The media had come to its success not by accident; for Philippine media today is a product of context and
history. The Philippines is a nation in perennial transition trapped in many contradictions. It is a nation that made the world history when it ousted- the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos from 1965- 1986, who had served longest as president. When Martial Law was proclaimed on September 21, 1972, all the papers including the socalled “oligarchic press” and broadcast stations were closed. EDSA people power revolt came and with it a new found hopes for Asia‟s bastion of democracy. The Philippine Revolution of 1986, from February 22- 25, has been acclaimed as a first televised revolution in the history. The first free local election in post- Marcos era was held in 1987.Radio and television, particularly, led in the selection coverage because of their immediacy. There were three sources of election results reported by different outlets called Media Poll Count, conducted by the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas (KBP) and aired over most radio stations and four television stations in Metro Manila ( Channels 2,4,9 and 13); the super slow count, the so- called official count conducted by the Commission on Election (ComElec) and covered by the same stations; and the quick count conducted by the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) and aired only by Radio Veritas.
While this account has been referring mainly to the electronic media when talking about the role of communication in the four. Meanwhile.Cory news on February 26 with headline read: “Marcos is gone/Nation rejoices. The Sun.”
. and Ms. Radio station DZLB.. only Freeman and Sun. Mr.Star came out with the headline: “Cory. Sun.day revolution. Visayan Herald can be consider an opposition newspaper following the path of Pahayagang Malaya but has low readership.Star tried to hold on to the slipping Marcos. Of the five daily newspapers in Cebu. In Cebu. the Freeman went all out opposition with pro. the rural educational radio station of University of the Philippine Los Baños covered the two important events: the snap election of February 7 and the Revolution. Veritas news magazine.Star enjoy wide readership. Philippine Daily Inquirer and Manila Times. mass media was divided and manipulated. particularly the alternative press led by Malaya. Doy take oath this AM. before Marcos left the country. from the provinces. “We did our share in keeping people abreast of developments”. the crucial role of mass communication in the February Revolution was further underscored. But on February 25.” Soon after the elections. the print media also did their share. Malaya publisher Jose Burgos Jr.
Star Daily was contaminated with this kind of activity during the controversial nationwide
. With this kind of event in our country. the open secret did not exempt anyone. Station DYRC and its FM station DYBU were generally neutral. and at the same time implored the people of Cebu to remain calm. 5 mobile units.In broadcasting. has wide listenership but it was branded as pro. DYLA. was likewise neutral. DYRF hooked up with Radio Veritas. In its February revolution coverage. While the Cebu mass media served the selfish interests of their owners. the radio station of the Associated Labor Union (ALU). DYLA. „Envelopemental journalism‟. Through an arrangement with RCPI. it go reports from many parts of the country. DYRC. had running commentaries on the events in Manila.DYBU. Very few really listened to DYIM. DYRF went on 24. owned by Ilonggo. fielding 5 reporters on motorcycles. they have also served the public interest by providing a forum for showing the truth in the interest of the nation wish they made as their most important contribution as mass media. the government station. The Cebu mass media with their Freeman and Sun. DYRF. until Cory supporters took over the government radio and television stations in Manila. The DYMF. but at times leaned towards the opposition. Manuel Florete.administration. and hooking up with Radio Veritas for the national poll result.hour coverage of the election and poll count. DYMF and DYIM played major roles.
Local radio stations DXMS.Media Poll Count. radio mobilized people was so dependent on listening with radio stations. It is said that three of the Sun-Star Daily columnist was reported for having a secret work to influence local newspapers to print stories favorable to KBL. then the former President Corazon Aquino supervised a smooth leadership turnover that witnessed the first free presidential race in two decades. few days before the February election. Many more local mass media had a great role during the EDSA revolution by letting people know the happening during that that time including the Visayan Daily Star of Bacolod. DXCC and DXMO radio stations of Cagayan de Oro. But only DYSR and DYWC both church. DXOR. DYWC. DYBR and DYVL radio station of Leyte. By 1992.DYSRbroadcast arm of the National Council of Churches in the Philippines. one locally publishing weekly.related were strong supporters of the National Movement for Free Election (NAMFREL). The DYPL. The Mindanao Cross.DXND team broadcast. In Dumaguete. Then
. DXRC and DXCM. DYRM and DTEM-FM repeatedly appealed to its listeners to safeguard the ballots. and a number of national dailies and magazines updated the people of Cotabato City and the surrounding provinces on issues and happening during the snap election and the February revolution.operated by the Catholic Diocese of Dumaguete. The two were purely commercial stations. GMA (Channel 11) and RPN (Channel3) television stations. The four local radio station.
Immediately.” “Military needs to see 1 million at a rally tomorrow.”
.Joseph Estrada came in as the third president in the post. Newspapers immediately went to town with critical stories about him. the public was outraged. to make a decision to go against Erap! Please pass on. Filipinos were closely following the impeachment trial for Estrada. Estrada did not get the traditional honeymoon with the press. Quickly following the senators‟ decisions. Filipinos began responding to text messages calling them to action. The mobile phones become the key device used in coordinating collective action.” “Expect there to be rebels. while other house member spearheaded a move to impeach the president. Fresh into his term as a president in 1998. Filipinos began to send text messages to one another and to coordinate protests against the allegedly corrupt leader. Jan. The House of Representatives decided to investigate the exposé. who was brought to trial on charges of corruption and mismanagement.Marcos era of rebuilding. When it was announced on television news broadcast that 11 senators had voted against unsealing evidence that would have easily convicted Estrada. Mobile phones are ubiquitous in the Philippines. Typical SMS messages include the following examples: “Wear black to mourn the death or democracy. 19.
Inc. it is not the imagination to think that multiple individuals had the same idea to organize at the same place as they did 15 years earlier. an e. Looking at the local culture and circumstances.. combined with the time. However. a crowd could have been mobilized via voice messages. In reaction to the large protests. over 70 million text messages were sent. Smart Communication. coupled with the power of emerging technology. Rather. The events of People Power II exemplify how conditions ripe for political activity. and word of mouth.mail that was hoping to collect m1 million signatures to call for Estrada‟s resignation only received 91. police and army members sided with the protesters. Filipinos primarily received messages from peers within their existing social networks. Estrada resigned. On contrary. a mobile operator in the Philippines. wouldhave prevented the demonstrations from
.day period with an estimated one million Filipinos participating. low internet penetration. and Gloria Arroyo was sworn in as the new president.All sources indicate that the messages calling for mass demonstrations were not the result of an alert system where Filipinos had signed to receive text about emergencies or calls to action. reported that in one day. e. The origin of the first message calling for a gathering at the site of the 1986 revolution (People Power I) is unknown. can converge to create a powerful movement with lasting consequences.consuming nature of calling and speaking to individuals within your social network. Demonstrations and protests took place over five. However. 000 signatures.mails. cabinet fled their posts.
“The media. even in the freest countries. to give voice to minorities.occurring quickly. and to serve as a feedback mechanism for policy making in democracy.” says journalist Kunda Dixit. to preserve diversity of views.
. are therefore squandering their potential to be an agent of positive change. Filipinos were able to utilize a tool they were already familiar with – text messaging –to communicate their ideas and plans rapidly and present a forceful showing against Estrada immediately after the news about the vote was released.