ( 2 ) Wrenching the bolt v e r s u s wrenching the nut,

( 3 ) Nut configuration (thin wall, thick wall, and plate nut t y p e s ) ,


( 4 ) Nonlocking v e r s u s self-locking n u t s ,

( 5 ) Varying the t h r e a d pitch f r o m fine to c o a r s e ( i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r


" i n t e r m e d i a t e " pitch of f u t u r e m e t r i c s t a n d a r d s ) ,

( 6 ) Varying w a s h e r m a t e r i a l s , h e a t t r e a t l e v e l s , f i n i s h e s , and
dimensions,

FORM 4 0 2 3

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C A L I F O R N I A
L O C K H E E D AIRCRAFT

COMPANY
CORPORATION REPORT NO.

REVISIONS

C ONC LUSIONSfREC OMMENDATIONS (Continued)

( 7 ) 15 i n s t a l l a t i o n - r e m o v a l c y c l e s with and without added l u b r i c a n t s


and m e t h o d s of achieving m i n i m u m v a r i a t i o n between c y c l e s ,

(8) S e a l a n t s f o r e i t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l o r d i s s i m i l a r m e t a l protection,

( 9 ) Other f a s t e n e r m a t e r i a l s .

An example i s Multiphase (MP-35N), Multi-

a p r o p r i e t a r y m a t e r i a l of the S t a n d a r d P r e s s e d S t e e l Co.

p h a s e h a s s e v e r a l p r o p e r t i e s that a n excellent f a s t e n e r alloy should have. It i s elevated temperature resistant, h a s a very

low m a g n e t i c p e r m e a b i l i t y , i s v e r y c o r r o s i o n r e s i s t a n t , h e a t t r e a t a b l e to 260 KSI m i n i m u m u l t i m a t e t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h , and dynamically i t i s a t l e a s t equal to the b e s t of the available noncorrosion resistant materials. It i s hoped that any f u t ~ r e

torque -tension t e s t p r o g r a m would include sufficient quantities of MP-35N bolts s o t h a t t o r q u e - t e n s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p data f o r t h i s m a t e r i a l could be established,

F u t u r e p r e l o a d l o s s s t u d i e s a r e a l s o recommended,

The effect of

l o s s in the joint n e e d s to be determined. vibration on p r e l o z ~ d

FORM 4020

CONC LUSIONS /RECOMMENDATIONS (Continued)

F i n a l l y i t i s r e c o m m e n d e d that the data g e n e r a t e d by t h i s p r o g r a m be r e d u c e d into a f o r m m o r e r e a d i l y u s e a b l e , by d e s i g n e n g i n e e r s , in specifying installation torque l i m i t s f o r optimum joint preload. shoi~ld be published i n the S t r e s s M e m o Manual. T h i s information

LOCKHEED
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~ A L I F O R N I A G ~ M P A N V
LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT CORPORATION REPORT NO. PAGE NO.

iFiEv!S!oNS

LR 25049
-i

VIII

PARTS TESTED

The p a r t s t e s t e d a r e shown i n T a b l e s I and 11. p a i r e d a s shown in the t a b l e s .

These p a r t s were

The t a b l e s a l s o show that the p a r t s w e r e

t r e a t e d e i t h e r a s a tension combination o r s h e a r combination, and the added l u b r i c a n t u s e d , if any.

In s o m e c a s e s the a s r e c e i v e d p a r t s w e r e only t e s t e d with added lubricants. It was f e l t that t h e s e p a r t s should always be i n s t a l l e d with added

l u b r i c a n t s i n o r d e r to m i n i m i z e the installation torque r e q u i r e m e n t s , and that the adding of a l u b r i c a n t would provide the m o s t c o n s i s t e n t torque-tension r,elationships between s p e c i m e n s and be tween installation c y c l e s .

FORM 402D

TABLE I - T o r q u e - T e n s i o n T e s t Specimen C ornbinations

NAS6404U15 NAS6405U31 NAS6406U 34

NAS129lC4M NAS1291C5M NAS1291C6M 09LH9074-8

A s Received

NAS6404U15 NAS6405U3 1

LH7875-4
A s Received

As Received

MIL-T -5544

NAS6406U34

NAS1291C6M
MIL-T -5544

NAS6304U16 NAS6405U31 NAS6406U34

MIL-T-5544

MIL-T -5544

: S o u r c e s of m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s p a r t n u m b e r s a r e shown below Table 11.

LOCKWEED
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D I V I S I O N O F

CALiFORNIA
L O C K H E E D AIRCRAFT

COMPANY
CORPORATION REPORT NO. PAGE NO.

RLVISIoNS

TABLE Bolt P a r t No.

I (Continued)
g :

Nut P a r t NO.

Combination Rating

Lubrication Condition

Tension

MIL-T -5544

Shear

MIL-T -5544

Tension

A s Received

Tension

n/IIL-T -5544

Tension

Tension

Tension

Tension
+ : S o u r c e s of m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s p a r t n u m b e r s a r e shown below Table 11.

FORM 4020

T A B L E I1 - P r e l o a d L o s s T e s t Specimen Combinations

NAS1103-12 NAS1104-17D NAS1105-22D

MS2 1 0 4 2 L 3 MS2 1042L4 MS2 1042L5

A s Received

MS21250-05022 MS21250-06024

MIL-T-5544

l~lS21250-05022

MIL-L-23398

NAS6404U15

A s Received

NAS6403U12 NAS6404U15 NAS6405U31 NAS6406U34

LH7875-3 LH7875-4 LH7875-5

As Received

NAS6405U31

NrlS1291C5M

As Received

NAS6303U28D

NAS1291C5M NAS1291C6M

A s Received

s:~

S o u r c e s of m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s p a r t n u m b e r s a r e shown below.

FORM 4020

DIVISION

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CORPORATION REPORT NO.

T A B L E I1

(Continued)

NAS6303U13D NAS6304U17D NAS6305U34D

MS2 1 0 4 3 -3 MS2 1043 -4 MS2 1043 -5

A s Received

VEP220555-4-16 VEP220555-5-22 VEP220555-6-22

LH10205-4 LH10205-5 LH10205-6

M I L - T -5544

7071SV6-23

MIL-T-5544

MIL-T-5544

MIL-T-5544

NOTE: A l l f a s t e n e r c o m b i n a t i o n s t e s t e d w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e tension rated. There w e r e no s h e a r r a t e d fastener combinations tested.

:
BMN4122

P a r t Number Series

Manufacturer Omark ESNA Valley Todeco Standard P r e s s e d Steel

L,H10205, LH7559, LH7875, 109LH9074 VEP220555 4 8 F T , 69678, 696.80, 70718, 72914, 73178

LOCKHEED
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i a e M p A w y
CORPORATiON REPORT NO. PAGE NO.

14 D I V l S l O N O F L O C K H E E D

IX, TEST SPECIMENS


The t e s t s p e c i m e n s c o n s i s t e d of a bolt, a nut, 2 w a s h e r s , a n d a load c e l l a s s e m b l e d i n a fixture. that l o a d s could be determined. The load c e l l s utilized s t r a i n gages s o T h e s e load c e l l s w e r e designed to c o m -

pensate f o r bending and & e r e f o r e bending i n the t e s t s p e c i m e n did not effect the load r e a d i n g s . The a r r a n g e m e n t of the t e s t s e t up i s r e p r e s e n t e d

FORM 4020

FIGURE I

T E S T SET U P

LOCKHEED * CAL11FORNrA
A
DIVISION OF LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT

COMPAHY
CORPORATlON REPORT NO. PAGE NO.

REViSIONS

X.

TEST PROCEDURE

All t e s t s w e r e p e r f o r m e d during the p e r i o d between S e p t e m b e r 1, 1971 and D e c e m b e r 23, 1971.

111 o r d e r

to p r e l o a d the b o l t s to l o a d s between 8 0 and 9 0 p e r c e n t of

yield s t r e n g t h i t w a s n e c e s s a r y to d e t e r m i n e bolt-nut combination yield strengths. Two m e t h o d s w e r e p e r m i t t e d . The f i r s t method w a s i n a c c o r d a n c e

with T e s t 8 of MIL-STD-1312.

T h i s involves loading the nut and bolt axially Bolt yield s t r e n g t h The second

i n a t e n s i l e machine and obtaining a load-deflection c u r v e .

w a s then d e t e r m i n e d using J o h n s o n ' s 2 / 3 a p p r o x i m a t e method. method utilized the torque-tension t e s t f i x t u r e .

Using a torque w r e n c h , the Torque and s t r a i n

nut was turned on to the bolt in i n c r e m e n t s of t o r q u e . were recorded for each increment.

Torque w a s i n c r e a s e d until s t r a i n r e a d i n g s

indicated that the bolt-nut combination had b e e n loaded p a s t yield point o r to failure. In subsequent t e s t s the f a s t e n e r s , w e r e loaded p r o p o r t i o n a l to the

yield s t r e n g t h a s d e t e r m i n e d b y e i t h e r of t h e s e m e t h o d s .

T o r q u e - tension t e s t s w e r e conducted i n a c c o r d a n c e with T e s t 15 of

MIL-STD- 1312 except f o r the following.

C o m p r e s s i o n load c e l l s w e r e u s e d

i n conjunction with torque w r e n c h e s to d e t e r m i n e the t o r q u e - t e n s i o n relationships. w e r e obtained. The load c e l l s w e r e c a l i b r a t e d and c a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e s Torque w r e n c h e s w e r e a c c u r a t e to within i6 p e r c e n t .

FORM 402D

L O C K H E E D
A DIVISION OF

CALIFORNIA COMPANY
AIRCRAFT CORPORATION REWRT NO. PAGE NO.

LOCKHEED

REVlSlOfqS

LR 25049
15

X.

TEST PROCEDURE (C ontinued)

Countersunk w a s h e r s w e r e placed under bolt h e a d s , and plain w a s h e r s w e r e placed under the nut. T e s t specimens w e r e assernbled in the t e s t Torque w a s applied in i n c r e m e n t s

fixture a s r e p r e s e n t e d by F i g u r e I.

until s t r a i n readings approached values indicating that the d e s i r e d preload of 80 to 90 p e r c e n t of bolt-nut yield strength h a d been reached, The

f a s t e n e r w a s then d i s a s s e m b l e d and the procedure was r e p e a t e d to obtain a second s e t of datum points. Where lubricants w e r e added, they w e r e

applied to bolt t h r e a d s and nut-washer interface in a conservative manner. The bolt head w a s held stationary and the nut w a s turned onto the bolt in all cases. T h r e e specimens w e r e tested f o r each t e s t condition.

The p r e l o a d - l o s s t e s t s utilized the same t e s t fixtures.

The bolt-

nut combination w a s preloaded to 80 to 9 0 p e r c e n t of yield a s indicated by s t r a i n readings. S t r a i n readings w e r e made a t one hour i n t e r v a l s for the

f i r s t eight h o u r s , twice in the next 24 h o u r s , and daily for the next two days. Total time f o r each t e s t w a s not l e s s than 70 h o u r s . w a s to the nut with the bolt held stationary. Application of torque

Lubricants, where used, w e r e

applied to the bolt t h r e a d s and nut-washer i n t e r f a c e in a conservative manner. The initial s t r a i n readings w e r e made while the installation seating torque w a s maintained. The second s t r a i n reading was made 3 minutes a f t e r the

110CPdlHEED
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OF LOCKHEED A I R C R A F T CORPORATION REPoRT NO. LR 25 049 PAGE NO. 16

X.

TEST PROCEDURE (Continued)

torque w r e n c h w a s r e m o v e d f r o m the f a s t e n e r . t e s t e d f o r e a c h t e s t condition.

Three specimens were

A.11 testing w a s conducted a t r o o m a m b i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e and humidity.

FORM 4020

D I V I S I O N

OF

LOCKHEED

A I R C R A F T

CORPORATION

XI.

DISCUSSION O F TEST RESULTS

The reduction of the t e s t d a t a w a s beyond the scope of t h i s p r o g r a m and t h e r e f o r e no specific r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r installation torque l i m i t s a r e made herein.

G e n e r a l l y speaking the torque - tension t e s t s indicated that t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between the 3 individual s p e c i m e n s i n a given group and between the g r o u p s of s p e c i m e n s of e a c h t h r e a d s i z e . a l l g r o u p s of F o r example, f o r

. 1900-32 t h r e a d e d

f a s t e n e r s , i n s t a l l e d to 40 inch pounds of

torque, t h e r e w a s a d i f f e r e n c e of 1, 739 pounds i n the induced bolt p r e l o a d between the lowest and highest v a l u e s . F o r 160 KSI tension r a t e d f a s t e n e r s T h i s c a n be

t h i s aznounts to 50% of the m i n i m u m u l t i m a t e t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h .

a t t r i b u t e d to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a t e r i a l s , f i n i s h e s , l u b r i c a n t s , and the configuration of the p a r t s t e s t e d . T h i s amount of v a r i a t i o n would indicate that

one s e t of g e n e r a l torque l i m i t s i s not going to utilize e a c h f a s t e n e r at i t s optimum capability.

P r e l o a d l o s s t e s t s showed s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the f a s t e n e r p r e l o a d a s a r e s u l t of the i n s t a l l a t i o n torque, however, the object of this p o r t i o n of the p r o g r a m w a s to d e t e r m i n e how l o s s of f a s t e n e r p r e l o a d v a r i e s i n a s t a t i c joint as a function of t i m e . It w a s d e t e r m i n e d that e v e r y s p e c i m e n l o s t s o m e of i t s The g r e a t e s t l o s s e s

preloa.d, and the l o s s v a r i e d between 1 and 11 p e r c e n t . 0ccuri:ed i n the f i r s t eight h o u r s a f t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n .

The p r e l o a d a p p e a r e d to

b e stabilizing by the end of the 7 2 hour o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d .

LOCKHEED
A D I V I S I O N OF

CALIFORNIA
LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT

e o w ~ n i ~ v
CORPORATION
REPORT N
PAGE NO.

REVISIONS

XI.

DISCUSSION O F TEST RESULTS (Continued)

The extensive detailed t e s t r e s u l t s a r e r e c o r d e d in Almay R e s e a r c h

and T e s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n R e p o r t N u m b e r A5417, and i s available f r o m Locklieed-California Compzny l i b r a r y . The a c c e s s i o n n u m b e r i s 72-3296,

F o r thos6 i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r study of torque-tension r e l a t i o n s h i p s a bibliography of r e c e n t publications i s appended to this r e p o r t .

The appendix a l s o includes a n IDC which r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s of a torque-tension t e s t on the I inch d i a m e t e r VEP220555 bolts and LH10205 nuts.
T h i s IDC h a s been included b e c a u s e this f a s t e n e r i s p a r t of the s e r i e s t e s t e d

in t h i s p r o g r a m .

Since the information i n t h i s IDC supplements the data. in

this r e p o r t , it h a s been included a s p a r t of t h i s r e p o r t .

FORM 4029

REPORT NO.

APPENDIX

LOCHWEED
A D I V I S I O N OF

C A L 1 F C ) R M i A COMPLaaHV
AIRCRAFT CORPORATION REPORT NO. PAGE NO.

LOCKHEED

iREViS!alNS

LIST OF REFERENCES

(1)

J . I. P R I C E a n d D. K . T R A S K - T h e R e l a t i o n B e t w e e n T o r q u e a n d B u r e a u of N a v a l W e a p o n s T e n s i o n f o r High S t r e n g t h F a s t e n e r s . ( B U W E P S ) R e p o r t No. R U E - 3 4 3 - 6 1 - 1 . P r e p a r e d by t h e N a t i o n a l B u r e a u of S t a n d a r d s , A u g u s t 1 9 6 1 . U n c l a s s i f i e d

(2)

H. S. B R E N N E R - D e v e l o p m e n t of T e c h n o l o g y f o r I n s t a l l a t i o n of Mechanical F a s t e n e r s . National Aeronautics and Space Admini s t r a t i o n R e p o r t No. NASA C R -1 0 3 1 79 ( N 7 1 - 2 6 5 6 8 ) . P r e p a r e d by A l m a y R e s e a r c h a n d T e s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . 1 9 7 1 . U n c l a s s i f i e d

(3)

H. S . B R E N N E R - R e s u l t s of T o r q u e - T e n s i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p S t u d y P r o g r a m of V a r i o u s S t r i l c t u r a l B o l t s a n d M a t i n g N u t s S u b m i t t e d by T h e L o c k h e e d - C a l i f o r n i a C o m p a n y , B u r b a n k , C a l i f o r n i a . A l m a y R e s e a r c h a n d T e s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n R e p o r t No. A 5 4 1 7 , D e c e m b e r 23, 1 9 7 1 . U n c l a s s i f i e d

1 I

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A n d r e w J. A r n o l d i - W h a t ' s a Tight F a s t e n e r ? , A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , August, 1971, p g s 24-27 T h o m a s C . B a u m g a r t n e r and F r a n c i s R . K u l l D e t e r m i n i n g P r e l o a d i n a B o l t e d Joint. M a c h i n e D e s i g n , F e b r u a r y 13, 1964, R e p r i n t


V

H a r r y S. B r e n n e r - F a s t e n e r Specifications, A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , August 1964, R e p r i n t R o b e r t A. D e g e n - P r e v a i l i n g - T o r q u e L o c k n u t s What T h e y A r e and W h e r e T h e y Should B e Used, A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , J u n e 197 0, p g s 30-34 R o b e r t A. Degen - P r e v a i l i n g - Torque Locknuts What T h e y A r e and W h e r e T h e y Should B e U s e d . . . , P a r t 2 A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , J u l y 197 0, p g s . 28-31 R a l p h J. E r i s m a n - T o r q u e - T e n s i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p s of T h r e a d e d F a s t e n e r s , F a s t e n e r s , Winter 1 9 6 8 / 6 $ , Volume 23, No. 4, p g s 9-11 R o b e r t J . F i n k e l s t o n - How M u c h Shake C a n B o l t e d J o i n t s T a k e ? , M a c h i n e D e s i g n , O c t o b e r 5, 1972, p g s 122-1 25 J a m e s E . F o i s y - A n a l y s i s of Nut and B o l t T o r q u e s , P a r t 2 A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , J a n u a r y , 1968, p g s 2 0 - 2 2 S a m u e l C . G a m b r e l l , J r . - Why B o l t s L o o s e n M a c h i n e D e s i g n , O c t o b e r 24, 1968, p g s 163-167 F r a n k L. G i l l - B a s i c F a s t e n e r F u n c t i o n s i n E n v i r o n m e n t s of M e c h a n i c a l S t r e s s , P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t U. C . L. A. Extension Course, Mechanical F a s t e n e r s , F e b r u a r y 8-10, 1972 F r e d Graves - F a s t e n e r Preload - Why?, A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , O c t o b e r 1970, p g 32 F r e d Graves - Fastener Preload - How?, A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , N o v e m b e r 197 0, p g 32
I

FORM 4 0 2 0

LOCKHEED
A DIVISION OF

C A L I F O R N I A
LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT

C O M P A N Y
CORPORATION REPORT NO. PAGE NO.

WEvIsIoIqS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

(Continued)

T o m G r e e n - Select F a s t e n e r s f o r F u l l T o r q u e R e s e a r c h / D e v e l o p m e n t , N o v e m b e r 1966, P g s 38-40 T o m G r e e n - A New D i s c o v e r y f o r C o n t r o l l i n g t h e T o r a ue / T e n s i o n Relationshir, A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , J u l y 1972, P g s 42 -47 E l l s w o r t h M. Gunther - A s s e m b l y S i m p l i f i c a t i o n With T o r q u e - T e n s i o n N o m o g r a m s A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , O c t o b e r , 1969, P g s 36-40 Rodger Hansen - Reader Feedback: The Turn-oft h e -Nut Method ( C o n t i n u e d ) A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , August 1967, P g s 18-22
A. G. H o p p e r a n d G. V . T h o m p s o n - S t r e s s i n P r e l o a d e d B o l t s - P r o d u c t E n g i n e e r i n g , S e p t e m b e r 14, 1964 P g s 81-87

M. D. H o z a

T h e T u r n - o f - t h e - N u t Method A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , J a n u a r y 1967, P g s 16-19

R . R . I r v i n g - Who Know's How Tight i s Tight I r o n A g e , O c t o b e r 3, 1968, P g s 85-92 G e r h a r d H. J u n k e r - New C r i t e r i a f o r S e l f - L o o s e n i n g of F a s t e n e r s Under V i b r a t i o n - SAE P a p e r 690055 G e h a r d M e y e r , a n d D i e t e r S t r e l o w - Sirnple D i a g r a m s A i d i n Analyzing F o r c e s in Bolted j o i n t s A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , J a n u a r y 1972, P g s 2 8 - 3 3 G e h a r d M e y e r , . a n d D i e t e r S t r e l o w - How t o C a l c u l a t e P r e l o a d L o s s Due to P e r m a n e n t S e t i n Bolted J o i n t s A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 2 , P g s 30 -34

FORM 4020

L O C K N E E D * CAblFOR84111A
A
D I V I S I O N

COMPAMY
CORPORATION R E W R T NO. PAGE NO.

OF

LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT

REVISIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

(Continued)

G e h a r d M e y e r , a n d D i e t e r S t r e l o w - How t o C a l c u l a t e P r e l o a d L o s s Due t o P e r m a n e n t S e t i n B o l t e d J o i n t s , P a r t 2 A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , M a r c h 1972, P g s 28-31

W:P.

McKay - P r o p e r T h r e a d Engagement by Nomogram Design News, M a r c h 6, 1972, P g s 60-63

C a r l C . O s g o o d - How E l a s t i c i t y I n f l u e n c e s B o l t e d - J o i n t Design, Spring Theory M a c h i n e Desig-n, F e b r u a r y 24, 1 9 7 2 , P g s 9 2 - 9 5 C a r l C. 0 s good - H o w E l a s t i c i t y I n f l u e n c e s B o l t e d - J o i n t Design, P r e l o a d and Fatigue Concepts Machine Design, M a r c h 9 , 1972, P g s 104-107

E. B. P a l m e r - How L u b r i c a t i o n A f f e c t s T o r q u e - T e n s i o n Relationships, Assembly and F a s t e n e r Engineering, S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 0 , P g s 36-42


G e r h a r d S c h r e m m e r - How t o K e e p B o l t e d J o i n t s T i g h t Machine Design, S e p t e m b e r 1972, P g s 140-145 C l a r e n c e R. S m i t h - P r e v e n t i n g F a t i g u e F a i l u r e s A s s e m b l y Engineering, P a r t s 1 t h r u 3, M a r c h , A p r i l , May 1968, R e p r i n t Clarence Smith - Reflectio.ns, Technicalities, and S m i t h -Kabobs - A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , J a n u a r y 1 970, P g 33 C . F, S t e r n b u r g - F a s t e n e r P r e l o a d C o n t r o l C u r r e n t Technology - Lockheed-California Company Report No. L R 22839, 22 D e c e m b e r 1969. A . G. T o k a r c i k - T h e T o r q u e - T e n s i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p A s s e m b l y E n g i n e e r i n g , October 1966, R e p r i n t

FORM 402D

LOCKHEED
A D I V I S I O N OF

C A L I F O R N I A
LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT

COMPANY
CORPORATION

REVISIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY ( C o n t i n u e d )

A. G. T o k a r c i k - F a s t e n e r S y s t e m C o n c e p t , SAE P a p e r 67 0889, S e p t e m b e r 1967

An A n s w e r to T o r q u e P r o b l e m s P r o d u c t i o n , M a r c h 1964, p g s 9 2 - 9 3 B a r e T i t a n i u m Bolt, A-286 Nut Lube E v a l u a t i o n Standard P r e s s e d Steel, P r e c i s i o n F a s t e n e r Division R e p o r t No. 4976, A p r i l 28, 1972 C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s of E n v i r o n m e n t a l P h y s i c a l and M e c h a n i c a l E f f e c t s of S u r f a c e Conditioning and D r y F i l m Lubricants on Titanium F a s t e n e r s Voi-Shan M a n u f a c t u r i n g C o . E n g i n e e r i n g R e p o r t No. 459, O c t o b e r 21, 1569 E v a l u a t i o n of Nut M a t e r i a l s and F i n i s h e s f o r U s e o n T i t a n i u m B o l t s - E l a s t i c Stop Nut D i v i s i o n , - 4 m e r a c e E s n a C o r p . , G c t o b e r 31, 1969 High R e u s e P e r f o r m a n c e T i t a n i u m F a s t e n e r s E l a s t i c Stop Nut D i v i s i o n , A m e r a c e E s n a G o r p . , ER288-2929-2, S e p t e m b e r 4, 1970 How D a n g e r o u s a r e S t a t i c a l l y Loaded M a c h i n e M e m b e r s ? P r o d u c t E n g i n e e r i n g , D e c e m b e r 1971, p g s 37-39 Joint Design

Machine D e s i g n , S e p t e m b e r 11, 1969, p g s 1 2 - 2 3

T h e A n a t o m y of a P r o b l e m : P r o p e r Tightening of M a c h i n e S c r e w s - P r o d u c t E n g i n e e r i n g , O c t o b e r 197 1 , p g s 21-23 T h e S u i t a b i l i t y of V a r i o u s C o a t i n g s and L u b r i c a n t s f o r U s e o n T i t a n i u m Alloy Locknuts - K a y n a r Mfg. C o . , Inc. Kaylock D ~ R M L ~ No ~v e m ~b e r C18, , 1969

FORM 4.020

LR 2504 Pg. 2 5 ,
Jh-ERDEPARThliENTAL COMMUNICATIC'N
TO

P E ~ O5 /22
DEPT.~ ORGN.

6 . . W. I > c v i s

n-61

ZONE

BWG./

9 1 3

FLAK/ FAC.

A-1

D~TE

7-28-.7~)

DEFT./ ORGN.

77-16

ZONE

CLOG./

PtAra/ FAC.

A-1

EXT.

74943

W:

Letter, B W ~ / / ~ O U _ - L ~ clat ~I. ed ~ , 6-39-70

t o be Testa rre-re perforieil, as praxis&, to deternine t h e torque w,2..11s specifiec?. for ,mbject b o l t s . 3cs-ial.t~ of the t e s t s ran are a'c-trched.

If %renay be of f'wther service, please

J. B. B i e r 5 m r e ~
Group Lbgineer, Mechaicrja. S y s t m s PELI*.~S m d E Q x I ;DQE~X%ILF%~ ~ ~ ~

cc:

J. I?, Jcnes

J. A. Mrgan
N. VerDjl Zelc@E F i l e SPSP ( ~ 2 2 0 5 5 5 )

I p ' R.

Form LAC 201

7 u mm vs ~ ~ 0 2 0 5 - 1szm 6 P

~ O R Q W T ~ ~ S I O NVEP 220555-16

m~om
~ 2 % XJT

P g . 26

b o det exmine t h e torque- t ension relationship of 1.0000-12 UNJF Inconel 718 bolt a d . s i l v e r plated ~ 2 % nuts.

XIOR:

m e Ll4lll engine pylon attach b o l t s s a r e 1.0000-12 UlTJF thread size. m e b o l t s a r e ~ n c o n e l718, p a r t mmber 0555-16. m e mating nuts a r e p & nmuber ~ ~ 0 2 0 5 - 1 6 n8de , 12m ~ 2 8 6 with silver-plated threads only.. Data were noi; arvaileble i n t h i s combination of' s i z e and n a t e r i a l so t h a t t h e pmper t o r w e t o provide the desired preload could be specified. Because of a t t a c h e n t , it was necessary- to perfom t h e cri1i;ical nature of t h e engi~.e tcorque-1;asion t e s t s t o determine t h e proper i n s t a l l a t i o n torque,

19he torclple-tension t e s t s were pe,eo~s& at Valley-Todeeo, Inc. of Sylnar, California. I & . Gene lhikont ma 3 2 . Stmmt B i ~ ~ z s d s under , the d i r e c t i o s of Mr, Rusis Sherman, performed t h e t e s t s . Test b o l t s were over runs f'rm a l o t of production b o l t s maneactured by V4aB1w-:Codeco. Test nuts were production nuSs disbmsed f2-an Lockkeed stock,
The IXLOZO5 a u t should have silver-plated threads only. The parts dbt&ns3. f r o m stock had no plate. Ho%rever, t h e s q l e s used f o r these t e s t s were si:b-ver plated d l over a* VaUey-Todeeo, and t h e p M i q was rrsnwed From the nut bearing =face p r i o r t o testing. A &eac:ed a e c t r o n i c s Cornpaany force washer, 1 in& I, D, ldodel Tao. 2016, was assembled on t h e b o l t between hardened s t e e l b t ~ s h i q st o ac%just f o r the blolt grip. The force washer was aktached t o a s t r a i n 5xdica;ting gauge, fStsdd P.-350, nmufactured by The isradd Co. k graph of the t o r q y e s t r a i n relationship f o r 6 b o l t of t h i s s i z e and m a t e r i d hat3 previously been pswaapeh a d i s shown on Figwe I. The silver-plated nut was assmbled on t h e b o l t , Zlke assembled bolt, force rasher, bushing and nu% a s s a b l y was then placed i n a 5 t o 1 torque a d t i p l i e s f'ixtuspe, Torq~~ i,%ms e applieci in approxhately 75 fi-1% incswdeaai;~,using a P. A. Stmtev~?nt Go. torque t-mach, l~!odel irad. S-%OO (0-600 f%-1% range). Strain gauge sie&ngs were taken at each torque i n c r a a ' r ; a d recorded. 'P"he agpli& load wa;s then determined from Figure 1

m%E:

"Ie above t e s t was repeated except M I E T - ~ ~ @lubricant tras applied t o t h e b o l t th:read. This mssmbly w a s torqued. a d the r e s u l t s tabulated i n Table III and plotted on F i g w e 2 .

LR 250
Page 2
Pg. 27

m e length of torque wrench a m , 5 feet, made it impossible t o apply the torque continuously. fn some instances, between intervals, t h e wrench had t o be removed from the f i x t u r e so&et and repositioned i n order t o Fully 8ppV the next increment of torque. This may a ~ c o t m tf o r some of the e r r a t i c r e a s . In the first t e s t yielding in the system was observed near 1500 Ft-lbs of torque. Further application of torque produced a f a i l w e in one of the socket drive i n s e r t s i n the multiplier f x m r e . The t e s t was rerun asin&: the sane fasteners. The r e s u l t s of both of these t e s t s ase reported 3-13 Table I and Table I1 and plotted in Figure 2 . E " r m t h e graph it appears t h a t approxinately 1250 fFt-lbs of torque i s required t o obtain 70,000 l b s preload i n the b o l t when a silver-pltii;ed rrut, with no subsequent lubricant, ZB used. !Fads torque could exceed 1700 f i - l b s &er the f i r s t use i f t h e "'2nCt m x 2 " e r n e of Figure 2 w a s extended. Ibe required torqie dropped drastically as ~ c ~ u be l d expected when MILT-^^& anti-seize lubricant was spplied t o t h e b o l t thread. The curve of t h i s data Jinucettes only about 600 f i - l b s torque required for 70,000 l b s preload .in t h a t some l o s s of preload would also occur i f this the b o l t . It i s e ~ e c t e d a.sseozb&y was reused. However, preload would probably be restored i f t h e b o l t tms relubricated before assembly.

The engine t o pylon attach b o l t s should be lubrieatecl p r i o r t o a s s a b l y ~ ~ - 5 5anti-seize 4-& a 9 l i e d t o b o l t %?areads. Pae assembly should be t o r q u d t o 600 ft-lbs. The engineering i n s t a l l a t i o n clraaslintgs should be ~evimect and a n i n s t a l l a t i o n torque, i n accordance with t h i s data, be specified.
~.~iE kh ~

33, above t e s t s were witnessed by the foUowing Lockheed personnel:

3 5 x 1 1 Jones Mike TTariDyl

Dept 77-16 D e p t . 53-73

L &
TABLE I

250

Page 3

P g . 28

Load.

I'b6X103
1 3 . 2 14.2

27.8
29.5

42.0 49 3

35 5

60.7

61.2

75 5
77-0

TABLE II

~~220555-16 Bare Inconel 718 B o l t lKJ-0205-16 Sliver-Plated edt 2nd RW (1)

Load 1bxl03
2 0 .Q 20.0

36. o 45.5
62.5 64.5

26.5 2 7 . 1 3 6 . 0

69.5

70.7 80.5 84-95

(1) Socket drive sheared off af%er 1500 f"t-lbs. Test r e m with s m e bolt emd n u t . e seen in strain gauge.

VEP220555-16 m e mlt, Threads Coated with MIL-T-5544 Anti-Seize IH10205-16 Silver-Plat ed Rut
Strain Gauge R e a d i n g &/In

Pcnge 5

P g . 30

where T =

Wrench Torque, in-lbs R = Wrench Torque r a t i o (fron Table V ? I of ~Nl'gb) g b i = Beload i n b o l t due t o tightening, lbs A x = Root area of bolt, sq. in.

for 1.NKX)-12 mm:


B = 0.04993 for ~ ~ ~ ~ - lubricaat 5 5 k 4 = 0.06675 for &a~~-23398 lubricant EJOTE: R values are f o r cathim plated s t e e l b o l t s and f i t t i n g and are being used oIlly f o r approximation of t e s t results s-8879) = A4156
R)i = & x 1 0 0 , ~ 0 ' p s i= 64,156 ibs

or

= '70,000 l b s

T = .a4993 x 64,156
64156 = 4993 in-lbs = 4.6 PC-Lbs

T = .04993 x 70,000
= 54-47 in-lbs
E

641%

454

fb-lbs

T = .oG;675 x 64,156 64156 = 6675 in-lbs = 556 f i - l b s

T - T TESTS VEP220555-16 STRAIN (IN./IN.)

in bolt

s i l v e r plated nut

ome lube uninte'ntionally on n

Torque

- F t Lbs x 20

FIGURE 2

L
A

IEED

CALIFORNIA
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REVISIONS

DISTRIBUTION LIST

P e r m a n e n t Holders

J . B. Bierbower V. G. H a r t J. F. Jones V; D. M o s s

G. W, T y r e e W. R. Zelenka

K. H. Achterkirchen

L. J. A. M.

Celniker Hong W. ~ ~ a l i s u c h L. Kovnat

D. J. Mackey L. W. Nelson
G. J. Reynolds R. F. Simenz