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Section 1 Task 1

Learners and Teachers, and the Teaching and Learning Context.

1. The CELTA course will be normally conducted in a multilingual, full-time, mixed gender classes context. 2. Concerning Greece, the context generally involves monolingual, mixed gender, evening classes. It is equally likely that one-to-one lessons as well as lessons in groups are included. Task 2 1. A decision to teach adults originates with features carried by such learners, namely: motivation- specific goals and expectations literacy and skills

2. Personal qualities estimated to contribute to this learning situation: strong motivation and enthusiasm on exploring English language and its culture empathy, communication skills friendly attitude respect to individuality honesty patience.

3. Adult learners characteristics: motivation, goals, expectations experiences , attitudes, ideas literacy skills self-discipline

Task 3

1. Information about: language knowledge level, learning experience

motivation, goals, expectations hobbies, interests preferences on classroom activities

2. By utilising a number of classroom activities: Five-pointed star, Teacher and Learners interview- about personality traits/motivation Topic ranking, questionnaire/survey , activity smorgasbord- concerning likes and dislikes - adapted from Scott Thornburrys blog.

Task 4

Learners who have been led to this decision by parents or employers could present low levels of motivation. Consequently they may lack enthusiasm or determination.

Task 5

Potentially top five qualities:

calm, patient sensitive, empathetic, friendly authoritative but not distant knows about language and learning gives clear information and feedback

Section 2 Language Analysis and Awareness. Task 6 The ability to express ourselves effectively, guided by certain rules and principles.

Task 7 1. correct 2. incorrect- I went to the movies last night. 3. incorrect-He often comes late. 4. correct 5. incorrect-Can I have a black coffee, please?

6. incorrect-People with 12 items or fewer can queue here. Task 8 Main reasons why ELT need to know about grammar : Task 9 1. personal pronoun used as a subject 2. determiner, indefinite article. 3. coordinating conjunction. 4. adverb of degree 5. adjective Task 10 1. lexical 2. lexical 3. auxiliary 4. auxiliary 5. auxiliary 6. lexical 6. modal auxiliary verb. 7. demonstrative determiner. 8. preposition. 9. verb. 10. noun to provide learners with clear information, knowledge, explanation and exemplification to be enabled to a focused, calm and empathetic presence in the classroom it is a major requirement as to fulfill their role.

Task 11 1. lexical 2. auxiliary 3. auxiliary 4. lexical Task 12 5. lexical 6. lexical 7. auxiliary 8. lexical

1 c, 2 e, 3 b, 4 a, 5 d. Task 13 1 verb form, 2 - -ing form, 3 3rd person present simple tense, 4 base form, 5 past participle form. Task 14 hear , think, go, do, take, drink, steal : irregular verbs. arrive, help: regular verbs. Task 15 1. past, progressive 2. modal, perfect 3. present, perfect Task 16 1. present progressive 2. past simple 3. present simple 4. past perfect simple 5. present simple, passive 6. future perfect simple 7. past simple past progressive 8. present perfect progressive 4. past, progressive, passive 5. past 6. modal, progressive.

Task 17 1. past 2. future 3. past connected with present 4.present Task 18 Auxiliary verb to be. Lexical verb in -ing form. Task 19 Im meeting an arranged appointment in near future. 5.past-present-future.

Hes always running expressing annoyance for a habit of past, present and maybe future. Im walking- narrating a past event, making it more dramatic. Task 20 1. Verbs of state are not normally used in progressive forms. 2. Verbs expressing likes and dislikes are equally unlikely to be found in progressive forms. 3. Likewise, for verbs expressing mental states. 4. Non-progressive verb. Task 21 part of speech grammatical category (voice, number etc) pronunciation (using the phonemic script) register and field connotation structure, syntax example sentences in context idiomatic phrases and collocations.

Task 22 1.high used for unanimated things tall used for persons 2.enervated is a formal word, rather unlikely to occur in a casual conversation;tired seems more appropriate 3.pretentious presents a negative connotation which is conceivably incompatible with the context 4.slap is an incorrect word since it is definitely not an expression of loving feelings

5.footing could be an incorrect conclusion or interpretation concerning the phrase go to work on foot. Task 23 Verb-noun collocations: make bed, do housework Verb-preposition collocations: get up, depend on Adjective-noun collocation: vicious circle Adverb-adjective collocations: strikingly handsome, highly emotional, absolutely fabulous. Task 24 1-B 2-C 3-A

Task 25 1-B 2-C 3-A

Task 26 1.there 8.equation Task 27


2.south 9.sugar

3.language

4.peaceful

5.young

6.call

7.search

1.guarantee

2.cavalry

3.mechanisation

4.language 10.articulate

5.retreat

6.speculative

7.success

8.balance

9.identity

Task 28 1. photograph photography photographer photographic

Non-native speakers could find stress in such words quite challenging to deal with.This might be due to the fact that, even though they belong to the same family, they are not stressed identically.

2. to record /a record

to present/a present

to increase/an increase

to import/an import

We could assume that verbs and nouns which belong to the same family are stressed in the following manner: verbs stressed on their last syllable nouns stressed on their first syllable. Task 29 mother forget announce tonight notable mention patrol indicative

Section 3 Language Skills: Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing Task 30 A considerable number of news reports videos are uploaded on the Internet .To conclude on which ones to watch, I would deploy scan reading. On the other hand, studying for University exams apparently involves intensive reading skills. Task 31 1.intensive reading Task 32 It seems to be quite time-consuming and unnecessarily tiresome, or even distracting from applying emphasis on the most noteworthy features of the text. Additionally, utilising solely bi-lingual dictionaries is rather unlikely to foster L2 awareness. 2.scan reading 3.reading to infer 4.skim/gist reading

Task 33 limited exposure to real world classroom activities native speakers accent, intonation and fast processing of words and phrases lack of access to a text.

Task 34 listening to the news report: intensively, as to acquire precise information on current events listening to infer meaning while discussing with my husband on a critical decision that has to be made listening to my mother s view on a specific matter: scan listening, as to mainly focus on relevant information

Task 35 Listening sub-skills: 1.intensive Task 36 Accumulating grammar or vocabulary knowledge rarely leads to capability of deploying productive skills such as speaking. Practice makes perfect is a well-known principle, and I couldnt agree more, since practice corresponds to real world stimuli. Task 37 1. correct grammar but rather problematic communication 2. incorrect grammar but quite efficient interaction 3. as above 4. incorrect grammar, obscure response lead to questionable communication. 2.skim/gist 3.scan intensive 4intensive 5.to infer meaning 6.skim/gist

Task 38 1. transactional 2. interactional 3. interactional 4. interactional 5. transactional 6. interactional

Task 39 provides an appropriate environment in which knowledge can be practically applied leads to progressively raise all aspects of learners language awareness could stimulate learners to take more responsibility for their own improvement promotes research, experimenting and socialising

Task 40 1-S Task 41 1. through placed instead of threw, probably because of words having identical pronunciation 2. brother, lives, Sweden present incorrect spelling learner may have moved sound to spelling 3 .incorrect punctuation, possibly due to over- learning however followed by comma rule 4. incorrect punctuation, restricted punctuation awareness Task 42 1. unfit punctuation - incorrect spelling - improper layout - insufficient control of basic grammar and vocabulary - lack of discrimination between upper and lower case letters conjunctions coherence 2. Before setting a writing task, a teacher may decide to follow some preparatory activities to help learners become better writers. For example: make notes, diagrams, etc. to help organise ideas find grammar and lexis suitable for the text do practice exercises on language items that will be useful study sample and model texts similar to what they want to write plan the organisation of the text draft a rough text edit find appropriate readers. Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching (Macmillan). 2-W 3-S 4-S 5-W 6-S 7-S 8-W 9-W 10-W 11-W 12-S

Section 4 Planning and Resources Task 43 a-3 b-6 Task 44 c-1 d-4,5 e- 2 f-7

1-f

2-g

3-b

4-e

5-i

6-h

7-d

8-c

9-a

Section 5 Developing Teaching Skills and Professionalism Task 45 1. Idiomatic meaning, probably incomprehensible -Write this could be more effective. 2. Complicated instruction, flouts the maxim of quantity Answer question 4 is certainly easier to be followed. 3. A large amount of information conveyed through one intricate instruction-it would be obviously more functional if learners were given one single instruction for each separate stage of the activity. For example: Read the text on page 4 and answer questions 1, 2 and 3- allow time for reading Compare your answers with your partner- allow some time for it Write a short summary of the story and discuss it with your partner

4. Quite unclear an instruction as to its scope- it seems fairly more accurate to say: Look at the question at the bottom of the page and write a short answer Task 46 In all four cases of learners attitudes, a teacher could: embrace an empathetic, non-judgmental approach explain and exemplify the rationale of suggested activities

Task 47 students could be asked to turn around and sit backwards, working with persons behind them, in pairs teacher likely to move around the class, discreetly monitoring dialogues

background music - flashcards internet role cards inadequate teachers preparatory steps - varying speeds of learners performance

Task 48 1. pictures of respective figures questions on each words connotation to help learners acquire understanding 2.miming to highlight distinction 3.pictures of the same person, one as a child having the aforementioned habit and one as an adult not further embracing it / short personal story of specific daily activity to display differentiation of meaning between the two clauses 4.pictures and short story - ask learners to brainstorm possible contexts for each word 5.time lines on the board representing time reference 6.gestures repetition 7.diagram and phonemic script 8.exhibition of articulation phonemic script 9.pictures diagram repetition 10. questions combined with pictures exhibition of articulation phonemic script Task 49 1.Reading omission of introduction, lack of preparatory stage, ambiguous task assignment, absence of alternatives or follow-on activity

introduction to link between topic and students own experiences, focus on important language, prediction task, allocate specified tasks- each in separate stage, follow-on task, review, closing

2.Speaking a general topic may not be as productive as a specific issue related to learners interests, absence of lead-in activity and resources, silent preparation time ought to be given, organising the activity in pairs could be less embarrassing and more productive in terms of generating adequate speaking time lead-in activity to stimulate participation, present specific topic related to learners interests, provide some resource data, allow silent thinking time and note making on central ideas, divide in small groups to exchange opinions, teacher plays devils advocate introducing different perspectives as a way to close at the end

Adapted from Scrivener, J. (2005) Learning Teaching, Macmillan. Task 50 Cultivating, improving and incorporating the aforementioned qualities is definitely a priority in order to pursue a meaningful and creative approach in the learning and teaching context.

CELTA

Pre-Course Task Answers