The media had come to its success not by accident; for Philippine media today is a product of context and

history. The Philippines is a nation in perennial transition trapped in many contradictions. It is a nation that made the world history when it ousted- the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos from 1965- 1986, who had served longest as president. When Martial Law was proclaimed on September 21, 1972, all the papers including the socalled “oligarchic press” and broadcast stations were closed. EDSA people power revolt came and with it a new found hopes for Asia‟s bastion of democracy. The Philippine Revolution of 1986, from February 22- 25, has been acclaimed as a first televised revolution in the history. The first free local election in post- Marcos era was held in 1987.Radio and television, particularly, led in the selection coverage because of their immediacy. There were three sources of election results reported by different outlets called Media Poll Count, conducted by the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas (KBP) and aired over most radio stations and four television stations in Metro Manila ( Channels 2,4,9 and 13); the super slow count, the so- called official count conducted by the Commission on Election (ComElec) and covered by the same stations; and the quick count conducted by the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) and aired only by Radio Veritas.

” .day revolution. the print media also did their share. only Freeman and Sun. In Cebu. Malaya publisher Jose Burgos Jr. the crucial role of mass communication in the February Revolution was further underscored. particularly the alternative press led by Malaya. Radio station DZLB. But on February 25.Cory news on February 26 with headline read: “Marcos is gone/Nation rejoices. before Marcos left the country. and Ms. Philippine Daily Inquirer and Manila Times. Of the five daily newspapers in Cebu. “We did our share in keeping people abreast of developments”. from the provinces.Star tried to hold on to the slipping Marcos. Meanwhile. the Freeman went all out opposition with pro. Doy take oath this AM. Sun. The Sun. Veritas news magazine. the rural educational radio station of University of the Philippine Los Baños covered the two important events: the snap election of February 7 and the Revolution.Star enjoy wide readership.” Soon after the elections.While this account has been referring mainly to the electronic media when talking about the role of communication in the four. mass media was divided and manipulated.Star came out with the headline: “Cory. Mr.. Visayan Herald can be consider an opposition newspaper following the path of Pahayagang Malaya but has low readership.

Station DYRC and its FM station DYBU were generally neutral.Star Daily was contaminated with this kind of activity during the controversial nationwide . The Cebu mass media with their Freeman and Sun.In broadcasting. the open secret did not exempt anyone. the government station.administration. it go reports from many parts of the country. and hooking up with Radio Veritas for the national poll result. had running commentaries on the events in Manila. they have also served the public interest by providing a forum for showing the truth in the interest of the nation wish they made as their most important contribution as mass media. has wide listenership but it was branded as pro. Manuel Florete. In its February revolution coverage.DYBU. DYRF went on 24. DYRC. Through an arrangement with RCPI. until Cory supporters took over the government radio and television stations in Manila. 5 mobile units. DYRF. While the Cebu mass media served the selfish interests of their owners. and at the same time implored the people of Cebu to remain calm. DYLA. With this kind of event in our country. fielding 5 reporters on motorcycles. but at times leaned towards the opposition. DYMF and DYIM played major roles. DYLA. DYRF hooked up with Radio Veritas.hour coverage of the election and poll count. was likewise neutral. owned by Ilonggo. The DYMF. „Envelopemental journalism‟. Very few really listened to DYIM. the radio station of the Associated Labor Union (ALU).

Then . It is said that three of the Sun-Star Daily columnist was reported for having a secret work to influence local newspapers to print stories favorable to KBL. GMA (Channel 11) and RPN (Channel3) television stations. But only DYSR and DYWC both church. one locally publishing weekly.related were strong supporters of the National Movement for Free Election (NAMFREL). The Mindanao Cross. and a number of national dailies and magazines updated the people of Cotabato City and the surrounding provinces on issues and happening during the snap election and the February revolution. Local radio stations DXMS. By 1992. The four local radio station. DXCC and DXMO radio stations of Cagayan de Oro.DXND team broadcast. DYRM and DTEM-FM repeatedly appealed to its listeners to safeguard the ballots. DXRC and DXCM. The two were purely commercial stations.DYSRbroadcast arm of the National Council of Churches in the Philippines. In Dumaguete. Many more local mass media had a great role during the EDSA revolution by letting people know the happening during that that time including the Visayan Daily Star of Bacolod. The DYPL. then the former President Corazon Aquino supervised a smooth leadership turnover that witnessed the first free presidential race in two decades.Media Poll Count. radio mobilized people was so dependent on listening with radio stations. few days before the February election. DYWC. DXOR.operated by the Catholic Diocese of Dumaguete. DYBR and DYVL radio station of Leyte.

” . Fresh into his term as a president in 1998.” “Military needs to see 1 million at a rally tomorrow. Typical SMS messages include the following examples: “Wear black to mourn the death or democracy. Filipinos began to send text messages to one another and to coordinate protests against the allegedly corrupt leader. The mobile phones become the key device used in coordinating collective action.Marcos era of rebuilding.Joseph Estrada came in as the third president in the post. Filipinos were closely following the impeachment trial for Estrada. who was brought to trial on charges of corruption and mismanagement. 19. while other house member spearheaded a move to impeach the president. Newspapers immediately went to town with critical stories about him. the public was outraged. to make a decision to go against Erap! Please pass on. Quickly following the senators‟ decisions. Jan. Immediately. Mobile phones are ubiquitous in the Philippines. When it was announced on television news broadcast that 11 senators had voted against unsealing evidence that would have easily convicted Estrada. Filipinos began responding to text messages calling them to action. The House of Representatives decided to investigate the exposé. Estrada did not get the traditional honeymoon with the press.” “Expect there to be rebels.

Demonstrations and protests took place over five. wouldhave prevented the demonstrations from . can converge to create a powerful movement with lasting consequences. reported that in one day. Smart Communication. On contrary. over 70 million text messages were sent. combined with the time. coupled with the power of emerging technology. Filipinos primarily received messages from peers within their existing social networks. cabinet fled their period with an estimated one million Filipinos participating. low internet penetration. The origin of the first message calling for a gathering at the site of the 1986 revolution (People Power I) is unknown. e. Looking at the local culture and circumstances. police and army members sided with the protesters. a mobile operator in the Philippines.All sources indicate that the messages calling for mass demonstrations were not the result of an alert system where Filipinos had signed to receive text about emergencies or calls to action.mail that was hoping to collect m1 million signatures to call for Estrada‟s resignation only received 91.. Inc. it is not the imagination to think that multiple individuals had the same idea to organize at the same place as they did 15 years earlier. However. and word of mouth. In reaction to the large protests. However.mails. Rather. The events of People Power II exemplify how conditions ripe for political activity. 000 signatures. and Gloria Arroyo was sworn in as the new president.consuming nature of calling and speaking to individuals within your social network. Estrada resigned. an e. a crowd could have been mobilized via voice messages.

even in the freest countries.” says journalist Kunda Dixit. “The media. and to serve as a feedback mechanism for policy making in democracy. Filipinos were able to utilize a tool they were already familiar with – text messaging –to communicate their ideas and plans rapidly and present a forceful showing against Estrada immediately after the news about the vote was released. to preserve diversity of views. are therefore squandering their potential to be an agent of positive change.occurring quickly. . to give voice to minorities.

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