The media had come to its success not by accident; for Philippine media today is a product of context and

history. The Philippines is a nation in perennial transition trapped in many contradictions. It is a nation that made the world history when it ousted- the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos from 1965- 1986, who had served longest as president. When Martial Law was proclaimed on September 21, 1972, all the papers including the socalled “oligarchic press” and broadcast stations were closed. EDSA people power revolt came and with it a new found hopes for Asia‟s bastion of democracy. The Philippine Revolution of 1986, from February 22- 25, has been acclaimed as a first televised revolution in the history. The first free local election in post- Marcos era was held in 1987.Radio and television, particularly, led in the selection coverage because of their immediacy. There were three sources of election results reported by different outlets called Media Poll Count, conducted by the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas (KBP) and aired over most radio stations and four television stations in Metro Manila ( Channels 2,4,9 and 13); the super slow count, the so- called official count conducted by the Commission on Election (ComElec) and covered by the same stations; and the quick count conducted by the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) and aired only by Radio Veritas.

Star came out with the headline: “Cory. Visayan Herald can be consider an opposition newspaper following the path of Pahayagang Malaya but has low readership. particularly the alternative press led by Malaya. the rural educational radio station of University of the Philippine Los Baños covered the two important events: the snap election of February 7 and the Revolution. Doy take oath this AM. Sun. Meanwhile. Mr. from the provinces.Star enjoy wide readership.Star tried to hold on to the slipping Marcos.. “We did our share in keeping people abreast of developments”.” Soon after the elections. the print media also did their share. Of the five daily newspapers in Cebu. Veritas news magazine. The Sun.” . and Ms.While this account has been referring mainly to the electronic media when talking about the role of communication in the four. Radio station DZLB. only Freeman and Sun.day revolution. Philippine Daily Inquirer and Manila Times. But on February 25. Malaya publisher Jose Burgos Jr. before Marcos left the country. the Freeman went all out opposition with pro.Cory news on February 26 with headline read: “Marcos is gone/Nation rejoices. mass media was divided and manipulated. the crucial role of mass communication in the February Revolution was further underscored. In Cebu.

DYRF hooked up with Radio Veritas. DYMF and DYIM played major roles. „Envelopemental journalism‟. was likewise neutral. DYRF went on 24. Through an arrangement with RCPI. Manuel Florete. and at the same time implored the people of Cebu to remain calm. DYRF. Station DYRC and its FM station DYBU were generally neutral. the open secret did not exempt anyone.DYBU. and hooking up with Radio Veritas for the national poll result. The Cebu mass media with their Freeman and Sun. With this kind of event in our country.In broadcasting.hour coverage of the election and poll count. The DYMF. owned by Ilonggo. had running commentaries on the events in Manila. the government station. DYLA.Star Daily was contaminated with this kind of activity during the controversial nationwide . until Cory supporters took over the government radio and television stations in Manila. fielding 5 reporters on motorcycles. but at times leaned towards the opposition. Very few really listened to DYIM.administration. In its February revolution coverage. it go reports from many parts of the country. While the Cebu mass media served the selfish interests of their owners. DYLA. DYRC. 5 mobile units. has wide listenership but it was branded as pro. they have also served the public interest by providing a forum for showing the truth in the interest of the nation wish they made as their most important contribution as mass media. the radio station of the Associated Labor Union (ALU).

It is said that three of the Sun-Star Daily columnist was reported for having a secret work to influence local newspapers to print stories favorable to KBL. In Dumaguete.related were strong supporters of the National Movement for Free Election (NAMFREL). DYBR and DYVL radio station of Leyte. The DYPL. Then .Media Poll Count. DXRC and DXCM.DXND team broadcast. DYWC. The four local radio station. The Mindanao Cross. and a number of national dailies and magazines updated the people of Cotabato City and the surrounding provinces on issues and happening during the snap election and the February revolution. GMA (Channel 11) and RPN (Channel3) television stations. Many more local mass media had a great role during the EDSA revolution by letting people know the happening during that that time including the Visayan Daily Star of Bacolod. DYRM and DTEM-FM repeatedly appealed to its listeners to safeguard the ballots. few days before the February election. By 1992.DYSRbroadcast arm of the National Council of Churches in the Philippines. radio mobilized people was so dependent on listening with radio stations. then the former President Corazon Aquino supervised a smooth leadership turnover that witnessed the first free presidential race in two decades. one locally publishing weekly.operated by the Catholic Diocese of Dumaguete. DXOR. DXCC and DXMO radio stations of Cagayan de Oro. The two were purely commercial stations. Local radio stations DXMS. But only DYSR and DYWC both church.

while other house member spearheaded a move to impeach the president. Jan.” “Military needs to see 1 million at a rally tomorrow. Immediately. Newspapers immediately went to town with critical stories about him. Filipinos began to send text messages to one another and to coordinate protests against the allegedly corrupt leader. Fresh into his term as a president in 1998. 19. Estrada did not get the traditional honeymoon with the press.” . Quickly following the senators‟ decisions. The mobile phones become the key device used in coordinating collective action.Joseph Estrada came in as the third president in the post.” “Expect there to be rebels. Typical SMS messages include the following examples: “Wear black to mourn the death or democracy.Marcos era of rebuilding. Filipinos began responding to text messages calling them to action. Filipinos were closely following the impeachment trial for Estrada. Mobile phones are ubiquitous in the Philippines. When it was announced on television news broadcast that 11 senators had voted against unsealing evidence that would have easily convicted Estrada. the public was outraged. The House of Representatives decided to investigate the exposé. to make a decision to go against Erap! Please pass on. who was brought to trial on charges of corruption and mismanagement.

However. low internet penetration. an e. a mobile operator in the Philippines. Smart Communication. and word of mouth. 000 signatures.mail that was hoping to collect m1 million signatures to call for Estrada‟s resignation only received 91. Estrada resigned.day period with an estimated one million Filipinos participating. combined with the time. In reaction to the large protests. Inc. Rather. However.mails. The origin of the first message calling for a gathering at the site of the 1986 revolution (People Power I) is unknown. over 70 million text messages were sent. On contrary.consuming nature of calling and speaking to individuals within your social network.All sources indicate that the messages calling for mass demonstrations were not the result of an alert system where Filipinos had signed to receive text about emergencies or calls to action. coupled with the power of emerging technology. police and army members sided with the protesters. wouldhave prevented the demonstrations from . The events of People Power II exemplify how conditions ripe for political activity. e. it is not the imagination to think that multiple individuals had the same idea to organize at the same place as they did 15 years earlier. Filipinos primarily received messages from peers within their existing social networks. Looking at the local culture and circumstances. cabinet fled their posts. and Gloria Arroyo was sworn in as the new president. a crowd could have been mobilized via voice messages. reported that in one day. can converge to create a powerful movement with lasting consequences.. Demonstrations and protests took place over five.

Filipinos were able to utilize a tool they were already familiar with – text messaging –to communicate their ideas and plans rapidly and present a forceful showing against Estrada immediately after the news about the vote was released. to preserve diversity of views. .” says journalist Kunda Dixit.occurring quickly. “The media. to give voice to minorities. and to serve as a feedback mechanism for policy making in democracy. even in the freest countries. are therefore squandering their potential to be an agent of positive change.

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