The media had come to its success not by accident; for Philippine media today is a product of context and

history. The Philippines is a nation in perennial transition trapped in many contradictions. It is a nation that made the world history when it ousted- the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos from 1965- 1986, who had served longest as president. When Martial Law was proclaimed on September 21, 1972, all the papers including the socalled “oligarchic press” and broadcast stations were closed. EDSA people power revolt came and with it a new found hopes for Asia‟s bastion of democracy. The Philippine Revolution of 1986, from February 22- 25, has been acclaimed as a first televised revolution in the history. The first free local election in post- Marcos era was held in 1987.Radio and television, particularly, led in the selection coverage because of their immediacy. There were three sources of election results reported by different outlets called Media Poll Count, conducted by the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas (KBP) and aired over most radio stations and four television stations in Metro Manila ( Channels 2,4,9 and 13); the super slow count, the so- called official count conducted by the Commission on Election (ComElec) and covered by the same stations; and the quick count conducted by the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) and aired only by Radio Veritas.

But on February 25. Philippine Daily Inquirer and Manila Times.Star enjoy wide readership.Cory news on February 26 with headline read: “Marcos is gone/Nation rejoices. and Ms. Radio station DZLB. Sun. Of the five daily newspapers in Cebu.Star came out with the headline: “Cory. Veritas news magazine.While this account has been referring mainly to the electronic media when talking about the role of communication in the four.day revolution. the Freeman went all out opposition with pro. Doy take oath this AM. Visayan Herald can be consider an opposition newspaper following the path of Pahayagang Malaya but has low readership. Mr. from the provinces.” . the rural educational radio station of University of the Philippine Los Baños covered the two important events: the snap election of February 7 and the Revolution. particularly the alternative press led by Malaya. “We did our share in keeping people abreast of developments”. only Freeman and Sun. In Cebu. mass media was divided and manipulated. Malaya publisher Jose Burgos Jr. Meanwhile. the crucial role of mass communication in the February Revolution was further underscored. The Sun. the print media also did their share..Star tried to hold on to the slipping Marcos.” Soon after the elections. before Marcos left the country.

Station DYRC and its FM station DYBU were generally neutral. the open secret did not exempt anyone. DYRC.Star Daily was contaminated with this kind of activity during the controversial nationwide . DYLA. owned by Ilonggo. DYLA. The DYMF. they have also served the public interest by providing a forum for showing the truth in the interest of the nation wish they made as their most important contribution as mass media. DYRF went on 24. The Cebu mass media with their Freeman and Sun. but at times leaned towards the opposition.In broadcasting. the radio station of the Associated Labor Union (ALU). DYRF. Manuel Florete. and hooking up with Radio Veritas for the national poll result. was likewise neutral. Through an arrangement with RCPI. In its February revolution coverage. and at the same time implored the people of Cebu to remain calm. fielding 5 reporters on motorcycles. 5 mobile units. until Cory supporters took over the government radio and television stations in Manila.hour coverage of the election and poll count. With this kind of event in our country.DYBU. the government station.administration. DYMF and DYIM played major roles. Very few really listened to DYIM. DYRF hooked up with Radio Veritas. „Envelopemental journalism‟. has wide listenership but it was branded as pro. While the Cebu mass media served the selfish interests of their owners. it go reports from many parts of the country. had running commentaries on the events in Manila.

Then .related were strong supporters of the National Movement for Free Election (NAMFREL). The DYPL.operated by the Catholic Diocese of Dumaguete. DXRC and DXCM.DXND team broadcast. But only DYSR and DYWC both church. The four local radio station. one locally publishing weekly. DXCC and DXMO radio stations of Cagayan de Oro. GMA (Channel 11) and RPN (Channel3) television stations. Many more local mass media had a great role during the EDSA revolution by letting people know the happening during that that time including the Visayan Daily Star of Bacolod.Media Poll Count. The Mindanao Cross. DYRM and DTEM-FM repeatedly appealed to its listeners to safeguard the ballots. In Dumaguete. By 1992. few days before the February election. then the former President Corazon Aquino supervised a smooth leadership turnover that witnessed the first free presidential race in two decades. DXOR. Local radio stations DXMS. It is said that three of the Sun-Star Daily columnist was reported for having a secret work to influence local newspapers to print stories favorable to KBL. The two were purely commercial stations. radio mobilized people was so dependent on listening with radio stations. and a number of national dailies and magazines updated the people of Cotabato City and the surrounding provinces on issues and happening during the snap election and the February revolution.DYSRbroadcast arm of the National Council of Churches in the Philippines. DYBR and DYVL radio station of Leyte. DYWC.

The mobile phones become the key device used in coordinating collective action. Mobile phones are ubiquitous in the Philippines.Marcos era of rebuilding. 19. the public was outraged. Jan. who was brought to trial on charges of corruption and mismanagement. to make a decision to go against Erap! Please pass on. Filipinos began to send text messages to one another and to coordinate protests against the allegedly corrupt leader.” “Military needs to see 1 million at a rally tomorrow. while other house member spearheaded a move to impeach the president.” . The House of Representatives decided to investigate the exposé.Joseph Estrada came in as the third president in the post. Quickly following the senators‟ decisions. Newspapers immediately went to town with critical stories about him. Filipinos were closely following the impeachment trial for Estrada. When it was announced on television news broadcast that 11 senators had voted against unsealing evidence that would have easily convicted Estrada. Immediately.” “Expect there to be rebels. Typical SMS messages include the following examples: “Wear black to mourn the death or democracy. Estrada did not get the traditional honeymoon with the press. Filipinos began responding to text messages calling them to action. Fresh into his term as a president in 1998.

and Gloria Arroyo was sworn in as the new president. e. 000 signatures.. low internet penetration. wouldhave prevented the demonstrations from . Filipinos primarily received messages from peers within their existing social networks. In reaction to the large protests. However. Estrada resigned. cabinet fled their posts. Rather. reported that in one day. an e.mails.mail that was hoping to collect m1 million signatures to call for Estrada‟s resignation only received 91. The origin of the first message calling for a gathering at the site of the 1986 revolution (People Power I) is unknown. On contrary. can converge to create a powerful movement with lasting consequences. a mobile operator in the Philippines.consuming nature of calling and speaking to individuals within your social network.day period with an estimated one million Filipinos participating. The events of People Power II exemplify how conditions ripe for political activity. However. police and army members sided with the protesters. combined with the time. a crowd could have been mobilized via voice messages. coupled with the power of emerging technology. over 70 million text messages were sent. and word of mouth. Smart Communication.All sources indicate that the messages calling for mass demonstrations were not the result of an alert system where Filipinos had signed to receive text about emergencies or calls to action. Demonstrations and protests took place over five. Inc. it is not the imagination to think that multiple individuals had the same idea to organize at the same place as they did 15 years earlier. Looking at the local culture and circumstances.

are therefore squandering their potential to be an agent of positive change. to give voice to minorities.occurring quickly. and to serve as a feedback mechanism for policy making in democracy. to preserve diversity of views.” says journalist Kunda Dixit. “The media. even in the freest countries. Filipinos were able to utilize a tool they were already familiar with – text messaging –to communicate their ideas and plans rapidly and present a forceful showing against Estrada immediately after the news about the vote was released. .

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