The media had come to its success not by accident; for Philippine media today is a product of context and

history. The Philippines is a nation in perennial transition trapped in many contradictions. It is a nation that made the world history when it ousted- the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos from 1965- 1986, who had served longest as president. When Martial Law was proclaimed on September 21, 1972, all the papers including the socalled “oligarchic press” and broadcast stations were closed. EDSA people power revolt came and with it a new found hopes for Asia‟s bastion of democracy. The Philippine Revolution of 1986, from February 22- 25, has been acclaimed as a first televised revolution in the history. The first free local election in post- Marcos era was held in 1987.Radio and television, particularly, led in the selection coverage because of their immediacy. There were three sources of election results reported by different outlets called Media Poll Count, conducted by the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas (KBP) and aired over most radio stations and four television stations in Metro Manila ( Channels 2,4,9 and 13); the super slow count, the so- called official count conducted by the Commission on Election (ComElec) and covered by the same stations; and the quick count conducted by the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) and aired only by Radio Veritas.

Malaya publisher Jose Burgos Jr. The Sun.While this account has been referring mainly to the electronic media when talking about the role of communication in the four..Star enjoy wide readership. Doy take oath this AM. Mr. the Freeman went all out opposition with pro.day revolution. Meanwhile. particularly the alternative press led by Malaya. But on February 25. Of the five daily newspapers in Cebu. the crucial role of mass communication in the February Revolution was further underscored.” . In Cebu. the print media also did their share. Philippine Daily Inquirer and Manila Times. the rural educational radio station of University of the Philippine Los Baños covered the two important events: the snap election of February 7 and the Revolution. Sun. “We did our share in keeping people abreast of developments”.Star tried to hold on to the slipping Marcos. Visayan Herald can be consider an opposition newspaper following the path of Pahayagang Malaya but has low readership. from the provinces. Radio station DZLB. mass media was divided and manipulated. before Marcos left the country.Star came out with the headline: “Cory. Veritas news magazine.” Soon after the elections. and Ms. only Freeman and Sun.Cory news on February 26 with headline read: “Marcos is gone/Nation rejoices.

and hooking up with Radio Veritas for the national poll result. Through an arrangement with RCPI. until Cory supporters took over the government radio and television stations in Manila.DYBU.In broadcasting. has wide listenership but it was branded as pro. DYRC. While the Cebu mass media served the selfish interests of their owners. DYRF. Manuel Florete. DYRF hooked up with Radio Veritas. DYLA. but at times leaned towards the opposition. DYLA. fielding 5 reporters on motorcycles. Station DYRC and its FM station DYBU were generally neutral. had running commentaries on the events in Manila. 5 mobile units. and at the same time implored the people of Cebu to remain calm.hour coverage of the election and poll count. was likewise neutral. the open secret did not exempt anyone. The Cebu mass media with their Freeman and Sun.Star Daily was contaminated with this kind of activity during the controversial nationwide . In its February revolution coverage. owned by Ilonggo. Very few really listened to DYIM. they have also served the public interest by providing a forum for showing the truth in the interest of the nation wish they made as their most important contribution as mass media.administration. DYRF went on 24. The DYMF. it go reports from many parts of the country. With this kind of event in our country. the radio station of the Associated Labor Union (ALU). the government station. DYMF and DYIM played major roles. „Envelopemental journalism‟.

In Dumaguete. then the former President Corazon Aquino supervised a smooth leadership turnover that witnessed the first free presidential race in two decades. DXCC and DXMO radio stations of Cagayan de Oro. It is said that three of the Sun-Star Daily columnist was reported for having a secret work to influence local newspapers to print stories favorable to KBL. The DYPL. radio mobilized people was so dependent on listening with radio stations. and a number of national dailies and magazines updated the people of Cotabato City and the surrounding provinces on issues and happening during the snap election and the February revolution. The four local radio station. But only DYSR and DYWC both church.DYSRbroadcast arm of the National Council of Churches in the Philippines. By 1992. GMA (Channel 11) and RPN (Channel3) television stations.DXND team broadcast. DXRC and DXCM. Many more local mass media had a great role during the EDSA revolution by letting people know the happening during that that time including the Visayan Daily Star of Bacolod. one locally publishing weekly. Then . DYRM and DTEM-FM repeatedly appealed to its listeners to safeguard the ballots. Local radio stations DXMS. The Mindanao Cross. DXOR.related were strong supporters of the National Movement for Free Election (NAMFREL).operated by the Catholic Diocese of Dumaguete. The two were purely commercial stations. DYWC. DYBR and DYVL radio station of Leyte.Media Poll Count. few days before the February election.

to make a decision to go against Erap! Please pass on. Mobile phones are ubiquitous in the Philippines. while other house member spearheaded a move to impeach the president. Fresh into his term as a president in 1998. Newspapers immediately went to town with critical stories about him. When it was announced on television news broadcast that 11 senators had voted against unsealing evidence that would have easily convicted Estrada. The House of Representatives decided to investigate the exposé.” “Military needs to see 1 million at a rally tomorrow. Filipinos were closely following the impeachment trial for Estrada. The mobile phones become the key device used in coordinating collective action.” “Expect there to be rebels.Marcos era of rebuilding. 19. Filipinos began responding to text messages calling them to action. Filipinos began to send text messages to one another and to coordinate protests against the allegedly corrupt leader.” . who was brought to trial on charges of corruption and mismanagement. Quickly following the senators‟ decisions. Jan. the public was outraged. Typical SMS messages include the following examples: “Wear black to mourn the death or democracy.Joseph Estrada came in as the third president in the post. Estrada did not get the traditional honeymoon with the press. Immediately.

The events of People Power II exemplify how conditions ripe for political activity. However. Rather. cabinet fled their posts.. The origin of the first message calling for a gathering at the site of the 1986 revolution (People Power I) is unknown. an e. a crowd could have been mobilized via voice messages. reported that in one day. can converge to create a powerful movement with lasting consequences. 000 signatures. over 70 million text messages were sent.mails.mail that was hoping to collect m1 million signatures to call for Estrada‟s resignation only received 91. police and army members sided with the protesters. Smart Communication. and word of mouth. low internet penetration.consuming nature of calling and speaking to individuals within your social network.day period with an estimated one million Filipinos participating. coupled with the power of emerging technology. a mobile operator in the Philippines. Estrada resigned. On contrary. Looking at the local culture and circumstances. it is not the imagination to think that multiple individuals had the same idea to organize at the same place as they did 15 years earlier. e. Filipinos primarily received messages from peers within their existing social networks. Inc. combined with the time. and Gloria Arroyo was sworn in as the new president.All sources indicate that the messages calling for mass demonstrations were not the result of an alert system where Filipinos had signed to receive text about emergencies or calls to action. However. Demonstrations and protests took place over five. In reaction to the large protests. wouldhave prevented the demonstrations from .

even in the freest countries. to give voice to minorities.occurring quickly. . are therefore squandering their potential to be an agent of positive change. Filipinos were able to utilize a tool they were already familiar with – text messaging –to communicate their ideas and plans rapidly and present a forceful showing against Estrada immediately after the news about the vote was released. to preserve diversity of views. “The media. and to serve as a feedback mechanism for policy making in democracy.” says journalist Kunda Dixit.

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