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van der Klugt *, H.R. van Nauta Lemke **


During the last two decades much research has been carried out at the Control Laboratory of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering o f Delft University of Technology in the field o f ship control systems. A recent result is an autopilot which uses the rudder not only to control the heading of the ship but to reduce the roll motions as well (Van Amerongen, Van der Klugt & Van Nauta Lemke, 1987). This Rudder Roll Stabilization (RRS) autopilot was developed at Delft University of Technology in close cooperation with the Royal Netherlands Navy and with the company Van Rietschoten & Houwens, Rotterdam. It will be installed on board the new M-class frigates o f the Royal Netherlands Navy. One of the objectives of the research on this RRS autopilot was to investigate which modifications in a ship design are required to enable a successful application of an RRS system. Van Amerongen & Van Nauta Lemke (1982) described the influence of a limited rudder angle and a limited rudder speed on the performance o f a roll controller. Van Amerongen & Van der Klugt (1982) demonstrated that the rudder induced roll moment is equally important. Van der Klugt (1987) proposed an adaptive controller which takes into account these and other restrictions posed by the ship and its steering machine. However, even the best controller cannot give a satisfactory performance if the ship design or the steering machine are not suited for RRS. This short paper summarizes the requirements to be posed to the ship design and the steering machine from a control point of view.

The steerinq machine

The requirements to be posed to the steering machine are formulated by using the blockdiagram of Fig. 1. in combination with some rules of thumb in control engineering (Van der Klugt, 1987).

Fig. 1 The steering machine

* Rietschoten & Houwens, p.o.box 5054, 3008 AB Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ** Van Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Control Laboratory, Delft, the Netherlands.

Two different modes of operation are distinguished: a During "large" changes in the set-point rudder the performance of a steering machine is dominated by the limitations of the rudder angle and the rudder speed. In that case, the following should hold:
T*<--% H



U , ,


= =

the natural frequency of the ship (rad/sec) the largest time delay between the required and the actual rudder.

For a change of the set-point rudder with a step function changing from 0 to the maximum allowed rudder angle 6eff t10% should meet the fol lowing requirement:

b During "small" changes in the set-point rudder the limitations of the steering machine have hardly any influence. In that case, requirements should be posed to the settling time Ts, the bandwith B and the phase lag at -3dB 'p:
i 0 . 4 1 ~ ~



i -65





I :--------7--------I t ........................

L .........................

L ...... :

Fig. 2 The control model

Van Amerongen and Van der Klugt (1987) described the results of a series of experiments at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN) in Wageningen.


During these experiments a laboratory realization of an RRS autopilot was connected to the MARIN manoeuvring simulator. Two different ships were considered. The control algorithms were based on the symplified ship model shown in Fig. 2. In advance, the parameters of this model were identified from zig-zag trials with each ship. From a comparison of the results of the experiments with both ships the following requirements to be posed on a ship design can be derived:
1 The rudder induced roll moment K A should ~ be large 2 The rudder induced sway velocity v ' should induce a large roll moment as well 3 The ship should react to the rudder induced roll moment well before it reacts to

the rudder induced yaw moment.

In addition, it is advantageous if the rudder-to-roll-transfer has a non-minimum phase character.


This short paper poses several demands on the ship design to enable a substantial roll reduction. The most important design parameters are the maximum rudder speed and the influence of the rudder on the roll motions. If the rudder has a large influence on the roll motions, it has a large roll-reduction potential as well. The rudder speed should be sufficiently high to enable a large roll moment around the natural roll frequency of the ship. A detai 1 led derivation of these requirements can be found in Van der Klugt (1987). References
Amerongen, J. van, and HA. van Nauta Lemke, Rudder Roil Stubiiizanon, Proceeding of the 4th ISSOA International Symposium on Ship Operation Automation, Genua, Italy, pp. 43-50, September U)-Q 1982. Rudder RON Stabilization Mennuemencs at h e NSMB, Internal Xmerongen, J. van and P.GM. van der Klreport no. R82.051, Control Laboratory, F a c of EL Eng., Delft University of Technology, 1982. Amerongen, J. van and P.GM. van der Klugt, Rudder Roli Stabiiizniion Meprwements at the MARIN, Internal report no. R87.004, Control Laboratory, F a c of E l . Eng., Delft University of Technology, 1 9 8 7 a Amerongen, J. van, P.G.M. van der Klugt and JBM. Pieffers, Rudder Roil Stabiiizniion Conmiler design and erperimenrd resulfs, Proceedings of the 8th Ship Control Systems Symposium, the Hague, the Netherlands, 1987. Klugt, P . G M van der, "Rudder Roll Stabilization", PLD. thesis, Delft University of Technology, October 1987.