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Purpose/Objective The purpose of this experiment is to determine the experimental edge lengths for crystalline solids using the

unit cell type and calculated density. Materials 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pencil Lab notebook 10 mL graduated cylinder Electronic balance 5x weigh boats Chemicals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 0.930g Copper 5.16g Nickel 1.05g Iron 1.71g Lead 0.72g Zinc Water Data and Results Metal Packing/# of Atoms FCC/4 FCC/4 BCC/2 FCC/4 HCP/4 Mass weighed out (g) 0.930g 5.16g 1.05g 1.71g 0.720g Sample Calculations 1. Vol. displaced (mL) = Vol. in cylinder before addition of metal (mL) Vol. after metal addition Copper |5.00 mL 5.10 mL| = 0.100 mL 0.100 mL = 0.100 cm3 2. Density (g/cm3) = mass of metal weighed out (g) / vol. displaced (cm3) Copper 0.930 g/0.100cm3 = 9.30 g/cm3 Volume (cm3) Displaced 0.100 cm3 0.470 cm3 0.175 cm3 0.200 cm3 0.150 cm3 Calculated Density (g/cm3) 9.30 g/cm3 11.0 g/cm3 6.00 g/cm3 8.55 g/cm3 4.80 g/cm3

Copper Nickel Iron Lead Zinc

2 Discussion and Comments Crystalline solids are arranged in a highly structured order. At the microscopic level, the positions of the components (atoms, ions, or molecules) in the crystalline solid are represented by a lattice framework. The smallest repeating unit of a lattice is the unit cell. There are three types of unit cells: simple cubic, body-centered cubic, and facecentered cubic. A simple cubic contains a total of 1 particle (atom, molecule, or ion); a body-centered cubic contains a total of 2 particles; and a face-centered cubic contains a total of 4 particles. The edge length of a crystalline solids unit cell can be determined by knowing which type of unit cell is involved and the density (Chang, 2010, pp. 472-478). For this experiment, we used copper, nickel, iron, lead, and zinc for the crystalline solids. The packing arrangement for each of these was provided. The experimental density was determined by measuring out an amount of the solid using an electronic balance to obtain the mass (g) and by using water displacement in a 10 mL graduated cylinder to obtain the volume (cm3). After obtaining the experimental edge lengths and densities, I compared them to the accepted edge lengths and densities for copper, nickel, iron, lead and zinc. The experiment performed best for copper by far over the rest of the solids. The percent error of the edge length was 1.24% and the percent error for the density was 4.26%. The percent error for the edge lengths and densities for all of the other crystalline solids were >6% and >23% respectively. Possible systematic error includes a malfunctioning or uncalibrated electronic balance. Possible random errors include forgetting to zero the electronic balance to compensate for the mass of the weigh boat or the improper reading of the volume of water in the graduated cylinder prior to adding the crystalline solid or the displaced volume after the addition of the crystalline solid. These errors can be reduced by taking multiple mass measurements of the same sample using different electronic balances or using a larger sample of the crystalline solids in order to obtain a more measurable volume displacement value.

3 Pre-Lab Questions 1. Step-by-step method to determine the density of a solid. a. Obtain an electronic balance. b. Zero the balance. c. Determine the mass of the sample of solid in grams (g). d. Obtain a graduated cylinder. e. Fill the graduated cylinder with water to a predetermined level (e.g. 50 mL). f. Place the solid sample in the graduated cylinder. g. Record the new volume (e.g. 65 mL). h. Determine the change in volume by subtracting the new volume from the initial volume (65 mL 50 mL = 15 mL). i. Convert milliliters to cubic centimeters. 1 mL equals 1 cm3. This is the volume of the solid sample. j. Determine the density of the solid sample by using the equation density = mass/volume (d = m/v). 2. Determine number of atoms for each unit cell. a. Simple cubic: # of atoms: 8 corners; 1/8 of an atom at each corner, so: 8 x 1/8 atom = 1 atom. b. Body-center cubic: # of atoms: 8 corners and 1 atom in the center, so: (8 x 1/8 atom) + 1 atom = 2 atoms. c. Face-centered cubic: # of atoms: 8 corners and six faces, so: (8 x 1/8 atom) + (6 x atom) = 4 atoms. 3. Given the aluminum unit cell is FCC, the density is 2.70g/cm3, and the molar mass is 26.98g/mol, calculate the edge length (a) of an aluminum unit cell.

4 Post Lab Questions 1. Omit 2. Edge lengths Copper





5 3. 4. Calculated percent error for edge lengths and density: Metal Accepted Experimental Percent Accepted Experimental Percent Edge Edge Length Error Density Density Error Length (cm) (%) (g/cm3) (g/cm3) (%) (cm)
3.615x10-8 cm 3.524x10 cm 2.866x10-8 cm 4.950x10 cm
-8 -8

Copper Nickel Iron Lead

3.57 x10-8 cm 3.28 x10 cm 3.13 x10-8 cm 5.44 x10 cm

-8 -8

1.24% 6.29% 8.51% 9.90%

8.92 g/cm3 8.90 g/cm


9.30 g/cm3 11.0 g/cm 6.0 g/cm3

3 3

4.26% 23.6% 23.6%

7.86 g/cm3 11.30 g/cm

8.55 g/cm


Percent Error Calculations for Edge Lengths

Percent Error Calculations for Density

6 5. a. Experimental edge length of zinc:

5. b. Percent error for the density value of zinc:

5. c. Use accepted density of zinc to determine the edge length:

7 Resources Chang, R. (2010). Phase Changes. Chemistry: 10th Edition (pp. 460-511). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.