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J. W. Haslett, M.Sc, Ph.D., and M. L. Kejariwal, M.Sc.

The effects of field-dependent mobility on transfer inefficiency due to intrinsic transfer limitations, dynamic-dram conductance and threshold-voltage modulation are calculated for an m.o.s. bucket-brigade delay line. The results show significant differences over previous theories at higher clock frequencies, where line performance is critical if quantisation errors are to be minimised in analogue applications.

Introduction

In a conventional m.o.s. b.b.d., charge transfer normally takes place through the channel of a simple m.o.s triode, whose gate-drain capacitance has been artificially increased to form one of the storage buckets in the delay line.1'2 The drain diffusion also acts as a source for the next triode in the line, and so on. At low and intermediate clock frequencies, finite dynamic-drain conductance and thresholdvoltage modulation, due to source and drain-voltage variations during charge transfer, constitute the most significant effects contributing to charge-transfer inefficiency. At higher clock frequencies, the transfer inefficiency increases due to the finite time required for charge to flow from one capacitor to the next in the line. This mechanism represents an inherent limitation to the high-frequency performance of the line, and is determined by the gain characteristics of the transistors used. Unfortunately, in many applications the length of the time delay is fixed and it is desirable to minimise quantisation errors by taking many samples per cycle of the maximum input frequency of interest. This implies a high clock rate and a long line, which is a condition where intrinsic transfer inefficiency can become important. It is therefore of interest to examine the factors affecting the intrinsic transfer process. The most simple model of charge transfer assumes a transistor with a square-law characteristic of the form3 In = -(VBR ~

Some attempts have been made by Sangsters to reduce the effects of dynamic drain conductance by employing an m.o.s. tetrode configured switch to effect the charge transfer. In these devices, the remaining transfer inefficiency can be attributed largely to intrinsic effects similar to eqn. 5 even at intermediate frequencies. The intrinsic transfer inefficiency represents a high-frequency limitation in both types of devices, and we have found that fielddependent mobility plays an important role in the overall highfrequency delay-line performance. It is the purpose of this paper to examine these effects.

2 1.2 M.O.S. triode structures Intrinsic transfer inefficiency

The intrinsic-transfer-inefficiency-parameter calculation is easily modified to include field-dependent mobility using Trofimenkoff s6 emperical relationship, given by

Mm =

(6)

0)

where |3 is a factor that includes carrier mobility and device geometry. If the source capacitance at the beginning of transfer is charged to Vs, then the charge to be transferred is simply described by

where jLt0 is the low field mobility, e is the electric field, and ec is an empirical constant. This expression is most accurate for bulk mobility calculations, but can be made to give a reasonable fit to p-channel surface-mobility curves if ju0 and Ec are properly chosen.10 The m.o.s transistors operate only in the saturated region of their ID-VDS characteristics during transfer and eqn. 6 leads directly to (Vgs-VT)VDSfsat) h{sat) =

-Vl PS (.sat)

(7)

-Q =

c(vg8-vT)

(2)

where Cis the oxide overlap capacitance. Since the drain current must be equal to dQ/dt if no charge is lost to the gate circuit, then combining eqns. 1 and 2 gives the charge remaining in the source after time t as

(3)

where VDS

(Mf)

is given by

(sat)

= -LEr+LEA 1 +

Was ~ LE,

(8)

Once this quantity is known, the intrinsic transfer-inefficiency parameter e,- is readily calculated from4

= i

The charge to be transferred is still given by eqn. 2 and a combination of eqns. 2, 7 and 8 leads to an implicity solution for Q(T) of the form

dQ(jl dQ(o)

1+

(4)

2g(r)7

CVT

-1

2Q(T)7

1+

2(2(o)7 CVr

where r represents the time available for transfer and is normally equal to one clock period. Applying eqn. 4 to eqn. 3 leads to the simple result ,- = 1+ 2C2

(5)

2yC

+ ln

1 + CV T

1+

-1

2Q (o)7 CVr,

(9)

im ~

Eqn. 5 indicates that at low clock frequencies e,- is small and dominated by other effects such as nonzero drain conductance, while at higher frequencies it degrades rapidly toward unity, so that the intrinsic transfer process dominates in this range.

Paper 7802E, first received 12th July and in revised form 24th September 1976 Dr. Haslett and Mr. Kejariwal are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Calgary, 2920 24th Avenue NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4

-1

2Q(o)y

CVr,

00)

-1

Eqn. 10 is evaluated for a given initial charge to be transferred, Q(o), by interatively solving eqn. 9 for Q(r) and substituting both values in eqn. 10. Comparisons of e,- and e ^ are shown in Figs. 1 and 2 as functions of clock frequency and signal-bias voltage for two sets of 109

devices with identical characteristics except for channel length. As can be seen, the inefficiency increases markedly at shorter channel lengths owing to the effect of field-dependent mobility. There has also been some discussion in the literature on the effects of varying clock waveform.3 When a trapezoidal waveform is used, the effects of field-dependent mobility are readily included and it can be shown that this leads to another implicit equation for Q(T) of the form

Many authors have described models which account for the effects of gate and drain-voltage variations, substrate impurity concentration and oxide thickness on channel shortening in a saturated device. Frohman-Bentchkowsky and Grove7 have derived a relatively simple model that accounts for many of these factors, and which can be written as 2es Ld

(YDS

-I

In

-*?

In

Kt y

(13)

u(p)

In

Kt 7 - - +K 7

01)

1

'

10

-3

where and

2mC

my'

-'^

"(r) = ;

1 + CV T

2Q(r)7

10

C l t

andrwz is the slope of the clock waveform. Numerical solution of eqn. 11 leads to the value of eitm) the transfer inefficiency parameter for a trapezoidal waveform including effects of field-dependent mobility. This result is compared directly with that of Berglund,3 in Figs. 3a and 3b, for the cases where mobility is assumed constant. As can be seen, the difference in the value of e obtained when accounting for field-dependent mobility is greater than an order of magnitude in these cases. If one is to be convinced that these differences are important, then it is necessary to examine the effects of mobility on dynamic-drain conductance and on threshold-voltage modulation due to source and drain voltages as well.

2.2

Dynamic-drain conductance

10

UU

-5

a

uu

10

-6

10

The expression for the saturated drain current in eqn. 1 assumes that the current depends on gate-source voltage only. In practice, the drain potential also has a small effect on drain current, producing a finite nonzero dynamic output conductance in the saturation region of operation. The presence of this conductance has been shown to lead to incomplete charge transfer, and, in general, it can be shown3'4 that ed = ^

Sm

10

-8

10

10 J 10 frequency. Hz

10

(12)

Fig. 2

Comparison of intrinsic-inefficiency variations with clock frequency including and excluding field-dependent mobility effects

e

where the output conductance g^ and the gate transconductance gm are both evaluated in the saturation region at the end of the transfer period.

im

10

-5

/ \ /

/

10"'

-6

10 3

JJ

10

.2 E

.-10' /.

uJ -5

/ /

10 o c o

a;

uJ

1

rati

io2

JJ

?

ec 10

uj" 6 fi 10

10 3 5 7 9 1 1 13 signal bias voltage (VS-VT ), V a 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 signal bias voltage (Vs-V,), V Fig. 3 105 106 107 frequency, Hz

-8

10

Fig. 1

Comparison of intrinsic-transfer-inefficiency variations with bias voltage including and excluding field-dependent mobility effects.

e.

Intrinsic-transfer-inefficiency variations

L - 12 MH

' ismleis a With bias voltage using trapezoidal clock waveforms/= 1 MHz b With clock frequency using trapezoidal clock waveforms Vc = 15V,

'

ism

V=

R(m)

110

where Ld represents the depleted portion of the active channel, ai and 0i are fringing field factors and V'G = Vc + QsslCox the effective gate voltage. Eqn. 13 can be simplified for various devices once the oxide thickness and substrate doping are specified. In particular, if it is assumed that fringing fields are less important than drain depletion due to drain-source voltage in excess of the saturation voltage, then straightforward analysis leads to a simple expression for the charge-transferinefficiency parameter given by (Vgs - VT)

while other effects are not, the overall line performance will be adversely affected by such variations at higher frequencies. This is illustrated for a typical delay line in Fig. 5, where the effects of intrinsic transfer and dynamic drain conductance are combined excluding (e,d), and including (e Wm ), field-dependent mobility. Similar differences appear in Fig. 6, which shows error ratios as a function of clock frequency.

10"

us(vDS-vDS(sat)y

(14)

10

-4

2.:? 3pm 1 2

where Ls = L Ld, the shortened length of the channel. The effects offield-dependentmobility can be accounted for when calculating the transfer-inefficiency parameter by recalculating #, and gas to include mobility variations in the saturated drain-current expression, in a manner similar to eqn. 7, substituting Ls for L in that expression. Then ID (saf) is a function of both Vgs and V^ and the appropriate parameters are readily calculated to be

at) + LSEC) where V' and

DS(sat)

(15)

Fig. 5 Effects of field-dependent mobility on transfer inefficiency due to combined intrinsic transfer and dynamic drain conductance, at fixed clock frequency

.e id e idm e e

gm(p)

C OXEC\ 1 'OX'-'C

, 1/2

V'DS(sat)-(Vgs-VT)

where X =

J2+X

07)

This procedure is somewhat involved, and even then only represents a lst-order solution to the problem. However, it will indicate the way in which mobility variations affect the transfer parameter, and the accuracy is sufficient for the present purposes. The parameter edm which includes mobility effects is computed from eqns. 12, 15, 16 and 17 by numerical solution for a given initial charge to be transferred, and some graphical results are presented in Fig. 4 as a function of signal bias at a fixed clock frequency. The field dependent mobility has only a slight effect on the dynamic drain conductance transfer-inefficiency parameter at all frequencies. This is expected from physical considerations in an m.o.s. device with a depleted drain region. The incomplete charge transfer due to threshold-voltage modulation will not be adversely affected by fielddependent mobility effects, since the longitudinal field variations in the channel do not affect the threshold voltage significantly. Since the intrinsic inefficiency is heavily dependent on mobility variations,

1CT

10 frequency, Hz

1Oa

10'

Fig. 6

Effects of field-dependent mobility on transfer inefficiency due to combined intrinsic transfer and dynamic drain conductance, at fixed signal bias voltage

L = 3 Mm L = 12 Mm

-3

a R = e,m/e,bR = eidm/eid

o IB

10" 2 A 6 8 signal bias voltage ( V s - VT) 10 V 12

Experimental results

Fig. 4

Effects of field-dependent mobility on transfer inefficiency due to dynamic drain conductance, at fixed clock frequency

dm dmled a L = 12 Mm / = 500 kHz bL = 3 M m / = 500 kHz

e e

To verify that field-dependent mobility effects are important at higher frequencies, a discrete b.b.d. delay line was constructed using m.o.s. transistors with known parameters. By appropriately choosing the transfer capacitances, it was possible to make the intrinsic transfer-efficiency parameter contribute to the line performance over a fairly wide range of frequencies. The transistors chosen for the line were 2N4352 p-channel enhancement devices. Transistors were chosen from a single production batch and device parameters were matched to within 10% before line construction. A 28-stage line was constructed, and the theoretical performance curves were calculated using average parameters for the devices in the line. An error analysis of the effects of parameter mismatch indicates that the overall error is substantially lower than the individual

parameter spresdvowing to the averaging nature of the line. In addition, the threshold-voltage modulation due to source voltage has been accurately modelled for these devices. Butler et a/.8 have taken this factor into account using VT = VTO+aVs (18)

2C2

/ *

2C

where VTO is the threshold voltage at zero source voltage and a is a constant. A more accurate result is obtained using

VT

1 + 2C2

BQOT\

PQoA

(21)

2qesNa

(19)

where Vx = QmS + 20F Vss, and 6mS is the metal-semiconductor work function, QF the Fermi potential and Vss the voltage equivalent of the effective interface charge. Theoretical and measured curves for two typical unmatched transistors are shown in Fig. 7, and are found to be in good agreement if it is assumed that the initial differences are due to different Vss levels, a reasonable assumption based on physical considerations. It should be noted that mismatch in initial values of VT will not affect the small-signal line performance, but only reduces the dynamic range of the line.

Since et < 1 always, T > 1 and = - 2 at worst, and y y I LJ J \ 2C J 5% h i L so a 5% change in M o or L would result in a 10% change in et. Similarily, expressions can be derived for the sensitivities of e ^ to 7 and Q(T). The analytic expressions are somewhat complicated and it is easier to substitute the appropriate values and vary them as follows: Consider

7 = 0-4

26(0)7 CVT

2 Cr)7

2y(Vgs-VT) VT

CVT Then eim =01123. If 7 is changed by 10% then e ^ = 0-115, a change of about 2-5%. The sensitivity of e ^ to changes in 7 is approximately 0-25. Similarily, errors in Q(T) as determined from eqn. 9 can easily be estimated. In the example above, if Q(T) is changed by 10%; i.e. 7 = 04 26(0)7

CVT

= 4

-40

-3-5 and -3 0

CVT then eim = 0-132, and the sensitivity of ein to errors in Q(T) is slightly less than 2.

-25

-1

-2 -3 -4 source/substrate voltage, V

-5

Fig. 7

Comparison of measured and theoretical variations of threshold voltage with source-to substrate potential for two unmatched transistors

Tr 1 theoretical Tr 2 theoretical Tr 1 observed Tr 2 observed

Using eqn. 19 it can be shown that the contribution to transfer inefficiency due to threshold voltage is given by

Fig. 8

10" 10frequency, Hz

(20)

Comparison of measured and theoretical variations in transfer inefficiency for a discrete 28-stage m.o.s. b.b.d., as a function of clock frequency

,i = 2V Vc - 15V C = 1 nF > observed e calculated e m calculated e

where Vx has the same meaning as that described in eqn. 19. The overall line performance can then be calculated to include the effects of intrinsic transfer, dynamic drain conductance and theshold-voltage modulation, both with and without field-dependent mobility. These calculated curves can be compared directly with measured results to indicate whether or not intrinsic transfer efficiency is the limiting factor, and whether or not field-dependent mobility is important. The measurements were performed using the impulse input technique for c.c.d.s.9 which eliminates errors due to sampler and source follower attenuation. Fig. 8 shows a comparison of measured and theoretical results for a large value of capacitance, both including and excluding field-dependent mobility in the calculations. The observed results are considerably different from the theoretical curve if mobility is assumed constant, but quite satisfactory agreement is obtained if mobility variations are included. Since nominal mobility and channel length can differ significantly from device to device, it is important to consider the sensitivity of the expressions for transfer inefficiency to these parameters, if comparison with the experiment is to be meaningful.

112

The sensitivities of individual-stage transfer inefficiency are therefore low valued in all cases. Because of the averaging nature of the line, and because the parameters of each stage vary in both directions from the average, the overall accuracy of the measurements will be better than 10%. This type of error is not in any sense large enough to explain the observed differences shown in Fig. 8, particularly since relatively long channels are involved. Similar agreement has been obtained using smaller and larger line capacitances. Unfortunately, it was not possible for us to vary the channel length in these devices while keeping all other device parameters constant. The observed differences are expected to increase substantially when shorter channels are used.

4 Conclusions

The effects offield-dependentmobility on transfer inefficiency due to intrinsic transfer, dynamic drain conductance and PROC. IEE, Vol. 124, No.,2\ FEBRUARY, 1977

threshold-voltage modulation have been calculated for an m.o.s. triode bucket-brigade delay line. It has been found that the intrinsic transfer rate is affected most significantly by the field dependence, and that some compromise in delay-line performance is inevitable if the channel is made too small. The results are readily applicable to any triode delay line, and a good estimate of line performance can be obtained by ignoring the effects of the field on dynamic drain conductance and threshold-voltage modulation in most situations. 5 Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by grant A7776 from the National Research Council of Canada. 6

1

References

SANGSTER, F.L.J., and TEER, K.: 'Bucket-brigade electronics-new possibilities for delay, time axis conversion and scanning', IEEE J. of SolidState Grcuits, 1969, SC-4, pp. 131-136

2 SANGSTER, F.L.J.: 'The bucket-brigade delay line, a shift register for analogue signals',Philips Tech. Rev., 1970, 3 1 , pp. 97110 3 BERGLUND, C.N., and BOLL, J.H.: 'Performance limitations of the IGFET bucket-brigade shift register', IEEE Trans., 1972, ED-19, pp. 852-860 4 BERGLUND, C.N., and THORNBER, K.K.: 'A fundamental comparison of incomplete charge transfer in charge transfer devices', BellSyst. Tech. J., 1973,52, pp. 147-182 5 SANGSTER, F.L.J.: 'Integrated bucket-brigade delay line using MOS tetrodes', Philips Tech. Rev., 1970, 31, pp. 266 6 TROFIMENKOFF, F.N.: 'Field-dependent mobility analysis of the fieldeffect transistor', Proc. IEEE, 1965,53, pp. 1765-66 7 FROHMAN-BENTCHKOWSKY, D., and GROVE, A.S.: 'Conductance of MOS transistors in saturation', IEEE Trans., 1969, ED-16, pp. 108-113 8 BUTLER, W.J., BARRON, MB., and PUCKETTE, CM.: 'Bucket-brigade bandwidth characteristics', Electron. Lett., 1972, 8, pp. 4 4 9 - 4 5 0 9 VANSTONE, G.F., ROBERTS, J.B.G., and LONG, A.E.: T h e measurement of charge residual for CCD transfer using impulse and frequency response', Solid-State Electron., 1974, 17, pp. 889-895 10 MANSOUR, I.R.M., TALKHAN, E.A., and BARBOOR, A.I.: 'Investigation on the effect of drift-field dependent mobility on MOST characteristics Pts. I and IV, IEEE Trans., 1972, ED-19, pp. 899-916

Millimetric waveguide systems (9th12th November, Savoy Place, London) The following contributions appear in IEE Conference Publication 146: ACX, M., AILLET, C , and DUPUIS, P.H.: 'l.F. and baseband circuit design and repeater performance' ADAM, J.D., and COLLINS, J.H.: 'Magnetic delay lines for group delay equalisation in millimetric waveguide communication systems' ALLANIC, J.: 'Helical waveguide-manufacturing continuous process' ALSBERG, D.A., ANDERSON, J.C., CARLIN, J.W., FOX, P.E., GERDINE, M.A., HARRIS, S., THOMSON, D.J., VIGNALI, E., WEST, T.J., WILLIAMS, S.D., and YOUNG, D.T.: 'Mechanical and electrical characterisation of installed WT4 waveguide' BANKERT, J.C., GRETTER, R.W., LUTCHANSKY, M., and RUTLEDGE, D.R.: 'Design considerations for installed WT4 waveguide medium' BAPTISTE, C , and HERLENT, Y.: 'Circular waveguide in France' BECKLEY, D.J., and PIGOTT, A.C.: 'Possible application of waveguides in the main network of the United Kingdom Post Office' BERNARDI, P., BERTOLANI, F., and FALCIASECCA, G.: 'Characterisation of circular waveguides of different manufacture' BERNARDI, P., FALCIASECCA, G., FERRENTINO, A., GRASSO, G., and OCCHINI, E.: 'Development of a continuous circular waveguide' BOMER, R.P.: 'Automated attenuation measurements of the UK Post Office TEoi mode circular waveguide field-trial route' BORLEY, D.R., and LAWRENCE, P.J.: 'Synchronisation and multiplexing of digital tributaries for a waveguide system' BORLEY, D.R., and WOOLGAR, B.K.: 'Digital equipment for a waveguide system' BOUVET, J.V., DUCHEMIN, J.P., FUNCK, R., OBREGON, J., and GIBEAU, P.: 'Double-drift silicon avalanche diodes for millimetric applications ( 2 6 - 4 2 GHz)' BO YD, R.J. Jun., and THOMSON, D.J.: 'Geometric requirements for and fabrication of WT4 waveguide quality tubing' BROWN, R.J., BROSTRUP-JENSEN, P., SCHOTTLE, J.J., and TU, P.J.: 'WT4 line equalisation' CARLIN, J.W., and MOORTHY, S.C.: 'Waveguide curvature loss: a new mechanism' CARRATT, M.: 'Manufacture and installation of circular waveguide' FRANKLIN, A., BOMER, R.P., WATSON, J.R., and EVANS, T.A.: 'Pressurisation fault location and repair techniques for the UK Post Office waveguide system' FRANKLIN, A., and MURPHY, T.G.: 'Installation of the UK Post Office field-trial waveguide' GARLICHS, G.: 'Route planning for dielectric-lined waveguides with optimised bends' GOKGOR, H.S., HOWARD, A.M., and PURCELL, J.J.: 'Millimetrewave silicon impatt and p-i-n diodes' GREED, R.B., POWELL, I.L., and WATSON, B.K.: 'Millimetre-wave commutating hybrid filter with increased selectivity' GROVES, I.S., BORLEY, D.R., and CLARK, B.L.: 'High-speed millimetre-wave phase modulators using p-i-n diodes' GUENTHER, R.P., ALSBERG, D.A., BROSTRUP-JENSEN, P., and HAUSER, W.M.: 'Maintenance and reliability of the WT4 system' HARKLESS, E.T., ABELE, T.A., and WANG, H.C.: 'WT4 frequency multiplexing system' HEUN, H.J., KUHN, E., and RAUBAL, H.: 'An experimental 528 Mb/s 4-phase d.p.s.k. regenerative repeater' HUISH, P.W., GROVES, I.S., and LEWIS, D.E.: 'Millimetre-wave oscillators for waveguide communication systems' HUTCHISON, P.T., BARNES, C.E., BROSTRUP-JENSEN, P., HARKLESS, E.T., MUISE, R.W., and NARD1, A.J.: 'Repeater design and performance in the WT4 system' ISHIO, H., MOCHIDA, Y., and SAKATA, T.: 'Computer simulation of a modem circuit for millimetric waveguide transmission system' KANMURI, N., and FUJIWARA, Y.: 'Millimetre-wave synthesised sweeper' KENYON, N.D., HOLMES, W.H., and CLAPHAM, W.J.: 'Digital transmission experiments on the UK Post Office field-trial waveguide' KOCH, R.: 'Italian research on millimetric waveguide systems' KRAHN, F.: 'Aluminium waveguide with aluminium-oxide dielectric lining' KUHN, E., and SPORLEDER, F.: 'Performance of an experimental 264 Mbit/s 2-D.P.S.K. guided millimetre-wave transmission system at 30 GHz' LO VECCHIO, L , and MAGNI, G.: 'Laying-technology tests in the Italian field trial' MAHIEU, J.R.: 'Frequency multiplexer network using broadband circulators for millimetric waveguide systems' MAY, C.A.: 'Millimetric waveguide-system research and development in the UK' MILLS, B.A., BODONY1, J., and WATSON, B.K.: 'Constructional technology of waveguide components for millimetre-wave applications' MOHAMMED, S.A., and KENYON, N.D.: 'Interference effects in commutating-type channelling filters for the millimetricwaveguide system' MOORE, A.J., TAYLOR, D.A., and GREENE, D.J.: 'Production plant for lightweight millimetric waveguide' MORRIS, D.W., and MOTHERSOLE, H.R.: 'Route selection and duct installation techniques for the UK Post Office trunk waveguide system' NAKAGAMI, T., TOKOYO, N., and KATO, H.: 'Millimetre-wave signal power amplifiers using impatt diodes' NICHOLSON, B.F., and WATSON, B.K.: 'Optimised band branching networks for millimetre-wave terminal and repeater stations' NODA, K., MIYAUCHI, K., SHIMADA, S., ISHIHARA, F., and SEKI, S.: 'Research and development of guided millimetrewave transmission systems in Japan'

62 papers, 250pp., 297 X 210mm, photolitho, soft covers, 1976. Price 10:35 in the UK and 12-10 overseas (6-95 to members of the IEE, the IEEE, the loP or the I ERE). Orders, with remittances, should be sent to: Publication Sales Department, IEE, Station House, Nightingale Road, Hitchin, Herts. SG5 JRJ, England

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