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Solidification Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steel Filler Metals

Interrupted solidification technique and scanning transmission electron microanalysis lead to a basic understanding of the solidification behavior of austenitic stainless steel weld metal

BY S. A. DAVID, G. M. G O O D W I N AND D. N. BRASKI

ABSTRACT. Thermal analysis and interrupted solidification experiments were conducted on selected austenitic stainless steel filler metals to gain an understanding of the solidification behavior of austenitic stainless steel welds. The following sequences of phase separations for the alloys investigated result: for Type 308 stainless steel filler metal, L ^ L + S ^ L + + y>y + 5, a r | d for Type 310 stainless steel filler metal, L> L + y y. In Type 308 stainless steel filler metal, ferrite at room temperature was identified as either the untransformed primary 8-ferrite formed during the initial stages of solidification or the residual ferrite after Widmanstatten austenite precipitation. Microprobe and scanning transmission electron microscope microanalyses revealed that solute extensively redistributes during the transformation of primary 6-ferrite to austenite, leading to enrichment and stabilization of ferrite by chromium. The Type 310 stainless steel filler metal investigated solidifies by the primary crystallization of austenite w i t h the transformation going to completion at the solidus temperature. In samples residual ferrite resulting from solute segregation was absent at the intercellular or interdendritic regions.

amounts of ferrite. During the past three decades, the subject of ferrite in austenitic stainless steel has received and continues to receive much attent i o n . 1 3 It is recognized that if sufficient ferrite is in the w e l d , the ferrite will effectively prevent hot cracking. 3 " 7

1600

1400

Several theories have been advanced to explain this phenomenon,""" yet to date our understanding of hot cracking is still incomplete. Before establishing the beneficial effect of 5-ferrite in reducing hot cracking, it is necessary to understand the origin of duplex structure in austenitic stainless steel weld metal. Extensive discussions have been published on the solidification behavior and origin of ferrite in austenitic stainless steel weld metal. However, no one has been able to clearly establish the solidification sequences leading to the observed final microstructure of the weld metal. A vertical section 12 (at 70 wt-% Fe) of the ternary equilibrium system Fe-CrNi (Fig. 1) shows possible sequences of phase separation during solidification under equilibrium conditions for various alloy compositions. However, the solidification behavior and sequences of phase separation in austenitic stainless steel weld metal depart considerably from the phase diagram; these occur as a result of the presence of other alloying elements and the rapid cooling of the weld metal. Generally, austenitic stainless steel weld metal solidifies by primary separation of austenite or ferrite from the melt. In certain cases after ferrite forms, austenite can envelop the ferrite and thus interrupt its growth. One purpose of the investigation described in this paper was to examine in detail the solidification behavior of austenitic stainless steels of compositions on either side of the triangle of three-phase equilibrium in Fig. 1; another was to establish the origin of ferrite in the duplex structure of aus-

1200

70'.' Fe Ni:,

30

20 10

10 20

0 30

Cr=! 0

Fig. 1-Verticat section (at 70 wt-% Fe) of ternary equilibrium system Fe-Cr-Ni1"

Introduction Austenitic stainless steels form an important class of materials in several energy systems. Austenitic stainless steel weld metal normally has a duplex structure that contains varying 330-s I N O V E M B E R 1979

Paper presented at the AWS 60th Annual Meeting held in Detroit, Michigan, during April 2-6, 1979. S. A. DAVID, G. M. GOODWIN and D. N. BRASKI are with the Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge. Tennessee.

t e n i t i c stainless steel w e l d m e t a l . T h e r m a l analysis a n d i n t e r r u p t e d s o l i d i f i c a tion experiments were designed to correlate the observed microstructural features and solute distribution w i t h solidification behavior. Experimental Procedure

Table 1Austenitic Stainless Steel Filler Metal Compositions, Wt-% Alloy Mn 0.065 0.110 1.52 1.64 0.44 0.50 0.022 0.014 Cr Ni

308 310

0.008 0.009

20.51 26.73

10.53 21.15

DTA and Interrupted Solidification Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) w a s c a r r i e d o u t i n a r g o n in a M e t t l e r Thermoanalyzer. A sample w e i g h i n g approximately 7 to 8 g was heated to a b o u t 50 C (90 F) a b o v e t h e p r e s u m e d liquidus temperature of the sample a n d t h e n c o o l e d at a c o n s t a n t rate o f a b o u t 6 C / m i n (10.8 F / m i n ) . C o m p o s i t i o n s o f t h e a l l o y s i n v e s t i g a t e d are g i v e n in T a b l e 1 . D u r i n g c o o l i n g , a 12-channel compensated recorder traced the D T A curves. W e conducted interrupted solidifi-

cation experiments by heating the s a m p l e in a r g o n to a t e m p e r a t u r e a b o v e its l i q u i d u s in a v e r t i c a l t u b e furnace, slowly c o o l i n g the sample to a predetermined temperature below the l i q u i d u s , a n d q u e n c h i n g t h e s a m p l e in an ice b a t h . T h e progress of s o l i d i f i c a t i o n w a s f o l l o w e d by m e t a l l o g r a p h i cally analyzing the samples q u e n c h e d f r o m a series o f t e m p e r a t u r e s w i t h i n the freezing range of the alloy. To c o m p a r e t h e results of t h e i n t e r r u p t e d solidification experiments w i t h those of t y p i c a l w e l d s , gas t u n g s t e n arc

(GTA) bead-on-plate welds were m a d e w i t h t h e same filler metals used for the above investigations. Standard metallographic techniques w e r e used for austenitic stainless steels f o r m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l analysis. T h e samples w e r e etched w i t h a solution c o n t a i n i n g f i v e parts c o n c e n t r a t e d H C I t o o n e part c o n c e n t r a t e d H N O s . Microanalysis M i c r o p r o b e analysis w a s p e r f o r m e d o n t h e s a m p l e s by t r a v e r s i n g a f e w s e c o n d a r y d e n d r i t e a r m s . Ratios of t h e i n t e n s i t y at d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s t o t h e intensity of the pure element were p l o t t e d as a f u n c t i o n o f d i s t a n c e . A scanning transmission electron m i c r o s c o p e (STEM) w i t h an e n e r g y d i s p e r s i v e X-ray s p e c t r o m e t e r was

TYPE 310 STAINLESS STEEL

TYPE 308 STAINLESS STEEL

AT

1395C

1304C

B
Fig. 2DTA curves at cooling rate of 6 C/min for: AType 308 austenitic stainless steel filler metal; BType 310 filler metal

WELDING

RESEARCH S U P P L E M E N T I 331-s

used to analyze for microsegregation of the constituent elements within the ferrite network. 1 3 1 1 Foils of Type 308 stainless steel specimens were electropolished with a dual jet polishing apparatus and a solution of 10 vol-% perchloric acid in methanol. The samples were polished at 10 C (14 F) with 55 V dc. Composition profiles were determined by manually traversing the foil in steps of either 0.2 ftm or 0.1 /itm and collecting X-ray spectra at each point for 60 s. The weight fractions of the major alloying elements iron, chromium, and nickel were determined by using the backgroundcorrected integrated intensities of their respective Ka lines, a Fe-16.17% Cr-16.5% Ni foil standard, and the following equations from Cliff and Lorimer: 13
= K(. 'or

also indicate that for Type 308 stainless steel filler metal the alloy line position based on nickel and chromium content alone (shown in Fig. 1) does not represent the actual solidification sequences of the filler metal. The presence of other alloying elements in addition to nickel and chromium and the nonequilibrium conditions associated with the cooling rates employed have considerably changed the alloy line position relative to the phase diagram such that the line now partly

traverses the triangle of three-phase equilibrium. This is further confirmed by the interrupted solidification experiments discussed later. Two temperatures were identified from the DTA curves for Type 310 stainless steel filler metal: 1. The primary crystallization of austenite (y) at 1395 C (2543 F). 2. The solidus temperature at about 1304 C (2379 F). The alloy line position describing the solidification path for Type 310 stainless steel filler metal w o u l d be located to the left of the triangle of three-phase equilibrium (Fig. 1). H o w ever, it w o u l d be in a different vertical section of the ternary diagram. Solidification Microstructure of Type 308 Stainless Steel Filler Metal As described earlier, solidification sequences in Type 308 stainless steel filler metal include primary crystallization of S-ferrite with subsequent envelopment by austenite. Figure 3 shows samples quenched from various temperatures below the liquidus. Primary S-ferrite forms on cooling the sample to a temperature just below the liquidus (Fig. 3A). Here the dark-etching blocky phase is the primary S-ferrite. The fine structure surrounding the primary phase indicates that the rest of the area was liquid at the moment of quenching. The ferrite appears dark mainly from the transformation of what was primary S-ferrite to Widmanstatten austenite. Fredriksson observed similar behavior in 18-8 stainless steel ingots. 1 " The volume fraction of the primary S-ferrite continues to increase as the temperature decreases below the liquidus. However, at 1387 C, i.e., 2529 F, (Fig. 3B) austenite envelops the primary S-ferrite. The transformed ferrite enveloped by austenite is shown in Fig. 4. Magnetic etching identified the dark phase in the photomicrograph as 8-ferrite. The transformation of 8-ferrite to Widmanstatten austenite clearly marks the boundary between primary ferrite and austenite at the time of quenching. From the point of complete envelopment, further transformationsL > y and S -^ yproceed at the y-L and y-S interfaces. As the sample cools to a temperature slightly below that of the solidus (1355 C, i.e., 2471 F), the transformation at the y-L interface goes to completion, leaving behind a skeletal network of untransformed S-ferrite along the core of the primary and secondary dendrite arms (Fig. 3C). This residual ferrite appears to be very stable on quenching. Interdendritic ferrite resulting from solute segregation was absent in the samples examined. Additionally, the

Or,

" %. '

(1)

9y
and
G T + C Pe + CN, + R

(2)

:..
I, (3)

where C,-r, CKe, and C Nl are weight fractions of the elements; /(-r, lr and /\, are the background-corrected Ka peak intensities; KCrV and KN1Fe are constants determined from the standard; and R is the weight fraction of the remaining alloy elements. Error bars defining 95% confidence intervals by Student t-tests for the true average percent of the element were determined from sets of measurements made on the standard sample. Results and discussion Differential Thermal Analysis Results of DTA on the Types 308 and 310 stainless steel filler metal samples (Fig. 2) established the freezing range for the alloys investigated. From the DTA curve for the Type 308 stainless steel sample, three temperatures were identified as follows: 1. The primary crystallization of S-ferrite at approximately 1435 C (2615 F). 2. The start of austenite formation and envelopment of S-ferrite at 1387 C (2529 F). 3. The solidus temperature at about 1355 C (2471 F). The above temperatures, except for the liquidus, are slightly different from the values that were reported previously 1 where a higher cooling rate (20 C / m i n , i.e., 36 F/min) was used to obtain the thermogram. The temperatures of these multiphase reactions were reproducible within 2 C (3.6 F). The DTA results 332-s I N O V E M B E R 1979

. >
->*
- 3JI-7V5

s
1

. .1*'

J
200 um

^ ^

" ^f'

| ,;.,', |.i (V* t)K IA

r/tA*

-Vi
> '*

, v^'i-v
9 ,
200
um

Fig. 3-Interrupted solidification on samples of Type 308 stainless steel filler metal quenched from: A-1430 C (2506 F); B-1365 C (2489 F); C-1335 C (2435 F)

fiZywrn Fig. 4Interrupted solidification quenched from 1365 C (2489 F) sample

amount of residual S-ferrite decreased further on slowly cooling the sample from solidus to room temperature. In view of the extensive solid-state diffusion called for in the above discussion, it should be pointed out that the sequences of solidification and solidstate transformations that occur in the interrupted solidification sample are more likely to occur in high heat input and high-deposition welds. Solute Distribution Figure 5 shows the distribution of chromium, nickel, silicon, and manga-

nese across secondary dendrite arms by electron microprobe analysis in the same area of the sample shown in Fig. 3A. By point count technique, the primary S-ferrite region was found to contain approximately 2 wt-% more chromium and 2 wt-% less nickel than the austenite. The distributions of manganese and silicon were fairly uniform. Figure 6 shows the distribution of c h r o m i u m , nickel, silicon, and manganese across a ferrite arm in the same area of the sample as shown in Fig. 3C. The ferrite regions contained approximately 5 wt-% more chromium and 4

wt-% less nickel than the austenite. Apparently, the level of chromium seems to have increased in the ferrite while that of nickel decreased during the S^> y transformation. Figure 7A shows a transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrograph of a typical region in an interrupted solidification sample (Fig. 3C) analyzed by a STEM microanalyzer. Figure 7B shows the solute profile across a ferrite network. It should be pointed out that the observed solute profile is the quenched in-solute profile during the S^> y transformation, at a temperature slightly below the solidus. The average

0.28 0.28

I/I

0.24 I/IQ 0.24

I/I

0.10

0.06 0.06
Mn Mn 0.02

0.02

v^^Wv-v-V
1

'/I 0.01

I/I,
0.01

6 1

'

Si

n 40 60
DISTANCE ( u m)

|
20

|
40 60 DISTANCE (um)

v
80 100

Fig. 5-Distribution of: Achromium; Bnickel; Csilicon and manganese across secondary dendrite arms in the same area of the sample as shown in Fig. 3A

Fig. 6-Distribution ot: A-chromium; B-nickel; C-silicon and manganese across secondary dendrite arms in the same area of the sample as shown in Fig. 3C

W E L D I N G RESEARCH S U P P L E M E N T I 333-s

CHROMIUM O NICKEL

DISTRIBUTION

DISTRIBUTION

T 30 _ 28 CHROMIUM DISTRIBUTION

fs 6 "r

o NICKEL

DISTRIBUTION

26

12

1.8

22

26 Jiim)

30

3.4

24

DISTANCE

B Fig. 7STEM microanalysis of S-ferrite in an interrupted solidification sample quenched from 1335 C (2435 F): A-TEM micrograph; Bsolute profile across the ferrite

- K'H~u.
1 1/

20

f Y
i
1.0 1.2

1
0,4

L_

1
1.4

0.6 0.8 DISTANCE (jam!

B
Fig. 8-STEM microanalysis of S-ferrite in an interrupted solidification sample: ATEM micrograph; Bsolute profile across the ferrite

vft<r?:>V

' .

--. 4 0 nm

Fig. 9-A GTA bead-on-plate weld. Type 308 stainless steel filler metal chromium and nickel contents in the austenite are about 21 and 9.5 wt-%, respectively, and in the ferrite are about 26 and 7 wt-%, respectively. The quenched in-solute profile across the ferrite network also shows chromium peaks on either ferrite side of the S-y interface. This peak in chromium level may be attributed to the chromium partitioning to the S-side of the boundary by fast transport across the interface. 13 Compared with the level of chromium in the primary S-ferrite from the microprobe results, the level of chromium in the residual ferrite is high. The high level can also be attributed to the transport of partitioned chromium

in 8-ferrite, with further redistribution w i t h i n the ferrite by volume diffusion during 5 > y transformation. This high level of chromium seems to stabilize the ferrite and thus prevent it from transforming to Widmanstatten austenite during the quench, as discussed earlier. The sample quenched from 1365 C, i.e., 2489 F, (Fig. 3B) that contains a network of Widmanstatten austenite and ferrite (Fig. 4) was analyzed through scanning transmission electron microscopy. This revealed another mode by which the structure retains S-ferrite. The micromorphology of the ferrite is acicular, which is different from the structure described earlier, and the ferrite is much finer. Since primary S-ferrite transformed to W i d -

manstatten austenite during the quench, the cooling rate encountered by the sample w o u l d be close to that of the weld metal. Hence, the network of austenite and ferrite w o u l d be typical of weld metal; in fact, it has been observed in welds. A TEM micrograph of a typical region analyzed by the STEM X-ray method is shown in Fig. 8A. Figure 8B shows the solute profile across ferrite in the network. The average chromium and nickel contents in the austenite are 20 and 10 wt-%, respectively, and in the ferrite 28 and 5 wt-%, respectively. The observed modulation in structure and composition observed throughout the transformed primary 8-ferrite is a result of nucleation of austenite precipitates at the y-8 boundary and

334-s I N O V E M B E R 1979

30 CHROMIUM DISTRIBUTION o NICKEL DISTRIBUTION

26

-S 24 S S 22 O

f+

+++H I \ A A

n
10 9

8 8 7 I
6 5 4 3 -i *

y
2

i
0 0.4

i
0.8

i
2.0 Ijim) 2.4 2.8 3.2

1.2 1.6 DISTANCE

B
Fig. 10STEM microanalysis of ferrite in the GTA bead-on-plate weld: A TEM micrograph; Bsolute profile across the ferrite

further growth into the ferrite. To correlate the results of the interrupted solidification experiments with welds, a GTA bead-on-plate weld was made with Type 308 stainless steel filler metal. The sample was both microstructurally and STEM microanalyzed. An optical micrograph of a typical section of the weld is shown in Fig. 9. The microstructure shows regions typical of the skeletal network and acicular ferrite morphologies found in the interrupted solidification samples. Such variations in ferrite morphology within the weld depend on the variations in local solidification conditions. A TEM micrograph of a typical region analyzed by a STEM microanalyzer is shown in Fig. 10A. Figure 10B shows the solute profile across ferrite in the weld sample. Here again the observed ferrite is finer. The average chromium and nickel contents in the austenite of the weld are 20 and 10 wt-%, respectively, and 28 and 4 wt-%, respectively, in the ferrite. The solute profile within the ferrite and the composition of the ferrite in the weld appear to be similar to those of the interrupted solidification sample shown in Fig. 8. As in the interrupted solidification samples, diffusion seems to play an important role in the formation of the duplex structure in the weld.
Solidification Microstructure of Type 310

A ,*_

:.

400 fim

Fig. 11Interrupted solidification samples ol Type 310 stainless steel filler metal quenched from: A-1390 C (2534 F); B-1300 C (2372 F)

precipitates on cooling the sample to a temperature just below the liquidus (Fig. 11A). The fine structure surrounding the primary phase indicates that the rest of the area was liquid at the moment of quenching. The volume fraction of the primary austenite continues to increase as the temperature decreases below the liquidus, leading to about 100% solid at a temperature of 1304 C, i.e., 2379 F, (Fig. 11B). During the above transformation of liquid to austenite there is a continuous enrichment (partition rat i o * / C c / r L < 1 ) of chromium in the liquid. As solidification approaches completion, the last c h r o m i u m - e n riched liquid may solidify as S-ferrite. The 8-ferrite w o u l d be located in the intercellular or interdendritic region. However, during this investigation no residual ferrite resulting from solute segregation at the intercellular or interdendritic regions was revealed by magnetic etching. The above observation compares well w i t h a typical Type 310 stainless steel w e l d , as shown in Fig. 12, which is fully austenitic. Conclusion Interrupted solidification studies and differential thermal analysis aid in understanding weld metal microstructures. The Type 308 stainless steel filler metal investigated solidifies by the primary crystallization of 8-ferrite followed by austenite enveloping the

Stainless Steel Filler Metal As described earlier, solidification of Type 310 stainless steel filler metal takes place w i t h the primary formation of austenite. Figure 11 shows samples quenched from various temperatures below the liquidus. Primary austenite

Fig. 12A GTA bead-on-plate weld. Type 310 stainless steel filler metal

*Equilibrium partition ratio KrL = C j ^ / c k , where C"X, and Cr are the chromium compositions of austenite and liquid given by the tie line at a particular temperature.

W E L D I N G RESEARCH S U P P L E M E N T I 335-s

ferrite. Depending on the cooling rate, t w o modes of primary S-ferrite transformation could take place, leading to the observed morphologies of the duplex structure. Thus, the ferrite in the duplex structure of the weld may be identified as: 1. Residual primary ferrite resulting from incomplete S^> y transformation, or 2. Residual ferrite after W i d m a n statten austenite precipitation. During the above transformations, solute redistributes extensively, leading to enrichment of ferrite by chromium and to depletion in nickel. This high level of chromium seems to stabilize the ferrite. The Type 310 stainless steel filler metal investigated solidifies by the primary crystallization of austenite w i t h the transformation going to c o m pletion at the solidus temperature. In the samples residual ferrite was absent at the intercellular or interdendritic regions. This agrees w i t h our observations on the Type 310 stainless steel weld as well. Ac/aiow/edgments The authors wish to acknowledge C. ). Long and V. B. Baylor for their helpful technical and editorial suggestions. W e also acknowledge R. ). Gray, R. S. Crouse, and C. P. Haltom for their

assistance in magnetic etching, microprobe analysis, and metallography, respectively. The paper was edited by Barbara Ashdown and prepared for final publication by Denise Campbell.

References
1. Schaeffler, A. L., "Constitution Diagram for Stainless Steel Weld Metal," Metals Progress, 56, 1949, pp. 680-680B. 2. DeLong, W. T., Ostrom, G. A., and Szumachowski, E. R., "Measurement and Calculation of Ferrite in Stainless Steel Weld Metal," Welding lournal, 35(11), Nov. 1956, Research Suppl., pp. 521-s to 528-s. 3. DeLong, W. T., "Ferrite in Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal," Welding lournal, 53(7), July 1974, Research Suppl., pp. 273-s to 286-s. 4. David, S. A., and Goodwin, G. M., "Solidification Behavior of Type 308 Stainless Steel Filler Metal," paper presented at Fifth Bolton Landing Conference, Lake George, New York, August 1978 (proceedings recently published). 5. Borland, |. C, and Younger, R. N., "Some Aspects of Cracking in Austenitic Steels," British Welding lournal, 7(1), |an. 1960. pp. 22-60. 6. Hull, F. C, "Effect of Delta Ferrite on the Hot Cracking of Stainless Steel," Welding lournal, 46(9), Sept. 1967, Research Suppl., pp. 399-s to 409-s. 7. Arata, Y., Matsuda, F., and Katayama, S., "Solidification Crack Susceptibility in Weld Metals of Fully Austenitic Stainless Steel (Report I)Fundamental Investigation on Solidification Behavior of Fully Austenit-

ic and Duplex Microstructures and Effect of Ferrite on Microsegregation," Transactions oi the Japanese Welding Research Institute, 5(2), Feb. 1976, pp. 35-51. 8. Puzak, P. P., Apblett, W. R and Pellini, W. S., "Hot Cracking of Stainless Steel Weldments," Welding lournal, 35(1), |an. 1956, Research Suppl., pp. 9-s to 17-s. 9. Pellini, W. S "Strain Theory of Hot Tearing," Foundry, 80, Nov. 1952, p. 125. 10. Apblett, W. R., and Pellini, W. S., "Factors Which Influence Weld Hot Cracking," Welding lournal, 33(2), Feb. 1954, Research Suppl., pp. 83-s to 90-s. 11. Borland, |. C, "Generalized Theory of Super-Solidus Cracking in Welds (and Castings)," British Welding lournal, 7(8), Aug. 1960, pp. 508-512. 12. Masumoto, I., and Kutsuma, M., "Hot Cracking of Austenitic Steel Weld Metal," japan Welding journal, 41(11), 1306-1314. 13. Astrom, H., Loberg, B., Bengtsson, B., and Easterling, K. E., "Hot Cracking and Micro-Segregation in 18-10 Stainless Steel Welds," Metal Science, 10(7), July 1976, pp. 225-234. 14. Lyman, C. E., Manning, P. E., Duquette, D. )., and Hall, E., "STEM Microanalysis of Duplex Stainless Steel Weld Metal," Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1, 1978, pp. 213-220. 15. Cliff, G., and Lorimer, C. W Proc. 5th European Congress on Electron Microscopy, Manchester Institute of Physics, 1972, pp. 140-141. 16. Fredriksson, H., "The Solidification Sequence in an 18-8 Stainless Steel, Investigated by Directional Solidification," Metals Transactions, 3(11), Nov. 1972, pp. 29892997.

WRC Bulletin 250 July 1979


Generalized Yield Surfaces for Plates and Shells
by D.B. Peterson, W.C. Kroenke, W.F. Stokey and W . J . O'Donnell

Complete expressions are derived for the lower bound loads which cause yielding of general plate and shell elements subjected to membrane, bending and shear loads. Stress limits based on yield surface equations are proposed to evaluate elastically calculated primary stresses obtained, using finite element or other methods. The proposed evaluation method provides a consistent and nearly uniform margin of safety against gross plastic yielding. Publication of this paper was sponsored by the Subcommittee on Stresses in Ligaments of the Pressure Vessel Research Committee of the Welding Research Council. The price of WRC Bulletin 250 is $10.00 per copy. Orders should be sent with payment to the Welding Research Council, 345 East 47th St., Room 8 0 1 , New York, NY 10017.

336-s I N O V E M B E R 1979