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Book - II Islam

The Position of Ahlebayts

In every age, among all human societies, in different parts of the earth, the representatives of Allah were sent to put in order the affairs of the people through laws applicable to the time and environment in which they lived. Ability of man to apply reason and understand things and events progressed and advanced with the passage of time, therefore, certain laws and commandments (pertaining to theoretical, practical, intellectual, religious and legal matters concerning day to day life) which bring harmony and peace in every aspect of existence upon the earth, as well as make man ready to explore the higher regions of spiritual satisfaction, in certain cases and circumstances had to be changed or substituted to pave way for further progress. We have reasons to conclude, from our study of Upanishads, that it were the Ahlebayts, created as Manifested forms prior to the creation of the cosmos, who had taken upon the responsibility of guiding and leading mankind towards worship of the Absolute God. We are not in position to say exactly what their role was prior to taking birth as Mohammad and his progeny in this world. However, some relationship with the preceding Messengers cannot be denied. At last, when they thought the time was right, they themselves took birth in this world, at a place they found most suitable. Mohammad took birth as the last messenger of Allah, the greatest and the most manifest sign of Allah (the term Ayat or sign taken in a broader and higher sense means the best human soul created). He was endowed with divine wisdom, power and authority, and came to give effect to the concluding part of the plan of educating and training for the final unification of mankind through the true

knowledge of the immediate as well as the ultimate. In the chain of the prophets of Allah, among whom some had been made to excel others (Baqarah: 253), the last prophet, Muhammad al Mustafa, truly the superiormost, the seal of prophethood, came with the final discipline and guidance. Once the development had reached its maximum height, there remained no need for any further change of any kind. Prophet Mohammad completed the teachings in his lifetime, and said that no prophet would come after his departure. However, the need to interpret the teachings and guide mankind on the right path in differing situations remained for all times. Therefore, he introduced his progeny, whose knowledge, truthfulness and purity from sin was of the same level as Prophet Mohammad, so that they give authentic, true, and proper explanation of the word of Allah, the Quran, and also serve as an ideal to guide and keep mankind on the right path. Ali was introduced as the Prophets successor, or first of the twelve Imams, who were to serve as leaders of mankind. Prophet left no stone unturned in introducing their true position and called each one of them as equal in knowledge, virtue and status.

The first of us is Mohammad, the middle of us is Mohammad, the last of us is Mohammad, everyone of us is Mohammad.
Writes a commentator of Quran: Only men of understanding know that the same quality of divine energy which activated the prophethood was also manifested in imamat with equal force. Innumerable words and deeds of Prophet and his Progeny can be cited to prove that they presented themselves as the highest creations of God. We will

mention a lot many of them in this book. However, it seems that the Muslims never took them seriously. This can be understood by the fact that Caliphate was denied to Ali after the death of Prophet and till today majority of Muslims continue to accept Ali as an ordinary man, like themselves. Even Quranic injunctions were taken in their superficial context. For instance, see the following verse from Quran.

We have revealed unto thee (Mohammad) that thereby thou mayst bring forth mankind from darkness unto light.
Muslims believe that Mohammad was bestowed with Prophethood when he was 40 years of age and consequent to that this verse was revealed which talked of Mohammad leading mankind from darkness unto light. Muslims are of the opinion that this role of Mohammad commenced when he was given that position at a certain time in his life. This is in spite of the fact that at no point it is said that this honour was bestowed on Mohammad at a certain place and time. On the contrary, Mohammad is reported to have said that he was the Prophet even when Adam was created. But such comments regarding Mohammad himself and his progeny are ignored. The aforementioned verse too is believed to be applicable only to the time of Prophets life on earth. Clearly, the aforementioned verse holds applicable right from the time when the first man took birth on earth and till the end of this cosmos. This confirms the Upanishadic view as per which Mohammad, as head of the devas, took upon himself the task of leading mankind to the worship of One God. This is just a stray example to prove that the present study of Upanishads and Vedas is sure to change the entire perspective of Muslims regarding Mohammad and the rest of Ahlebayts.

Quranic Verses and Traditions Regarding Ahlebayt and Their Position

We have already proved that the glory of the five lights (noors) was endowed in the seed of each of the Messenger of God. Mohammad took birth as the last of the Messengers and Vicegerent while Ali and his progeny became his successors. Also, it is the accepted view of all Shias that obedience entails that the Imams must be infallible. It is only natural and definite, considering the fact that Imam is to be obeyed blindly, that he be the best of all persons on earth after Prophet Mohammad and should be adorned with the beauty of pureness and knowledge. Only this would ensure that he performs no error of thought and speech. Further, he must be aware of the Divine Will. All these views of Shias are certified by various traditions. We will be mentioning the entire Hadees-eKisa elsewhere which confirms their purity. Most interestingly, the Paingala Upanishad too confirms that the devas were formed from the sattvik (pure) essence of God. As regards to the fact that there would be 12 Imams after Prophet Mohammad, we present some of the traditions. The first one is a general and widespread tradition, which says:

There are twelve of them, They are the offspring of the Prophet, Ali and Fatima, They come one after another and generation after generation and they are the offspring of Imam Husain.
Another well-known tradition that is not only quoted by the Imams but also by all the Sunni Sehahs goes like this:

The Imams, after me, will be twelve people.

Shias are of the opinion that when Ali and Fatima,

the daughter of the Holy Prophet, were joined in the holy matrimony, the line of Ibrahim (Abraham) continued in their progeny. Eleven of Alis descendants are Imams, thereby making it a total of 12 Imams or Adityas. These Imams, together with Mohammad and Fatima, constitute the fourteen Masooms or Manus. We present the entire list of 14 Masooms again for your perusal. Note that bin in Arabic stands for son of and binte for daughter of . Mohammad al Mustafa Ali bin Abu Talib Fatima binte Mohammad Imam Hasan bin Ali Imam Husain bin Ali Imam Ali bin Husain Imam Mohammad bin Ali Imam Jafar bin Mohammad Imam Musa bin Jafar Imam Ali bin Musa Imam Mohammad bin Ali Imam Ali bin Mohammad Imam Hasan bin Ali Imam Mohammad bin Hasan - The Mahdi The disappearance and the promised reappearance of the living Imam Mahdi - the last of the fourteen Masooms - resembles the disappearance and the promised re-appearance of Isa; both are examples for the house of Ishmael and the house of Israel respectively (Zukhruf: 59). When both of them will reappear at the end of the world, before the day of resurrection, prophet Isa will follow Imam Muhammad al Mahdi, and the whole mankind will follow them.

These are the beliefs of the Shia sect of Muslims. We present here a brief study of Islam to give you an idea about the subjects of discord between two major sects of the Muslims and further elongating the subject to highlight those facets of the personality of Ahlebayts which reveal they are the only ones who are being discussed in the Vedas and the Upanishads. Most of the inferences that we have drawn are from the existing narrations. We have refrained from relying on knowledge gained from study of Upanishads and Vedas so as to give you an open field to assess the information yourself and put it to the test of your reasoning.

A New Era for the Pagan Arabs

In the foreword to the book Imam Ali-A Beacon of Courage (by Sulayman Kattani, an Arab Christian and translated in English by IKA Howard) Ustad Jafar al-Khalili says: Life for the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula, who were mainly nomadic, was primitive in accord with its meagre economy, insofar as such a primitive life was reflected in the style of living and all their intellectual activities. The products of the vast desert area, that Arabian peninsula is, consisted of cattle which lived on pastures which were more like sand dunes or beaches than fertile plains. There were also dates and some small plantations. Trading in spices took place which brought the area in closer contact with the neighbouring countries in the North and the East (including India). It is believed that the economic situation is the basis for intellectual life and the basis of every higher development. They lived as separate tribes, raiding one another in order to provide what they needed to sustain life. Such a nomadic life, such a weak economy, such exposure to burning sun in this vast area could not provide the conditions of life, which develop among richer, more populous societies. Yet Arabia saw a cultural and intellectual revolution among the people with an extremely backward economy and made out of them pioneering leaders for peoples who are economically richer and more powerful as the history of Islam proves. The birth of Mohammad was a beginning and an end, the beginning of a new era, the end of an old era. Out of the self-same land, the great Apostle brought his great Message to be, even beyond the Arabian Peninsula, a religion and a constitution, which would

link it to the ideals of thinking man, which would create for it a civilization comparable with the civilization around it to the East and to the West. And which would then raise its society from nomadic tribal decadence to the level of sophisticated unity insofar as it was to be established on the basis of a productive and well-developed economy. Just as an arrow that glided from his bow no longer belongs to the quiver, no sooner did the message begin to circle in the minds of the people than they seized hold of it as one of their rights. For them it was appropriate for every circumstance. They grasped it to the extent of their need for it. Yesterday, they were in need of everything, which would equally free their souls, and their bodies from slavery whose dominion had been long and whose darkness had been intense.
Mohammad, the Prophet

Allama Ali Naqi Naqvi, in the book Martyr of Humanity has mentioned the genealogy of Prophet Mohammad, in the following words: Abraham occupies a largely international position, being held in reverence by the Jews, the Christians as well as the Muslims. Indeed the Quran explicitly mentions that the Prophet of Islam claimed to be a leader belonging to the faith of Abraham who, incidentally, was the first to name those who followed his faith as Muslims. The Quran records his prayer to God, Make both of us (Abraham and his son, Ishmael) Muslims (persons obedient to Thee), and call into being from our descendents a group of Muslims (persons obedient to Thee). The coming into existence of the Muslims as a nation and the advent of their prophet would, therefore, appear to be the fruit of Abrahams prayer. Traditions concerning Abrahams life, therefore, constitute the heritage of the Muslims in common with the Jews and the Christians, and contribute significantly

to the fashioning of the elements of the Muslim conduct and ethics. Abraham had two sons, Isaac and Ishmael. From Isaac sprang the Israelites and from Ishmael, the prophet of Islam, both long, long after their ancestors. Abraham and Ishmael, between themselves, built the Kaaba which religion ordained to be the meeting place of all the peoples of the world. This pre-eminence, which was given to the Kaaba, induced the growth, among the people, of the realization of the pivotal position occupied by the descendants of Abraham. Ishmael had twelve sons. The descendants of two of them, Nabit and Qidar, settled down in Hijaz (Arabia) and greatly multiplied. Among Qidars descendants, Adnan rose to great fame. The prophet of Islam was among his descendants. The genealogy of the prophet from Adnan downwards, as unanimously preserved in histories and the traditions, is as follows: - Adnan, Maad, Nizar, Muzar, Ilyas, Mudrika, Khazuma, Kinana, Nazr, Malik, Fihr, Ghalib, Laway, Kab, Murra, Kilab, Qossai, Abd-e-Manaf, Hashim, Abdul Muttalib and Abdullah, father of (Prophet) Mohammad. It would appear that twenty-one generations intervened between Adnan, and the prophet and, assuming the time separating one generation from its successor to be of an average duration of thirty years, all these generations were spread over about 630 years. It is not clear who, from among the older of these 21 progenitors, came first to be distinguished with the appellation of Quraish. The trusteeship of the Kaaba passed among a few tribes, till Qossai brought it back in this family. Qossais son, Abd-e-Manaf was the true representative of his ancestors in various qualities. Hashim, whose real name was Amr, was the most influential and distinguished among the sons of Abd-e-Manaf. Hashim was succeeded by his brother, Muttalib, who was succeeded by his

nephew, Sheba, who came to be called Abdul Muttalib. He surpassed his predecessors in greatness and renown and won the appellation of Saiyyid-ul-Batha, which is still retained by his descendants who are called Saiyids even to this day. Abdul Muttalibs implicit faith and complete trust in God revealed themselves when Abraha advanced upon Makkah from Yemen in order to raze the Kaaba to the ground. The people of Makkah were not strong enough to oppose the invader with the force of arms, but Abdul Muttalib reposed his trust in divine help, and ultimately divine help it was which destroyed the men of the Elephant. It so happened that Abraha marched towards Kaaba with a huge army and several elephants. Subsequent to Abdul Muttalib telling Abraha that since it is the House of God, He Himself would save it, small birds with tiny pebbles in their beaks flew high in the sky and dropped them from their beaks. They fell on the elephants with such force that the elephants trampled their own forces and Abraha was killed. This family occupied the focal point in Arabia as the custodians of the Kaaba, having been invested with the privilege of catering to the needs of the pilgrims in the hajj season. The family led and represented the Arab nation in all matters of consequence, external and internal. It was also marked out as devoted to the help of the needy, and in times of distress like scarcity, it was known as principally concerned with the care of the weak and the impoverished. It was acknowledged as a family of Saiyids, (chiefs) not only by virtue of their title, but also due to their deeds, which agreed with the title. To the battlefield it sent dauntless warriors and for the discernment of spiritual secrets it contributed sages like Abdul Muttalib as shown by the manner in which he opposed the men of the elephant. The family played a leading role in providing redress to the persecuted, and led all tribes of the Quraish to this end. And from

this family was to arise one whose radiant splendour would, for all time to come, illuminate the world of mankind. Two of Abdul Muttalibs sons were Abdullah and Abu Talib. Muhammad was the son of Abdullah, Ali was born to Abu Talib, and it was Abu Talib who was entrusted with the care of Mohammad, when still a child, after the death of Abdullah and Abdul Muttalib. Ali was 30 years younger to Mohammad. The two, Mohammad and Ali were cousin brothers, but while Mohammad had the privilege of being brought up under the guardianship of his uncle, Alis father, Ali as a child was taken up by Mohammad and grew up in his house. Ali was ten years of age, when Prophet Mohammad announced his Prophethood. For some years, the message of Islam was only privately propagated. Thereafter the message was communicated to the Prophets near relatives. Accordingly, the prophet arranged a feast inviting to it all of the stock of Abdul Muttalib. Before the assembled guests, he declared himself to be Gods prophet and preached the unity of God. He then asked, Who among you would support me in spreading the message of Islam, on the clear understanding that he alone would be my brother, and my successor? The question elicited no response from the audience. Ali, though still very young, stood up, and promised to give all assistance in the mission. The prophet put his hand on Alis shoulder and said, This is sufficient. He is my brother, and my successor. It is incumbent upon you all to obey him. Idol worship now came to be openly reprobated. This excited the hostility of the Quraish towards the prophet and fixed them in their resolve to harm him. The forceful personality of his uncle, Abu Talib, however, kept him out of harms reach, and his enemies could not put their mischievous designs through. At last a

deputation of the Quraish notables, consisting of Otba, Sheba, Abu Sufiyan, Aas b. Hisham, Abu Jahl, Waleed b. Mughira, Aas b. Wael, and others met Abu Talib to complain about his nephew who denounced their gods, disparaged their faith, held them up to ridicule and deemed their ancestors to have been led astray. (note: b. stands for bin or ibne meaning son of. Therefore Ali b. Abu Talib would be Ali s/o Abu Talib). They requested him, therefore, to bid his nephew desist from these activities, or else hand him over to them. Abu Talib turned them away mildly. The deputation, however, repeated its visit to Abu Talib shortly afterwards, telling him brusquely that the state of things brought about by his nephew could no longer be tolerated. They, therefore, demanded that Abu Talib should put curbs on his nephews offensive conduct, failing which they defied him to an armed trial of strength, so that one of the two parties should be decisively crushed. Abu Talib, therefore, thought it fit to acquaint the prophet with the shape things had assumed. On hearing the whole story, the prophet said, By God, even if these people put the sun into one of my hands, and the moon into the other, I would not be deterred from discharging my duty. God will bring my mission to a successful conclusion, or I will sacrifice my life to it. Tears welled up in his eyes when he said so, and this touched Abu Talib to the quick, and he told his nephew to persevere in the discharge of his duty, assuring him of his own assistance to his last breath. Accordingly Abu Talib left nothing undone to protect the prophet and shielded him from all violence. After the deaths of Abu Talib and Khadija (Prophets wife), however, the persecutions and hardships that Mohammad and the small group that had accepted his message had to encounter at the hands of the people of Makkah rose both in frequency and severity. The prophet therefore, resolved to leave his home. He began

to direct his followers to shift to Medina where people had accepted his teachings. When the people of Makkah got wind of the intention of the prophet to leave for Medina, they resolved to do away with him. Men from each tribe were chosen, who were to enter his house at night and kill him. When leaving for Medina the prophet asked his cousin, Ali, to sleep in his bed wrapped in his sheet in order to foil the scheme of his enemies. Ali did as bidden, and thus saved the life of the prophet, sleeping soundly under the shadow of unsheathed swords. After the prophet had settled down at Medina, his enemies persisted in their aggressions against the Muslims and battles like those of Badr, Ohad and Khandaq had to be fought. In all these engagements it was Alis sword that won victories for the followers of Islam. The prophet had a daughter, Fatima, whom he held in such high esteem on account of her great qualities that he used to stand up, as a token of his respect for her, whenever she visited him. When she was married to Ali, the Prophet would go to her doorstep every morning to convey his greetings. While going out of Medina, Fatimas house was the last that he visited and this was the first house where he went upon return from his trip. Many were the tributes of praise that he paid her, one being his remark that she was the leader of the women in paradise and of the wives of the believers. That was too big a claim that any mortal human being could have made. Yet, the Muslims could not recognize her true worth. The Prophet also called her part of himself, not once but on several occasions. From being the father, she was surely the part of Mohammad. Why then Mohammad stressed on this time and again? This part of Mohammad was married to Ali after migration from Makkah to Medina. No Muslim, till this date, knows the real reason for Prophets unusual behaviour towards his daughter.

Only the Vedas and Upanishads can shed light on Prophets conduct. Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad states that the one Self (Brahma) got divided into two similar selfs, similar to the Original One Self. They were the Selfs of Indra (Muhammad, also called Prajapati, Vaishvadeva and various other names) and Brhaspati (Ali, also called Rudra, Vayu, Marut, Aditya, Yagyapati, Neshtra, etc.). From the Self of Indra was born the Self of Fatima (Saraswati, Ira, Parvati, Aditi, earth, Dakshina Lakshmi, etc.), procreated with the Self of Brhaspati to give birth to two Ashwins (Hasan and Husain the sons of Ali and Fatima). Upanishads never say that the two Selfs, produced out of division of the One Self, created the Aswins. In fact, they always end on the number five, saying that part of the first Self procreated with the second Self, to give birth to the two Aswins, thus making it five. The devi took birth at various points of time to show the true path to women. She sometimes lived as a pativrata (devoted to husband) and at other times had to even fight against evil. Thus she was the leader of women in paradise and of the wives of the believers. It was this knowledge that commanded respect and Mohammad used to stand up in respect for her, showered many tributes of praise on her. The mere audacity of the claim suggests that it is true, for no mortal man could have dared to make claims of this nature.
Condition of Society

The pre-Islamic period in Arabia is called the age of ignorance or the era of darkness. It would, however, be incorrect to infer that in that period the Arabs were living in savagery and barbarism, and were unacquainted with the ways of leading a social existence, and the arts of civilized life. On the contrary, according to Dr. Wahid Mirza, Centuries before the advent of Islam, Southern Arabia had been the cradle of a flourishing civilization

and the centre of a prosperous trade. The accounts of the archaeological memorials of the Himyar Kings, of the lake embankment (Saddi-i-Marib), of Shaddads garden, and of the throne of Bilqis, Queen of Sheba, testify to the advanced stage to which civilization had attained in this part of the peninsula. Again, the poetry of the times, comprising some of the best specimens of literary expression, shows the Arabs as possessed of some of the noblest human attributes, like bravery, generosity, hospitality, faithfulness, fraternal affection and conjugal love. It also shows that notwithstanding the fact that they did not subscribe to contemporary revealed religions, being polytheists and idolaters, they were not wholly unaware of some of the cardinal tenets of religion. They tried to put a gloss on their idol-worship by claiming for the idols no greater merit than that of bringing them into closer proximity to the one God (something that the Hindus of today too believe, yet when those idols are worshipped, normally the One God does not come into contention). A large proportion of the Arabs claimed descent from Ishmael, and we may not be drawing too heavily on unsophistication to credit them with at least a nodding acquaintance with the teachings of their remote ancestors. Yet, it may even be held that speaking in relation to the levels of civilization alone, the pre-Islamic Arab community was treading the path of retrogression. The vestiges of their pristine virtues, still retained by the Arabs, were being swamped by a plethora of vices. They did annually assemble at Makkah for the performance of hajj, but they had no inkling of the significance of this sacred duty or the importance of Kaaba. To be sure, their caravans still journeyed to the Hijaz, Iraq and Syria, with loads of merchandise, but they had lost their erstwhile ardour for industry, trade and commerce. Excessive poverty had whetted their rapacity. They still held some vague and nebulous notions

about God, but their images commanded greater adoration. They realized the advantages of a life of peace and contentment, and shunned war, but self-seeking indigence abetted them in misappropriating what belonged to their neighbours. They grieved sorely over the dead, but were unequal to resisting the temptation of wreaking vengeance, often leading to bloody warfare lasting for generations. They loved their children, but not endure the prospect of their daughters working as drudges fro some callous uncle or indifferent brother like unbidden guests. They, therefore, considered the slaughter of their daughters as the best way of maintaining their selfrespect. Social attitudes like these are generally intractably resistant to reform. A nation still in the stage of primitive savagery and primeval barbarism consists usually of simple-minded individuals. In the absence of any earlier impressions, their hearts, like clean slates, easily and distinctly receive the imprint of whatever may be urged upon their attention. The weaknesses of Arab society arose from the acceptance of a purely material dispensation of life, and indulgence in the lust for power. These failings, in association with the natural disposition of the Arabs, tended to be thrown into bolder relief. When individuals get obsessed with notions of their superiority, personal rivalries, group jealousies and tribal animosities are the product, and these vices sprang up among the Arabs in great profusion and with marked intensity. Another development was the annulment of the sense of human equality and brotherhood. Dominance, power and authority were all that counted. The murder of an important person was not deemed to have been fully avenged with the perpetrator of the crime alone suffering death; hundreds of his tribesmen had also to be slain in retaliation. In the murder of an ordinary person by one who counted, the formers blood was not supposed to be entitled to be paid for by blood

in requital. This invidious distinction made between the important and the not so important men was productive of countless social iniquities destructive of human dignity. This had come to pass as materialism, was allowed the greatest say in human affairs and all other considerations had been bereft of weight. All privileges and exemptions were determined by the possession of material resource, and this was not so in Arabia alone. Religiously the Arabs were in an advanced stage of decadence. They had no common religion. People of many faiths lived in the peninsula. A large segment of the population was idolatrous or worshipped stars. N less than 360 idols had been installed in the Kaaba itself, one day in the Arabic year of 360 days being sacred to the worship of one of the idols. The religions in vogue, Judaism, fire-worship and Christianity all were degenerate, their practices unworthy, mutual respect and tolerance amongst their followers non-existent, and general blood-shed and like evils notoriously rampant amongst the people. Human nature seemed to be waiting for the emergence of a chosen being to deliver the Arab world from its afflictions.
Hard Times For Women

Ali Shariati in Fatima is Fatima says: The social order of the Arabs had passed beyond the Age of the Matriarch centuries before Islam. During the Age of Ignorance, prior to the mission of the Prophet, the Arabs had established the Age of the Patriarch. Their gods had become masculine whereas their idols and their angels were feminine (that is, daughters of the great god, al-lah). The tribes were governed by white beards and the grandfathers ruled the family. Essentially, their religion was a kind of ancestor worship. They adhered to whatever beliefs and practices their fathers had had. The Prophets had brought a revolutionary message.

He was trying to awaken a thought based on the principle of worshipping One Absolute God. All the great prophets of God had time and again led revolution against the ancestral religion of the fathers. Several such incidents are mentioned in the Quran. Mohammad opposed this kind of inherited, imitative worship based upon the principle of father worship. When confronted with the revolt against ancestor worship and myths, which sought out their forefathers, the tribes opposed his teachings, in their attempt to preserve their masculine traditions. This situation was further affected by the difficult life of the tribes of the dry desert, which was filled with hostility between one tribe and another, for the basic principles of life are defend and attack and keep your promises. In this society, the son played a special role which was based upon the uses and needs of the societys social and military principles. According to a universal principle of sociology, where profit was substituted for value, being a son was by and of itself of the highest essence. It meant embodying virtues, meaningful social and ethical values and human nobility. For this very reason, being a girl or having a daughter was humbling. Her frailness was substituted by being weak. Her being weak pushed her towards slavery and slavery caused her human values to lessen. She became a creature who was the slave of a man, the disgrace of her father, the toy of a mans sexual urges and the goal or slave of the home of her husband. She was the highest form of shame and disgrace. For the betterment of society and the relief of ones mind, it was much better to kill her while still a baby so that the honour of her fathers, brothers and ancestors, all men for that matter, was not stained. As Firdowsi tells us in the Shahnamah:

It is better to bury women and dragons in the earth. The world will be better off if cleansed of their existence.
An Arab poet tells us:

If a father has a daughter he wants to remain, whenever he thinks of her future, he should think about three different son-in-laws: one, the house which will hide her; two, the husband who will keep her and three, the grave which will cover her! And the last one, the grave, is the best.
This is that very same poem that says women and dragons are both better to be covered by the earth because is a means of exchange. Covering the girls with earth is a way of preserving honour. Not only in Arabia, but also among all the great civilizations of the time, including Europe, Africa and India, woman was bearing the same ignominy and hardship. In India, perhaps she was not being killed in infancy during those times, but this kind of treatment is common nowadays, when she is killed even in her fetal stage. During those times, she was made to live in the temples for the service of all, and also forced to enter fire (sati), when her husband died all in the name of honour. This is why the Quran, in the strongest terms, warned of the dangers of this frightening highest honour when it said:

He hides himself from the people of the evil for the tidings given him. Should he keep her with disgrace or bury her alive in the dust? Behold, evil is what they decide. Q URAN , 16:59
Ancient historians and modern scholars, who write the history of religion, have given different explanations for the burying alive of female children in the Age of Ignorance. Beginning with the fear of shame, disgrace, scorn, prejudice and fear of marriage with an unsuitable

person, or, scorn, as some of the scholars say, in primitive religions, girls were sacrificed for the gods. But the Quran most strictly and clearly says that the fear was the fear of poverty. In other words, it was an economic factor. The other explanations are just words. The Quran emphasized:

Do not kill them from fear of poverty for We will provide for you and your children. Q URAN , 6:151
Deliverance Arrived from God

Not only the Arab, the entire world was waiting for this last Prophet. Quran says that the last Prophet before Mohammad was Isa (Jesus) and during the 500odd years after Isa, the world was without a prophet. Just prior to the time of Isa, various prophets were sent in various civilizations all over the world, each giving signs of the last prophet before departing. With no prophet in the world for such a long period, the entire world had digressed from the original teachings of their respective prophets and there were only few who still held to the path shown by these prophets. It was at this crucial moment that Gods chosen, Mohammad, son of Abdullah, appeared with the message of Islam, which shook the world to its foundations. He brought the glad tidings of a renaissance to moribund humanity. As Dr. Wahid Mirza puts it, The task before the prophet was, indeed, arduous since it was not his mission to convert savages living in a state of nature to civilized life, but to reform a diseased social order. His job was to make a clean sweep from the hearts of the Arabs of all those beliefs, superstitious, traditions and usages, which had become integral parts of their lives. He had to instruct, in the ways of tolerance, forbearance, humility and forgiveness, those who deemed forgiveness

as evidence of weakness, and forbearance a symbol of mean spiritedness and cowardice. He had to give lessons in equality and fraternity to those who prided themselves upon their high births and took pains to commit to their memories their genealogical tables up to remote ancestors. Islam had also to struggle against many other evil customs and practices. It prohibited the use of liquor to which the Arabs had got used and upon which they looked as symbolic of generosity. It placed gambling under an interdict although the Arabs esteemed it as an unmistakable concomitant of open-handed liberality. It also forbade many other practices corrosive of morals. The Arabs could not even dream of the purest man achieving the highest merit in the eyes of God, or that, after subscribing to Islam, the lowest of men could claim equality with any member of the noblest families in Arabia. Khwaja Ghulam-us-Saiyidain has put the message of Islam very aptly in another form. Islam brought to a world groaning under the power and authority of priests a message of freedom, - freedom from the shackles of a priestly order which claimed to be an intermediary between the worshippers and the worshipped, - freedom from the tyranny of an oligarchy of the affluent who, caring nothing for any divine law, and less than nothing for any human regulation, brazenly enjoyed the fruits of the toil and labour of others, - freedom for the slaves and the suppressed classes from the oppression, inhumanity and torture of their masters and social superiors, - freedom from women from what was, to all intents and purposes, slavery which divested them of even their elementary human rights, - freedom for the ordinary man from the constraints imposed upon him by narrow inhibitions of castes, colour and race which blighted collective human life, and divided people into rival, warring camps. Mankind was fettered by

trammels designed by itself. Iqbal has described the plight in which men found themselves in the following telling couplets:

1. Man worshipped man in the world. He was bereft of dignity reduced almost to non-existence, and relegated to the position of an underdog. 2. The power of Chosroes and Caesars had robbed him, and fetters were put on his hands and feet and round his neck. 3. Soothsayers, kings, popes and prominent leaders a hundred hunters for one prey. 4. His nature was debased by slavery, and sweet lays turned into blood in his flute.
Islam imparted to humanity the message of freedom, taught liberty, equality and human fraternity, and, for the first time in human history, conferred plenary civic and human rights upon all men. The enjoyment of these rights by them had been withheld on considerations of race, colour, sex, resourcelessness and destitution. The glad tidings kindled new hopes and awakened a new awareness of their being useful members of society among the impoverished and the persecuted that had been so far only heartlessly downtrodden by the powers that be. At this time, Mohammads message of equality between all humans, irrespective of disunity on grounds of wealth, caste or creed, and worship of One Universal God worked wonders far and near. This was the message that all earlier Apostles and Prophets had given, but that had been forgotten with time. The message was reinforced with such strength that it shook the citadels of all those who worshipped forces other than God or had compromised with the unity of God, in some way or the other. There was no way in which an outward equality could be created, because of differences in

regions, sex, colour, wealth, positions, physical strength, etc. It, therefore decided to create a revolution in mens ways of thought, so that they might be enabled to shake off their mental lethargy and realize that they were all equal. Whenever plurality gets related to a unity, feelings of equality and fraternity spring up among the component units of the plurality. It must, however, be noted that all unifications of pluralities, ordinarily contrived, serve only as preludes to large divisions and fragmentations. When sons of the same parents get united in equality, they get separated form the sons of other parents. When members of one family get united in fraternity and equality, they are parted from the members of other families. When residents of one country conjoin, a disjunction between them and the residents of other countries follows. Wars between one country and other countries, between one nation and other nations break out, followed by an unending series of successes or defeats. When people of one quarter of the earth band together in fraternity and equality, they, as a corollary, break away from the peoples of other quarters of the earth. Europeans form a separate race, and Asians follow suit in form a different race. Where colour united people, the peoples of skins of different pigments got so exclusive of one another that the white races barred the black ones from resorting to the same hotels as they did, and closed the doors of their churches upon their own coreligionists among the latter. These separatist tendencies resulted from the fact that attempts at coalescing individuals, groups, races, countries and colours, had of necessity to be based upon the raising of corresponding barriers between human beings. A dividing wall, thus raised, united those on one side of it and separated them from those on the other side. Islam struck at the root of the impasse and holding that equality among

individuals could flow only form the unity of the point of their convergence, decided upon the demolition of all partitions separating humanity and the inauguration of a common meeting ground for all races, colours, countries, races and nations, so vastly extensive, of such illimitable dimensions as to accommodate within it the entire mankind. Since there would be nothing without the compass of that resort, no question of division of humanity and parting of their ways could possibly arise. The focal point toward which all men were to converge had, therefore, of necessity to be other than material. For everything material would perforce be subject to limitations e.g. of nearness and distance of space, of meagerness and abundance in measure. It was, therefore, of the highest import that human vision be averted from all that was materialistic and be fixed at that immaterial, transcendental power which, unhampered by the confining attributes of space, measure and degrees, would bear relationship to everybody and to which everybody belonged. This power is the one God whom Islam has presented as the object of universal worship, the creator of all beings and the end of everybody s pursuit. Once it came to be realized that all men were Gods creatures the development of a sense of equality and fraternity between individuals became inevitable.
Impediments Put in The Spread of Islamic Teachings

Says the book Martyr of Humanity , The framing of Islamic laws and regulations, the setting up of Islamic practices and institutions and, in general, the establishment of an Islamic social order were achieved during the lifetime of the prophet of Islam. It was no mean achievement for the revolution ushered in by Islam. The prophet of Islam had to undergo untold hardships and contend against all manner of stiff opposition and overwhelming forces of obstruction in bringing about

the revolution. Some men are so sentimentally devoted to all that is ancient that they harbour a motiveless malignity against any body who changes the existing order. Some others have vested interests in the old dispensation and apprehend impairment of their selfish advantages from any move to overthrow the status quo. The clean sweep that Islam had made of the old order and the far-reaching alterations that it had introduced in all departments of live were productive of personal loss to persons in many walks of life, not only in a pecuniary sense, but also in many other ways, concerning their rank and power. For example, Islam placed an embargo on the charging of interest on loans. Did this not forebode the reduction of the moneylenders of Arabia to bankruptcy, as they battened on the amount of interest exacted from the impoverished and the needy? And then, the ban applied not only to the charging but also to the payment of interest. Obviously it is the needy many who pay interest to the opulent few, and it was the poorer classes who were being irresistibly attracted towards Islam. Accordingly, even if the capitalists could parry the blow aimed at them by not joining the ranks of the faithful, they stood to gain little, for those who paid interest and upon whom therefore, depended their livelihood, stopped payment of interest to them. Again, the Islamic instruction that precedence among individuals was to be determined solely on the basis of excellence of conduct and conscientious discharge of human responsibilities, and on no other grounds whatever, shattered the prospects of those who had wrested positions of authority and power simply on the strength of social superiority, wealth, property or the numerical preponderance of their tribes or races. The changes made by Islam in the standards of determining pre-eminence and merit amongst individuals abolished the rights enjoyed on the basis of previous norms, so that those in power before the advent

of Islam were reduced to impotence, being devoid of merit as conceived by Islam. To the contrary, those who had been earlier deemed to be unworthy even of a passing notice such as the strangers from foreign lands, the destitutes or the members of the oppressed and despised classes, were set on the road to the acquisition of dignity and respect, should they fulfill what was demanded of men in performance and piety and fear of God. How could then the monopolists of rank and distinction reconcile themselves to their unhappy lot under Islam? They had lorded it over their fellow men whom, instead of making the bondsmen of God, they had made their own slaves. These reasons for the opposition to the prophet of Islam were underlined for the Umayyads by the memories of outstanding animosities, both ancient and of recent origin, and envy. Their leader, Abu Sufiyan, therefore, raised the whole of Arabia against the prophet. All kinds of torments were inflicted on Gods messenger. He was pelted with stones, rubbish was heaped on his head, offensive things were cast at him, and he was threatened with assassination. When danger to the prophets life became imminent, his uncle, Abu Talib, removed him to the safety of his mountain fastness: Sheb of Abu Talib. The prophets family, all the Hashimides (Prophets own tribe) except Abu Lahab, joined Abu Talib in his retirement with the prophet. The Quraish (the larger clan to which Hashimides belonged) formed a confederacy against the Hashimides: they would not marry their women, nor give their own women to the Hashimides in marriage, they would neither sell anything to them nor buy anything from them, and all transactions with them would stop. It was made almost impossible for even the necessities of life, like water and food, to reach the isolated Hashimides. People had to live without food and water for days; it is reported that Khadija (Prophets wife) used to put a piece

of leather in her mouth and chew it when in excessive hunger, there are some who are reported to have tied up stone on their stomachs, and ate whatever they could find in that barren place, including the bark of trees. This was in the seventh year of the prophetic life of Mohammad, the chosen, and lasted for close to three years. After the termination of the blockade, the Hashimides emerged form their seclusion. Within a year, however, Khadija and Abu Talib passed away. Opposition to the prophet assumed such intensity in the bitterness that his assassination was planned and he had to leave for Medina. Even after he had reached Medina, opposition to the prophet did not allow him much repose. On the one hand those of his followers who could not leave Makkah after his departure were put to a variety of hardships and on the other, preparations for launching an attack on Medina itself were set afoot. The prophet was, therefore, compelled to come out in the open to give battle to their enemies and save himself, and, what was still more important, to keep from harm the hearths and homes of those who had afforded shelter. The manner in which the first battle of Badr was fought is an indicator that Prophet could have never contemplated attack. The Muslims, who were completely unprepared for the engagement, numbered only 313 men who had between them only three horses and a few swords. But the Hashimides made things exceedingly unpleasant for the adversary. Hamza b. Abdul Muttalib, Obaida b. Haris and Ali b. Abu Talib, performed such outstanding feats of bravery that the enemy lost heart. The Muslims and, in particular, the Hashimides, suffered a grievous loss in the assassination of Obaida in the war, but the Makkans, specially the Umayyads, suffered much heavier losses. Abu Sufiyan had not only to mourn

the death of his son, Hanzala, at the hands of Ali, but also to grieve over the capture of his other son, Amr, at the same hands. Abu Sufiyans wife Hind had to mourn the death of her father, Otba, her uncle Sheba, and her brother, Walid. Abu Sufiyan was so overwhelmed with sorrow that he took a vow not to bathe till he had led on attack against the prophet. But the infidels could not muster courage enough to face the Muslims in battle. In order, therefore, to keep up the appearance of having honoured his oath, Abu Sufiyan collected two hundred horses from amongst the Quraish and made for Medina. Reaching the confines of Medina, he killed two Muslims, destroyed some date=trees and beat a hasty retreat. When the prophet emerged with his followers to give him battle, Abu Sufiyan had already fled, and in the hurried disorder of his flight his band shed all along the way, their wallets containing parched and powdered cereals, called sawique in Arabic, which their pursuers recovered. The engagement is therefore, called the war of sawique. The important battle of Ohad took place in 3 A.H. Ikrima b. Abu Jahl, Abu Sufiyan and Hind could not rest contented for a moment till they had settled old scores with the Medinites. The Makkans prepared for war on an ambitious scale. Besides the Quraish, the Bani Kinana and the Tahamites also joined the fray. Their army consisted of 3000 armed soldiers, of whom 700 were clad in armour. The prophet this army with a force consisting of only 700 men of whom only 100 were mail clad combatants. Two horses completed the strength of the army. Ikrima and Khalid b. Walid, were in command of the troops of the Quraish. We have to remember it were many of these who formed the greatest obstacle to progress of Islam, like Abu Sufiyan, Khalid b. Walid and others who were to later embrace Islam, at the conquest of Makkah, and contributed their worth to

degrading the principles of Islam after the death of Prophet. Khalid b. Walid is the same man whose marauding armies attacked all frontiers, in the name of Jehad, and led to the emergence of view that Islam spread with sword. They were self-seekers materialists who opposed Islam when they thought they could subdue it and joined its fold to reap the rewards from within. This war wrought great havoc among the Muslims but the Hashimides and Alis swordsmanship ultimately retrieved the day, and the enemy had to retire, discomfited. Another of the brave Hashimides, Hamza was martyred in the battle. There was a stage when nearly all Muslims had fled, with the exception of few Hashimides including Ali. This was consequent to the Prophet being attacked and somebody raising the slogan that he had been killed. Ali continued to fight with vigour till he had dispersed all those who had surrounded the Prophet and raised him so that people knew that he was still alive. What did happen however was that the Prophet lost two of his teeth in the attack. As a last attempt, therefore, Abu Sufiyan and the rest of his aides aligned as many parties in Arabia with themselves as possibly could, and even maneuvered to win over the Jews to their cause. Then they emerged with 10000 men in year 5 A.H. for a war, which, on account of the multi-party composition of its army, is called the War of parties. Poised against this numerous army, the Muslims numbered only 3000; but their enemies again met with defeat, and their hero, Amr b. Abd Wud b. Abi Qais Aamiri fell a victim of Alis sword. Abu Sufiyan had to retire to Makkah crestfallen and in a very sorry plight. The spirit of confronting the prophet in a war or launching an attack upon him had been crushed although the wounds inflicted up by these reverses did not lend themselves to healing.

When the prophet of Islam found that the infidel Quraish had desisted from showing aggression in any manner for some time, he made up his mind for the Omra or lesser pilgrimage to the Holy House (Kaaba) in 6 A.H., and led a part of the Muslims with sacrificial camels, a sure symbol of the absence on his part, of any warlike disposition. But when the Quraish heard of the approach of the prophet, they reached Kra-il-ghamim with Khalid b. Walid, at their head to offer resistance to his entry into Makkah. At this juncture the courage of the Muslims had naturally been heightened by the successive triumphs that had attended their arms, especially when they noticed confronting them the same defeated troops that had not sufficient time to put themselves in trim for a battle. It would, therefore, have been easy enough for the prophet to offer a battle to his adversaries so as to enter Makkah in triumph as a victor. The prophet, however, had to prove his pacific intentions and as soon as he noticed the dust raised by he opposing forces marching to check his advance he abandoned the road he was following and turned to the right and adopted the route which led to Hadaibia, passing behind Humz and through SaniatUl-Marrar. This gesture of conciliation so impressed the unfriendly Makkans that they likewise fell back and opened negotiations with the prophet, through Urwa, b. Masud Saqafi. The prophets conciliatory behaviour created such a cordial atmosphere that Sohail b. Amr, was dispatched to the prophet as a representative of the Quraish to finalize the peace parleys. He presented such conditions for the treaty as favoured the infidels and were seemingly designed to put undue pressure on the prophet and to extort unfair advantages for his own men. The prophet, however, accepted all the terms proposed for the treaty, which was then ratified. The

settlement required that: 1. Mohammad and his followers should go back that year without entering Makkah and performing the pilgrimage. 2. War should be suspended for 10 years. 3. Whoever wished to join Mohammad and enter into a treaty with him, shall have liberty to do so; and whosoever wished to join the Quraish and enter into a treaty with them shall likewise be free to do so. 4. If any one went over to Mohammad without the permission of his guardian, he shall be sent back to his guardian. If any one, however, from amongst Mohammads followers returned to the Quraish, he shall not be sent back to Mohammad. 5. In the following year, Mohammad may visit Makkah with his followers for three days, and the Quraish would retire from the city for the duration. The Muslims shall, however, not carry any weapons, save those usually kept by the travelers, every one carrying only a sheathed sword. Every one of the Muslims shall leave Mecca within not more than the three days allowed for their stay in that city. These terms were so iniquitous and markedly disadvantageous to the Muslims that many of the prophets companions, who were unable to perceive the underlying purposes of their leader, were thrown into great agitation and anxiety. As recorded by some historians, the matter assumed dimension of great magnitude and acquired the attributes of uncommon delicacy in the hearts of men, and their renegation seemed imminent. Their faith was shaken and they were driven to all but apostasy. Accordingly, when after putting his signatures to the treaty, the prophet told his followers to offer their sacrifices and get their heads shaved and return to Medina, the

majority of the assemblage maintained a glum silence. Nobody seemed interested in complying the prophets directions. The prophet, however, rose with conspicuous nonchalance, to offer the customary sacrifice and got his head shaved. Others also then rose with ill-concealed reluctance and got their heads shaved or their haircropped (as is the custom during hajj), but looks of murderous sullenness were writ large on their brows. The difference in prophets action and that of the Muslims are evident. Ali accepted the Prophets decision and history has recorded that it was Ali who was alongside him, writing down the points of the treaty. At the same time, history has recorded several of those considered eminent Muslims were unable to digest Prophets action. The difference in the mindset is evident. Prophet was all for peace while many, still carrying materialistic tendencies, wanted to take advantage of the situation, when they were powerful while the enemy was nervously trying to make a peaceful settlement. That shows that even when the Prophet was powerful, he only fought when he was compelled. The mindset that we have talked about showed its colours when after the Prophet, these people gained power. They were aided fully by the likes of Abu Sufiyan and Khalid b. Waled, who were still in the opposite camp till the Peace Treaty of Hodaibia. Khalid b. Waled was given the title Sword of Allah, and this sword instead of fighting only when compelled, as was the case when Prophet was alive, was used to conquer territories. As war-booty filled the coffers of the influential, the poor died in poverty while the rich lived in luxury, the sword of Allah went on to conquer territories in the name of Jehad. Impervious to the sentiments of his followers, the prophet accepted the oppressive conditions of the treaty. Had he taken Makkah by storm, he would have exposed himself to the charge of committing an act of aggression

against the Makkans. He observed the terms of the treaty strictly in letter and spirit. The ink had not dried on the treaty when a son of Sohail, b. Amr himself who had acted as a representative of the infidels approached the prophet crying and seeking his intercession and shelter. This young man had embraced Islam and was unwilling to accompany his father back to Makkah. According to the terms of the agreement, Sohail, however claimed him, and the prophet raised no objection. To the young mans piteous prayers he made only this reply, This hardship will not last long. Be patient. God will assuredly word for you and others like you, some way of deliverance. We have concluded a treaty with these people, and will not do anything against it. The prophet then went back. The following year he returned to Mecca as provide din the treaty. The infidels withdrew form the city for three days, leaving the prophet and his followers undisturbed in the performance of the pilgrimage, where after the Muslims left Makkah within the specified time. The Makkans, however, did not thereafter adhere to terms of the treaty regarding non-aggression. The treat, it will be recalled, had kept it open for all persons or groups to join the prophet or the infidels as allies of either. Accordingly, the tribe of Bani Khazae attached itself to the prophet and the tribe of Bani Bakr allied itself to the infidels. These two tribes were on terms of long-standing enmity and missed no opportunity of harming each other whenever opportunity offered. As war between the prophet and the infidels had been banned by the treaty for 10 years and, by implication, the embargo applied also to the allies of both, the Bani Khazaa, shedding their apprehensions, disarmed themselves and neglected to remain on the alert against any possible hostile move by the Bani Bakr. They were surprised by the Bani Bakr when camping near a stream and lost many of their

number as killed. Some of the Quraish secretly helped the Bani Bakr, and had a hand in the slaughter of the Bani Khazaa. Amr b. Salim, belonging to the unfortunate tribe repaired to Medina lamenting what had befallen his kinsmen. He saw the prophet when the latter was sitting in his mosque with his companions. A very tragic and moving account of exceedingly heartless cruelties which had been perpetrated against his tribe was given by him in verse ending with the words, Prophet of God, the Quraish have broken their pledge to you. The Bani Bakr ambushed my tribe on the bank of a stream, knowing that nobody would come to our rescue and lend a willing ear to our laments. Had we been prepared for the war, they would not have dared attack us. They are not superior to us in numbers and have always been proved inferiors in war. We were massacred while we were engaged in our nightly prayers and bowing and prostrating ourselves before God. The prophet was so deeply moved by the verses recited that he did not tax the supplicant with a longwinded reply, contenting himself with the very eloquently brief remark, Amr b. Salim, you have been helped. Saying this, the prophet set out with his followers to the aid of the tribe allied to him. He was heading towards Makkah, but in a different attitude of mind this time. The infidels, lacking the spirit to try their luck against him in the field of battle, laid down their arms and in the extremity of distress, Abu Sufiyan found himself compelled to the subscribe to Islam, outwardly. It is a measure of his large heartedness that the prophet of Islam granted amnesty not only to Abu Sufiyan, but extended it to those who took shelter in Abu Sufiyans house or in the mosque or retired into their houses and shut their doors. According to another version laying down of arms was the sole condition for the grant of

amnesty. However upon actually entering Makkah, the prophet declared a general amnesty. When he entered the city, he asked those who had gathered in front of him, How do you thing I would treat you? They answered, We hope only to receive good treatment. You are our generous brother and the son of a generous brother. The prophet replied, You may go. I have set you all free. Remember many of these people were those who had tortured the prophet while he was in Makkah. They had thrown stones at him and planned to kill him on several occasions. It was because of them that the prophet and his family had to live in scarcity of food and water for three years, consequent to which his beloved wife and uncle, both died of weakness. It were they who had spearheaded the battles against Muslim when they were in Medina, consequent to which several of prophets friends and relatives had died, and even two of the teeth broken. In view of the foregoing events it is only natural to presume that while the stunning blow of irretrieved disaster may force an enemy to capitulate, to surrender arms and drive him to sullen silence it can never assuage feelings or melt an obdurate and cantankerous heart to faith. Nor could such defeat move hatred to love and loyalty a consuming hatred nurtured over generation as evidenced by the preceding events. Such a change of heart is well nigh impossible, human nature being as it is. Human psychology makes it easy to realize that the dread dragon hissing death and defiance would not lie low and under the cloak of conformity feel free for underhand and clandestine intrigues and conspiracies. Such a foe can be truly dangerous. Such precisely was the assessment of Imam Ali, that assayer of Islam, when he observed:

They did not accept Islam: they only accepted before the might of Islam.
Aga Mahdi Puya has summed up the situation in the following words: The new mission, Islam, is like a heavy shower coming down from heaven, a promising event every one welcomes, but the thunder, lightning and darkness, coming along with it, create fright and make people take precaution against the impending threat. In the days of early Islam some people anticipated reaping a good harvest if they joined the ranks of the believers, yet they were reluctant to give up the privileges enjoyed by them under the old system. For example, the Quraish, as custodians of the Kaaba, were respected by the people of Arabia. This sanctity gave them the opportunity of monopolizing the trade from the Indian Sea to the Mediterranean, and from the Persian Gulf to the Arabian Sea and Red Sea up to the African coast. By giving up idolatry, they had to renounce class distinction and agree to the equality of human beings, preached by Islam, which would have certainly affected their economic interests. On the other hand, they could not close their eyes to the grand possibility of taking control of the ever progressing active energy of a highly advanced society, created by the lofty ideals of Islam, which would spread like a wild fire all over the world, so as to rule over vast lands and countless people and appropriate the wealth of the nations. The result was a continuous wavering. Neither did they want to detach themselves from the old order, which appeared to them as a frightful darkness, nor could they resist the unlimited produce the abundant rain, Islam, would yield.
Enemy of Islam Within the Fold of Islam

The Prophet had repeatedly said that the way forward was through Quran in its capacity as the highest

theoretical reference for the Message. On the other hand, he had linked it to the apostolic leaders who were at the level of taking on the huge responsibilities of leading the experiments infallibly, sincerely and with a proper awareness. Of those men, Imam Ali was the person who was equipped to do this through the stipulation of the Apostle. There had been innumerable occasions when the prophet had explicitly told the collected audience that Ali was to be his successor. Deviation from this and the subsequent reaching of power in the hands of those who were no less than the worldly rulers, softened and later distorted the nucleus, so that the Message that went across, beyond a certain time, appeared to be tied closely to sword. This deviation occurred because of the people who had joined the folds of Islam when left with no choices. It was Prophets large-heartedness that he accepted even those into the folds of Islam who had plotted and conspired against it till sometime before. Also, it was against the teachings of Islam not to believe in their words when they were saying that they were coming to its fold. And unless they came up in defiance, they could not have been killed or punished. It is fascinating to note how fast the affairs of the Muslim government went outside the text of the Message and turned into an aristocracy, which had created a new class. The man who brought the Message was himself removed from the scene to offer to his Lord the balance of his account on earth. Though he had given several warnings in this regard, they were not taken seriously. In addition to that the Message was still only freshly in its covers. Men had not practiced it sufficiently and it was still threatened by many apostasies like the withdrawal at Ohad and then the return. It was still seeking help from the leaders of Quraish, those men who had only

sought to slip away from their thrones under challenge. There were still the false gods Mana, al-Uzza and Hubal mumbling in the dust of their broken fragment under the veils of the Kaaba. The Message itself had not yet been established in its polished form. There were still sayings of the Prophet scattered among the Companions, which had not been properly collected and arranged. In addition to all that, it was exposed to attempts to soften it under the numerous currents of reasoning and interpretation based on interests and whim. It was these wavering hypocrites who were to do the biggest disservice to the Message of Islam. It is they who hijacked the Islamic teachings right at its infancy and were responsible for portraying the religion in bad light, which is still evident in the manner and belief of the Muslims. They opposed Islamic teachings tooth and nail and even waged war against the young religion in their attempt to throttle the teachings in their infancy. When they realized that this tactic was sure to fail, they embraced Islam, though only in face. They kept waiting for their opportunity, which they got when the towering personality of Prophet Mohammad was no longer among them. Within a short while itself, the reigns of the entire Muslim empire (empire it was for them) had fallen in the hands of those who were its greatest enemies. A stage came when the Umayyads were taking their animosity against Islam to its extreme, killing and imprisoning the true champions of the faith, while the world considered them as Caliphs of the new religion. It is sad that even today, their actions, their beliefs, their conduct is viewed as Islam.
The Death of the Prophet

It is a pity that the subject of Khilafat (Caliphate), i.e. succession to the prophet has become such a vexed

question that even now the contention about it between the Shias and Sunnis defies resolution. The historical fact, however, remains that upon the prophets death, some of his followers joined hands to eliminate the members of prophets household, from the seat of political power. As a result, therefore, the members of the prophets household, suffered outwardly, in the eyes of the world, from an eclipse. All Muslims believe that Ahlebayt were the most righteous of men of all times. They were also witness to the extraordinary love that Prophet showed towards them even at public places. Muslims had repeatedly heard the Prophet declare that whosoever bore affection towards him should be bound by affection to them as well. They had also seen visible signs of annoyance on the prophets face whenever any lapse, however small, from affectionate conduct towards his grandsons, occurred in the prophets presence, as would appear from the sharp retort given by the prophet to one who, perhaps, lightly addressed Hasan thus, How fine is your mount, child on seeing him propped on the Prophets shoulder. The Prophet at once rejoined, And how good is the rider as well. Writes Allama Ali Naqi Naqawi: To those who had the slightest insight into the prophets nature, such incidents left little room to spare any effort and care in according due consideration to these grandsons (Hasan and Husain) of the prophet. It would therefore, be no exaggeration to say that Husain was then a lamp around which circled moths, or a sun around which revolved the planets. Adoration was shown to him from all directions of the world. Every morning, before going for prayers, the Prophet used to call out.

Get up, it is time for prayers. God wishes, O members of the household to remove from you all

trace of defilement and to purify you as purity itself may require.

People were also witness to Prophets extraordinary behaviour towards his daughter, in whose respect he used to stand up. Every morning, he unfailingly went to the Fatimas door to convey his greetings. Traditions abound of Prophet calling her the head of the women in heavens, or that anybody who grieved Fatima, grieves the Prophet. History has also recorded that after the death of Prophet, people assembled at the door of Fatimas house and set fire to it. The burning door fell on Fatimas abdomen and the child in the womb died because of this. Fatima too died as a consequence of that injury sometime later. Fatima used to cry so often at the behaviour of the people towards the Members of the Household that a complaint was then made by the people that her unremitting wailing had made it impossible for them either to take their meals or to snatch some rest. She, therefore, used to retire to the graveyard of Jannatul Baqi where she raised her continuous laments and cries. As regards to Ali, who was Prophets cousin and son-in-law, there are innumerable instances when the Prophet had proclaimed him as his successor in the company of his companions. Some of these we will be giving at a later stage in this book. Ali had also been the bravest of fighters during the various wars with enemies. He was the most righteous of men. There are innumerable traditions of Prophet citing Alis lofty position. At one point he said:

Ali is never separated from the truth and the truth is never separated from Imam Ali.
At Ghadeer, while returning from the last hajj, Prophet identified Ali as his successor in front of a large crowd. This was even validated by God, when the Qurans verse saying that with this announcement the

teachings have been completed. Whether it was because of the fact that it was Ali who had killed the near and dear ones of a lot many who had come to fight against Mohammad in earlier days, or it was because of the extraordinary position that Mohammad had given to him, or Alis superiority in terms of piety or his mention in Quran on many occasions people were jealous of Ali, his position, attributes and achievements. Another reason that contributed to this was his affiliation to the Hashimide tribe of Quraish. An interesting conversation between the second caliph and Ibn-e-Abbas, recorded by Tabari and other historians, is quoted below, which throws light on the influence of the Jewish mentality on the behaviour and mental attitude of the non-Hashimide Muslims. The second caliph said: O son of Abbas! Do you know why your family has been deprived of Khilafat? The Quraish did not like that prophethood (nubuwwat) and vicegerency (khilafat) be combined in the family of Hashim, lest their vanity increases. So they chose some one else, really their choice was good. Ibn-e-Abbas said: There is nothing unusual so far as the hatred of the Quraish for the family of Hashim is concerned, because right from the beginning they did not like the message, nor the messenger. That is because they were averse to what Allah has sent down, so He shall render their deeds null and void (Quran, Mohammad: 9). And the apprehension about the vanity of the people who have been (thoroughly) purified, by Allah himself, from every type of uncleanness is an (unfounded) accusation. It would have been most appropriate if the Quraish had chosen he whom Allah had chosen, and... At this stage the caliph interrupted and said:

Behold! O son of Abbas! I have already been informed about your utterances. Beware! You may fall in my estimation. Ibn-e-Abbas said: Yes. If my opinions are true, they should not cause my downfall, and if they be untrue, you should remind me to put them in order. The caliph got angry and left the place. This incident, sharply defines the most vital issue that divided the Muslims into various schools of thought. This was confounded by the feeling in heart that they would never be able to take benefit out of being in the fold of Islam, if Ali was to remain at the helm of affairs. Therefore, on one side the Prophet was making announcements citing Ali as successor and Caliph, certain influential people were hatching plans to usurp that position for themselves. It is evident from the events that happened on the day of Prophets death that the plan to change the course of Prophets will had already been made. People were now waiting for a chance to take their plan to implementation. The day it was known that the Prophet was dying, life suddenly changed for the beloved members of his household. This was despite the fact that Prophet spared no opportunity to introduce them and remind of their importance, not only in his life, but also in the schemes of God for the future. The Medina that was once pure and good was now filled with hatred and fear. Politics had pushed faith and piety from the city of Mohammad. The army that was ready to do anything at the wish of the Prophets command stood unmoved, against the words and even insults of the Prophet. Prophet had given the banner of leadership to Ali but Osamah was chosen as the leader of army, despite objections from all quarters.

Even at the time of dying, the Prophet had asked for something that had been denied to him. He had said: Bring a tablet and pen so that I can write something so that when I am gone, you will not be led astray. Instead of obeying to his command, as they used to do in the past, they caused uproar and did not allow this small wish of the Prophet. They said he was just mumbling. They said the book of God existed, and there was no need of writing anything. Perhaps they knew what Mohammad would have written and they also knew that the same in writing would create more hurdles in their path of attaining their age-old objectives. It was for this day that they had entered into the fold of Islam and they never wanted to waste this opportunity. If the Prophet was mumbling under the influence of illness, he would have written a set of jumbled words that would have made no sense. What was the harm in giving him the pen and the tablet? But Umar and Abu Bakr (Abu Bakr was later appointed as the first Caliph, only to be followed by Umar) knew that the Prophet was not just mumbling and whatever he was saying was in full senses. The words of the Prophet were profound and sensible, so much so that the history has recorded them clearly. He wanted to write something that would prevent the people from getting astray, when the Prophet was gone. Isnt it clear that the Prophet was going to identify his successor once again? Otherwise, in response to the Prophets desire for a pen, what was the reason to say that the book of God existed, and there was no need for writing anything. Answer itself shows what was going in their mind! Shias are blamed for holding on to the Ahlebayt and leaving the Prophet. Truth is that the Shias hold on to the Ahlebayt in order to continue holding on to the Prophet and the Quran. The prophecy of the Quran

was getting true, right there:

Mohammad is no more than a Prophet. Other prophets have been sent before him. If he dies or is killed, you will go backwards and you will return to the reactionary, despotism of ancient time.
Umar and Abu Bakr entered the room again, upon hearing the death of the Prophet, cried and left. Ali was all this while in the room; in fact, the Prophet was lying with his head on Alis lap. From that time onwards, it was politics that governed the affairs. It had replaced truth, the Gods and the Prophets wish. The city was full of plans, plots and conflicts. It is recorded in history that only Ali and few of his trusted companions were there at the time of Prophets ablution as well as burial. Isnt it amazing that the Prophet of the Muslims, who had controlled nearly the entire Arabian Peninsula up to the limits of the diminishing Roman Empire on one side and the Persian Empire on the other, was buried with only a few family members and loyal friends at his side? Where were the rest? It is stated that the Ansars (Medinites) of the Prophet had gathered at a place outside the city, called Saqifah, to elect the Caliph. They had felt that the Quraish of Mecca had their own plans. Abu Bakr, Umar and Abu Ubaidah arrived and then convinced them that the Prophet had said, Leaders are from among the Quraish. They reasoned that the replacement for the Prophet must be from among his family. As a result, Abu Bakr was chosen at Saqifah. Why was the hurry? Were there threats from outside the Muslim world of attack? Even if there were, the Muslim dominion had stretched at least so much so that it would have taken a few days for the message to reach the enemies and then for them to attack or plan sabotage. Moreover, Prophet had already ordered a battalion to

march towards one of the frontiers. Though they didnt listen to orders and waited, truth is that an entire contingent was battle-ready. Then why didnt they wait till the burial? Those who defend this behaviour say that the Muslims should not remain without a leader even for a moment, once the previous leader died. What a logical argument indeed? But can they explain that the last words that were heard of Umar in Medina, prior to his appearance outside the city at Saqifah were that the Prophet never dies and would soon reappear. It so happened that when the news of Prophets death was spreading, Umar unsheathed his sword in public and said that he would kill anybody who would say that the Prophet had died. He said, The Prophet has not died. He rose to heaven like Jesus. He will return. Whosoever says the Prophet has died is a hypocrite. I will cut-off his head. Isnt it clear that the fear that Umar and Abu Bakr had was not from outside Muslim world but from inside? People were threatened with death if they talked of Prophets death, lest the message spread among the common people, many of whom could have put other candidates in front. Then upon hearing that a meeting was already in place at Saqifah, the three rushed there, and got one from among them elected. Nobody says that when God had not chosen them, when even the Prophet had not chosen them, when the only time they were made the commanders of the army, they fled, then who gave the authority to that select group of people to choose the successor, that too at a time when the Prophet had still not been buried.
Why not Ali?

Everything becomes clear. That is why for centuries after this incident, the Muslims were not allowed to study

numerals, lest their reasoning faculties would arise. In spite of this, if the Muslim world progressed so much that it is called the originator of Arabic numerals, it was courtesy those attached with the Ahlebayts. Prophet too knew that the plans were being hatched to usurp the caliphate. That is why upon his return from his last pilgrimage and prayer at Ghadir Khum, he had introduced Ali in front of all of the groups of Muslims who had accompanied him to the gathering and had them admit that the leadership of Ali was the same as his leadership. It is recorded that even several of those who were present at the Saqifah to elect the Caliph had congratulated Ali at Ghadir Khum, as the Prophets successor-designate. There are several other questions that are yet to be answered by the Muslims in general? See Ali Shariatis view: Why was it that when the Prophet had not yet entered the city, a group of 12 people circled the mountainous road so that he and perhaps Ali would be killed? And this plot that came about after pronouncement of Ali as successor-designate at Ghadir relates to it because the elections were no action. And why is that, although the Prophet was informed about the plot before hand and ordered them to be taken away after the event, he did not reveal their names? It was not a small accident especially considering the particular interest of the Companions of the Prophet who have recorded with care even the least important events of his life. Why did the Prophet in his last battle, the Battle of Tabuk, accepted considering his age and the age of his great and elder Companions and those who were not military men, who were not men of the sword but more political elements that they go to this battle to

fight the powerful foreign Romans in the north of the country where the danger of death was very great? Why did he single out Ali, and, against the will of Ali, the reproach of the Jewish people and the hypocrites, kept Ali in Medina even though Ali was known as a man of the sword, the hero of many battles, the bearer of the flag and the conqueror of the famous and great battles of the Prophet? He said to him, I leave you for that which I left behind in Medina. Are you not satisfied that your relationship to mine is the same as the relationship of Moses with that of his brother Aaron? (The world knows that Aaron succeeded Moses after his death.) Why did he, at the time of his death, sent an army to attack the Romans when there was no emergency neither need to send the army to defend the border? Why did he ordered Abu Bakr, Omar and the other great men and politicians who had influence, to go along with the army? Why, with such an army did he choose the 18-year-old Osamah to lead the army while these great men were among the common soldiers? Why, when there was objection to Osamahs leadership because of his youth, did the Prophet get angry and in strong terms criticized those who thought age was more important than worthiness? And why when he was feverish and at the door of death, did he insist and persist, pray and insult so that the army would move quickly, and along with it the elders too would move out of Medina while he kept Ali in Medina? Why, at the last moment of his life did he ask for a tablet and pen and said, I want to write down something so that you will never go astray. Why do those who later got elected as caliphs, not allow him to write anything down? They even argued in front of him and created uproar. They bothered him. They even insulted and protested to his wives who were crying behind the curtain saying, The Prophet wants to leave his last will and

testament. Bring him a tablet and a pen. They delayed. They called themselves friends of Joseph until the Prophet, in anger said, All of those women are better than you. And then he asked to be left alone. Why at the end of his life, when the Prophet said, I have three pieces of advice for you, he mentioned only two of them and the third one, which was about Ali, remained unanswered? Why when Bilal said, It is the time of ritual prayer, and the Prophet was not able to rise from his bed, he said, Tell Ali to come. Suddenly both of them appeared in answer to the message of Abu Bakrs daughter and the Prophet saw all three of them at one time and then, without saying anything, asked all three to leave. Why? Why? Why? Why is it that the Prophet, who at the most difficult times of battle, face to face with the power of the enemy, and he lacking power, filled with loneliness, always spook full of hope and strength, certain of the future? Why during the last days of his life when he was on the edge of his victory, was he so afraid and worried? Why the last night of his sickness before his death, in the middle of the night, alone with his main helper (Ali), he went to the graveyard and spent a long time whispering to the silent corpses, with the greatest of pain, saying, May God bless you all. How lucky you are to be dead and therefore not facing this present situation. Why is it that as he got closer to death he repeated more and more often that plots and conspiracies like parts of the black night are now continuously appearing? Yes. Now all of these whys were answered. A part of that black night had passed by. Ali had finished burying the Prophet and the great Companions of the Prophet, at the same moment, buried Alis rights.

They came from Saqifah to the mosque so that the Caliph could announce his leadership in a message to the people. Ali returned from the empty house of the Prophet to Fatimas home to begin 25 years of silence, full of pain, loneliness and blackness.
For Some Ali Was Still the Only Refuge

The fate of Islam was decided in Saqifah without the presence of Ali, the rightful inheritor. The few of the elders presented there had no time to listen to the likes of Salman, Abuzar, Ammar, Miqdad and others. They were not from among the aristocrats of Aus and Khazraj tribes of Medina. Neither were they from the original Quraish family whose luxury of blood, family and class had given them station and position? These were the things that seemed to have ended during the Prophets time when Muslims had become but one Ummah irrespective of class or tribal distinctions, but they had suddenly come to the fore again. Those faithful to Ali included people like Salman who was an Iranian and who had been praised by the Prophet for his faith and even included in his Ahlebayt. Likewise, Abuzar (who was so trusted that he is reported to have been sent to India by the Prophet to teach and the Prophet had recounted few traditions in regard to his future) was from the desert, while Ammar whose mother was a black African slave and his father had come from Yemen or other unknown people without any prestige or any claim to being high class. They were simple deprived people like Meesam, who sold dates. These people, in the eyes of the Prophet were dear and beloved but now that he had gone, they had been obliged to return to a permanent state of humility. Values had changed again. Says Shariati: Their only refuge was Ali. Ali himself had the same position as them in Medina. He also suffered

from the renewed regime of old values. His story was like this: He was a young man, thirty some years old (in comparison to the elders of the community). He was a man empty-handed, without class, without the shackles of politics or tribal bonds. He held only the pious virtues of knowledge, bravery, and persistence upon the way, high thinking and awareness. He had the power of speech and the sword. His entire fortune was amassed from and consisted of the dangers he met remaining loyal to the Prophet as well as his sword which was raised in jihad and the great amount of blood which had drawn from the hatred of yesterday s enemies who had surrendered to the decree of the Prophet. Those values, consciousness of self and the unawareness of provoking the jealousy of friends, sacrifices and courage, created a hatred in his enemies which could never be made up for. Both friends and enemies alike joined hands and stories in attacking and condemning Ali. They slandered him; humiliated him and finally they ostracized him and left him alone. When a spirit rises above the level of his time and grows beyond the container of the patience of the people of its time, it is left alone. The profundity, beauty and richness of his being of and by itself, humbles the empty, trivial ugliness of others. Whenever one humbles oneself, friend and foe alike, consciously and unconsciously, join together to negate or destroy the spirit of the great personality or else they try to destroy its distinct rights. They mutually benefit each other. Then, friends, companions and those who have the same thoughts, because of the greatness of being, show contempt. They create a vacuum in their personalities. They suffer. They try by negating or denying his virtues to contaminate the personality, to feign closeness in order to reduce the space which is causing them to suffer. Since they can never reach the level of spirit directly,

they try to pull it back so that they can reach it in this way. It is in this effort that they join with the enemies and find mutual interests. When this happens, friends also find a need to destroy that spirit. They unknowingly become the toys of the enemy. They become the representative of murder. They become amateur servants of oppressors. This is why they all united in humiliating Ali. This is why that the Umayyads, led by Abu Sufiyan and later his son Muawiya started advertising that Ali does not perform his ritual prayers, Ali is the son of the earth and so on. This was in spite of the fact that it was Abu Sivan who had endeavoured to instigate Ali with the words, What? It is the limit that in your presence, one of the lowliest families of Arabia should have gained the upper hand. By God, if you so desire I would fill the streets and lanes of Medina with mounted soldiers to aid you. But since Ali was above sentimentalism and selfishness, he gave Abu Sufiyan short shrift, saying, By God, you have always been an enemy of Islam and of the Muslims. This not only demonstrated how firmly Ali was resolved to place the collective interests of the community and the solidarity of Islam foremost even before himself, even though it might entail the sacrifice of his personal interests, but Alis refusal to accept Abu Sufiyans help also served to expose the insincerity of the acceptance of Islam of Abu Sufiyan and members of his family. It was also meant to be a warning against such duplicity as might ever pose a danger to Islam, sine those who openly declared their opposition to the faith were incapable of causing such great harm to it as false friends and insidious enemies. It was, therefore, necessary that such persons should be closely watched and no opportunity given to them to execute their nefarious designs. The propaganda against Ali was so intense that

later, when he was killed while offering prayers in the mosque, people would ask questions. How is it that Ali is killed in the mihrab (the place which gives the direction of prayer) of a mosque? What sort of news is this? What was Ali the father of dust, the man who supposedly, does not perform his prayers, doing at the mihrab? Ali, performing his prayer? How could that be?
Others Were Busy Destroying Ali

Everyone knew that this hatred of Ali resulted from his heroic deeds at Badr, Khandaq and other such battles. But a friend? Those who had participated in the battles of Badr and Khandaq against the Umayyads now joined them and were singing the same tune. Why? The well-known of the great Companions were obliged to lower their heads at the Battle of Khandaq where Ali, a young man, twenty-even years old, struck such fear into the enemy through his sword and the cries of Allah-o-akbar which issued forth from him that the Prophet praised him:

The blows of Ali in the battle of Khandaq are more than the worship of all the men and jinn.
The blows of his sword made them happy but, hidden, nevertheless, was a jealousy which planted itself in their unconscious conscience. It grew later on without they themselves being aware of it. The seed grew into branches bearing leaves, which eventually covered their whole spirit and thoughts. Its roots entrenched in the depths of their bones. At the the flag of the citadel, then Omar said: battle of Khaybar where Abu Bakr carried the Prophet and went forward to conquer and after great effort, he returned broken, went and returned defeated, the Prophet

Tomorrow, I will give the flag into the hands of

someone who loves both God and His Prophet and both God and His Prophet love him.
(We are sure that no Muslim would ever say that the Prophet made the comment on behalf of God, when the God had no such intentions. If that is the case then they must believe that Ali was truly someone whom God loved as well. In place of such clear proofs of Alis closeness to God, the mantle of caliphate was handed to those about whom no such praise was ever made, nor any verse from God came to acknowledge their presence.) The next day he gave the flag to Ali. Ali amazingly conquered one citadel after another. He opened a citadel up and people entered in to plunder and he moved on to attack another citadel. In the battles of Badr and Ohud, the great ones the Companions who considered themselves from the point of view of age and position in society, to be at the highest level - either ran away or else went and sat in a corner, afraid and hopeless. It was Ali who like lightening and wind passed through the scenes and created a new front amidst the fear and defeat. When he carried the flag towards victory at battle of Honein, while the great influential and respected Companions ran away from the narrow strait and Abu Sufiyan cried out, The way they are running away, they will not stop until they reach the Red Sea! Ali, like a rock, closed the mouth of the strait. This sword not only created hatred in the enemies but also in the friends. Even though they were fighting for the same thing, jealousy and contempt arose. This is how friends and enemies joined into one front whenever the character, virtues or strength of Ali were spoken about. This is when a friend needed an enemy and an enemy needed a friend and they both work

together. This is why the reaction to the greatness of Ali was compensated for by showing contempt for Ali. How? By not taking his Islamic virtues into account, by not emphasizing them. Even though it is unmanly, they described him in terms that were contrary to what he really was. They expressed words or spread stories in a way that was slander. If they did not reach this low level, they just kept quiet as regard to his values. If they mentioned his weak points whenever they get the chance, they exaggerated them and made mountains out of molehills. They oppressed his rights and destroyed the Truth. They admitted the rights of Ali to the extent of Abu Bakr or Omar, but at the same time did every bit to destroy his rights. They acted from a motive.
The Result: His Chances Were Destroyed

Ali? Yes. But he is still young. Let some years pass for him. Ali? Yes. But he is a man of the sword, devoted, knowledgeable, but he does not know the science of war. Ali? Yes. But he jokes too much. Ali? Yes. But at the present time it is not advisable for Islam that he be elected. He has many enemies. At the time of the Prophet, during the wars, he killed many of the great and influential Arabs. The hatred is still warm. It is not advisable. Ali? Yes. But he is too sure of himself. (Their inferiority complex becomes obvious). Ali? Yes. If the Caliphate were to be given to him, he would run this camel firmly in the right direction. But is he really serious about that? Such were the arguments given. The result? The result was that Ali was destroyed both at the hands of the Bani Umayyads as well as at those of Umar, who

was the enemy of Bani Umayyad and of the same rank as Ali. Usman was victorious with the help of Umar and also the Bani Umayyad who were the enemies of Umar and the family of Usman. All forsook their enmity to oppose Ali, as much as they could. This was Alis greatness that in spite of all that he had to undergo, he was always ready to give such assistance as might be desired concerning any matter requiring knowledge, and advice about any important project or expedition, or in the decision of legal difficulties in spite of the fact that on account of the indifference, apathy and forgetfulness shown to his rightful claims by the world, he was sorely disappointed and bitterly disheartened. People, swayed by their emotions, would ordinarily shun taking upon themselves these gratuitous burdens, especially if they related to offices from which, despite their undisputed eligibility for them, they had been unjustly eliminated. The lesson which Alis behaviour conveyed to the members of the prophets house was that they should not treat with unconcern any matter regarding Muslims, and that howsoever invidiously they might be eliminated from the position of having a say in them, they should watch out for opportunities to lend their support whenever the affairs of the Muslims came up against obstacles and dangers, and they should consider serving the interests of Islam as their sole object.

God and His Prophets

Verse 25 of Chapter Hadid in the Quran says:

Verily, We sent Our messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the book and the scale, that mankind may observe right measure (establish themselves in justice).
Likewise, verse 51 of chapter al-Shura says:

It is not to any mortal (man) that Allah should speak to him except by inspiration or through (from behind) a veil.
Explaining this verse, Aga Mahdi Puya says in his commentary of Quran: This verse implies that a large number of messengers were sent by Allah. He made some of these messengers to excel others, and some of them He exalted in rank. In the end He sent the best of them all, the Holy Prophet, to guide mankind on the right path and prevent the people of the world, in all times, from going astray in the direction of Shaytan, their avowed enemy. There is no compulsion in religion. It is not the plan of the Almighty that guidance should be imposed upon any individual or community. There is complete freedom to any person who wants to go astray. Allah does not keep any one on the right path under duress if he himself, through reason and intelligence, does not make willing efforts to walk on the right path. The followers of the prophets, including the followers of the Holy Prophet, fought one another, went astray and followed the path of the devil as soon as the divinely commissioned guides, with clear signs and arguments, had left them. If Allah had willed, this straying could be stopped. He brings about what He wills. He could guide the people without the agency of the prophets, but He has given freedom to man to use

reason and intelligence to distinguish between good and evil and make efforts to do good and earn reward, or make mischief and collect punishment. The door of guidance is kept open for those who sincerely seek the true direction.

As for those who strive in Us, We certainly show them our paths. Q URAN, ANKABUT : 69
The guidance has been made known. Now whosoever goes right, it is only for the good of his own soul that he goes right, and whosoever errs, errs only to hurt himself. Each soul earns only on its own account. Several verse in Quran tell clearly that there is no compulsion in religion and man has been given an independent free will to act: (See Baqarah, 48; AnAm, 165; Hijr, 42; Bani Israel, 7 and 15; Ankabut, 6; Fatir, 17; Zumar, 7; Ha-Mim, 46; and Dahr, 2). Muslims are of belief that 1,24,000 Messengers were sent among various peoples all across the world. They were of different order, some were given books, while some were made superior to others. The individual differences in the prophets of Allah are on account of the level of intelligence and the needs of the people amongst whom they were sent, to show them what was right and what was wrong. See verse 2: 253 from Quran:

We have made some of these messengers to excel the others among them are they to whom Allah spoke, and some of them He exalted by (many degrees of) rank; and We gave clear miracles to Isa son of Maryam, and strengthened him with the holy spirit. And if Allah had pleased, those after them would not have fought one with another after clear arguments had come to them, but they disagreed; so there were some of them who believed

and others who denied; and if Allah had pleased they would not have fought one with another, but Allah brings about what He intends.
Aga Ali Puya comments: This verse clearly states that the discord and strife among the followers of the prophets is due to belief (iman) and disbelief (kufr), therefore, the apologetic attempt of some of the theologians to justify the dissension and conflict between the various religions or the sects of each religion as the outcome of Ijtihad or discretion is based upon conjecture, and therefore, untenable. According to Quran, such differences between the people of the scriptures are due to their rebellious attitude against the clearly manifested will and command of Allah. See verse 19 of Ali Imran and verses 13 of 14 of al Shura. The responsibility for wrongdoing rests with the man; and whatever good he does is from Allah. That is why it has been made obligatory on all Muslims to seek Allahs help by reciting Surah Fatihah of Quran twice in each prayer (namaz). This is a prayer to God to keep himself on the right path. Here is the translation of Surah Fatiha from Quran: In the Name of Allah, The All-compassionate, The All-merciful Praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of all being; the All-compassionate, the All-merciful; the Master of the Day of Judgment; Thee only we serve, and to Thee alone we pray for succour; Guide us in the straight path; the path of those whom Thou hast blessed, not of those against whom Thou art wrathful, nor of those who are astray.

Now see this verse (2:285) from Quran:

The messenger believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers; they all believe in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers; We make no difference between any of His messengers; and they say: We hear and obey, our Lord! Thy forgiveness (do we crave), and to Thee is the eventual course.
Puya/Ali commentary says: All the heavenly scriptures are from the creator Lord. There are differences between the prophets but no differentiation. The message is the same: worship Allah, and trust in His all encompassing mercy, as transmitted through His messengers. The true faithful believe in Allah, His messengers, His angels and His books. Please refer to verse 177 of this surah. Islam is a universal religion. (286) Allah alone is the creator and sustainer of all worlds. It is to him only that we offer worship and supplicate.

Allah, (there is) no god but He, the Everliving, the Self-subsisting by Whom all things subsist. Q URAN , 3:2
Or see the verse 255 of al Baqarah:

Allah! There is no god save He, the ever-living, the self-subsisting.

Says a commentator of Quran: All organisms are finite. To function in a harmonious whole the components must be interdependent. There must be an omnipotent will or a primal cause to keep the diverse components together, without being disunited, in order to let them work in harmony. The primal cause is God. None of the components or their whole can be God because they obey and follow the will of the primal cause.

Hayy, the everliving, is He who knows and acts freely without any limitations. Any organism whose components are finite and dependent cannot be an everliving infinite. Qayyum, the self-subsisting, (a magnified form of the adjective qayam-standing and enduring) is He who stands (subsists) by Himself and all other stand (are subsisted) by His eternal endurance. Anything, composed of components with separate functions, is governed by the law of cause and effect; and that which needs reason or cause to be effective or sufficient cannot be self-subsisting, Allah is the selfsubsisting, means that to be effective or sufficient He does not need a reason or cause because He Himself is the prime cause. Now it becomes clear that the hypothesis of the scholars and the theologians of the Christian church not only fail to convince the seekers of truth but also create chaos and confusion. Another commentator says: Hayy, the ever-living, and qayyum, the self-subsisting, are the two attributes of Allah which break up and blot out the absurd doctrine of the divinity that has been put on several of his Messengers, from Jesus to Krishna and Ram. He, who did not have an existence before his creation, like any other mortal, was brought into being by Allah, therefore, cannot be hayy, the ever-living; and also he cannot be qayyum, the self-subsisting, because, according to the Christians, Jesus was crucified, while according to Hindus, Krishna and Rama both died eventually. A great deal of metaphysical nonsense, based on conjecture and speculation, is put forward by the Christians in support of their claim, yet they themselves do not understand the doctrine of divinity of Jesus, which they take as true without examination or proof. Moreover, there is no consensus among their theologians. The most

popular belief is triune, three in one, or a trinity in unity-God is a spiritual organism, having living components which can be called organs only so long as they remain united and interrelated to each other in the whole, therefore, God is one but has components which perform separate functions. Jesus has a mysterious double nature which makes him a member of the trinity. See how the Muslim commentators have criticized the idea of trinity. We are of the opinion that the idea existed right from the time of Adam and continued to be put forward by the various prophets. However, people understood it differently. In Part-I, we have shown the true meaning of this term from a couple of verses in an Upanishad. We are sure that Muslim scholars will have to accept the triune nature of creation. We invite you to go back and read what is said in the Upanishad. We are sure you will realize that for the parent, a childs birth itself is not the end objective. Work continues even after the birth. Child has to be fed. He has to be taught and molded for a better life. At times, he is given medicines, at times injected with antibodies, which could be a bit painful. If a disease strike, some time the same parent would take the child for an operation or even amputation. You have no right to say that the parent do not care for the child, if he feels a bit of pain when given injections or more when he goes through a corrective surgery or amputation. The job of the parent didnt end with giving birth. It is sorry that we do not believe the same in the case of God. If He created, He even created provisions for the sustenance and growth. Just as a child takes birth from his father and mother but we all believe that it is God who gives birth, it is He who is the creator even when He, through His maya, decided that all creations would emanate from the 14 devas. There is one difference though. He even connected the power-

supply to the presence of devas on earth, so that when the last of them departs, all creations fall into oblivion. The devas were created as central to all creation. They were the heart that not only controlled the supply of blood but also was responsible for internal purification. Prophets were sent sometimes to supply the nutrients and vitamins that were most needed, that is why the doses were given as per the requirement of the body. Sometimes, they even caused pain to the body when the child was too disobedient. The virus of Satan inflicted love for the world was leading the child astray. At times, even corrective surgery was performed or amputations performed, like in the case of the Great Flood or the great calamity inflicted on the people of Loot. The institutions of God have been working since even prior to our creation. In fact we owe our creation to them. When God has created them, we are none to seek justification. Our job is to recognize them and accept them, in case we wish to be treated as obedient subordinates of the Creators empire. All the Messengers, barring Prophet Mohammad himself, were sent to particular tribes or regions. Their message was for their people alone. As Quran says in 3:49 Jesus was the Messenger for the Israelites alone: And (make him) a messenger to the children of Israel: That I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I determine for you out of dust like the form of a bird, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with Allahs permission and I heal the blind and the leprous, and bring the dead to life with Allahs permission and I inform you of what you should eat and what you should store in your houses; most surely there is a sign in this for you, if you are believers. That was sent as a messenger to the children of Bani Israel, is not said in Quran itself but he himself

maintained this view and said so on various occasions. Please refer to Matthew 15: 22 to 26 wherein it is also stated that Isa had declared: I was sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and to them alone. As per Matthew 10: 5 and 6, Isa commanded his twelve disciples:

Do not take the road to gentile lands, and do not enter a Samaritan town; but go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel (to proclaim the message).
Modern Christian scholars have to acknowledge the advice of Isa, and his earliest disciples, not to treat his message as universal. The earlier group of disciples, it is true, did not appreciate the universality of the teaching of Jesus, nor did Jesus seek converts outside Israel.



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Also, Prophet Isa has made it clear in his following statement that he was only a mortal, created by Allah, and not god as the Christian church wrongly claims:

But about the day or that hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, not even the son; only the Father. M ARK 13: 32
Isnt it ironical that those who believed that Jesus was part of the trinity crucified him on the cross, while the Muslims who revere him as a Messenger of God, he continues to live even today and would surely make an appearance in the near future. Truly, Jesus was a Divine Messenger and enjoyed very high position. Yet to claim his divinity when his message was only for the members of a particular tribe would be erroneous. Verse 3:50 of Quran states:

And a verifier of that which is before me of the

Taurait and that I may allow you part of that which has been forbidden to you, and I have come to you with a sign from your Lord therefore be careful of (your duty to) Allah and obey me.
It is evident from this that Isa had no new message. He confirmed that which Musa had conveyed. See James 2:19; John 20: 17;Timothy (1) 2: 5; Jude 25. If Isa confirmed part of the teachings conveyed by Musa, then would that mean that Musa (Moses) too had a part to play in that divinity? It is evident from the aforementioned discussion that only reason why Isa was included in the concept of trinity was because of him taking birth without a father. If this is true, why is Adam not included in the list? If Adam can be born without father and mother, and he is still being accepted as a creature of God, why cant a person who at least took the help of his mothers womb, if not of a father, for his birth, be accepted as Gods His creature. We are not writing this to denigrate Isa, who enjoys of the highest position among the Messengers of God, after Prophet Mohammad. Yet, wrong conceptions, if they have developed need to be quashed. Aga Mahdi Puya says: According to verse 50, Isa had the authority to repeal or amend the laws of Musa, therefore, he cancelled some of the laws of Taurait, but, in the New Testament, a saying of Isa is reported that: mountains may move but not a word from the Taurait will be removed. The Quran presents Isa as a law-giver prophet. He asks people to obey him and follow his orders in addition to the testament that they already had. He also asks them to adhere to the right path, which implies that adherence is not following a particular legislation but strict compliance with all the laws issued by Allah. Whoever obeys the laws laid down by the succeeding

prophets, in fact, carries out the orders of the preceding prophets, but if one only gives allegiance to the previous prophets and rejects the orders of those prophets who came after, in reality, renounces all the prophets. This applies also to the commandments of Allah. If one obeys Him throughout his life but revolts in the last moments of his life, he will be cursed, as Iblis (Shaytan or Satan) was condemned forever. On the other hand, if one surrenders to Him in obedience and sincerely in the dying hours of his life, his past sins may be forgiven. Muslims are of the opinion that all the prophets of Allah are equally truthful and holy, but in the same way that some signs are clearer and contain deeper messages than others, so Allahs messengers are of different ranks. The particular mention of Musa and Isa is to point out their distinguished positions as the reformers. Musa was directly addressed by Allah, and Isa was assisted by the ruhul qudus (the holy spirit). Both these prophets of Allah glorified the Holy Prophet and gave to the people the glad tidings of his arrival. Refer to the text of the Bible (Deut 18: 5, 18, 19; Acts 3: 22 to 25; John 14: 16, 17; John 16: 7 to 14) that we have given elsewhere in this book. It would be a false and contradictory statement if it was said that the above-noted verses of the Old and the New Testaments refer to Jesus, because Isa himself, like Musa, gave the news of the advent of the Holy Prophet in John 14: 16, 17 and John 16: 7 to 14. The following words, spoken by Isa, are quoted as an example:

There is still much that I could say to you, but the burden would be too great for you now. However, when he comes who is the spirit of truth, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own authority, but will tell only what he

hears; and he will make known to you the things that are coming. J OHN 16: 12 AND 13
That Prophet Mohammad enjoyed the highest rank among all the Messengers of God is something that is also ascertained by the Quran. Aga Mahdi Puya says: In addition to the guiding statements of the two distinguished prophets of Allah - Musa to whom Allah spoke, and Isa to whom He gave clear miracles and strengthened with the holy spirit, there are several verses in the Quran, according to which the Holy Prophet occupies the highest place in the company of all the prophets of Allah. He is the superior-most messenger of Allah. The glory of the divinity of the Lord manifests, reflects and radiates in him to maximum perfection. Endowed with perfection, he was sent as a mercy unto the worlds (Quran, Ambia: 107). The other prophets were sent to guide a particular people in a particular place (Matthew 10: 5 and 6), therefore, in view of their limited mission, they are not on the level of the Holy Prophet who was sent to guide and discipline the whole mankind for all times (Quran, Saba: 28). As the Holy Prophet is the best of all the prophets of Allah, a distinguished group among his followers has been raised up by Allah as khayra ummatin, the best of all the people. Contrary to the general belief of the Muslims, we are now in a position to say that Prophet Mohammad enjoyed far higher position in the Gods schemes, than what the Muslims believe. He it is who is the creator of the world, by the order or consent of God, and He did so because he wanted more people to pay obeisance and worship his Creator the Almighty God. That is why the Prophet said:

I was a prophet when Adam was yet amidst water and clay.

There were various other indications like this given, like saying that Ali and myself (Mohammad) are the two halves of the same noor (light), or saying that Fatima is the leader of women in heavens, or Hasan and Husain are leader of all the youths there. Yet, it seems that the Muslims in general never believed in these statements, though they could not have denied them. We are grateful to Upanishads and the Vedas for making us understand the true nature of Prophet Mohammad and rest of the Ahlebayt. Not only this, they have enabled us to unearth the great mystery of why we were actually created. As we proceed, we will prove further from Muslim traditions that these fourteen Ahlebayt (People of the House) were created as Manifested Self (noor) right at the beginning of the cosmos, and all the Messengers who came had some relationship with this light or Self, as per the Upanishads. They all came with only one express purpose - to lead us on the right path that leads to God. Quran aptly sums up the teachings of all the Messengers of God, be it Jesus, Rama, Krishna, Moses, Buddha or Mohammad. Verse 3:51 of Quran states:

Surely Allah is my Lord and your Lord, therefore serve Him; this is the right path.

Subject of Khalifa (Caliph)

It was on the very day that the Prophet Mohammad died that the seeds of dispute over Caliphate were sown in the Muslim fraternity. From that time onward, and till today, this subject is the most hotly debated subject in the Muslim circles. And that fateful moment on the outskirts of Medina, while the Prophets dead body lay waiting for burial, was to change the entire course of Muslim and perhaps world history. If Muslims are living in ignominy, if they are accused of propagating Islam by sword, if they lack knowledge and morals, and if Jehad is understood only as a mortal combat, to be fought under the leadership of even a local mullah, all has its roots in the choice of that small gathering at Bani Saqifah. Whatever few the number of people at Bani Saqifah was, in comparison to the number of Muslims who had embraced Islam till then, some people laud that event as an election to choose their Khalifa (Caliph). They are of the opinion that Khalifa is no divine post and it is perfectly legitimate to choose their own Khalifa. These people forget that they were choosing the Khalifa, to replace somebody in whose Prophethood they had no choice. That position was a rank granted by God to one of His creation, and it was made compulsory on all to obey him. Would Mohammad himself have become a Prophet by popular choice if the Quraish, the clan to which he belonged, were to choose the Prophet? Even if we take the claim that the election was legitimate which led to the selection of four Caliphs in succession, then there are some questions that remain unsolved. Was it the sole right of certain people of Medina to select the Caliph for the entire Muslim world, whose domains, by the time of the third caliph, included the

present Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan, Syria, Egypt and all those small countries that comprise the present Middle East? Never ever was a large-scale election conducted, which kept in mind the choice of all the subjects of the Muslim world. History has even recorded an election in which six people were identified by the dying Caliph to choose the Caliph from amongst them. Free will was not allowed even in that small election as the conditions that were laid were such that they even allowed the people to kill the minority group within those six people, who differed with the majority view. Do you call it election? Secondly, who elected Muawiya, considering the fact that he was already putting forth his claim for the position, even when Ali was the Caliph? In fact, he came to fight against Ali, and even killed the governor appointed by Ali to Egypt to gain control over the region. Who elected Yazid, who went on to kill the grandson of Prophet himself? Even after Yazid, some of the cruelest dictators of the time called themselves as Caliphs, while their actions had no semblance to Islamic teachings. And the institute of Caliphate not only made the Caliph administrator (read monarch) over the subjects but also made him responsible to take decisions on matters related to religion and its belief. It is unanimous belief of all sections of Muslims that those who called themselves as Caliphs after Ali, or at the most Muawiya, were unrighteous rulers, to the exception of only one righteous ruler, viz. Umar b. Abdul Aziz. Even if we take this view to be correct, that would mean the process of election was flawed right from the beginning, which could not even last for fifty years. Does the succeeding generations of Muslims dont need guidance or an administrator of their affairs? Does that mean that God has left this present world bereft of a Caliph? Is this not against the Gods word in Quran

in which God says that He was appointing a Khalifa on earth? The consequence of that act was that the Muslims were left with nobody who would guide and lead them in matters of religion and administration. If Muslim society deteriorated to the extent that it started producing jehadis like Saddam and Osama, the roots of this evil can be traced back to that day when the Prophet died. Says Allah in the Quran:

Allah knows best where He places His messages.

Isnt it clear from this verse that peoples selection has no role to play in matters of Divine choice? The peoples election or no election, concerning the rank granted by the Creator to one of His servants, has no effect. For example, God gave the last Prophet this status. He is the Prophet and leader and obeying him is compulsory, even though all of the unbelievers of Makkah, and the world, opposed him and drove him from themselves. Shias are of the belief that all positions, divine and supernatural rank which is granted by God, must be confirmed by means of verse and signs from the Creator or with the emphasis of the Prophet or previous Imam so that there remains no doubt about that person and his position, for those who are righteous and those who believe. In that manner, the first Caliph could not have been appointed without a Divine Proof, word of God or Quran.
Khalifa has to be chosen by God

Verse 2:30 of Quran states:

And when your Lord said to the angels, I am going to place in the earth a khalif, they said: What! wilt Thou place in it such as shall make mischief in it and shed blood, and we celebrate Thy praise

and extol Thy holiness? He said: Surely I know what you do not know.
Before we start writing further, we wish to acknowledge that to come to certain conclusions that are presented here, we have taken help of the views presented in Pooya/Ali commentary, some of which might be reproduced here to entirety. Lets study certain terms mentioned in the aforementioned verse, in order to study the verse better.

The literal meaning of khalaf is to come after, follow, succeed etcetera. In this verse it has been used in the sense of succeeding, in fact, representing Allah on the earth, to exercise His authority in terms of reacting to His will, as His vicegerent. This is the basis of prophethood. Some schools of thought hold the view that reason and intellect, at the disposal of man, are enough to represent Allah, and there is no need of the delegation of authority. In this verse however the necessity of a vicegerent of Allah on the earth has been conclusively proved, appointment of whom cannot and shall not be made by any one save Allah. Khalifatullah, the representative of Allah, is he whom Allah Himself delegates His authority.

These are they whom We gave the book and the authority and the prophethood; These are they whom Allah has guided, so, follow their guidance. Q URAN , SURAH A N -A M 89-90
It is evident that Vicegerent is a position higher than that of prophethood. That Allah Himself delegates authority mean that they are given authority over certain actions that are otherwise related only to God. For instance, one authority could be that they can kill a living

person or restore a dead to life. Surely, neither the consensus of public opinion, nor a group, nor an individual has the right to represent the will of Allah. Allah does not allow any one to interfere with the execution of His will, nor can any one question Him. We know from our study of the Upanishads that Allah created His Manifested Self, which divided to produce 14 Selfs and it is through them that He created all things including man. Upanishads have even said that it is these Manifested Selfs or devas or Manus who are joined to our souls and control our heart and consciousness. There can be no doubt therefore that all prophet of Allah too bore at least this relationship with the devas, if not greater. Though the general belief of the Muslims that the noor of Mohammad (Indra or Mahadeva) was put inside Adam, and continued to pass from prophet to prophet till it came to reunite with Prophet Mohammad, suggests that the prophets enjoyed a higher position than common man in their relationship to the devas. Whether this noor (light) formed part of their personality from birth or whether it gets placed inside them at a later stage, after they have been tested, cannot be said with certainty. One thing, which we know with certainty, is that Vicegerency is an even higher designation than prophethood. Verse 124 of Chapter Baqarah says that Allah appointed prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) as the Imam after He had tried Ibrahim with a number of things, which he fulfilled, with the clear provision that although there would be Imams in his progeny, but those who were unjust would not receive this authority. In verse 947 of Chapter Baqarah, Saul is appointed as an authority over the people because of his wisdom and strength, in preference to those who claimed to be more worthy than him on account of their worldly position. In verses 17 to 25 of al Sad, Allah appointed Dawud as His

vicegerent on the merit of wisdom, power of judgment and obedience to Allahs will. These verses make us believe that vicegerency may not, in all cases, be given at birth, but even comes at later stage. What is certain though is that this guaranteed merit higher than the rest of creation. The most important qualifications, mentioned in the Quran, are given below: i. ii. Untiring and continuous remembrance of Allah, with no drift or diversion under any type of circumstance. Never giving in to the demands motivated by selforiented interests.

iii. Following only the divine revelations. iv. Being the first and the foremost in establishing and carrying out every virtue to the point of perfection. v. Awareness and wisdom of all laws (physical and moral) made by Allah, and their operation, so as not to make any mistakes; and for this awareness received no guidance or education from any one save Allah.

vi. No type of adversity, crisis or temptation should affect the tranquility of the mind and the heart, described as sakinah in the Quran. vii. The purity of birth, character and conduct because of which they are the most honoured with Allah (Hujurat: 13), the foremost in faith and virtue, in receiving the rewards, and in their nearness to Allah (Waqi-ah: 10,11). viii. Ruling over the people with justice as pointed out in verse 26 of Surah al Sad. Keeping in view the above-noted qualities, Allah, in verses 33 and 34 of Surah Ali Imran, says that He had, on account of certain basic qualities, chosen Adam, Nuh, the descendants of Ibrahim and Imran and the

Holy Prophet, the descendant of Ibrahim through Ishmael. The Quran does not advocate hereditary rights of succession but asserts that this lineage had a distinctive divine peculiarity for which they had been chosen as vicegerents of Allah. The reason for bestowing this privilege on the descendants of Ibrahim is known to Allah only, because as said by Allah in the event of appointing Adam as khalifa, He knows that which His creatures do not know. We must accept the limitations of our knowledge and glorify the grace and justice of Allah.

We have given to Ibrahims children the book and the wisdom and We gave them a great kingdom. Q URAN , N ISA : 54
The above-noted verse refers to the Holy Prophet as the last prophet in the lineage of prophet Ibrahim. The vicegerency of Allah did not come to an end after the Holy Prophet. It continued. In verse 77 of Surah Bani Israel the almighty Allah says:

This was Our way with Our messengers whom We had sent before you, and you shall not find any change in our way.
So it is confirmed that there is no change or modification in the principle and the method of appointing His vicegerent. In verse 55 of Surah al Noor it is further made clear that the vicegerency continues after the Holy Prophet in the same way and manner as was in vogue before him. According to verses 31 and 32 of Fatir the holy book, in completed form, was given in inheritance to those servants of Allah whom He had selected. They belong to the children of Ibrahim excluding those who were zalimin, unjust, meaning those who, at any time in their lives, had neither worshipped a ghayr-allah (other than Allah), nor committed an act that was contrary to the laws of God.

The Holy Prophet was the perfector of Adams mission of khalifatullah on the earth and the executor of the final will of the Lord of the worlds. Therefore his khalifa was also chosen and appointed by Allah to carry out the responsibilities of the divine office. The choice was not left to the fancy of the people, nor was any consultation needed. Inni ja-ilun fil ardi khalifah is an open declaration of His will and decision. Likewise the successor of the Holy Prophet could neither be chosen by the companions nor by the Holy Prophet himself. From the feast of the near relations to the event of Ghadir Khum, it was the will and command of Allah that the Holy Prophet had carried out. History also testifies to the fact that on all occasions, it was Ali who came forward to meet the challenge, and proved his qualities for the entitlement to the divine office of vicegerency, although all the companions had equal opportunities to rise to the occasion. After the conclusion and the termination of the office of prophethood, the infinite mercy of the merciful Lord did not leave mankind to go astray, misled by false leaders who usurped temporal authority, but commanded the Holy Prophet to declare the vicegerency of Ali and his progeny (the twelve Imams). The Holy Prophet, therefore, appointed Ali b. Abu Talib as his and Allahs khalifa on the earth. Now the people have the freedom of choice either to follow the divinely chosen Imams or run after the self-appointed false leaders.

Verily, We have shown him (man) the (right) way, be he thankful (and follow it), or be ungrateful (reject it). QURAN , S URAH DAHR : 3
There are countless merits and qualifications of Ali b. Abu Talib, mentioned and discussed on the authority

of well-known Muslim scholars, in several publications like The Right Path, Peshawar Nights and other books that can be studied to know the truth. It is not possible to refer to all these here. Those who discount Alis claim and accept Abu Bakr as the rightful caliph say that after the Holy Prophet, the authority for the application of divine legislation has been delegated by Allah to the faithful followers of Islam in general, therefore, every Muslim is the vicegerent of Allah, to exercise His authority according to the book and the sunnah of the Holy Prophet. They do not say who would decide whether the person is faithful or not. It is not written on the face whether the person is faithful or not? Moreover, Shaytan or Satan is continuously at work and it is very much possible that the person who appears to be faithful today would succumb to Shaytans tricks the next day. The reference to the book of Allah and the sunnah (doings and sayings) of the Holy Prophet, for the sake of justifying their conduct after the Holy Prophet, appears self-defeating and contradictory, when these two agencies (they purport to follow), as explained above and at many suitable occasions in this book, have irrefutably established the vicegerency of Ali and his progeny, which only the followers of Muhammad and Ali faithfully accept and follow.

While talking about the creation of Adam the appearance of visible form (matter) in the arc of ascent must be reviewed. Matter, in its primitive mode of being, carries the potentiality to develop into various forms minerals, vegetables, animals and human beings. The capability of matter to give form to different species is determined by the unlike in nature potency of its elements or components. Earth, a product of matter, carried the capacity to bring some of its elements to a

more advanced and highly organized body of a human being. Likewise its other components could develop other animate or inanimate objects. In form and substance each individual human being differs from the other. It is on account of the diversity in the potentiality of the components of the matter. The development in the arc of ascent was gradual. The graduality (in time) is motion. Motion is the transfer of potentiality into actuality.

While, indeed, He created you through regular stages, And Allah has caused you to grow as a growth from the earth, Q URAN, N UH : 14 AND 17
According to the following verses of the Quran man is made of the finest essence of the matter.

Verily, We created man of wet clay of black mud moulded into shape, Q URAN , H IJR : 26 And indeed We created man from an extract of clay, Q URAN , M UMINUN: 1 2
Says Pooya/Ali commentary: The distinctive aspects of each of the beings in the arc of ascent are reflections of the corresponding beings in the arc of descent. Those angels who administer the development of the animal life belong to a higher order compared to those angels who control the development of the plant life. The human spirit (ruh) is the reflection emanated directly from the absolute (min ruhi), according to verse 29 of al Hijr. It does not mean separation because the absolute is indivisible. It refers to His direct attention or command. The other beings in the arc of ascent are also the reflections of His attention or command but through

angelic medium. This concept too is exactly similar to the one presented in Upanishads and Gita where the Absolute created a Manifested Self (spirit of God or min ruhi), which divided into 14 Selfs (or ruhs or spirits) that were responsible for creation of human spirit (ruh). Not even a line of Gita and Upanishads, we will find, is different to the view presented in the Quran. When the spirit inside us unites with the Manifested Self of God, it attains union with God or salvation. The same view is presented in Pooya/Ali commentary, which we represent here. Tinat (nature or disposition) is the extract of the total skill or worth in the matter under Allahs direct attention. The spirit, also referred to as I, is the reflection of the divine command or attention referred to as min ruhi- My spirit, by Allah, but conditioned by its tinat. Ruh may be one but the reflections may be many and may differ in reflecting that which they have received. The total energy in the arc of descent conditions the tinat in its primitive stage, after which its developed state reflects the divine spirit. These two factors ruh and tinat constitute the creation of man. Through this evolutionary movement, from the potential state to the actual form, as the Quran says, man in particular and all other species in general, have been developed from their respective origins which carry their respective potentialities. Ruh, according to the Quran and the Holy Prophets sayings refers to that which proceeds from the absolute through the arc of descent. The nafs (soul, ego or self) is the corresponding reflection or the reaction in the arc of ascent. As this reflection is conditioned by the tinat, it cannot have any existence prior to the development of the tinat. On the contrary, the ruh or the corresponding action in the arc of descent has its existence prior to the reflection in the arc of ascent. If the reference is to the radiation or the acting source in

the arc of descent, it exists before the body, and is eternal with the eternity of the source. If the reference is made to the reflection (human ego, or self) it comes into being after the formation of the tinat. Therefore, the nafs of each individual is developed after the preparation of the body. It depends on the matter for its development but becomes independent in the process of growth. The ruh exists independently before the matter and remains so, forever. It, the ruh, never joins the matter and never becomes dependent on it. It acts on the matter. The nafs, with no prior existence as it is only a reaction of the ruh, acts through the body, and when it develops into a state, free from the influence of matter, the ruh operates and makes it independent. Thereafter it neither deteriorates nor becomes dependent again. Through progress and development into a higher state of spirituality, passive matter reaches the condition of a conscious active form. It is not true that the body is blind and the soul is light, and, joined together, they help each other temporarily, but after separation each remains as before, devoid of any progress and development, as the theory of transmigration tries to make man believe. That which the Quran says about the creation of man and other species is true beyond any doubt. It negates the theory of the evolution of all species from one origin, and the affinity between the protoplasm of all the species, describing the variation as a secondary stage caused by the external factors - heredity, environment, struggle for existence, natural selection, survival of the fittest. Its detailed analysis is not possible here but it is enough to state that the protoplasm of each species is of a peculiar and different design. The variation is in the protoplasm itself and not due to the external factors in its development.

We have given you here Pooya/Ali understood the relationship between ruh (spirit), nafs (soul), man and God. Later in this book, we will present you the view as given in the Upanishads. We invite you to see how close they are.



The angels as conscious beings are the intermediary agents in the process of development and administration of the physical world, operating under the laws of cause and effect; therefore, Allah informed them about the creation of Adam, a new phase, and says:

I am appointing a vicegerent in the earth.

It was in the knowledge of the angels that struggle and conflict among the living beings in the pre-Adam period brought about bloodshed and destruction. Many a religious school confirms that there were semi-men, jinn and demons (afrit) before the advent of Adam, on the earth. According to some traditions they were living beings of furious nature and fiery temperament, devoid of intellect, reasoning and contemplation, fighting each other for survival. The angels who always worship Allah and carry out His orders presumed that Adam would also be like the above noted creatures. Allah rightly points out their ignorance about the excellence of the vicegerency He has bestowed upon Adam. See verse 2:31 from Quran that refers to the names that were taught to Adam. And He taught Adam all the names, then presented them to the angels; then He said: Tell me the names of those if you are right.

According to verse 75 of Sad, Allah has created Adam with His two hands, matter and spirit, which gives

man the distinctive power of expression, termed as biyan by the Quran. The spirit mentioned here is nothing but the Manifested Self created by God. This endows man with vast potentialities and scope for progress and development. It is this relationship of man with God through the devas or Prophet Mohammad and rest of Ahlebayts, that gives the man the power progress and become one like them, when they came to live on earth. The Absolute Man of Gita is not reference to these devas and Prophets of God alone, but all of us possess the capability to acquire Absolutist powers that may be called supernatural or spiritual powers by you. As man progresses on his path to spirituality, he continues to acquire these powers, though they no limit. This is the reason why we should not cast doubt over statements in the Upanishads that describe ordinary men gaining the power of flight, extraordinary strength or any similar superhuman power. Vicegerents of God are appointed by Him on the basis of these merits alone which they came to possess through knowledge of the Divine Spirits. Since Mohammad and Ali are part of that group of spirits, it was said that all the messengers and prophets of Allah would be standing under the standard of the Holy Prophet, which will be in the hand of Ali, on the day of resurrection. It is this reason why Adam was taught the names, whose knowledge was essential for his vicegerancy. This position was even superior to that of prophethood as we have shown earlier, and it was dependent on a special link between vicegerant and the Divine Spirit, which consisted of Mohammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain. People who were superior to all other vicegerents appointed by God and upon whose knowledge depended their vicegerency, were denied vicegerency themselves. Can there be a greater irony than this? Pooya/Ali commentary states: The hum of aradahum does not refer to the names but to the

named, and as a plural term cannot be used for Allah, therefore, it cancels the possibility of interpreting these names as the names of Allah. When reference is made in Arabic to several objects of inanimate nature, a singular feminine pronoun is used, but when the objects are conscious beings, a plural masculine pronoun is used, as done here through aradahum, to point out the named ones. If the object referred to is inanimate, the singular feminine pronoun, tilka or hadhihi should have been used. Here the personal demonstrative pronoun refers to the conscious beings of a superior-most status, knowledge of whose names entitled Adam to the vicegerency of Allah. Thus the existence of the beings of the highest status has been established. Is there any greater proof required that Vedas, Upanishads, Gita and Quran are all the same? Pooya/ Ali further writes that these beings are the highest beings, the most perfect and the most blessed beings. See what the commentary says: Due to the affinity between Adam and these highest beings (alin), he was capable to function as the medium of their manifestation. Verse 4 of al Tin says that the status of man, in the order of creation, is the highest in excellence. The alin, the highest beings, referred to in this verse, are the most perfect and the most blessed human beings, for whose manifestation in the arc of ascent, Adam was chosen. Till then the names of the highest beings along with the insight and vision of their realities, their latent qualities and inherent endowments were unknown to the angels. Now see verses 2:32 and 33 from Quran.

They said: Glory be to Thee! we have no knowledge but that which Thou hast taught us; surely Thou art the Knowing, the Wise. He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names. Then when he had informed them of their names,

He said: Did I not say to you that I surely know what is ghaib in the heavens and the earth and (that) I know what you manifest and what you hide?
Through Adam the angels became acquainted with the glory of the glorious beings. When Adam, at the command of Allah, stated the names, qualities and symbols of those highest beings whose collective and comprehensive status can be termed as wisdom personified, the angels witnessed the glory of the infinite power and wisdom of the Lord that could create such perfect beings of the highest calibre, in substance as well as in style, like of whom they did not know till then. In Durr Manthur, Jalaluddin Sayuti says that the Holy Prophet had said: The objects shown to the angels were five lights. Allah informed the angels pointing to each of the lights respectively: (i) This is Muhammad, the most praised, derived from My name, the praised one. (ii) This is Ali, the high, derived from My name, the highest. (iii) This is Fatima, the original, derived from my name, the originator of the heavens and the earth. (iv) This is Hasan, the bountiful, derived from My name, the benefactor. (v) This is Husain, the good, derived from My name, the good in origin. O angels! It is in love of these five that I have created the universe. This is exactly similar to the process of creation described in the Upanishads. We are not mentioning the same subject as carried in the Upanishads at this juncture because we intend to deal with it in greater deal when we talk about creation at a later stage. However,

we are sure that from what all you have read till now about devas, this aforementioned tradition is perfectly in sync with that. It becomes a logical conclusion from Quran and the tradition of Holy Prophet that Allah had created these five lights even prior to the creation of Adam. Moreover, it is evident that Allah had showed these five lights of glory to Adam, and recognition of them meant that he had been appointed as the khalifa of Allah, and through these lights Allahs light had been destined to be manifested. It was these names through which mankind could reach and understand God. That is why all the Messengers of God, including Krishna, Moses and Jesus, confirmed their stature, they being Allahs vicegerent on earth. As Allah is aware of all the unseen in the universe, He knew that the angels secretly thought themselves more deserving than Adam to be chosen as Allahs khalifa, as they had the honour of being created prior to the creation of Adam. Moreover, it is evident that Allah told the names to Adam and then showed the noors (lights) so that he could recognize them. Only when he was able to recognize them truly, the angels bowed down from their demand and recognized the superiority of man. It shows that it was not only essential for the vicegerent of Allah to know these persons, but on this knowledge alone depended his vicegerency. The saddest chapter of history is that while the true knowledge of these names was necessary for vicegerency and claiming superiority over angels, those persons themselves were denied the vicegerency after the death of the Prophet and even to this day Muslims in general keep portraying usurpers of their position as the rightfully elected caliphs. We request you to read the Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad, which categorically states at one place that five selfs were created and at other place refers to certain

names being taken, through which the demons were defeated. We will present that text of Brhad-aranyaka shortly afterwards which mentions that Udgitha (or letter Aum) was chanted to defeat the demons. You have already seen earlier from another Upanishad that syllable Aum signifies the fourteen devas, whose light or self was created prior to the creation of mankind. Now see what Quran says further of Adams creation:

And We said: O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plenteous (food) wherever you wish and do not approach this tree, for then you will be of the unjust.
With his opposite and complementary companion, Hawwa, the woman, Adam, the man was given the garden to dwell in, unrestrained. Only a tree was out of bounds. Scholars say that this out of bound tree is the symbol of temptation, covetousness, envy and greed. Imam Ali bin Musa Raza (the Eight Imam) says:

It stimulates desire for things which are not necessary for life.
Imam Ali bin Husain (the fourth Imam) says:

It stimulates desires for the worldly possessions as the ultimate object of life.
The command of Allah was not to go near the tree. Eating the fruit of the tree was not definitely forbidden. Verse 2:36 is as follows

But the Shaytan made them both fall from it, and caused them to depart from that (state) in which they were; and We said: Get forth, some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.

Adam was endowed with infinite potentiality to reach the ultimate through rational thinking and be able to discriminate and choose. Shaytan, the furious and the fiery, obstinate and perverse, devoid of iman (faith), became an enemy of Adam. The stimulating warning of the divine command not to go near the tree, in a way, apparently gave Shaytan the opportunity to use his guile and rebellious energy in order to take advantage of the situation and get even with his adversary who caused his downfall. Adam and Hawwa slipped out of the condition of peace and contentment into the realm of struggle where peace and conflict, love and hate, and such opposites are at full play. Thereafter the two opposite groups faced each other. It was a conflict between good and evil, right and wrong. Ihbitu, also used in verse 61 of al Baqarah, means a change from the easy life of joy and happiness to the life of toil, suffering and misery. Now see the next verse (Q. 2:37): Then Adam received (some) words from his Lord, so He turned to him mercifully; surely He is Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful. There was no chance of going back to the dwelling of joy and happiness. They were at the mercy of the Lord. They turned repentant unto Allah. The merciful and oft-forgiving Lord blessed Adam with the most extraordinary words of prayer through which Adam, and after him any one in his progeny (mankind), could invoke the mercy of the Lord. These were the holy names of those highest beings that Allah had already introduced to Adam. So the oft-forgiving merciful Lord took Adam and his wife under His mercy when they invoked Him through these names. 2:38 We said: Go forth from this (state) all; so surely there will come to you a guidance from Me, then

whoever follows My guidance, no fear shall come upon them, nor shall they grieve. Pooya/Ali commentary states: Now to enter the paradise, going back to the land of eternal bliss, man must use his intelligence, and make a choice of the right path shown by Allah through the guidance He has made available to man in this world of opposite forces. This guidance was already shown to Adam in the form of names that had been taught to him, which when he disclosed to the angels, prostrated themselves immediately, but Shaytan refused to follow it. He is here, till the human beings dwell in this world, to lead man astray from the true guidance Allah has made available through His last prophet Muhammad and the divinely commissioned Imams. Those who follow these divinely chosen guides or Ahlebayts shall walk on the right path, will be safe from fear and grief, and earn the right to enter the heavenly garden.

And (as to) those who disbelieve in and reject My communications, they are the inmates of the fire, in it they shall abide. Q URAN , 2:39
The literal meaning of ayat is sign. Every verse of the Quran is a sign (ayat) because it draws the attention of the reader to its meaning. But Allahs signs, in the perfect sense, are those beings whose holy personalities draw the attention of the human beings to the glory of Allah. Every prophet of Allah, during his time, was a sign of Allah, and the Holy Prophet, the Twelve Imams and Bibi Fatima are the conclusive signs of Allah. Allah gives a fair warning to those who, under the influence of the eternal enemy of man, Shaytan, go astray from the right path, the path of Muhammad and Ali, that their abode will be the fire.

Lessons from Adams Descent on Earth

There is no doubt that Adam was created for this earth. If that was so, why is it that he was first asked to live in the Heavens? Also, there seems no logic why God would ask him not to go near a tree. If that tree was so bad, why was it there in the heavens, in the first place? Further, it is apparent that it bore fruits and that is why Satan was able to convince Adam and Eve to eat from it. Moreover, it is a norm that when a person is appointed for a certain cause, he is sent there on posting. It never happens that you appoint a person to handle the office of Kolkata yet keep him in Lucknow and when he commits a mistake you tell him to proceed to Kolkata the place for which he was originally appointed. Let us study about Adams story in detail and try to assess what we make out of it. We request you to keep in mind the aforementioned verses from Quran while proceeding ahead. The Quran clearly says that when Adam was sent on earth, he asked for forgiveness and God did forgive him. There is another point that is beyond comprehension. If somebody says sorry to us and we say, OK, thats fine, it means that we have forgiven him. Nobody would still go ahead and give the punishment after accepting the repentance. Yet, God is saying that Adam sought forgiveness through the aid of names and He had mercy on him, thereby implying that He forgave Adam. Yet, Adam was not restated to the former position. All those who say that Adam was sent to earth as punishment for his crime should take note. There are people who use this to prove that since the beginning has been made with a sin, it is human nature to sin and we can do nothing about it. That there was some other reason for Gods action is apparent from this narration.

We have already seen that after giving life to Adam, God asked him to tell a few names, and when pleased with the answer, He made Adam to stay in the heavens. Those noors or lights that were shown to Adam were already in existence at that point of time. The Vedas and the Upanishads too confirm that these Masooms the Manus or the devas were created prior to Adams creation and they had a direct role in creation of Adam. In fact, Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad too gives this hint that it was the devas who were being cognized at the time of Adams creation. This apart, we find several instances in the Upanishads that tell that the devas lived in the heavens, and even Gita gives reference to the Indras heaven. Therefore, there remains no doubt that upon creation, Adam was put in the company of the devas or Masooms, when in heaven. You may call it a training period as regard to the mode of worship of the Absolute God. His training had been completed but there was one more thing that Adam had to learn before he was fit to come to earth. That is why God had forbid him from going near the tree. Satan came to Eve (Hawwa) and convinced her that since it is forbidden to go near the tree, there is no harm in eating the fruit. Eve, in turn convinced Adam, who ate the fruit. The tree signified desires for the worldly possessions and things that are not necessary for life. He was repentant for this act and sought forgiveness, which was granted. But this completed the second part of his training as well. The good things he learnt in the company of the devas but had no idea that he would be tempted and lured by Shaytan (Satan) at all times. Now Adam also knew that while on earth, he would have to safeguard the teachings from being corrupted or distorted by Satans efforts. And that Satan would try his entire bit to make us eat the sinful fruits, i.e. to draw us to this

world, and we will have to be on guard that we do not succumb to his attempts, and remain immersed in God through the path that is most desired by Him. Also, there are more lessons to be learnt. Even if a mundane injunction like going near a tree is given, then it means that it has to be adhered to without getting into finding the reasons why it has been said. If God says that drinking alcohol is prohibited or eating the flesh of certain animals is not allowed, we have no right to do so. All injunctions are to be strictly adhered to even if they are given just to test to what extent we followed. There is another interesting incident in the Quran as per which the Muslims were asked not to go to Namaz in the state of drunkenness. While a lot many stopped taking alcohol from then on, there were a few who used to take it a few hours prior to offering prayers so that its effect had weaned away by then. Thereafter, a fresh verse came, completely prohibiting the intake of alcohol. (We have shown in this book how taking alcohol was also considered as one of the biggest five sins, in the Vedic and post-Vedic period). Fresh out of the heavens, the first thing that Adam did on this earth was to build the remembrance of his God, which was later known as the House of God the Kaaba. We will talk of the importance of Kaaba later. First, theres one more observation that we would like to make. We know that all those who achieve salvation go to heavens; the highest level of the heaven is known as Indras heaven. Surely, all the messengers and prophets, when dead, must have ascended to this heaven. We also know from Quran that certain prophets like Isa, who still continue to live, are living in the heaven. Even Purana states that two persons continue to live since those times. The

Vishnu Purana states that the Kalki avatar, who is supposed to take birth in the future, is also living in the heaven. Adam was there in the heavens before coming on earth and the devas like Indra, in whose name this heaven is created, and who is surely the highest of all the prophets, too was in heaven (as per Upanishads), before taking birth as human form of Mohammad. The question is this: Are all the messengers and prophets who come to earth first take training with these devas before taking birth as humans? We may not be able to confirm this view at this stage but there is one thing that is certain: To attain paradise or Indras heaven, it is essential to attain salvation i.e. freedom from the cycle of rebirth. God gave to Adam the names that were created from His Manifested forms and through following their path, salvation is obtained. From Adam onwards, all the messengers of God only confirmed this fact and restated their importance. We will show at a later stage how Krishna too confirmed that salvation could be attained only through identifying this Manifested Self of God. Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus) and others too confirmed this view. If Islam did not present the view of rebirth, it was because it was already presenting the personalities following whose path salvation was obtained. Shaytan has been granted an extension of life till the Day of Judgment and he is going to continue leading us towards the charms of this world, while it is a promise of God that guidance would come to each one of you at least once, and until that does not come, the person would continue to take rebirth in this life itself. God says:

We said: Go forth from this (state) all; so surely there will come to you a guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, no fear shall come upon them, nor shall they grieve.

When this guidance comes, it would be up to you whether you accept or reject it. On this would depend your salvation and a permanent stay in Indras heaven or Gods wrath and a confirmed seat in what is called hell!
Khalifa from Adam Onwards Appointed by God

We again resort to Pooya/Ali commentary here. The term Adam, in the Quran, refers to the first man who came out of a state of ease and comfort to make effort and reach the ultimate excellence. In this journey, within the sphere of time and space, he, as the most well equipped creature among all the created beings, has, at his disposal, divine guidance, to fight and overcome the obstacles and evil of satanic forces. Prior to the advent of Adam, life on earth for the living beings had no other meaning except to struggle for survival. Adam gave a new significance to life on earth. Man was given the knowledge to learn how to choose between good and evil, right and wrong. Through this knowledge his conscience directed him what to do and what not to do, to adopt harmony and to avoid discord. As Adam came out of the earthly paradise, blessed with the divine guidance, he, due to the potentiality he carried in himself, aspired for the ultimate good, by using all his faculties to curb the drift unto greed, lust, hatred, anger etcetera and walk on the right path. The Holy Prophet says:

Every human child is born with the Adams nature; it is the parents (the environment) which turns the child into a Jew, a Christian or a Magian.
Man is originally sinless. The evil takes roots in him through external factors. Therefore, the Christian theory of original sin has no place in the interpretation of the history of Adam by the Quran. The approaching

to the out-of-bounds tree, when he was in the earthly paradise, was prior to his coming into this world, therefore, on account of his record, after shouldering the responsibility of the vicegerency of Allah on the earth, he is clean and sinless. According to the traditions of Muhammad and Ali there were several Adams, which indicate that there may be several worlds like ours. The symbolic value of the advent of Adam is applicable to human life because man is born in the paradise of ease and comfort, and as a child is pure and free from the responsibility of making efforts to fulfill his wants. As he grows to maturity, he has to make use of his faculties to get what he used to have without effort. The sense of duty and responsibility, and the consciousness of good and evil prepare him to fight against satanic forces working against him. It is not possible for him to get out of the trouble caused by the conflicting desires and satanic temptations unless he turns towards the ultimate reality as the sole object of his life. It gives him peace and tranquility, saves him from fear and grief, and does not let him fall from the state of humanity to the state of animal nature. To reach the ultimate reality it is essential to know the holy names because of whom Adam was blessed and forgiven. In these holy persons the divine vicegerency reached its destination. They are Mohammad (Nabuwwat), and his Ahlebayt (Imamat). In view of the creation of man, his responsibilities to the creator and to the institution of divine vicegerency and its continuity on earth till the day of resurrection, as a covenant between man and God, and the submission to the universal will of the absolute, as the law governing all aspects of his life, it is necessary to point out a few guiding factors to have a clear understanding about the beginning and development

of the prophetic mission. Allah, who alone knows everything, has reserved the right of the appointment of the vicegerent with Himself. The appointment is not an arbitrary act of choosing but the vicegerent is selected on merit after the test of inherent excellence. The created beings, be they angels or prophets, have no right or say in the appointment of the vicegerent. The essential imperative is the knowledge of the holy names which alone help the candidate for the vicegerency to cross terrestrial barriers and reach the glorious heavenly heights in order to establish communion with the universal grace and will of the almighty Lord, as has been observed in the case of Adam. Adam conveyed the appointment of Shith, his son, as the vicegerent of Allah to his other children, but a large number of his sons opposed this declaration. The tendency of the majority to revolt against the declared will of Allah is on record, as mentioned in the Quran, throughout the history of the appointments of the prophets of Allah - Nuh, Sam, Ibrahim, Ishaq, Ishmael, Yaqub, Yusuf, Musa, Talut, Dawud, and Isa. The declarations of Musa, and other prophets after him, about the advent of Isa, llyas and the promised prophet in the progeny of Ishmael and the twelve princes succeeding him, were opposed tooth and nail by the Jews. The pagan Romans, instigated by the Jews, executed Yahya and tried to put Isa on the cross, but Allah raised him to heaven. Isa announced the coming of the Paraclete (Muhammad or Ahmed) before he left this world.

And when the promised Paraclete would come, he will complete the mission by delivering the whole truth and shall never speak but whatsoever he shall

hear from the Lord that he shall speak. T HE B OOK



Isa had appointed Simon as his successor and as the rock of divinity on whom the edifice of the faith will be based, but Paul opposed him. To make people discard Simon, Paul claimed the appearance of Isa in his vision, and by accommodating the pagan cult of the Romans he corrupted the true faith and established the orthodox Christian Church. The Holy Prophet, on several occasions, appointed Ali b. Abu Talib as his successor and vicegerent, in compliance with the commands of Allah. Some of the important traditions and the verses of the Quran that make clear and confirm the vicegerency of Ali b. Abu Talib will be mentioned in the next chapter. From his birth in the holy Kaaba to the tradition of qartas, there are several events and occasions, recorded by wellknown Muslim scholars in many books of history, traditions and commentaries (mentioned in the commentary of relevant verses in this book) which can be referred to for arriving at the conclusion that in his own right and on the basis of his matchless merits, he alone was the divinely chosen vicegerent to succeed the Holy Prophet. Some of the titles of Ali b. Abu Talib, which are exclusively his, are given below: 1. Mawlud Kaaba - Born in the house of Allah. 2. Nafs al Rasool - The self of the messenger. [This goes in conformity with the Upanishads who said that One self became two; is there any other logic to call one person the self of another. 3. Kullu Iman - The total faith. 4. La Fata - The hero who has no equal. 5. Karrar Ghayra Farrar - The unconquerable attacker who never runs away from the battlefield.

6. Bab al Ilm - The gateway to wisdom. 7. Al Murtaza - The chosen (by Allah). 8. Amir al Muminin - The commander of the faithful. 9. Imam al Muttaqin - The leader of the pious. 10. Mazhar al Aja-ib The manifestor of wonders. 11. Imam al Awliya - The original source of the friends of Allah who seek His closest nearness. 12. Sayyid al Awsiya - The chief (or the first) of the successors of the Holy Prophet. Verse 2:40 of Quran talks of a covenant with which all of us are tied.

O children of Israel! Call to mind My favor which I bestowed on you and be faithful to (your) covenant with Me, I will fulfill (My) covenant with you; and of Me, Me alone, should you be afraid.
The Bani Israel are reminded to be faithful to their covenant with Allah.

This day the Lord, your God, commands you to keep these statutes and laws: be careful to observe them with all your heart and soul. You have recognized the Lord this day as your God; you are to conform to His ways, to keep His statutes, His commandments, and His laws, and to obey Him. D EUT 26: 16 AND 17
As regards to the coming of Mohammad, Isa had said:

He will bring those bad men to a bad end, and hand the vineyard over to other tenants, who will let him have his share of the crop when the season comes.
It was a parable narrated to the Jews. It happened

exactly as the Jews were warned. When the Jews failed to fulfill the covenant, the covenant of Allah was transferred to the descendants of Ishmael. Jesus said to them:

Have you never read in the scriptures: The stone which the builders rejected has become the main corner-stone. This is the Lords doing, and it is wonderful in our eyes? Therefore, I tell you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and given to a nation that yields the proper fruit. When the chief priests and Pharisees heard his parables, they saw that he was referring to them. M ATHEW 21: 42 TO 45
This shows that the Jews knew that the Holy Prophet was the final messenger of Allah. They also knew that the holy Kaaba, with the black stone set in one of its corners, was destined to be the qiblah of the true believers.

The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief corner-stone. P SALMS: 118: 22 AND M ATTHEW 2 1: 42
And Allah would fulfill His covenant with the Bani Israel. Musa said:

For it was he whom the Lord your God chose from all your tribes to attend on the Lord and to minister in the name of the Lord, both he and his sons for all time. D EUT , 18: 5 I will raise up for them a prophet like you (Musa), and I will put my words into his mouth. He shall convey all my commands to them, and if any one does not listen to the words which he will speak, I will require satisfaction from him. D EUT 18, 18-19

The Holy Prophet was the promised prophet. To say that Isa was the promised Prophet is a false claim by the Christian Church because Isa himself said:

I will ask the Father, and he will give you another to be your advocate, who will be with forever the spirit of truth. Your advocate will teach you everything, and will call to mind all that I have told you. J OHN 14: 16 AND 26
Isa referred to the Holy Prophet as the advocate or the comforter who would succeed him and be with the people forever. Isas prophecy is proved true in the Holy Prophet and his descendants, the last of whom is our living Imam. And see this:

It is for your good that I am leaving you. If I do not go, your advocate will not come. When he comes, he will confute the world, and show where wrong and right and judgment lie. There is still much that I could say to you, but the burden would be too great for you now. However, when he comes who is the spirit of truth, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own authority, but will tell only what he hears; and he will make known to you the things that are coming. J OHN 16, 7-14 The Lord God will raise up a prophet for you from among yourselves as he raised me, you shall listen to everything he says to you, and anyone who refuses to listen to that prophet must be extirpated from Israel. And so said all the prophets, from Samuel onwards; with one voice they all predicted

these days. You are the heirs of the prophets; you are within the covenant which God made with your fathers, when he said to Abraham, And in your offspring all the families on earth shall find blessings. A CTS 3, 22-25 And when the promised Paraclete would come, he will complete the mission by delivering the whole truth and shall never speak but whatsoever he shall hear from the Lord that he shall speak. T HE B OOK OF JOHN
Isa himself never claimed to have come in the fulfillment of the prophecy about the advent of the promised prophet, nor any other prophet, after him did so, except the Holy Prophet Mohammad. In view of these undeniable facts the Christian Church had no alternative but to give currency to the belief in the Second Advent of Isa. Musa and Mohammad were the lawgivers, whereas Isa was the follower of the laws preached by Musa. Therefore, the phrase like you applies to Mohammad, not to Isa. Similarities between Mohammad and Musa are many. No two prophets, in historical background, resembled each other more than these two. It must also be noted that Allah helped and protected Musa through his brother Harun and Mohammad through his brother Ali. Reference has been made here to the covenant taken from the Bani Israel to believe in the Holy Prophet and walk in the way of the Lord. The Holy Prophet rightly claimed to be the promised prophet. Verse 2:41 talks of those who disbelieved and the severe punishment in store for them.

And believe in what I have revealed, verifying that which is with you, and be not the first to deny it,

neither take a mean price in exchange for My communications; and Me, Me alone should you fear.
The Bani Israel are exhorted, in this verse, to believe in the Quran, which verifies Tawrait and Injeel, particularly about the fulfillment of the prophecy about the advent of the promised prophet, Muhammad al Mustafa, as explained above. And see 2:42:

And do not mix up the truth with the falsehood, nor hide the truth while you know (it).
It refers to the scriptures, revealed prior to the Quran, which had been profusely tampered with, restyled and disguised by the Christians. Many rabbis knew the true text of the scriptures in the time of the Holy Prophet but concealed the truth, and when a few less careful, now and then, quoted them as mentioned in verse 76 of Baqarah of this surah they were rebuked for giving secret information to the Muslims.

Ahlebayt The Men of the House

Hadees-e-Kisa is one of the most revered narrations of the Shia Muslims. Told by none else but Fatima, it narrates a particular event that confirms the purity of Ahlebayts and their lofty position in the scheme of Gods things. It is revered by Shiites and read in all their congregations. The fame and popularity of this Hadees is apparent. None can deny its documentary importance. See this verse:

Innama Yoridullaho Leuzheba Ankumrrijsa Ahlalbaite wa Yotahhirakum Tathira Verily Allah desires to keep away all blemishes from you, O Ahlebayt (People of the Household) and keep you pure with perfect purification.
This Quranic verse serves as the background of this Hadees. In fact, the Hadees narrates the happenings that preceded and succeeded the time when this verse was revealed and identifies those who are intended as part of Ahlebayt (People of the House). Had this verse not come, the Prophets wives, the wives children and other relatives too could have come forward to claim themselves as Ahlebayt of Prophet Mohammad. The other authentic traditions and the unanimous verdict of both the sects (i.e. Shias and Sunnis) of Muslims throughout the ages is that none other than the Holy Prophet, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain were under the blanket when this verse was revealed. Therefore, it is evident that Hadees-e-Kisa serves as an explanation of the one verse of Quran. Mohammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain came under a vestment (blanket) under peculiar circumstances and then Gabriel, the angel, who used to bring Gods speech to Prophet Mohammad, came with the verse.

We have already shown to you earlier that Paingala Upanishad has explicitly said that the devas were created from the sattvik or pure essence of God. Several other Upanishads too confirm to the purity of the devas. Now there is another surprise in store for you. We present here a passage from Radhakrishnans translation of Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, which, in our view, is narrating the same incident, described in Hadees-e-Kisa. We have already said to you that Brhad-aranyaka is regarded as one of the most important of all Upanishads. The only difference is that while Fatima is narrating the incidents as she saw them happen in the house, Brhad-aranyaka is narrating them, as somebody would have seen them happen from a great distance, as if from the heavens. From a great height, surely the scene would appear as if several people have converged inside an inverted bowl, when they were underneath a vestment, covered from all sides, like an inverted bowl. That person listens to the conversation between God and his angel and narrates that. We invite you to compare the conversation given in Brhad-aranyaka with that described in Fatimas hadees. Another subtle difference between Fatimas description and that of Brhad-aranyaka is that while there were five persons inside the vestment, Brhadaranyaka describes them to be seven. We will show later that even Hadees-e-Kisa has included all the devas as Ahlebayts but since there were only five of them who had taken birth till then, we could see only five underneath the vestment. However, seeing from a frame that transcends the boundaries of time, the one in heaven sees even those people who are yet to be born but who, through their parent, are very much inside that inverted bowl. He knows what their names are going to be, and there will be seven names in all. Now see the text from this Upanishad:

II.5.3. On this, there is the following verse: There

is a bowl with its mouth below and bottom up. In it is placed the glory of manifold forms. On its rim sits seven seers, and speech (Gabriel) as the eighth communicates with Brahman. What is called the bowl with its mouth below and bottom up is the head, for it is the bowl with its mouth below and bottom up. In it is placed the glory of manifold forms; pranas (breaths), verily, are where the glory of manifold forms is placed, thus he says pranas (breaths). On its rim sit seven seers, verily, the breaths are the seers; thus he says breaths. Speech as the eighth communicates with Brahman, for speech as an eighth communicates with Brahman. II.5.4. These two here are Gotama and Bharadwaja. This is Gotama, and this is Bharadwaja. These two here are Visvamitra and Jamadagni. This is Visvamitra, this is Jamadagni. These two here are Vasistha and Kasyapa. This is Vasistha, this is Kasyapa. The tongue is Atri, for by the tongue food is eaten. Verily, eating is the same as the name Atri. He who knows this becomes the eater of every thing: everything becomes his food.
We have shown later in this book that Atri has been used for Fatima, Vasistha and Kasyapa are Ali and Mohammad. Therefore, we have reasons to believe that Gotama and Bharadwaja are none but Hasan and Husain and Viswamitra and Jamadagni are none but Jafar and Musa. These are the seven names inside the inverted bowl; in essence, these are the fourteen who are called Ahlebayts. That the fourteen are ever united in approach and deeds is said in II.5.15 says:

This Self, verily, is the lord of all beings, the king of all beings. As all the spokes are held together

in the hub and felly of a wheel, just so, in thyself, all beings, all devas, all worlds, all breathing creatures, all these Selves are held together.
Now we invite you to read the translation of Hadeese-Kisa and compare it with the aforementioned description. See its translation: In the Name of God, the All-merciful, the Allcompassionate. Fatima Zahra, the daughter of the Prophet is to have thus related (an event): My father, the Prophet of Allah, came to my house one day and said to me: Peace be on you O Fatima, to which I replied: And upon you be peace. He said I feel weakness in my body I said May Allah protect you from weakness, O my father. He said O Fatima, please bring the vestment of Yemen and cover me with it. So I brought the vestment of Yemen and covered him with it. Then I looked at him and saw that his face was shining like a full moon with its full glory and splendour. After a while, my son Hasan came in and said: Peace be on you, my mother. I replied: And upon you be peace, O Light of my eyes and the happiness of my heart. He then said: Mother! I smell a fragrance so sweet and pure, as that of my Grandfather, the prophet of Allah. I replied, Yes Indeed your Grandfather is lying underneath the vestment. Hasan went near the vestment and said: Peace be on you my Grandfather, the Prophet of Allah; do you permit me to enter the vestment with you? He replied. And upon you be peace, my son and the master of my fountain. I do give you permission to enter .

So Hasan entered the vestment with him. After a while my son Husain came in and said: Peace be on you, my mother. I replied. And upon you be peace, O light of my eyes and happiness of my heart. He then said: Mother I smell a fragrance so sweet and pure as that of my Grandfather, the Prophet of Allah. I replied, Yes. Indeed your Grandfather and your brother are lying underneath the vestment. Husain advanced towards the vestment and said: Peace be on you, O my Grandfather, the chosen of Allah, do you allow me to enter the vestment with both of you? He replied: And upon be peace, my son and intercessor of my followers, I give you the permission. So Husain entered the vestment with them. After a while, Abul Hasan Ali son of Abu Talib came in and said: Peace be on you, O daughter of the Prophet of Allah. I replied, And upon you be peace, O Father of Hasan, and the Commander of the Faithful. He then said, O Fatima I smell a sweet fragrance which is like of my brother, my cousin, the Prophet of Allah. I replied, Yes, He is underneath the vestment with your both sons. Ali then went near the vestment and said: Peace be on you, O Prophet of Allah; May I enter the vestment with you? He replied, And upon you be peace, my brother,

my legatee, my successor and my standard bearer; I give you permission to enter. So Ali, entered the vestment with them. Then I said, Peace be on you, my father, O Prophet of Allah; do you permit me also to enter the vestment with all of you? He replied, And upon you be peace, my daughter, O part of myself; I give you permission to enter. So I entered the vestment. When all of us had gathered together underneath the vestment, my father, the Prophet, held the two ends of the vestment and raised his right hand towards the Heavens and prayed, O Allah, these are the people of my Household (Ahlebayt) and very specially my own and my protectors. They are of my own flesh and of my own blood. Whoever gives them trouble gives me trouble too; whoever makes them unhappy, makes me unhappy too, I am at war with those who are at war with them, I am at peace with those who are at peace with them. I am the enemy of those who are at enmity with them; I am the friend of those who befriend them. Indeed they are from me I am from them. Therefore, send Thy Blessings, Mercy, Forgiveness and Pleasure upon me and upon them. Also remove all blemish from them and keep away impurity from them. Then Allah, the Majestic, the Glorified, spoke (to the Angels), O My Angels and the Residents of Heavens, verily, I have not created the erected Sky, the spread Earth, the illuminated Moon, the bright Sun, the rotating Universe, the flowing Seas, and the sailing Ships, but for the love of the Five Souls lying underneath the vestment. The Gabriel, the trusted on, asked Allah, O Lord,

who are under the vestment? Allah, the Majestic, the Glorified, answered. They are the Household of the prophet and the mine of prophethood viz. Fatima, his father, her husband and her sons. Gabriel then said, O Lord, may I go to the Earth to be sixth of them. Allah replied, Yes, I have given you permission to do so. Gabriel, the trusted came to the Earth and said, Peace be on you, O Prophet of Allah. The All Highest conveys His peace on you and His salutation, and has sworn by His Honour and Glory that he has not created the erected Sky, the spread Earth, the illuminated Moon, the bright Sun, the rotating Universe, the flowing Seas and the sailing Ships but for your sake and your love. God has given me permission to enter (the vestment) with you. Do you also give me permission, O Prophet of Allah? The Prophet replied, And upon you be peace, O thou who art trusted with the Revelations of Allah; yes, I grant you permission to enter. So Gabriel entered the vestment with us and said to my father that indeed Allah has sent this Revelation to you:

Verily Allah desires to keep away all blemishes from you, O Ahlebayt (People of the Household) and keep you pure with perfect purification.
Then Ali asked my father, O Prophet of Allah what significance does Allah attach to this Event of our gathering underneath the vestment? The Prophet replied, I swear by Him who appointed me a Prophet and chose me a confident Messenger, that no assembly, wherever this Event is narrated by my followers and devotees, shall remain without the Mercy of Allah descending on them, and encircling Angels asking Allah for the remission of their sins till the assembly has dispersed. All exclaimed, I swear by Allah the Lord of the Kaaba, we have

succeeded and our followers have succeeded too. Again the Prophet said, I swear by Him who appointed me a Prophet and chose me a confident Messenger that in any of the assemblies on the Earth, in which our followers and friends have gathered, wherever this Event is narrated there shall remain none grieved but Allah will remove his grief; there shall be none distressed but Allah will dispel his distress, and there shall be none who seeks a wish but Allah will grant his wish. Ali then said, Verily, by Allah, we have succeeded and become happy so also our followers have succeeded and become happy in this world as well as in the next world by the Lord of Kaaba. O Allah, send Thy Blessings on Mohammad and the Descendants of Mohammad. Isnt it clear that God is explicitly saying that it is His wish that all good comes to the doorsteps of Ahlebayt (the people of the House) and all impurity remains away from them? Also, the identity of the Ahlebayts is being recognized, just as the verse from Brhad-aranyaka had done so. Before we write what Allama Ali Naqi Naqawi said on this verse, we wish to show you that God is addressing not just the Prophet, but to a select group of people as Ahlebayt, and Mohammad is surely included in among those who are being addressed as Ahlebayts. Therefore, those who call Ahlebayt as People of the House of Prophet are wrong. Ahlebayt are the people of the House of Allah. It is well known fact that Quran has addressed Ibrahim and Ishmael too as Ahlebayts. And with bayt (house) of Allah in the near vicinity, we fail to understand why Muslims excluded Mohammad from the list of Ahlebayts, when he was the first to enter the vestment. Also it is wrong to call Ahlebayts as Men of the House of Mohammad. They are fourteen and Mohammad is

part of Ahlebayts. Only distinction is that he is the head of the house, and in that manner if they become the members of the house of Mohammad, then that is acceptable. This is something that something that even Allama failed to notice. Even if he had noticed it, he perhaps decided not to talk about it because others already blame Shias for wrongfully enhancing the status of these Ahlebayt. What none knew till we read the scriptures assigned otherwise only to Hindus was the fact that their status is actually far loftier than what Shias believed till now, despite all the blames put on Shias for enhancing their status. Their true status was known only to the socalled Hindus of a particular period, to Apostles like Krishna, Rama and Isa, and also sages like Yajnavalkya, Svetasvatara and even Hanuman (wrongly referred to as the son of Marut or Vayu Ali, just as Isa is wrongly referred to as the son of God). The fact that for Alis birth, the wall of the House of God Kaaba split into two and then got united shows that God wanted at least one member of His house to be born in the house assigned to him. Only Upanishads, Vedas and Gita can tell us how it is possible. Therefore, Kaaba is the house of God and these 14 are the members of the house of God. How wrong it is that the presentday custodians of Kaaba are using the immense wealth gotten from being the kings of place that houses the House of Allah, and distributing it to campaign against those who are the rightful members of this house of Kaaba. Huge amounts are spent to propagate wahabiism whose very foundations are based on denigrating the position of the progeny of Prophet Mohammad. We wish to tell another point. From the narration of this verse it is clear that not only the Prophet but also Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain (even though the two were young children) knew in advance that this verse was about to be revealed from God and all, including

the two children, made preparations to come under the quilt, lest the entire house, which even had a wife of Prophet, is considered as Ahlebayt. This also is a clear proof of the lofty status of these five who were all fully aware of the Quran in advance and even knew when a particular verse was to be revealed. They seemed to be the knower of the will of God. Why is it then that God would not call them His Ahlebayt? Now see how Allama views this verse. He says: People forego the literal meaning of this verse of Tatheer (Purity), as these meanings do not fit with their interests. All of these Persons referred to by this verse knew that the Ayat was going to come. Even the Angel was looking forward to come. The Angel came inside the quilt to recite this verse lest the residents of the entire house are taken as meaning. Innama meaning only or alone at the beginning of the ayah points at a particular point, similar to the word This. Gabriel did not come to the door of the house to seek permission to enter. Rather he came to edge of the vestment, which already had the five, and recited the verse only upon getting inside. Allama says: Ahlebayt is actually combination of three words: (Al- meaning the, Ahl meaning people of and bayt meaning house. The indicates a particular group. If we say Day , it could be any day, but when we say, The Day , it means Day like this. This shows Al points at the present persons. Therefore, Ahlebayt points to People of this house. The word This cannot be understood unless you see who is being pointed at. When one points This that would indicate the thing that stops the vision. If I say This and points upwards, this would mean the roof, and if there were no roof, it would mean the sky. At all times, Prophet was in one house or other, even so it was the House of God. So wherever the Ayah

would have come, people of that house would be the ones being pointed at. That is the reason the Prophet created a house within the house, and becoming the root cause or chief pillar of the house, went under the chadar (vestment). And then all the constituents of the House came to gather inside the chadar. This shows that all the components of the House know what Ayah is going to come. The Ayat would come later, but they are creating the background for it beforehand. Some would say how could a vestment become a house. Allama has given several examples through the help of prevalent Arabic literature, where the term Bayt was used for enclosure. It could have been an enclosure made by tents. Even the face of a woman, hidden or enclosed by her hair, was called bayt by a poet. God addressed Ibrahim and Ishmael in Quran and says: Keep my house free from blemish. It is clear from this that while God assigned the purification of the House (Kaaba) to Prophets, he kept the purification of the Ahlebayt in His hands. One is the Ayah-e-Tatheer for the Bayt and the other for the Ahlebayt. In clear terms, the God is addressing the Ahlebayts to confirm that He would keep them pure, and the previous Prophets, in spite of their high positions, were to keep the house clean, whose rightful occupants are Mohammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Husain and the 9 Imams after him. If Ahlebayt took upon themselves the task of leading mankind to God, who are we to doubt? The difference is this that Gods promise was fulfilled in such a manner that all attempts to malign the identity of the Ahlebayt remained fruitless, while the Ahlebayt are still trying to lead the entire mankind towards God, despite all the sacrifices that they have given. However, it is the promise of God in Quran that they would eventually be successful, even if it would be at the hands of the last of the 14 Masooms, the last Manu or the fourteenth deva, who is

also the Kalki avatar, about to come any moment now. We give here few more hidden aspects of this hadees that are mostly not given attention. We recount our opinion on them here: 1. It is evident that motive behind all actions in this hadees is to identify the true position of the people who had accumulated under the vestment. And the purpose is to tell that the position of those under the vestment is far higher than what we perceive them to be. When the earth, the sky, the moon, and everything else has been created for them, all the Prophets that came to the earth, were inferior to those under the vestment. This is exactly similar to the description of the Upanishads about the devas (Divine Lords). 2. It is evident that not just the Prophet but all those who came under the vestment knew previously that it is time for the verse to reveal and they collected under the vestment to prepare the ground for the verse. 3. It shows that there was some special fragrance in the Prophet at least, if not in all of them, that was recognizable only to those who came under the vestment and not to the common men. 4. Hasan has been identified as the master of the fountain (in the heavens) by the Prophet. 5. Husain has been identified as the intercessor of the followers of the Prophet. 6. Ali has been identified as Prophets legatee, his successor and standard-bearer by none other than Prophet. It is sad that the Muslims, who believed this narration to be true, did not try to make Ali the successor after the death of the Prophet. 7. Fatima is described as part of the Prophet, which is

exactly similar to the Brhad-aranyaka Upanishads description of the creation of devas. It says that the one self divided into two selfs and then a part of one was married to the second self. Prophet has also said that Ali and himself were part of the same noor (light). 8. Prophet had prayed to God that those under the vestment were his Ahlebayt. But when the verse was revealed, it is not said that they were Prophets Ahlebayt. In fact, Prophet Mohammad is also included in the Ahlebayts, owing to him being under the vestment. This shows that those under the vestment were treated by God as His Ahlebayt (People of the House of God). Twice Ali has referred to God as the Lord of the Kaaba, which is called the House of God. This is enough to indicate that just as the Kaaba is a physical manifestation of God on earth, they too are the physical manifestations of God on earth the proofs of God to humanity and the ones whose path is to be followed in order to attain salvation. 9. Prayer of Mohammad says whoever gives them trouble, gives me trouble; whoever makes them (Ahlebayt) unhappy, makes me unhappy too, I am at war with those who are at war with them, I am at peace with those who are at peace with them. clearly shows that not only those who killed Hasan or Husain, but even those who troubled Fatima and Ali were actually at war with the Prophet. This has to be believed by Muslims unless they wish to believe that the Prophet prayed and the prayer remained unfulfilled. Fatima died within six months of the Prophets death. And she is recorded as saying: Oh father, after your demise the troubles that befell me are such that had they befallen the sun, then it would have turned black. People accumulated and set the house of Fatima on fire; the door fell on

Fatimas abdomen and the child in her womb died because of this. If this is not trouble, then what is trouble? We invite the Muslims to go through the pages of history and see who were all the people who gave these troubles. But be prepared, some of the most respected names too can be found. 10. If waging the war against a person is trouble or unhappiness, then we also invite all to find in history the names of all who came in opposition to Ali. And you will then realize that Satan is continuously at work and it can corrupt the minds of even the seemingly most pious men and women. 11. The fact that God has taken a guarantee that the Ahlebayt are free from blemish and pure in Quran itself, it has to be seen with an absolutist meaning, for it cannot be possible that a little blemish or a little impurity would remain after the Gods guarantee. Even those who deny the entire hadees cannot deny the Gods words in Quran and the fact that it is Mohammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain who are the subject of discussion. If talking insane is a blemish, then we invite you to find the names of those who said that the Prophet is talking insane because of his illness and denied him the paper and pen that he was seeking. If labeling false accusations is a blemish then you will have to agree that when Fatima called certain men usurpers in the mosque of the Prophet, then she was perfectly right in wordings. Likewise, you will have to agree that all the wars that the Ali waged, even so against the seemingly most pious of people, were righteous and true. Nahjul Balaghah, the book attributed to Ali and various other narrations are full of Ali describing those who usurped what was rightfully his. He has even criticized the previous Prophets and at one point of time refused Caliphate on grounds

that he would not follow the path of the preceding Caliphs. Keep the words of Quran in mind and you will have to agree that whatever Ali said at all points in time, was absolutely true. 12. The sky, the earth, the moon, the sun, the universe, the seas, the ships could be created for the five, in the words of God, but one of them, who was the main battle winner during the days of struggle, the acknowledged most learned among men, and the first to accept Islam in the eyes of the world, not fit to be the successor of the Prophet. 13. If you believe that God is knower of all, then you will have to accept that he also knows your languages perfectly and not even a comma or sign in his book can be without significance or meaning. The language of Arabic does not have just singular and plural words. Rather, there are three, singular, one signifying two, and another signifying more than two. When Allah replies to Gabriels question regarding the people under the vestment, He said that it included the Prophet, Fatima, his daughter, her husband and her sons. Those learned in Arabic language say that as per Arabic grammar, the wordings refer to only one daughter, one husband and more than two (and not two) sons. This was despite the fact that there were only Hasan and Husain under the vestments. This suggests that those sons of Husain who were to be the future Imams too are part of Ahlebayts. Therefore, there are fourteen Ahlebayts of God. We know that the fourteen had seven names. What is most interesting is that when an Upanishad described this event, it said of an inverted cup with seven underneath it. Clearly, from heaven, the vestment with people inside would have appeared as an inverted cup with all the components of Ahlebayt inside it. What is more interesting is that even the

conversation of God has been described in this Upanishad. 14. Another interesting thing that has been left unnoticed by people is that Fatima is the narrator who not only narrates the incidents taking place in her house but also goes on to narrate the conversation between God and his Angel Gabriel high up in the heavens. You will have to either discard this narrative as a pack of lies or believe that Fatima was actually aware of all that was happening in the heavens and was even listening to the conversation between God and the denizens of heaven. As we have said, there are so many advantages of reciting this hadees only because of the implicit meanings, some of which have not been unearthed till today. 15. The fact that the Prophet has sworn by the name of Allah that no place where this event would be recited would remain free from Gods blessings and mercy is evident proof why the Prophet did not mention about rebirth. The knowledge that he was leaving was such that those who would follow it would again access to Gods mercy and wont be sent again in this world. However, punishment for the unrighteous acts would be given and nowhere has this been denied. 16. This also is an evident proof of the words of Gita, which say that salvation is achieved when a person recognizes the Self. It has been clearly described in the Upanishads that the fourteen devatas comprise the Gods Self and we have proven that these fourteen are the ones who together comprise Gods Self and therefore, knowing whom one attains salvation. 17. That Ayesha too has narrated this event is proof that knowledge alone is not sufficient to keep a person

on the true path. He or she has to continuously strive for perfection and strictly forbid Satan from affecting his/her words and deeds, and ceaseless endeavour to remain as close to the true path as possible. 18. It also tells that the proximity of the pious is not a proof that the person too is pious.

Ahlebayt The True Leaders of Our Soul

On the occasion of his return journey from the performance of the Farewell Pilgrimage during a halt at a place called Khum, on the 18 th of Zilhij (a month in Islamic Calendar) Prophet Mohammad, by divine order, designated Ali as his successor and ordered a general oath of fidelity on his (Alis) hand. The words used by him could leave little doubt as to his intention regarding a successor. He said:

Ali is to me what Aaron was to Moses. Almighty God be a friend to his friends and a foe to his foes, help those who help him, and frustrate the hopes of those who betray him A MIR A LI , 1922
Further, in a long narration wherein he praised the virtues of Ali and Ahlebayt, he said:

man kuntu Mawla fa hadha Aliyyun Mawla (Of whosoever am I mawla, Ali is his mawla)
Mawla means Lord Master. Therefore, it would amount to say that of whosoever is Mohammad the Lord, Ali too is his Lord Master. For the Shias this served as proof that Ali was to be the Prophets successor, as his Wasi or executive, the first Imam. Thus, according to the Shias, those who denied Ali of his rightful claim to be the divinely appointed, immediate successor of Mohammad were politically motivated and acted against the directions given by the Prophet. As Islam enjoins adherence to the dictates of the Prophet and Shias hold that they do abide by it, they claim that they are the true followers of Islam. Quran says in 2:27:

Who break the covenant of Allah after its confirmation and cut asunder what Allah has ordered to be joined, and make mischief in the land; these it is that are the losers.
Verse 3:30 further refers to the covenant when it is said:

And hold fast by the covenant of Allah all together and be not disunited, and remember the favor of Allah on you when you were enemies, then He united your hearts so by His favor you became brethren; and you were on the brink of a pit of fire, then He saved you from it, thus does Allah make clear to you His communications that you may follow the right way.
Describing this covenant, the commentator says: Every soul, before coming into this world, makes a promise with the Lord that it will exist only to fulfill the will of the Lord, and never shall rebel against His authority, known as the original or the latent covenant. The second or the manifest covenant is that which an individual agrees to be bound by when he or she embraces Islam, which, in fact, is a surrender of the self to the will of Allah. The covenant referred to here is that by which the believers bound themselves before Allah through the Holy Prophet at Ghadir Khum when the verse 67 of Chapter al Ma-idah was revealed. Every believer accepted the declaration of the messenger of Allah that of whomsoever the Holy Prophet was the lord-master, Ali son of Abu Talib was also his lord-master. After the unanimous undertaking of the believers, the following verse was revealed.

This day I have perfected for you, your religion, and have completed My favour on you, and chosen for you Islam (to be) the religion.

Therefore, fulfillment of the covenant made with Allah is demanded in verses 20, 21 and 25 of al Rad, so that after the departure of the Holy Prophet, the believers might not follow any other person save Ali ibn Abu Talib, who alone was declared worthy and able to carry out the mission of Islam, as the lawful authority (lord-master), in the absence of the Holy Prophet. The declaration was not a mere fancy of the Holy Prophet to honour Ali, but in compliance with Allahs command to save the followers of Islam from yielding to those who make mischief in the earth and spread corruption in the garb of religious leaders. According to verse 217 of al Baqarah, mischief is more grievous than carnage. Islam stands for peace and harmony. And when is peace disturbed? Only when anyone wants to have (usurp) something that rightfully is not his. Islam has prescribed a well-knit structure of human relationship to maintain peace and harmony in the society. In addition to various aspects of human relations, Allah has, with a purpose in view, made it obligatory for the believers to know and adhere to the relationship prescribed between them and the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt. To avoid the overwhelming delusions of falsehood it is essential to accept the authority of the Holy Prophet, Ali ibn Abu Talib, and the divinely commissioned rightly guided guides, in his progeny. This verse applies to everyone who opposes the divinely established authority of imamat (the guidance through the holy Imams) immediately succeeding the risalat (the prophethood of the Holy Prophet) which is the covenant every faithful adherent of Islam has to make good. To reinforce their contention the Shias quote the universally acknowledged exhortation of Mohammad:

I leave behind amidst you the two great things,

the Book of God (Quran) and my Itrat, my Ahlebayt (progeny).

Thus the above-mentioned apostolic instruction, according to the Shias, enjoins on every true Muslim to abide by the holy book Quran and Ahlebayt and to no one else. Imam Ali bin Husain Zainul Abidin the fourth Imam - had said:

In view of the clear instructions of the Holy Prophet and the decisive injunctions of the Quran it is obligatory to love, revere and follow the Ahlebayt, but, even if the prophet had commanded the ummah to hate and abuse his children, they could not have been able to do worse than what they did to us.
They persecuted the Ahlebayt in whichever town they took shelter, forced them to drift from place to place, and at last surrounded them from all sides in the desert of Karbala, and then murdered in cold blood, all the male friends, relatives and companions of Imam Husain, the grandson of the Holy Prophet They spared no one, not even the six month infant son of the Holy Imam. The persecutors, in devilish frenzy, trampled the bodies of the devoted martyrs under the hooves of their horses, plundered, looted and set the tents of the Ahlebayt on fire. It was a premeditated, ruthless and satanic dance of death. The ladies and children of the holy house in chains, along with the severed heads of the martyrs, walked through the streets of Kufa and Damascus (to the court of Yazid). The tragedy of Karbala casts a gloom upon every refined, compassionate and God-fearing soul. It makes hearts bleed, and tears flow. Cries of lamentation reach the heavens. In the court of Yazid, Zaynab, daughter of Ali and Husains sister, stood up and said in a clear, definite

and strong voice:

O Yazid! What would the Holy Prophet say if he sees us in this condition today? Think you O Yazid, that by killing our men and capturing us and reducing us to this state, you have won and we have lost? Then verily you are mistaken. Our cause has been established by Allah and no power on earth can ever do it any harm. The temporal power which you assume is to be counted but only for a very few days and then you shall feel sorry for your tyranny but it shall be in vain. The divine kingdom is with us and shall remain with us forever. All that you possess is nothing but a passing show and there is nothing divine in it. Verily, Satan holds power on the earth more than all the tyrants together but in the eyes of Allah he is the cursed and the derided one. It appears that sins have encompassed your heart and severed all the links of faith and made you bold to utter the proud words against the truth. Have they not traveled on the earth and seen how the others before them had met their end? They were far more powerful than them, dug up the earth and built far more than what did they build; and their messengers came to them with clear proofs. It was not for Allah to wrong them, they wronged themselves. Then evil was the end of those who did evil, for they belied the signs of Allah and made fun of them.
Writes Pooya/Ali commentary: Whosoever is the enemy of Allah, His messengers and His angels is an unbeliever. Allah is the enemy of the unbelievers who are described as infidels. Therefore, those who troubled, tortured and killed the Ahlebayt, the beloved darlings

of the Holy Prophet and Allah, are the enemies of the Holy Prophet and Allah. When the Holy Prophet was leaving this world to meet his creator, the so-called followers of the true religion of Allah deserted him and held a conference in Saqifah to choose a ruler in complete disregard to their oath of allegiance, which they had promised to uphold, at Ghadir Khum, just a few months before. They had accepted Ali as their Mawla, but soon after the departure of the Holy Prophet, they deprived Ali of his right to succeed the Holy Prophet, and, to show their power in this world, arrested him and dragged him to the court of the ruler. The daughter of the Holy Prophet, Bibi Fatima Zahra, was not only publicly insulted during the trial of Fadak, but that which the Holy Prophet had given her by the command of Allah was taken away from her, and her house was also set on fire. An aggressor kicked the door of her house which fell on her and killed the child she was carrying in her womb, and which finally proved to be the cause of her death. Ali was killed in the mosque. Hasan, the grandson of the Holy Prophet was killed by poison. Husain, the other grandson of the Holy Prophet, and his friends and relatives, were slain in Karbala, and the ladies of the holy family were chained, tortured and held captive for a long time. One after the other, the Holy Imams were killed. Sayyids, the sons and daughters of the family of Ahlebayt, were hunted, captured and were either murdered or tortured. Those who were responsible, directly or indirectly, for such heinous crimes are certainly the enemies of the Holy Prophet, because no reasonable person can say that these were the acts of friends. Such people are unbelievers, and Allah is the enemy of the unbelievers. In verse 57 of al Ahzab, Allah has cursed those who annoy or displease Allah and His messenger in this world and has prepared a painful punishment for them in the hereafter. The Holy Prophet said:

O Ali! Your flesh is my flesh, your blood is my blood. He who fights you, in fact has declared war against me, and to fight against me is to fight Allah.
The Origin and Lofty Position of the Ahlebayt

You have already gone through Hadees-e-Kisa, in which Fatima stated that everything in this world had been created because of them. That was not just an isolated incident where this has been mentioned. There are countless places where the Ahlebayt have been presented as enjoying the highest position, higher than all creation and next only to God. We invite you to read verse 3:33 of Quran, which says:

Surely Allah chose Adam and Nuh and the descendants of Ibrahim and the descendants of Imran above the nations.
In this verse Adam and Nuh are mentioned by their names, whereas Ibrahim and Imran are mentioned with reference to their posterity. Al (the posterity) of Adam and Nuh have not been included in the category of the chosen ones, because there were several ungodly and wicked persons in their lineage, but in the ale (immediate issues) of Ibrahim (Ishmael and Ishaq) and Imran (Musa and Harun), holy men of God, were chosen as messengers of Allah. The mention of Ibrahim and Imran, undisputedly amongst the holiest prophets of Allah, has been made in this verse with reference to their posterity, because according to the religious annotation, in the word ale the spiritual quality of a posterity automatically includes the immediate ancestor or the founder of a family. Ale or Ahlebayt, commonly used to address the members of a family, is exclusively reserved, in the religious and

spiritual act of referring, for the holiest members of the family of the Holy Prophet who are identical with each other in their personal purity and spiritual sanctity (Ahzab: 33). The Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt are in the posterity of Ibrahim, therefore, in the light of this verse, they are chosen in preference to all the created beings. They are superior to every human being. (Tafsir Durr al Manthur; and Mawahib al Ladunniya). Aga Mahdi Pooya states: The Holy Quran refers here to this process of selection and choice of a particular lineage for risalat and imamat. It starts from Adam and passes through Nuh to Ibrahim. After Ibrahim it was bifurcated in his two sons, Ishmael and Ishaq. The descendants of Ishmael are known as ale Ibrahim, and the descendants of Ishaq are called ale Imran. The selection of the line of ale Imran for prophethood was terminated after Isa whose birth, disappearance (Allah raised him alive to the heaven) and promised reappearance (at the end of this world before the day of resurrection) are the signs (miracles) of Allah; but the line of ale Ibrahim, through Ishmael, remained chosen till Abd al Muttalib, and then again bifurcated through Abdullah and Abu Talib. Muhammad al Mustafa was the son of Abdullah and Ali al Murtaza was the son of Abu Talib. When Ali and Bibi Fatima, the daughter of the Holy Prophet, were joined in the holy matrimony, the line of Ibrahim continued in their progeny: Imam Hasan bin Ali al Mujtaba Imam Husain bin Ali al Shahid al Shuhada Imam Ali bin Husain al Zainul Abidin Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqar Imam Jafar bin Muhammad al Sadiq Imam Musa bin Jafar al Kazim

Imam Ali bin Musa al Raza Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Taqi Imam Ali bin Muhammad al Naqi Imam Hasan bin Ali al Askari Imam Muhammad bin Hasan al Mahdi The disappearance and the promised reappearance of the living Imam al Mahdi resembles the disappearance and the promised re-appearance of Isa; both are examples for the house of Ishmael and the house of Israel respectively (Zukhruf: 59). When both of them will re-appear at the end of the world, before the day of resurrection, prophet Isa will follow Imam Muhammad al Mahdi, and the whole mankind will follow them. Allah chose Adam, Nuh, ale Ibrahim and ale Imran in preference to others for appointing His messengers and guides. It is a selection from the descendants of Adam, Nuh, Ibrahim and Imran, because all their children did not have the superior quality to represent Allah. The Holy Prophet has said:

Allah selected Adam in preference to all other creatures; from among the descendants of Adam, He selected Nuh; from among the descendants of Nuh, He selected Ibrahim; from among the descendants of Ibrahim, He selected Ishmael; from among the Quraish, He selected Hashim. All of them carried my noor (the first light which came forth from the absolute and goes on till the day of resurrection to manifest ultimately in the arc of ascent). It passed through Abd al Muttalib to Abdullah and Abu Talib. I am from Abdullah and Ali is from Abu Talib. Ali and I are one and the same noor.

See how Prophet Mohammad has stated the Prophets carried his noor (light). Kitabul Amana, Bihar al-Anwar too states that the world was created from the noor (lightheat) of the Panjetan (the Five Persons). See what it says:

The highest seat and the throne (arsh and kursi) from the noor of Prophet Mohammad Angels and the book and pen (malaika and loh-oqalam) from the noor of Ali. Earth and sky (zameen-o-aasman) from the noor of Fatima Moon and Sun (chand-o-sooraj) from the noor of Hasan Heaven and the apsaras of heaven (jannat and hoorane-jannat) from the noor of Husain.
A quote from Imam Jafar Sadiq the sixth Imam given in Chapter 53 of Al-Kafi even goes on to say that they too frame the rules and religious obligations. Surely, it can be expected of the rulers of spheres created by God and the rulers of our organs of senses and action, as said in Paingala Upanishad, from whom the entire cosmos was created and who took upon themselves the task of leading mankind to God. See what Imam Jafar Sadiq says in hadees no. 703:

It terminates in us with what is halal (lawful) and what is haram (unlawful), but (as for) the prophethood, no, (we have no part).
That reason and intelligence in each one of us formed part of the Masooms or devas is evident in these words of Imam Jafar Sadiq to Hasham:

God-Almighty has blessed the human beings with two proofs:

One is apparent and the other is hidden. The apparent proofs are Prophets and Imams, and the hidden proof is the reason and intelligence within our existence. A L-K AFI, VOL . 1, P-16
This verse confirms the Upanishadic view that the fourteen formed an important part of our body and henceforth we all are governed by the devas. Prophet Mohammad referred to the same on another occasion, when he said:

I and Ali are from one and same divine light. The first of us is Muhammad, the middle of us is Muhammad, the last of us is Muhammad, every one of us is Muhammad.
At another instance, Pooya/Ali Commentary states: The Holy Prophet and the twelve holy Imams (are those) in whom each quality is manifest in its highest perfection and completeness. They are those who have been chosen by Allah to guide mankind towards the path of Allah through the Quran. Therefore, Shias, after the Holy Prophet, follow only Ali and the holy Imams as their guides because of their unique merits, acknowledged even by their enemies. The whole Muslim world, without exception, knows and accepts the fact that it was Ali alone who earned the unique title of mazhar ul aja-ib the manifestation of (divine) wonders, because Ali and the Holy Prophet are the manifestations of one and the same divine light. It is interesting to note that both the Upanishads and the traditions of the Prophet have equated the Ahlebayt to the rope from Allah.

Hold fast, all of you together, to the cord of Allah.

It gives a mental impression that a rope is hanging from the heaven so that those who are lying down on the ground (earth) may climb up, by holding it, in the presence of the Lord to seek His nearness. Abu Sa-id Khudri reports that he heard the Holy Prophet saying:

I leave behind me, among you, two ropes. If my people hold fast to these two ropes, after me, they shall not go astray. They are the book of Allah, hung from the heaven unto the earth, and my Ahlebayt. One of them is greater than the other. Be it known that these two shall never be separated from each other; and joined together, they shall meet me at the spring of Kausar. T AFSIR K ABIR AND D URR AL M ANTHUR
In another similar declaration, known as hadeese-Saqalain, the Prophet stated:

My Ahlebayt, among you, are like the ark of Nuh. He who sails on it will be safe, but he who holds back shall perish.
The Holy Prophet has said:

Verily the Quran has been revealed in seven letters. There is no letter which has not an evident and a latent meaning; and verily Ali knows the evident as well as the latent. ITIQAN-SAHIH BUKHARI
The commentator says: The holding fast to the book of Allah and Muhammad and ale Muhammad means total attachment with and devotion to them because all good generates from this act which enables man to rise upward and reach nearness to Allah. The life of the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt is the best example of the teachings of the Quran.

Do not become disunited

Those who rely on and make use of theories and methods formulated and put in practice by mortal men, by avoiding or neglecting the commandments of Allah and the teachings of the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt, are bound to go astray and create discord and disagreement among the united community of the believers. This sentence warns the Muslims not to misinterpret the verses of the Quran or have doubts about the authority of the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt to explain the true meanings of the word of Allah, because these two are the inseparably interwoven cord of Allah; else they will be divided into several sects. So to remain on the right path shown by the Holy Prophet follow him and his Ahlebayt in letter and spirit. In Minhaj al Sadiqin it is written that once, Jalut, the chief rabbi, along with some of his very learned disciples, came to Ali ibn Abu Talib to prove that Islam was not a true religion of God. The first question Ali asked was: Do you know the number of sects the followers of Musa were divided into after his departure? I will have to refer to the book, he replied. You are a rabbi, yet do not know what is written in your book. What will you do if your book is lost? Ali asked. Jalut referred to his book and said that there were 45 sects. You are wrong. I know the Tawrait and the Injeel. The followers of Musa were divided into 71 sects, out of which only one is on the right path. Also the followers of Isa were divided into 71 sects, out of which only one is on the right path. The followers of our prophet will

be divided into 73 sects, out of which only one will be on the right path and the rest will be among the losers. Earlier the Holy Prophet had also said the same about his and Musas followers. When asked as-to which sect of his followers is on the right path, he put his hand on the shoulder of Ali and said: This man and his descendants and their followers. Then he recited this verse: You became brothers by His grace-

Ali Ibn Abu Talib

(It is to be noted that this essay was written when this writer still considered Ali as a mortal man with exceptional qualities and even debated this stand, until Vedas and Upanishads changed the course of his thinking. We present the article exactly as it was written about 10 years back.)

No matter if a section consider him as Khalifatohu Bila Fasl, another thinks of him as Syedul Aulia, somebody puts him above all other Companions of the Prophet, others believe that he was the fourth Caliph, some go to the extent of secluding themselves from him, while few worship him as their God yet, in spite of all this disparity in thoughts, all the sections consider Ali as the most knowledgeable of all men, the pious among the pious, most brave person to be born on earth and the zenith of all humanity after the Prophet. Not only Salman, Abuzar, Miqdad and Ammar Yasser vociferously applauds his greatness, but even the first Caliph can be seen repeating Prophets hadees that

Annazaro ala wajhe Aliyin ebadah (Looking at the face of Ali is worship)
Also, the most obvious enemy of Ali, Muawiya when he hears Alis praise from one of his friend, says: No doubt Abul Hasan i.e. Ali was just the same as you have said. This is the height of character where friends and foes, Momins (Faithfuls) and Kafirs all stand on equal footing in praising his personality in spite of all the differences in beliefs and thoughts. Ali was born on the 13 th Rajab 30 (Aam-ul-Feel)

about 610 A.D. in the house of Allah i.e. Kaaba 23 years before Hijrat (Emigration from Makkah). Soon after his birth the Holy Prophet took him under his holy care. Ali acquired wisdom, generosity, bravery, piety and letters under the guardianship of the Prophet. Then after leading a life which was full of turbulence and its ups and downs, his life was put to an end in the mosque of Kufa at the behest of Muawiya. During this period from Kaaba to the mosque of Kufa, Ali was not only a hero who fought gallantly in the battlefields. Instead, he was an epitome of the height of character that can be achieved by a true follower of Islam. If his life is truly understood by us and followed then, undoubtedly, we will surpass everybody else in all traits of life. A detailed study of Alis life will show that each and every aspect of his life is full of teachings for the later generations to follow. His whole life is a book on morals, ethics, way to lead life and true character, from which anybody can benefit irrespective of race and religion. Yet, in spite of this, the irony is that we have not really tried to comprehend the life of Ali, as it should have been understood. Most of us have forgotten those aspects and those phases of Alis life, which can prove beneficial for us if we try to relate our lives according to those principles. In these times, when there are no moral and ethical values left among the people, when Islam has witnessed innumerable divisions on the basis of sects, regions, tribes, clans or beliefs, and when the enemies of Islam have come openly to destroy and annihilate the believers of Allah; strictly adhering to Alis teachings and following his way of life will show us the way to face life in the most turbulent times. However, it is a sad story that today not many of us are aware of the true life of Ali. The only thought that comes to our mind upon hearing the name of Ali is

his bravery. The main reason behind this is that lately most of our zakirs have stopped talking about the sublime parts of Alis character due to certain unknown reasons. Instead, they describe in glorified words the chivalrous deeds of Ali in the battlefield. Some of the blame for this is ours because zakirs know our likings and following a true marketing strategy, they only give to the public what they desire the most to hear. Whatever the true reason behind this fallout, today, we have come to a stage where our younger generations do not know the true height of Alis character and are ignorant about the other facets of his powerful character besides his strength and courage. And when a person do not know the true personality of a character, especially that of a character whom he considers his ideal, there is no likelihood of him every being able to follow his path. Today, we consider heroism and chivalry as the basic features of Alis character You talk of Ali and the only thought that flashes our mind is that of Ali moving with his sword and killing everybody who comes to oppose him in the battlefield. He being so strong that he picked up the gate of the fort of Khaibar (dar-e-Khaibar) on his little finger, and his sword, after cutting the enemy into two, kept penetrating the earth until an angel had to come and stop the sword on his wings. However, if we look into this aspect keeping in mind two hadeeses of the Holy Prophet, we will come o the conclusion that Alis physical strength was not an independent characteristic. Instead it was an inherent quality which depended upon some other traits of his personality. The Prophet, on an occasion, said that a Momin among you (Muslims) will overpower ten of his opponents. And a Muslim will be more than an equal match to nonMuslims. Keeping this hadees in mind, we can safely conclude that since there is no known limit to Alis Iman (faith), there is also no limit to Alis strength. When a

Mumin can be victorious over ten of his opponents, why do we doubt when the Amir-ul-Muminin or a Kull-eIman (epitome of faith) like a Ali kill a few hundred opponents or when he lifts the dar-e-Khaibar, which required forty men to open and close it, on his little finger. Since the limit of Alis faith in God cannot be guessed by ordinary human beings like us, similarly his strength too, which was directly proportional to his faith, according to Rasools hadees, is unknown. Keeping in mind the above mentioned hadees I believe that all the strength that he showed on different occasions was nothing as compared to vastness of his faith in God, the limit of which is unknown, and he was certainly capable of more. This essay is an attempt to portray some other facets of Alis personality other than his strength, of which we have heard a lot from the zakirs, so that our younger brothers and sisters get to know the different features of the personality of their guide and Imam. Here are presented the opinions of some eminent people regarding the character of Ali: (i) Jurjy Zaigan (George Gordon, a famous Christian historian, linguist, philosopher and poet of recent time says: None can praise to the extent that he (Ali) deserves. So many instances of his piety and fear of God are cited that one starts loving and venerating him. He was a true, strict, scrupulous follower of Islam. His words and deeds bore stamps of nobility, sagacity and courage of conviction. He was a great man having his own independent views about life and its problems. He never deceived, misled, or betrayed anybody. In various phases and periods of his life he exhibited marvelous strength of body and mind which were due to his true faith in religion and in his sincere belief in truth and justice.

(ii)The famous Egyptian philosopher and Professor of Islamic Studies of Al-Azhar University, Allama Mohammad Mustafa Beck Najeeb in his equally famous book Himaetul Islam says: What can be said about this Imam? It is very difficult to fully explain his attributes and qualities. It is enough to realize that the Holy Prophet (A.S.) had named him the gateway of knowledge and wisdom. He was the most learned person, the bravest man and the most eloquent speaker and orator. His piety, his love of God, his sincerity and fortitude in following religion were of such high order that none could aspire to reach him. He was the greatest politician because he hated diplomacy and loved truth and justice, his was the policy as taught by God. On account of his sagacity and thorough knowledge of human mind he always arrived at correct conclusion and never changed his opinions. His was the best judgment, and had he no fear of God he would have been the greatest diplomat amongst the Arabs. He is loved by all, and everyone has a place for him in his heart. He was a man of such surpassing and pre-eminent attributes and such transcending and peerless qualities that many learned men got perplexed about him and imagine him to be an incarnation of God. Several men amongst Jews and Christians love him and such philosophers who came to know of his teachings bow down before his incomparable vast knowledge. Roman kings would have his pictures in their palaces and great warriors would engrave his name on their swords. (iii) Another philosopher and historian of Egypt Ustad (Professor) Mohammad Kamil Hatha, pays his tributes in the following words: His life is agglomeration of pleasing incidents, bloody encounters and sad episodes. His personality is very prominent on account of his transcending and high qualities. Each aspect of his life is so lofty and glorious that a study of one phase would

make you feel that it was the best phase of his character and the most beautiful picture of his personality, while contemplation of any other phase will enchant you more and you will come to the conclusion that no human being can attain that height, and a third aspect will fascinate you equally and you will realize that before you is a personality of such great eminence that you cannot fully appreciate its greatness and you will feel that Ali was an Imam (Leader) in religion, and also an Imam in ethics, in philosophy, in literature, in learning and wisdom. It is not difficult for God to create such a person. (iv) The famous historian and author of life of Queen Victoria in his book Studies of Mohammedanism says: (a) This prince was a man of mild and forbearing character, wise in counsel and bold in war. Mohammad had given him the surname of Lion of God. (b) Ali and his sons Hasan and Husain were truly noblemen men of righteousness, of a brave, humble and a forgiving spirit. Their lives deserve to be commemorated; for there was a peculiar pathos about them (their lives), which were not spent selfishly or in vain. As Mathew Arnold (Essays in Criticism) says the sufferers of Karbala had held aloft to the eyes of millions the lesson so loved by the sufferer of Cavalry (Representation of Crucification): - Learn of Me for I am meek and lowly in heart, and Ye shall find rest unto your souls. He further says that Ali was the first Caliph to protect and encourage national literature. This prince was a scholar himself and many of his wise sayings and proverbs are published in a book. It was a remarkable work and deserves to be more widely read in the West. (v)Ibne-abil-Hadeed, the Mothazali commentator of Nahjul Balaghah, says that: Hazrat Ali had a personality in which opposite characteristics had so gathered that it was difficult to believe a human mind could manifest

such a combination. He was the bravest man that history could cite and such brave persons are always hard hearted, cruel, and eager for bloodshed. On the contrary Ali was kind, sympathetic, responsive and warm-hearted person, qualities quite contradictory to the other phase of his character and more suited to pious and God fearing persons. He was very pious and God fearing person and often pious and religious persons avoid society and do not care to mix with men of sins and men of wrath, similarly warriors, kings and dictators are usually arrogant and haughty, they consider it below themselves to mix with poor, lowly and humble persons. But Ali was different. He was friend to all. As a matter of fact he had a tender spot in his heart for poor and humble, and for orphans and cripples. To them he always was a kind friend, a sympathetic guide and a fellow sufferer; he was meek unto them but haughty and arrogant against famous warriors and generals, so many of whom he had killed in hand to hand combats. He was always kind but strict with wayward persons, sympathetically teaching them the ways to reach God. He always smiled and passed happy and witty rejoinders, it was difficult to overcome him in debates or repartees, his rejoinders and retorts always bore high mark of culture, education and knowledge. He was a scion of a very illustrious, rich and noble clan, as well as son-in-law and great favourite of the Holy Prophet (A.S.), at the same time he was the greatest warrior and marshal of his time, yet in spite of his riches he ate, dressed and lived like a poor person. To him wealth was for the use of other needy persons, not for himself and his family. Change of times and change of circumstances did not bring any change in his bearing, life or character. Even when he ascended throne of Arabia and was acclaimed as the Caliph, he was the

same Ali as they had found him to be during the previous regimes. Once in the society of Abdullah, son of Imam Malik-ibne-Humbel, a discussion took place about Ali and his Caliphate. Abdullah brought the discussion to an end saying that the Caliphate did not bring any honour or glory to Ali, but it was itself honoured and glorified by Ali and it received the status actually due to it. Ali had a keen desire to serve humanity and, that too, with an unshakeable determination. The monsters of inequity goaded by an insatiable desire of political ascendancy were bent upon rooting out of existence Ali and his followers. But Ali stood firm like a rock and not once did he move back. He proved that terrorism, oppression and gagging are ineffective to enthrall the spirit of man. His life is, therefore, a beacon of light for the whole world to fight the forces of tyranny even if the odds are insurmountable. Firm resolve and a stable character were chief characteristics of Ali. He refused to sell his conscience and to help perpetuate evil. He boldly stood up, championed the cause of the oppressed and gave his life for the liberation of the spirit of man. His great sacrifice proved to the world that truth always triumphed and that death in the cause of God was an eternal life. Ali was only 10 years old when the Prophet announced his Prophethood. Only a handful accepted his teachings but the majority was opposed to them in the beginning. From the time of this announcement till the time the Prophet left Makkah and migrated to Medina, he had to undergo torture of various sorts. But the Prophet ignored this torture, which was both physical and mental, and continued preaching peacefully. During these 13 years in Makkah after the baisat (announcement of Prophethood), Ali was always with the Prophet. Thus, from the age of 10 till the age of 23 or in other words, from the phase of childhood to the next phase of youth

and adulthood, Ali silently bore the tortures alongside the Prophet. This period in a persons life is one in which emotions rule wisdom. Moreover, as we latter came to know of Alis courage and strength, it was but natural that he should have dealt with the Makkans firmly. But this did not happen. Ali kept on silently bearing all the tortures and never complained. Neither did he, for once, leave the side of the Prophet. Hijrat (Emigration from Makkah) to Medina showed to the world a different facet of Alis personality. His chivalrous deeds in Badr, Ohud, Khandaq and many other battles that followed made everybody think of the reason why Ali, despite his bravery, was altogether silent while in Makkah. In Medina, Ali fought a series of battles in which he never failed getting victorious. He never refrained from fighting and was always seen guiding his army to victory. But even in these adverse moments Ali never allowed his emotions to guide him. In the battle of Khandaq, when the battle was at its height, Ali got down from the chest of Amr Ibn Abd-e-Wud. Consequently, he got injured later, but as he explained afterwards that when Amr spat upon him, he had become angry. He was fighting according to Gods will and he never wanted his emotions to come in between. By this time, Ali had become synonymous with death for the enemies. Everybody in the opposite camp was afraid of one name viz. Ali and dreaded one sword viz. Zulfiqaar. But even during this period, when the Prophet sent Ali to Yemen for preaching, he did not use his sword. Instead, he preached through words and his character. The result was that when he returned, the whole of Yemen had accepted Islam. On another occasion, at the time of Sulah-e-Hudaybiyah, when the followers of the Prophet were dissatisfied with the peace treaty, Alis pen was silently writing down the points of the treaty.

This was the period when Alis participation in a battle meant victory for his side. At this time, when the enemies had started fearing Ali and his sword, Ali went to life a peaceful life after the death of the Prophet. Thus, from the age of 33 to the age of 58, for 25 long years, Ali lived a secluded life in which all his time was spent either in prayers or working to earn bread for his family. This period of adulthood is one in which a person is supposed to have maximum vigour and vitality. But Ali spends this period in the confines of his house in spite of all the offers from people like Abu Sufiyan to support him. Later, at the age of 58, when the bones become week and body looses its power, Ali, again, unsheathes his sword to fight the battles of Jamal, Siffin and Nehrwan. He carried on until his death at the age of 63. All this shows that Ali never fought for personal gains and benefits. Instead, his every move was according to the wish of the Prophet and Islam. He never allowed personal desires or emotions to guide him. Neither did he ever fight for self-aggrandizement but for protection of the tenets of Islam. He was determined to risk his all to uphold the right and virtue. Innumerable times, he had to fight wars where his opponents were immeasurably superior to him both in numbers and equipment. But this never affected Alis determination and courage. The resolution of Ali is a shining example for all of us to follow. The above-mentioned facts have brought forth, to some extent, the character of Ali before our eyes. However, his sublime personality, simple living, knowledge, bravery, steadfastness, brotherhood to the Prophet, justice and peace are many other subjects in which Ali was the supreme master. In the world such persons are rarely found in whom besides one or two virtuous qualities other qualities might

also attain prominence, much less the convergence of all contradictory qualities, because every temperament is not suited for the development of every quality, each quality has a particular tempo and each virtue needs a particular climate, and they are appropriate only for such qualities or virtues with which they accord, but where there is contradiction instead of harmony the natural tendencies act as obstacles and do not allow any other quality to grow. But the personality of Ali showed full accord with every greatness and complete harmony with every accomplishment, and there was no good attribute or accomplishment that he lacked, nor any robe of greatness or beauty, which did not fit his body. Thus the contradictory qualities of generosities and bravery were found in him side by side. His generosity and liberality of nature was of a degree that even during days of want and starvation whatever he earned as the wage of his days toil, its major part was distributed among the poor and the starving, and he would never allow a beggar to return disappointed from his door, so much so that even when in the battle field the enemy asked him his sword he threw it before him being confident of the prowess of his naked arm. And his bravery and courage was such that the onslaught of armies could not shake the firmness of his foot with the result that he achieved success in every encounter and even the bravest fighter could not save his life in an encounter with him. There is nothing in common between combat and encounter and reclusion and God-fearing because one shows valour and courage while the other supplication and submission. But Ali was a unique combination of both these qualities as his hands, which were bound in devotion, were equally active in the battlefield. The scene of the Night of Hareer puts human wit in astonishment

and wonder when closing his eyes to the bloody action around he spread his prayer cloth and engaged himself in prayer with full peace of mind and heart while arrows were darting off sometimes over his head and sometimes from his right or left. But he remained engaged in Allahs remembrance without any fear or apprehension. After finishing he again cast his hand on the swords handle and the fierce battle that then followed is unparalleled in history. During the battle, after every moment or so Alis call of Allah-o-Akbar (Takbeer) rose in the atmosphere and resounded in the ears, and every such call meant death of a foe. Those who counted these calls of Takbeer recorded their number as five hundred and twenty three. Besides, the taste of learning and God-knowing also do not combine with martial activity but Ali adorned the meetings of learning and scholarship along with warlike pursuits, and he watered the field of Islam with springs of learning and truth. When there is perfection of learning, then even if there is not complete absence of action, there must no doubt exist shortness of action, but Ali treaded the field of knowledge and action equally. He is known for his knowledge, piety and spirituality even today in spite of the venomous propaganda campaign that was carried on ceaselessly from all the mosques of the Muslim world continuously for 90 years during the Umayyad rule. He showed that the character of a true Muslim always emerges out unscathed in spite of all the efforts of those opposed to him and Islam. Moreover, as soon as we think of a recluse and pious man we visualize a face full of frowns because for piety severity of temper and hardness of face are inseparable so much so that the thought of a smile on the lips of a pious man is regarded as a sin. But despite extreme piety and self-denial, Ali always had such appearance that his light temper and brightness of face

was apparent from his looks and his lips always bore playful smile. He never showed frowns on his forehead like the dry recluse, so much so that when the people could not find any defect in him, this very lightness of temper was taken to be his fault, while hard temper and bitter face was held to be a virtue. If a man possesses cheerful heart and joyous temper he cannot command authority over others; but Alis cheerful face was so full of awe and dignity that no eye could face it. Once Muawiya tauntingly said, Allah bless Ali. He was a man of cheerful taste, when Qais bin Sad retorted, By Allah despite cheerful disposition and entertaining countenance he was more awe-inspiring than a hungry lion and this awe was due to his piety not like your awe over the non-descripts of Syria. Where there is rule or authority there is crowd of servants and workers, checks of grandeur and eminence with equipment of pageantry but Alis period of rule was example of highest simplicity. In him people saw only a tattered turban in place of a Royal Crown, patched apparel in place of the regal robes and the floor of earth in place of the rulers throne. He never liked grandeur and pageantry nor allowed show of external grandiosity. In short Ali was such a versatile personality in whom numerous contradictory qualities had joined together and all the good attributes were centred in their full brightness as though his oneself was a collection of several slaves and each self was an astounding portrait of achievement which showed forth the delineation of distinction in its untainted form, and on whose accomplishment eyes just stayed on in astonishment. As a ruler, Ali was always anxious to relieve the distress of the poor and disdaining personal pomp. His entire life may safely be taken as a pattern of simplicity

and piety. He strove side-by-side with the Prophet in propagating Islam. When he acknowledged the acknowledged secular head of all the Muslims, he illustrated the principles of benevolent rule and ideal administration by his actions and deeds. The Caliph adoring the throne of Arabia lived in a simple hut. He treated the treasures of the Commonwealth as if it were scorpions or poisonous snakes and looked down upon the whole paraphernalia of pomp and show. A few incidents which illustrates these above mentioned characteristics of Ali, during the time of his Caliphate, are noted here: (1) Abu Saleh, a dealer in Khadder, states that his grand-father related that once Ali purchased some dates of one dirham and keeping them in a cloth he put them on his shoulders to carry them home. I offered my services to take those dates to his home but he refused to accept my help saying that it is the duty of the father to carry loads for his children. (Mujam Baghvi) (2) Zazan states that he saw Ali in the market, directing those who had missed their paths, helping the weak and the old in lifting up the loads and repeating that verse from the Quran in which God says: I have made Heaven in the next world for those who do not take to vanity and do not create disturbances. The next world is for God-fearing people. While repeating this verse, he also explained that by such people are meant those who are in power. (Manaqib Ahmad) (3) Once Umar ibn Aas presented himself before Ali at night. He was working in the Baytul Mal (the treasury). The Amir put out the light he was working with and began to work in the moonlight, as he did not like to discuss private matters in the light provided from

Baytul Mal. (Manaqib ibn Shaher Ashob).] (4) Abdullah ibn Zuraer states that he paid a visit to Hazrat Ali on the Id-ul-Azha day. The Amir offered him some Harira. Abdullah said, Oh defender of the Faithful! God has given you plenty of wealth and riches. Had you feasted me by offering flesh of ducks, it would have been welcome. The Amir replied, Oh Ibn Zubaer! I have heard the Prophet say that for a Caliph it is not permissible to take more than two measures from public fund. One measure is intended for his own self and his dependents and the other for his guests. (Mutalebul Sual). (5) Ibn Abbas states that Ali do not take anything other than what was sent to him from Medina. Once a sweet drink (Faloodah) was presented to him. He refused to take it. Ibn Abbas enquired. Is it forbidden to partake it? He said, It is not forbidden, but I do not desire to accustom myself to any such thing which has not been taken by the Prophet (Reazul Shaher) (6) Harun bin Hamza relates: Once I went to Ali in the palace of Khurnaq. It was the winter season and Ali was shivering on account of cold. He was putting on an old dress. I said, Oh ruler of the Faithful, a share has been allotted to you as well as to your children in the Commonwealth, why are you then undergoing such misery? By God, replied Ali, I do not like to utilize any of your goods. This is the same dress that I brought with me from Medina. (Tarikha ibn-e-Aseer) (7) Zaid Ibn-e-Wahab relates: Once Ali came out of his house in the assembly of the people in such a state that his long shirt was full of patches. On perceiving this Ibne Nurja Kharji was displeased. Ali remarked, What have you to do with my dress? The dress of mine is far from being a means of display of pride and it is such as can be worn by all Muslims. (Manaqib Ahmad) (8) Umar bin Qais relates: Once it was enquired

of this ruler of Islam as to why he used to get his old garments patched. Ali replied, Because this produces the feelings of modesty and love of God in man and the Faithful can easily copy it. (Arhajul Mutalib) The above facts are enough to show that Ali lived a life unsurpassed and unequalled in its simplicity and uprighteousness. Of course, for us, men made of an ordinary stuff, it is not easy to follow his footsteps, he being so sublimely high, nevertheless, to have a correct ideology, it is imperatively necessary for us to keep his way of life before our eyes. It will certainly inspire us with a keen desire to be of service to humanity, even at the expense of our bodily comforts. Ali loved humanity so much so that he sacrificed his all for its betterment and that he deliberately and intentionally shunned the life of luxury and comfort, though he was in a position to indulge in all sorts of physical enjoyment. The discipline and self-denial, the strong faith and earnest endeavour, and the sense of social equality, which are the hallmark of Islam, were clearly visible during his entire life. Besides this, Alis contribution to literature is highly incredible He was no doubt a great philosopher of the world. His sayings are the fountainheads of wisdom and sagacity wherefrom the seekers of knowledge may quench their thirst. Through him the hidden fountains of eloquence and rhetoric came to light and from him were learnt its principles and rules. Every speaker and orator had to tread on his footprints and every eloquent preacher availed of his utterances. Allama Abu Hamid Abdul Hameed Bin Hilbatullah known as Ibne Hadeed Madaeni Baghdadi writes: His eloquence is such that he is the leader of the eloquent and the Chief of the rhetoricians. It is about his utterances that it is below the word of the Creator but above the word of all creatures; and from him world has learnt the art of speech and rhetoric.

Then he says: And when Mohqin bin Mohqin said to Muawiya I have come to you from the dumbest man Muawiya said Woe to thee, how can he be called dumb when, by Allah, no one other than he has shown Quraish the way to eloquence. The chief difference between the rule of Ali and other materialistic rulers of the world is that Ali, contrary to other rulers, always preferred quality in lieu of quantity. This view can be ascertained from the difference in policies of the first three Caliphs and those of Ali. While the three Caliphs carried on a vicious expansion program in which new territories were captured and large booties were brought to the Muslim capital. Besides, the wars were instrumental in keeping all the able-bodied young men busy and away from the seat of power and thus minimizing the chances of revolt or an uprising. Ali, on the other hand, stopped all campaigns on the fronts. Instead, he opened a new front in the heart of the Muslim state that of purifying the minds and souls of those people who had already embraced Islam. Thus, Ali succeeded in laying the foundations of pure hearts 72 of them defended Islam along with his son, Husain, a few years later in the desert of Karbala. Ali propagated Islam as a philosophy of life and said that it gives reason and a set purpose of living. Furthermore, it defines the best ways to secure progress and happiness. He considered man as a viceroy of God on earth and emphasized that the Islamic concepts and laws are inseparable parts of Islamic theology. Ali believed that these concepts and laws are essentially concerned with harmonizing peoples relationships among themselves, with other beings, and above all with the Creator. Moreover, he always laid stress upon spirituality of soul and said this world is a preparatory stage for people in order to attain the spiritual level that permits

them to enter Paradise. According to him, success and failure are not measured with this worldly or materialistic supremacy. The Islamic measure differs from materialistic standard by accounting for the life hereafter. The satisfaction of God, Ali believed, is the sublime aim that surpasses all other inclinations and wishes. Elaborately speaking, Ali considered religion as a vital and positive force of life. His philosophy never sinks to that war of words without life and without earnestness which is main feature of the schools under Ptolemies or the vicious circles created by the philosophers of the West and the East. His ardent love of knowledge, his devotion in evolution of human mind, his sincere faith in God, and in His mercy, Love and Kindness, and his looking upwards for above the literalness of common interpretation of the law, show the spirituality and expansiveness of his philosophy of religion. To him evolution of mind was the essence of life and religion was the essence of the evolution of mind. Ali taught us that a man without mind is not a man, and a mind without religion is worst than the instinct of a beast, more harmful, more dangerous and more carnivorous. Devotion without understanding will never bring Blessing of God. Next to sincere faith in the unity of God and the apostlehood of the Holy Prophet, Ali lays stress on piety. He wants us to realize that piety is not a juicy morsel to be swallowed easily nor it is a dip in river to clean all dirt and filth from the body. Piety means actions that might be sour, harsh, and painful to perform in the beginning. Piety means to free oneself from vicious desires and wicked deeds. This freedom cannot be obtained but by constant efforts and endeavours. Such efforts are a continuous struggle and long drawn war against vicious cravings of mind. Nobody can be free from vices and sins unless he develops the capacity to

abhor and hate them. Mortality of life is another point that Ali wanted men to realize fully, sincerely and rationally. He wants us to understand that death is a biological incident of all forms of life and it is unavoidable, inevitable and sudden. Alis teachings are gospel of work. He wants man to work, and to work honestly, sincerely and diligently. To work for the reward reserved in the Heaven. He stresses on doing work and that too good work while a person has life, health and opportunities. He wants us to be thankful for the time and opportunities allotted to us and work for the good of mankind and for our own good. According to him a mind without sober thoughts and a life without program of honest work is the most fertile soil for the seeds of wickedness and vice. Work with nobility of purpose, he believes, is a form of prayer. His advice to his son was exert yourself to earn an honest living. Worst form of folly is waste of opportunities. Opportunities do not repeat themselves. Make use of each one of them when it presents itself, but let piety guide you in all of your actions. Another aspect of Alis teaching is that he has clearly and emphatically condemned all anthromorphic (to attribute human forms to God) conceptions of deity. He says, God is not like any object that the human mind can conceive. No attribute can be ascribed to Him that bore the least resemblance to any quality of which human being have perceptions from their knowledge of material objects. The perfection of piety consists in knowing God; the perfection of knowledge is the affirmation of His Verity; and the perfection of verity is the acknowledgement of His Unity in all sincerity; and the perfection of sincerity is to deny all attributes to the Deity. He, who refers an attribute to God, believes the attributes to be God, and he who believes an attribute to God, regards God as

tow or part of one. He who asks where God is assimilates him with some object. God is the Creator, not because He Himself is created. God is Existent not because he was non-existent. He is with every object, not from resemblance or nearness. He is outside everything not from separation or indifference towards His creatures. He works and creates not in the meaning of motions or actions. He sees and hears but not with help of bodily organs or outside agencies. He was seeing when there was nothing created to see. He has no relation to matter, time and space, God is Omniscient because knowledge is His Essence, Loving because love is His Essence, Mighty because Power is His Essence, Forgiveness is His Essence, and not because these are attributes from His Essence. However, it is a sad chapter of Islamic history that all possible efforts were undertaken to belittle Alis personality. Even those Hadeeses of the Prophet which encourage Muslims to follow Ali and proclaimed the leadership of Ali, after the death of the Prophet, were presented in distorted ways and with changed versions. Some of the Prophets Hadeeses in this regard are being written here:

Your guardians are God, His Prophet, and the believers who pray and give alms while they prostrate to God. Regarding those who disobey God, His Prophet and the believers; the party of God are the victors.
He quoted Abuzar Al-Ghaffari stating, I heard the Prophet (S.W.A.) with these ears or would be deaf, and saw him with these eyes or would be blind; the Prophet once said, Ali is the leader of the best believers, and the killer of unbelievers, victor who supports him, and weak who doesnt. Abuzar added. One day we were praying with the Prophet, a beggar had entered the mosque. The beggar was requesting people for help

but none helped him except Imam Ali. When Imam Ali was offering his prayer, he donated his silver ring by pointing his finger to the poor man and the latter took it with filled joy. After this incident the Prophet prayed humbly to God and said, O God, my brother Moses asked you, O God, expand my breast; ease my task for me; and remove the impediment from my speech, so that they may understand what I say; and give me a Minister from my family, Aaron, my brother; add to my strength through him, and make him share my task; that we celebrate thy praise without stint and remember thee without stint. And you answered: Granted is thy prayer, O Moses. O God, I am your servant and Prophet. Expand my breast; ease my task; and give me a Minister from my family, Ali, my brother; add to my strength through him, and make him share my task. Abuzar concluded: By God, as soon as the Prophet completed the prayer the trustworthy Gabriel came with the following verses: Your guardians are God, His Prophet and the believers who pray and give alms while they prostrate to God! Ibn Sinan narrated this incident in Sahih Al Bukhari, Ibn Abbas in Asbab Al-Nizol by Imam Wahidi. On different occasions, the Prophet told Ali:

You are to me as Aaron was to Moses, but there is no Prophet after me.
The consistency of narrations leave no room for doubt that Ali was chosen by God and his Prophet to be the ideological leader after the Prophets departure. A noteworthy point is the number and variety of people who confirmed the authenticity of these narrations. Perhaps the most outstanding occasion, which sank into peoples memories, is the Prophets speech during his last pilgrimage to Makkah. In a large congregation of Muslims he declared:

He whoever I am his master, Ali is his master too.

O God assist whoever supports him and disgrace those who have enmity towards him.
From these few quotations, it can be safely concluded that Alis exclusion from the assigned duty marked the first major mistake on the part of Muslims. The inevitable consequences were a slow deviation that ended up in a turbulent stream of events, which no one was able to exercise control over. In the end we can say that Ali, who was openly declared by the Prophet as the Commander of the Faithful was a very powerful and strong character. His multifaceted personality can never by described in a few pages or in a limited number of words. As the Prophet himself said that if all the water of the oceans is converted to ink and the trunks of all the trees on earth is converted into pen then, too, it wont be possible to write all the characteristics of Alis personality. Nevertheless, the heroic deeds of Ali have left an ever-lingering mark behind to serve as inspiration for posterity.

(We present here a brief chapter from Fatimas life consequent to Mohammads death. This is particularly relevant from the point of view of Book-III on the subject of Vedas. This description is particularly important because it gives a glimpse of the woman that Islam wanted to create? Fatima is the bold, courageous lady, who fights for the injustices meted out on her and her husband, is firm, straightforward, ethical and never willing to compromise, she is unafraid, she is full of love and care for her husband and children and also for father, who goes on to respect her for immense values. She is knowledgeable and possesses all the virtues that an ideal woman ought to have, an ideal or absolute woman; an exact feminine copy of the Absolute Person described by Krishna in Gita)

The Holy Prophet had said:

Fatima is my flesh and blood. Whosoever causes suffering to her in fact causes suffering to me. He who has pained me in fact has pained Allah; and indeed, he is a disbeliever.
(This is a widely accepted narration that has found space in the pages of Sahih Bukhari: Vol. 2; page 206 published in 1355 Hijra from Egypt, Sahih Muslim: Vol. 4; page 125 published in 1349 Hijra from Egypt). Writes a commentator: At another occasion, the Holy Prophet declared that Fatima is the chief of the women in the universe; (because) Bibi Fatima was the daughter of the superior most prophet of Allah, the seal of prophethood; and the wife of an Imam who alone has the unique distinction of, Alis flesh is my flesh,

Alis blood in my blood, and I and he are from the same divine light (saying of the Holy Prophet), and the mother of eleven holy Imams and through her last son the divine will and justice shall prevail on the earth, and the son of Maryam, Isa, shall follow him. Through verse 33 of Al Ahzab, she, Ali and their sons have been thoroughly purified. Fatima is the most blessed, thoroughly purified, and the choicest woman, the best of all the women in the universe from beginning to the end, in all ages, among whom are included Asiyah, Maryam, and Khadija al Kubrah. In spite of these narrations in praise of Fatima, many books of history and traditions clearly mention the disgraceful attitude of the companions towards the dearest daughter of the Holy Prophet, after his death. After the departure of the Holy Prophet, within a year, his followers ignored the symbolic events of mubahilah and Khum. The house of Fatima was set on fire. A wellknown companion kicked the door of her house, which fell on her. The injury caused by the falling door finally killed her. In Vol. 1, page 64 of Tarikh Abul Fida, published from Egypt, it is written that the two caliphs were among those who went to the house of Fatima for setting it on fire. In view of the saying (Sahih Bukhari-Vol. 2, page 206) of the Holy Prophet that we have described above, her killer stands condemned forever: It happened when a large crowd under the leadership of the above said companion came to arrest Ali ibn Abu Talib, the nafs of the Holy Prophet, his brother, his vicegerent and his successor, who was deprived of his rightful mission to administer the affairs, after the Holy Prophet, so as to enable some to distort and corrupt the true religion of Allah and utilize its name to enforce tyranny, injustice and ignorance of the pagan days.

Ali Shariati has described the description of the events that happened consequent to Mohammads death in detail. We invite you to go through them. Immediately after Saqifa, the decree of the Caliph was read at the mosque. People pledged allegiance to him. Those loyal to Ali and those who regarded him as the rightful inheritor did not go to the mosque to pledge allegiance. Umar, a political agent, tried unrelentlessly to gather the remaining votes so as to pave the way. Saied ibn Obaidah, the leader of the Khazraj, a man of influence who was the candidate for Caliphate of the Helpers at Saqifa, did not accept the Caliphate of Abu Bakr. Out of protest, he left Medina. He headed towards Damascus. News came back that halfway there he had been attacked and killed by a jinn! Who had assassinated him? People even knew the jinn who had killed him because a poem circulated in praise of that jinn. But soon murmurs were heard that he had been murdered by command of Umar by Khalid ibn Valid. The fate of the tribes of Arabia was still unknown. There was a possibility that they would not accept Abu Bakr as Caliph. But the most dangerous focal point was at Fatimas house, which was the rightful claimant to the Caliphate. Even though none of the members of this house ever revolted or worked to create disharmony, from this day on, it became a centre, dangerous to governments.
Three Centres of Patience

We again take recourse to Ali Shariati who has very dramatically described the events that unfolded outside the house of Ali and Fatima. Now in Medina, history shows us three important centers of great patience: the mosque, the home of Fatima, and next to it, the Prophets home, which has

now been silenced. It is strange that these three are all located in one place, wall to wall. Yes. Only the distance of a wall separates them. Umar is very angry about this single point of strength in opposition to the new leaders. He who has struggled a great deal to establish Abu Bakrs leadership and who has removed hundreds of obstacles, cannot now bear the fact that there is a group in this house which has been established to resist, who gather together to put aside that allegiance. And still more important is the fact that house is next to the mosque. The mosque is the Parliament of the Caliphate, the house of government. Fatimas house is in the corner and the faces of those who ere until yesterday the dearest and most beloved of the Prophet can be seen there. (Fatima has just been able to) find peace for a few moments from the anger of the tragedy which has most recently fallen upon her and destroyed her home. Suddenly, a loud uproar comes from the mosque. Fatima, in the midst of the uproar, cries and confusion, hears the voice of Umar ibn Khattab saying, I will burn this house to the ground with all its inhabitants. She hears these words of attack loud and clear. They have come closer now. The door of Fatimas house opens to the mosque. She hears the words of someone in amazement, asking, Even if Fatima is in there? And Umar answers, Even if she is in there. It is true that Umars servant brought fire to the mosque. The fire is now at her door. In the midst of the confusion, Umar shouts out, Ali come out! Inside the house there is great commotion. The flames of fire are close. They are visible between the cracks in the door. The cries of Umar grow louder and more violent by the moment. Suddenly the cry of Fatima is heard. She is standing behind the door. Her cry holds

within it all of the sorrow of the world. Father, Prophet of God! After you, what have I not seen from Umar and Abu Bakr! The followers of Umar take several steps backwards. These are the cries and anger of the beloved daughter of the Prophet! A group cannot contain themselves. They begin to cry and wail out loud. Another group remains looking fixedly upon the home of Fatima and the Prophet. They say they were all fixed with shame. Umar, who had remained alone, stands confused for a moment. He does not know what to do. Then he returns to Abu Bakr. Everyone gathers around Abu Bakr. They relate the story of Fatima to him. Some of them tell it as if they are speaking of a tragedy. Abu Bakr returns to Fatimas house followed by Umar and others, but this time they go softly and quietly. One says, Abu Bakr cuts with cotton (i.e. his policy is softness) whereas Umar cuts with the sword (his policy is rough). Fatima is used to difficulties. She has grown up in the cradle of resistance and struggle. She now finds herself facing the most difficult of her tragedies when she senses herself to have the least strength. She stands alone behind the door of this home like its guard, gathering together all of her strength before she falls to her knees under the pressure and weight weighing down upon her. She is trying to protect Ali who is now alone. (Even this is described by the Vedas). They ask permission to enter. She does not give permission. Ali, whose patience is hard to conceive of, comes out. He asks Fatima to give them permission to enter. She does not resist Ali. But she remains silent, a silence which is overflowing with anger. Ali asks them to enter. They do so. They greet Fatima. Fatima, in

anger, turns away from them and does not answer. She creates a distance between herself and them. Because of her anger, she places herself beyond a wall. Abu Bakr senses that Fatimas anger and disgust is beyond limit. He does not know what to say or how to begin. Shame and silence create a shadow upon the heads of the two leaders. It is difficult for them at this moment to be present between Fatima and Ali. Ali is sitting beside them. They say there is only one host, silence. And Fatima, next to the wall, is pouting, full of anger. She has hidden herself from them so she will not see them. It is a wall, the distance between which is never removed from that time forward. Abu Bakr tries to have a positive encounter. He tries to find the strength so that he can speak at this difficult moment. Moments pass and the silence which is full of words remains fixed in this house. Abu Bakr, with a face full of deep and apparent sorrow and in a tone trembling with sympathy, begins in a friendly voice. Beloved daughter of the Prophet, I swear that the family of the Prophet is dearer to me than my own daughter, Ayesha. The day your father died, I had wished that I had died so that I would not remain after him. You see that I know you and I admit your virtue and nobility and if I were to take the rights and heritage of the Prophets of God from you, it is only because I had heard him, peace be upon him, say, We Prophets do not leave a legacy. That which remains from us is charity. (This was how traditions were created in the name of the Prophet). Abu Bakr grows quiet. Umar is also silent. They wait to see the effects of these soft and praiseworthy words upon Fatimas spirit. Fatima, without hesitating for a moment, in answer, begins with a quiet introduction full of reason, without any anger or cries. If I were to

quote the words of the Prophet of God to both of you, would you admit them to be his words and follow them? They both answer in one voice Yes She says, I hold you both to your oath to God. Did either of your not hear the Prophet say, Fatimas contentment is my contentment and Fatimas anger is my anger. That which my daughter Fatima likes, I like. That which brings about Fatimas anger brings about my anger. They both answer, Yes. We heard these words from the Prophet of God. She immediately continues. Then I have authority from God and the angels to tell you that you both brought me to anger and you have not given me contentment. When I see the Prophet of God, I will tell him about you. I will complain to him about you. Abu Bakr begins to cry. He senses that neither does he have the strength to speak nor does Fatima have the strength to listen. He arises and Umar behind him. He enters the mosque. Full of confusion and tears, he cries out with anger and pain to those gathered there that
Fadak is Confiscated

But the power structure and the policy making agents convince Abu Bakr that it is in the best interests of the community for him to move aside. With deep sorrow and after much disagreement, he is convinced. He accepts their advice and is tamed. He imagines that by accepting the Caliphate, he will be able to continue the victory of Islam and implement the Traditions of the Prophet. The first decision he makes is to confiscate Fadak, the grazing area which belonged to Fatima. Ali is personally and economically paralyzed by this act. His income now depends completely upon what he received from the public purse. They leave Ali alone.

Those who had gathered around him are dispersed either through force or by their own decision. In this way, there is no danger of revolt from his non-allegiance and disobedience. They know that as long as Fatima is alive, they cannot get Alis allegiance. Ali cannot give his allegiance because Fatima opposes a power or force which does not know the meaning of right. She has not the least bit of softness for them. She holds her strict position until her death. The feeling of anger does not leave her. She attacks what she has in relation to them. She does not let go for a moment. The Prophet dies. Ali remains at home. Fatimas legacy, which is the only means of income for herself, her husband and her children, is confiscated. Power falls into the hands of Abu Bakr and Umar. The fate and future of Islam is given into the political hands of men such as Abdul Rahman ibn Ouf, a worshipper of money, the aristocrat, Usman, the careless, Khalid ibn Valid and Saied ibn Vaqas, a man without piety. They become the principal agents of the Caliphate of the Prophet. Ali remains at home. He spends his time gathering together the Quran because he fears for the future. Bilal has to leave Medina. He goes to Damascus and remains silent forever. Salman retreats to a corner. He tells those who are hurriedly and victoriously returning from Saqifa, You did what you shouldnt have done and you didnt do what you should have done. Then, full of sorrow, having lost hope, he returns to Iran. He dies at Madayen. Abuzar, the close Companion of the Prophet and Ammar remain idle.
Fatima Does Not Give Up

But Fatima does not sit down. Under a mountain, full of sorrow, bearing her bereaving spirit, she continues her resistance and her struggle against the oppressive

Caliphate. She believes the Caliphate to be unworthy. In order to get back Fadak, she does not stand still. She tries to prove to everyone that the Caliph was taking out political revenge upon her and striking an economic blow to Ali with this act of taking Fadak. Fadak is a small grazing area and even if it had been larger, it would have still been too small for Fatima to get involved with. But Fadak has taken on the importance of showing the usurpation and force of the new regime. She wants the thoughts of people to know to what extent these people who call themselves followers of the custom of the Prophet and who actually establish their own Caliphate on this basis, oppress the family of the Prophet. (Our question is that if Fadak was rightly taken by the Caliph, why was it returned to the Ahlebayt about a century later by Umar bin Abdul Aziz, regarded as the most pious of the Umayyad rulers, who tried to do away with the sins of his ancestors.) Fatima does not give up. Even though the death of the Prophet has burned her spirit and strongly hurt her. Each blow follows upon the other. The majority of the great Companions and Emigrants of the Prophets who have reached a number which can be counted on one hand, all have given their vote to the Caliph or they have accepted the election and coup detat of Saqifa. Fatima has no real hope to be able to get back any power. She knows that Ali has lost his rights. The chosen power, who have pre-designed and pre-planned the whole thing, have become fixed. She must fight and struggle with the little hope that she has. She must rebel against the ruler. Even if she cannot defeat him, she will at least have condemned him. If it does not fall, it can, at least, be disgraced. If the truth cannot be implemented, it can be proven and designed so that time will come to know it. It can be kept alive, so that people come to know that the ruling forces do not

represent the truth. They are oppressive. It is truth, justice and freedom which have been defeated and imprisoned. This is why Medina now witnesses one of the most wonderful views of history. Next to the mosque of the Prophet, in the heart of the dark night, a woman in mourning, sitting upon a horse, being led by a man, passes through the dark empty streets of the town. Ali walks. Fatima, the beloved and rebellious daughter of the Prophet rides. Every night they leave their home with the same purpose. Ali goes with her to seek out the Helpers. They are more sincere and impartial than the Emigrants who are mainly from the Quraish tribe. They support each other. An aged political structure brings them together. Now the Caliph, from among them, is their influential master. All of them share in his leadership. But the Helpers play no role in the present leadership. Their candidate has been Saied ibn Obaidah who left Medina and was assassinated on his way to Damascus. They give in although they disagree with Abu Bakrs reasoning. Abu Bakr had been an emigrant, a relative of Gods Prophet and the elder of the Quraish. They surrendered when he said that the Prophet wished for the Caliph to be from his Quraish family, form among the relatives and family of the Prophet. Out of respect for the saying of the Prophet and his family, they submitted and overlooked their differences. They gave leadership to Abu Bakr who was from the Prophets tribe and the father-in-law of the Prophet. He had shown himself to be among the loyal followers and family of the Prophet. He received the majority vote. These are the present people of Medina. Now Fatima goes to them personally. Every night she accompanies Ali to their sessions. She speaks with them. She speaks of each and every one of the desires

of the Prophet. She accounts one by one for Alis worthiness, virtues and superiorities. Through her influential spirit, with her great human personality, her political awareness, with the accurate knowledge she had of Islam, its spirit and goals and finally with the power of logic and reasoning, she proves the righteousness of Ali and the wrongfulness of the election. She shows the deception. She counts the results and makes them apparent. She shows how they will suffer from this superficial and hurriedly determined decision of political negligence. She frightens them with the ark and unstable future which awaits Islam with their leadership of the community. Not even one historian has mentioned the fact that anyone opposes the logic of Fatima to argue with her interpretation and reception of the event. They stand by her. All give her the right. All admit their great error. All accept the virtues of Ali and the superiority of his leadership. Fatima is asking them to support Ali and help him get his rights. But their answers? You should see the Prophets daughter now that we have given our allegiance to Abu Bakr. The affair is finished. If your husband, Ali, had taken the lead and mentioned all of this sooner, we would certainly have elected him. We prefer him to anyone else. Ali, surprised and in a tone of protest, asks them, Do you really believe that I should have left the dead body of the Prophet in his home, neglected his funeral ceremonies, come out of the house and fought for a legacy? Fatima, seeing that once again Ali is sacrificed because of his loyalty to the Prophet, says, Ali has done nothing other than what he should have done. He did the noble thing, but what did they do? God will punish

them and will take care of them. (All this must have happened within six months of the Prophets death, because it was the sixth month when she died). Fatimas last sermon, within six months of the passing of Mohammad, shows exactly what she really believed and practiced. Moreover, it shows how suddenly the message was thwarted from progress at a time when it was making its progress. When Fatima was ill with the final sickness, which caused her death, the wives of the Emigrants and Companions of the Prophet went to visit her to ask how she was feeling. Abu Bakr had been elected Caliph and Ali was put aside. In reply to them, after asking for the blessings of God for her father, Mohammad, she said: By God I am alive while I have nothing but contempt for this world. I detest your men. After I tried to show them who their real enemy was and they did not listen, I put them aside. How ugly are the sharp edges of swords when they are broken and then play with peoples efforts and struggles which so many have undertaken, destroying the fortifications, breaking spears, making devious decisions and standing on the precipice of material and personal self-desires. What a terrible future they are preparing for by causing the wrath of God and thereby bringing about permanent torment for themselves. I tried to awaken them to their acts and show them the burden they had placed upon their own shoulders. They deserve to be slaughtered, to be wounded by swords. Those who act oppressively are far from the blessings and mercy of God. Woe be to those people. They brought down a leader (Ali) who was at the peak of the mission. Mountains form upon the unconquerable pillars of prophecy, the place of inspiration, the wise and expert dominated by both routine and spiritual affairs. Beware

! This is an obvious loss. By God, why did they dislike Ali? Were they afraid of the sharpness of his sword in supporting right and truth, his braveness in fighting and martyrdom, his killing of oppressors, his effective blows in words and his anger for the sake of God? By God, if they had followed the selection of the Prophet, Hazrat Ali, he would have guided anyone who had gone astray and if one rejected the right reasoning Ali would have shown the error in a way that neither would the rider be hurt nor the horse he is riding upon, wounded. If Ali had been leader, he would guide them to a clear, sweet spring of water. The watering spring would be full, its shores clean and sound and he would return them safely to the edge after they had drank from the water. He would advise them in things both manifest and hidden without any benefit to himself from their needs and without taking more than a small share for himself just enough so that he would not go thirsty or hungry. In such a case, worshippers of this world (materialists) would be distinguished form the ascetics and the right ones from the antagonists. God says, If citizens are faithful and avoid wrong deeds, We will give blessings from heaven and earth to them. But they deny the truths so we captivated them for their deeds. From those who oppressed, the results of their actions will be returned to themselves. They cannot change the traditions of history. Arise! Arise! If you stay a while you will see the wonder of nature, but more wonderful than these is speech. What is their argument? What pillars do they support? What rope do they hold onto? What family do they admire and dominate over?

What a terrible leader they have elected (Abu Bakr). What a terrible helper they have appointed (Omar). What a wrong and oppressive exchange they have made! By God, they gave superiority to those who deferred their decision to become Muslims rather than to those who were the pioneers. They elected weak ones instead of strong ones. They destroyed those who believe they are performing good affairs. They are corrupters who do not understand. Woe be to them! Is it not more worthy to follow the one who guides rather than the one who cannot find his way if he is not guided? What has happened to you? What kind of a judgment is this? You have impregnated the earth with your act. Just wait until the time when it gives birth. I swear to you, instead of milk, you will have buckets full of blood and poison will flow from the breasts of the newborn. It is then that the destroyers of rights will lose and those who will come in the future will find and realize the terrible results of what the ancestors have done. So you should be satisfied with your daily affairs and live in peace prior to the storm and terrible revolts. For them, the sharp swords of the dominations of the oppressors, anarchy and the rule of tyrants will overcome you. The oppressors will enslave you. No public assets except a small quantity will remain. They will cultivate with force what you have planted with love. At that time you will only sigh for there will be nothing that you can do because you were blind and could not see the truth. They will oblige you because you have turned your faces from the right way and you did not accept it.

Husain - The Martyr of Humanity

(In narrating the history of the events that led to Karbala, we have taken Allama Ali Naqi Naqvis (Naqqan Sahebs) book Shaheed-e-Insaniyat translated in English as Martyr of Humanity by S. Ali Athar as the base for building our narration. However, it is not possible to replicate the 400-paged book and we have only used selected text. However, we agree that there are also views inferred from other books and therefore, we are doing away with the usual custom of quoting and unquoting.)

Arabia mostly a desert is a vast country along the western marches of Asia, its shores washed by the breakers of the Red Sea. From this land originated a great revolutionary wave, called Islam, in the seventh century of the Christian era. It was generated by Mohammad, son of Abdullah, who declared himself a Prophet, and imparted to the World a message of the absolute unity of God and took his stand against the worship of idols and of pelf and power, in fine, against the worship of everything other than God. This earned him the opposition of those to whose power this teaching posed a threat. They endeavoured to stem the tide of this revolution, and the Prophet had to suffer greatly at their hands. The Umayyads took a leading part in the resistance to the Prophets teaching which, without directly upholding the superiority or affirming the humbleness of any family, made the excellence of performance and thoroughness in carrying out ones duties as a human being, the sole criteria for the achievement of superiority, honour and merit. Most of the Umayyads did not measure up to these standards and, in consequence, Abu Sufiyan, son

of Harb son of Umayya, unfurled the flag of revolt against Islam. The perverse and benighted iconolaters of Arabia rallied round his flag, and began harassing the Prophet and placing all manner of obstruction in his spreading the message of Islam. Abu Sufiyans son Muawiya followed his father in opposing the teachings of Islam. Husain was martyred at Karbala at the hands of Yazids forces. Yazid was the son of Muawiya and had acquired the rule of entire Muslim world, in inheritance from his father. Yazid was a great drunkard and was so exceedingly depraved that he was guilty of moral transgressions of which the barest mention is taboo in decent society. Even so the dread inspired by the long-established Umayyad authority prevented even one voice from being raised against the goings on of the ruling clique. This was particularly because of the oppressive rule of Muawiya during which several of Prophets companions were butchered to death, and even Ali Husains father, and Hasan his elder brother, were not spared. A propaganda drive was commenced at the instigation of Muawiya all over the Islamic world against Ali and his character. And those loyal to him were tortured, imprisoned or killed. Despite this, Yazid knew to a certainty that in that quarter of Medina where resided the Hashimides in the Hijaz, there lived a man who was unafraid of him, wedded only to the fear of God. He was the real defender of the principles of Islam, a grandson of the Prophet. He might be silent for the time being, but there was no knowing when the scales may fall off the eyes of the people, and they may be attracted to the truth. Yazids anxiety, therefore, mounted, and he longed to obtain the oath of allegiance to himself from Husain without loss of any time, somehow or other. Accordingly, he directed Walid s/o Utba s/o Abu Sufiyan, Governor of

Medina, to obtain the oath from Husain, and not to show any lenience in the matter. Husain instantly divined the import of Yazids message. On principle it was impossible for Husain to pledge his fealty to Yazid. Indeed, it was much easier for him to offer his head than his hand to Yazid but before doing so, he had to abide by the basic duty enjoined by Islam to make every legitimate effort for self-defense. Accordingly, Husain resolved upon leaving his hearth and home at Medina. He took with himself all his dependents, including ladies and children, and sought refuge at Mecca. This was an irrefutable proof of his entertaining no wish to fight with anybody and imperil his own life and the lives of those who had kept him company, if he was not compelled to pledge his loyalty to Yazid. According to international usage as, indeed, according to Islam as well, Makkah was such an abode of peace that nobody need have entertained any manner of fright there, but the grandson of the Prophet noticed here also that preparations were on foot to put him to death. Towards the last days of the approach of the time for the hajj pilgrimage, when people from all quarters of the Islamic world were converging upon Mecca, Husain had to bid goodbye to that city. He took the road to Kufa of which the residents had persistently invited him to guide them in religious duties. Moreover, he had already dispatched his cousin, Muslim s/o Aqeel, to observe how things stood there. In the interval, however, conditions at Kufa had completely altered for the worse, after the heartless Obaidullah s/o Ziyad had established his authority there. Muslim met the fate of a martyr. After this melancholy development it was, to all appearances, highly inexpedient for Husain to persevere in his resolve to go to Kufa, but return to Mecca or Medina was also not feasible, since from Kufa had been

dispatched a heavy contingent to take him captive. This barred Husains onward progress no less than it prevented his retreat. He was there, constrained to alight at Karbala where, from the very next day, came pouring in Yazids multitudinous armies. All roads were sealed and Husain was surrounded. Pressure was inexorably exerted to coerce Husain into swearing allegiance to Yazid. Husain was accompanied by only 17 of his relatives, a few slaves and about a hundred or a hundred and fifty close friends who had managed to join him despite the strict watch that had been kept on all the headways. From the 7th of Muharram water was totally banned for Husain and his companions, not excepting even children. Husain was peace-loving by nature, and placed before the Commander of Yazids army terms calculated to reduce tension and obviate the chances of a resort to violence. It is said that he even said that he be allowed to go to India. His approach was so reasonable and pacific that Son of Saad (Ibne Saad), had to concede that Husains approach was one of peace, and he wrote to the governor of Kufa, Obaidullah bin Ziyad as much. Ziyads son was, however, drunk with power and could form no idea of the lengths to which Husain could go in braving hardships. He thought that Husain had been reduced to seek a peaceful settlement of the outstanding issues between the parties on account of weakness and lack of resources, and wrote back to Oman bin Saad that Husain could purchase safety only by making an unconditional offer to swear allegiance to Yazid. Husain, who was as self-respecting as he was aware of his religious responsibilities, found it impossible to abandon his stand. On the evening of the 9 th of Muharram, Yazids army, overwhelmingly superior in numbers, launched the offensive against Husains small band. Husain applied for a nights truce, and it was only with much reluctance and difficulty that it was granted. Husains object in seeking

this brief truce was simply to spend the last night of his existence in offering prayers to God. And since it had been finally decided to entrust the event of the quarrel to the arbitrament of war, Husain might well have considered it eminently desirable to afford an opportunity to friend and foe alike, to quietly think over the whole matter once again, and deliberate upon the course to be finally adopted by every one of them, individually, so that should any of his companions elect to withdraw his support, and leave him to his fate, he may be free to do so. As to his enemies, no further argument had been left to be urged upon them to dissuade them from indulgence in the unholy war. He collected his companions and told them plainly that the following day would see the end of his existence, and he gave them complete exemption from adhering to the oath of loyalty to him. Indeed, he encouraged them to leave for any destination they chose, and make good use of the cover of darkness afforded by the night. His brave, and selfless companions, with one voice, told him that they would never forsake him, which was, indeed, exactly what they did. A restless sea of a multitudinous army spread before him, sheer desolation and utter ruin surrounded him but Husain had in his immediate proximity the dear handsome faces of his brothers, nephews, sons and other relatives and friends. He had with him ladies as well, who lived in seclusion as they observed purdah. There were small children also with him. The enemy completely and closely guarded all approaches to the Euphrates. Husain and his companions were denied even a drop of water. Innocent children were greatly agitated and in deep distress on account of thirst. All manifestations of might and exhibitions of authority and all modes of persecution, however, failed to coerce Husain or his companions into the recognition of a sinful and depraved man as a ruler of Islam.

From morning till about midday on the 10 th of Muharram, Husains brave companions, outside his family, sacrificed their lives for him and his doctrines. When all of them had attained martyrdom, the turn arrived for the relatives of Husain to sacrifice themselves. It would have been far easier for Husain to have sacrificed himself first of all, but he had to undergo the most thoroughgoing and harrowing test of his powers of endurance. His relatives, therefore, started leaving for the field of battle, one by one, to offer the sacrifice of their lives. Ali Akbar, Husains grown-up son, who resembled the Prophet himself in appearance, was the first, among his relatives, to be sent to fight and to sacrifice himself. His mother was in her tent at whose door stood his father. She saw their handsome and valiant son getting lost in the innumerable shifting of crowd of hostile forces. His father saw, and his mother heard that Ali Akbar had been cut to pieces in the field of battle. They, however, did not lose control over themselves, and remained patient and composed. Then Husains other relatives sacrificed their lives one after the other. Abbas, brother and the standard-bearer of his army, was then sent to die fighting. When left with none else to be offered in sacrifice, Husain offered for sacrifice one who, under no law whatever, could have been held to have committed any wrong. The shocking plight of his infant son, Ali Asghar, restlessly gasping in his mothers lap, was noticed by Husain, who raised him on his hands before the hostile army. He said to them, if you feel I have done some wrong, then what wrong has this six-month old child committed. He is dying of thirst. I lay him down on the ground and get back so that you can give him water with your own hands, lest you fear that I am asking for water under his pretext. Husain did the same, but none came forward. Thereafter, Husain lifted the child back in his hand. At that moment, a soldier fixed an arrow to his bow, aimed

it at the infants neck and released it. The arrow pierced the infants neck. This outraged the conscience of humanity and symbolized the utter collapse of all feelings of mercy and kindliness. Husain had now to offer his own sacrifice after offering resistance in self-defense, as enjoined upon him by the Islamic code. Heart-broken and helpless, Husain unsheathed his sword and defended himself according to the injunctions of Islam as best he could. The manner in which he confronted the enemy is normally far beyond human strength, but how can a man single-handedly withstand an inundation of steel swords? Numberless wounds and injuries were inflicted on Husains body, and he fell off from his horse. This stage had indeed been imminent since the very beginning but now it had actually arrived. Husains head was severed from his body, and held aloft on a spearhead. The dead bodies of the martyrs were trampled by horses, the effects and belongings of Husain and his companions were given over to plunder and the sheets that covered the heads of the respectable ladies of the Prophets family were snatched away. Their tents were committed to flames. From among the men of Husains party, a weak patient, namely, his son, Ali or Imam Zainul Abidin, was the only one to survive the holocaust; he was put under irons. The modest ladies of the noblest family in Arabia were publicly paraded from city to city. In Karbala death was easy and living was more difficult. Last Chapter of Yajur Veda has clearly told the conditions of the martyrs of Karbala, whose limbs were not moving, whose marrow from bones had melted, fat in the body was all gone and there was just sin, shriveled and burnt by the blazing sun, that protected the weakened bones inside. All because of heat and no water and food. All that had happened within a matter of 9 days, from 2 nd of Muharram when water and food supplies were blocked, though evidence of little water that was

left can be seen till the 7 th are available and till 10 th of Muharram, when they were killed. This terrible calamity is often known as the happenings of Karbala. Ordinarily every incident, on account of its place of occurrence is related to some particular locality, country and section of society. Accordingly, the events of Karbala are also connected with the region of Iraq, the country of Arabia, the stock of Hashim and the community of the Muslims. Incidents however, acquire universal and general application from their peculiar features and far-reaching consequences, which have relevance for the entire community of man, without any distinction of caste and creed. Thus on the events of Karbala converge the interest and attention of the whole of mankind for a variety of reasons. One reason is that it is in human nature to detest the oppressor and sympathize with the oppressed, irrespective of whether or not we personally know those involved in such an unhappy relationship or their creed or religious persuasion. The cruelties and savagery employed against Husain in Karbala are unparalleled in the annals of the world. Many prophets and saintly personages have, on occasions, been the victims of a variety of ruthless brutalities; many innocent persons have been put to the sword; many more have been deprived of their all, and many more have been thrown into prisons without any fault, but all manner of inhuman atrocities and barbarities meted out to others severally and on separate occasions were perpetrated against Husain alone, and simultaneously with one another. This makes the persecution of Husain unique for all time. Accordingly, as unequalled as the oppression exercised against Husain was and as unexampled was his persecution, as intense might well be the degree of sympathy evoked by and shown to Husain, and as unmatched might appropriately be the measure of aversion

evoked by his oppressors. And since the persecution to which Husain was subjected excelled that to which anybody else was exposed, so unrivalled might aptly be the abhorrence in which his oppressors might be held. The second reason is that the sufferings of Husain were not due to his helplessness as would be those of a man, who say, might be waylaid and plundered by highway robbers or killed by them. Such a person would indeed be held to be an oppressed one, entitled to sympathy. His helplessness, however, is uninvited and unwilled. It does not follow any act on his part which would be based on high principles. Consequently it would bear no comparison to Husains helplessness, as Husain undertook to suffer all the hardships, and all the cruelties in support of a rightful cause and in defense of an exalted principle, which constitutes self-sacrifice. A variety of objects might be sacrificed but the supreme sacrifice consists in laying down ones life. And if a man falter not in offering himself up to his supreme ordeal he would be entitled to the esteem and respect of all mankind. Such a sacrifice would command honour and be entitled to homage in proportion to the merit and the excellence of ht object for which it has been made. The self-immolation of Husain in Karbala stands unrivalled in the chronicles of mankind. Truth and justice were being shaken to their foundations; brute force and tyranny were riding roughshod over mens right to liberty of conscience. At this critical juncture, Husain tore the mask off the face of unredeemed tyranny and sheer perversity by taking to the battlefield along with him his relatives and even children of tender age. He thus presented to the world the highest example of steadiness, resolution, self-control, patience, selfabnegation, and sacrifice, devotion to the truth and firmness and purity of character. On account of these virtues which Husain so splendidly vindicated, he may,

in justice, not be identified exclusively with any one particular nation or religion, but must be reckoned as correlated and belonging to the whole of mankind. His performance re-established humane conduct which was at its last gasp and gave to mankind a message which is, and would remain, deathless. He acquainted the world with the real value and merit of truth and truthfulness, and presented for its edification a mode of death in which immortality itself is unmistakably latent. Accordingly, all the nations of the world who prize sacrifice in a noble cause like truth, liberty of conscience, or freedom of worship cannot but value exceedingly highly the sacrifice which Husain offered. There is yet another reason. Husains object, in submitting himself to the sacrifice, was not such as might be the subject of the slightest controversy between different faiths. At a certain level concerning human excellence and high morality, all religions tend to be at one with each other, for the underlying object of them all, supporting their various super-structures, is to develop human conduct and morals to perfection. It is entirely another matter, indeed, that on account of the contrariness of the times, certain principles and directions of the various religions might have been modified or altered on account of the misunderstandings of succeeding generations. As already stated, however the nub of all religions is to refine human conduct and perfect human qualities. Husains aim coincided with this common objective of all religions. If Husain had striven against the non-Muslims then, howsoever impeccable might have been the object of his sacrifice, and, howsoever heartlessly he might have been led to martyrdom, his adversaries might well have pleaded animus with his name, faith and objective, to get away with their crimes. The tragedy of Karbala may well have fallen short of commanding universal sympathy. Husains self-immolation

was not formally meant to obliterate or support any particular faith. On the contrary, his sacrifice had been made to uproot the defects of, and re-establish virtue amongst, followers of one and the same faith. Consequently since in principle, there are no fundamental differences between different religions about the concepts of virtue and vice, and all religions equally believe in fostering virtue and eradicating vice, the adherents of all faiths would applaud Husains object, and do honour and pay homage to Husains sacrifice. Again, the perfect examples of a variety of excellent qualities of behaviour and of the manifestations of cardinal virtues that Husain and his followers furnished in such profusion during the tragic developments at Karbala provide for all men, without any distinction whatever, a perennial source of practical instruction which may be turned to advantage by them all. It was for these reasons that despite all their internal tensions and mutual differences, people the world over have looked upon the tragedy of Karbala as one in which they all were intimately concerned, and the nations of the world have alike conceded its importance. By nature men are drawn towards happiness and shun grief. Distress occasioned by the chances and changes of life is sought to be driven into oblivion. Accordingly, among the nations of the world most celebrations are commemorative of occasions of good cheer. Events fraught with pain and grief have been sparingly commemorated. It is only Husains martyrdom that has been solemnized over the centuries to the accompaniment of marks of mourning and symbols of woe. Since human nature cannot support any burden of gloom and depression for any great length of time, it follows from the doleful manner in which, for ages, the tragedy of Karbala has been solemnized, that it is productive of beneficial results and advantages to

mankind. It is a fact that fresh events blot out the memory of earlier happenings. The tragedy of Karbala has so forcibly defied this tendency, has maintained its sway over the hearts and minds of people so long, as evidenced by the undiminished fervour with which it has been observed for centuries, and has stood its ground against all later events with such conspicuous firmness, that one is constrained to believe that the world has yet to produce an event of greater weight and moment, whose impact on the imagination of humanity might rival Husains sacrifice. Numberless revolutions have taken place in the world after the events at Karbala. Civilization has seen many upheavals and standards of behaviour and modes of thought and feeling have undergone many radical alterations, but the memory of the sacrifice to which Husain gave himself up has been kept alive continuously for nearly 1400 years without losing any of its cordial sincerity. It would have, in consequence, to be conceded that Husain had offered the sacrifice in defense of such unexceptionable and exalted principles of human conduct, as are shared in the largest measure by people, all over the world. As a corollary, so long as mankind and the nobler traits of humanity survive, those principles will continue to be cherished and the memory of Husains sacrifice would remain fresh. It is obvious that in proportion to the importance of an objective, and its historical uniqueness and meaningfulness, men of letters and those of a reflective turn of mind, exercise the powers of their pens and the energies of their minds about it. No single incident in the history of the world has collected round itself such a huge mass of writing, in prose and verse, as the tragedy of Karbala, showing its unmatched significance.

Significance of Muharram and Karbala

Muharram is the first month of the Islamic lunar calendar. Yet the name Muharram brings to mind the tragedy of Karbala, the martyrdom of Husain (grandson of Prophet Mohammad), and of piety, righteousness and justice standing against cruelty, bigotry and injustice. As soon as the soon is sighted, signifying the beginning of the month of Muharram, countless gatherings called majlis are convened to mourn the tragedy of Karbala. Tazias and processions are carried out and people are even seen crying upon listening to the events associated with Karbala. What is so significant about Karbala that even after 1400 years of its happening, it has the power to make people weep over the past incidents? Why was Husains martyrdom so different from all the other people who keep dying for one cause or other, each day? And why was it that Husain, who reached Karbala on 2 nd of Muharram, did not budge from his stand despite the then ruler of the Islamic world, Yazid, putting all his forces against him? Husain and his 150 odd companions stood firm against a huge army of 30,000 or even more, and despite having no water or food for three days, from the morning of 7 th Muharram onward, that too in the scorching summer heat of Karbala, preferring death over life on the 10 th of Muharram. And why is that the tragedy of Karbala is the highest example of the fight between truth and untruth, between godliness and evil, and between attempt to restore order against those flaunting the teachings of God. In effect, Karbala can also be described as a war against those who commit crime, spread hatred among humans, amass wealth, forgetting the plight of the poor, or indulge in any type of corruption, and indulge in acts of terrorism, oppression or those which hinder peace, even so these

are performed by the State. Karbala is the voice of the downtrodden, weak and insecure against oppressors and unjust people. In short, Karbala is an attempt to lead mankind back towards God not just through giving sermons put showing how those can be put to practice even in the most adverse of circumstances. Karbala is not just the epitome of Islamic teachings put to practice but depicts a more vivid adherence to all that is contained in Gita, the great difference being that while Krishna fought a victorious war where the sacrifices that were given were minimum, Husain fought a war where sacrifices were of such nature that history trembles even upon describing them. Let us go in detail and see the causes that contributed to the great catastrophe of Karbala, and also the events associated with that holocaust. Husains grandfather, Prophet Mohammad had arduously worked to reform a diseased social order where petty fights resulted into bloody warfare lasting generations, people slaughtered their daughters, considering it an act of maintaining their self-respect, rich and high-born were considered superior to the rest of the people, so much so that the murder of an important person was avenged by putting to death hundreds of people belonging to the tribe of the murderer, whereas important people were allowed to kill insignificant or unimportant men. Prophets job was to cleanse all those beliefs, superstitions and traditions that had become integral parts of their lives. He had to teach tolerance, forbearance, humility and forgiveness to those who deemed forgiveness as evidence of weakness and forbearance to those who saw it as symbol of cowardice. He had to give lessons in equality and fraternity to

those who divided themselves upon their high births. The Arabs could not even dream that piety and righteousness were the highest merits in the eyes of God, or that the lowest of men could claim equality with any member of the noblest families in Arabia. The priestly order was all-powerful which claimed to be an intermediary between the worshippers and the worshipped. On the contrary, the Prophet brought a message of freedom to world groaning under the power and authority of priests; he gave freedom from the tyranny of the affluent, who unmindful of any divine law or human regulation, brazenly enjoyed the fruits of the toil and labour of others, he gave freedom to the slaves and the suppressed classes from the oppression of their masters and social superiors, he gave freedom to women from what was, to all intents and purposes, slavery which divested them of even their elementary human rights, and he gave freedom to the ordinary man from the constraints imposed upon him by narrow inhibitions of castes, colour and race. From his childhood, Husain saw his grandfather toiling hard to eradicate all kind of evils from the society. He grew up to eradicate all kind of evils from the society. He grew up in an environment where righteousness, piety, justice, generosity and uplifting of all social virtues were the order of the day. After his grandfathers death, Husain saw how the entire direction that his grandfather had given to the teachings was hijacked by the selfseekers and satanic forces, so much so that lot many customs of the pre-Islamic period that were banned by Islam, were reintroduced. It started with those who showed themselves to be the most pious, but in their hearts valued their own interests more to Islamic injunctions. And then, within 50 years, it came to a stage where vices were not only being openly committed, but there were deliberate attempts to portray Islam as a

constituent of those vices. Degradation had reached a stage that Islams face was distorted and people had begun to view the Islam of Muawiya as the real Islam. Yazid even went further and distorted the teachings of Prophet Mohammad to such a degree of ugliness that it became a mockery, not only of the teachings, but also of the basic rational inclinations of the human mind. The conscience of the rightful was either purchased or their souls tormented into obedience and to such humble submission that their sensibilities were deadened to dumbness. Yazid was committing every crime and evil under the sun, that too under the banner of Islam the very religion that had taught the Arabs the essence of being humans. He considered himself as an almighty dictator who paid no heed to the laws of civilized society. Husains grandfather Prophet Mohammad had taught the virtues of peace and piety, Yazid was preaching war and hatred. Blood of innumerable innocent people was made to spill under his orders. Mohammad had never allowed forceful subversion of other territories, whereas Yazid and even his father Muawiya had sent Muslim armies as far as Africa and India, so much so that even today, it is said that Islam spread through sword. Muhammad had preached simple living and Ali, even when he had become the Caliph of the Islamic world, lived in a small cottage, while Yazids palace vied with the palaces of Byzantine and Persian kings, in grandeur. Ali is known for giving the first charter of ruling a nation, when he was made Caliph of he Muslim world for a brief period of four years. He is famous for giving strict guidelines for his governors, about the manner in which even the poorest of poor ought to be treated. Ali showed to the world for the first time what a rulers role ought to be when he lived like a poor man and

took only that amount from the government treasury that went to the poorest of the poor. On the contrary, injustice, cruelty prevailed during Yazids rule. He was a usurper of wealth and treasures while people died of hunger on the roads of Damascus. Whereas Mohammad had given freedom to women form the age-old traditions of suppression, and brought restrictions on the number of permissible marriages, Yazid went back to the preIslamic era where women were treated as peace of objects. For ten years after passing of Hasan and becoming the Imam of the people, Husain was a silent witness to the tortures and misdeeds of Muawiya. In fact, he was witness to open flaunting of the peace agreement between his elder brother Hasan and Muawiya for the past twenty years. When Muawiya appointed Yazid as his successor, he also violated the last of the points of the treaty as well, who demanded allegiance form Husain, without giving a way out. Giving allegiance meant that Husain had given his consent to the (mis) rule of Yazid, whose very position as the Caliph was as violation to the terms of the treaty. Therefore, not only his nomenclature was unjustified from the point of view of the treaty, Husain also knew that Caliphate was a Divine honour, and anybody who became a Caliph by his own might was a usurper. How could have Husain given his consent to the allegiance when he had seen that his father too never did so. As long as the Ahlebayt were not forced to pay allegiance, they led a simple, secluded life. During this period, no body could have ever pointed a finger at them that they were working against the interests of the state. But when allegiance was demanded, and it was made clear that there was no way out, Husain had no choice but to migrate or fight. Hence he tried his best to gain support, even sent his brother Muslim to Kufa at the instance of the people there, and even when that

failed, continued to adhere to his stand of not giving allegiance of the untruth, even at the cost of life. Husain knew well that a large number of people looked at him as the true inheritor of Prophets legacy and teachings and if he would put his stamp of approval, all evil acts would henceforth be seen as given sanctity by Islam. Husain left Medina, where he had lived most of his life and moved to Mecca to avoid bloodshed. But when Husain saw that Yazid had sent shooters to kill him in Mecca, he left Mecca and proceeded towards Iraq. At a point called Karbala, he was made to stop by Yazids army on 2nd of Muharram. On 10 th of Muharram, he along with his companions was put to death during a battle, which lasted an entire day. Husain and his companions fought bravely, despite the fact that they had been weakened by the hunger and thirst that lasted three days before their death. The battle of Karbala can never be defined as a clash of arms between two princes, but as a war between two contradictory principles and ideologies, one upholding piety, love, truth, righteousness and spiritualism and the other clinging to debauchery, power and materialism, that resulted in tyrannical imperialism and spiritual bankruptcy. Remember the more severe the illness, a greater intensity dose is required. Likewise, despite the severity of the illness, if it is detected correctly and in time for it to go out of hands, the greater is the effect of the medicines. There are times, when the patient is given shocks to bring him back to normal. The same was the case of Husains sacrifice. Within 50 years of the Prophets death, the sabotage from within by those nurturing materialistic hopes, helped further by those who had always been enemies of the Message

but had no choice but to publicly become adherents, had hollowed the very foundations of the Message. The entire philosophy behind the slogan, no god but Allah, and Muhammad his Prophet, had aspired to lead man to the one God, through the path that the Prophet showed in the light of the teachings of the earlier Apostles; an act similar to a road broadened and rebuilt on a previously built road that had become uneven and patchy through rough use over the period of time. Thankfully, the intensity with which the slogan had negated all other Gods but Allah, did not allow idols to come up in mosques and homes. However, Allah was least visible in actions and several virtual idols had made inroads in the minds of the people, who looked at awe and aspired for all worldly luxuries like power, wealth, fame and women and were ready to go to any extreme to achieve their goals. It is true that the world had never been devoid of such people but the most unfortunate thing was that these people were committing their acts under the veil of that Message itself that the Prophet had so laboriously propagated after giving immense sacrifices of all type. Threat that was not hidden from sincere guardians and propagators of the Message in its original form was that this Message was also on the verge of getting lost or altered. They had seen what had happened of the teachings of the previous Apostles prior to Muhammad. People remembered the Apostles, had made huge temples to house their idols, but followed none of their teachings, which too had lost their shine due to wrong interpretations, altered implications or forged lies and fabrications. This had already started with great intensity, further aggravated by the huge propaganda campaign unleashed to malign the original teachings of the Message and denigrate the personality of those who were its chief champions. The things were compounded by the fact

that people were lured away by showering riches on those who sided with them and forced to distance themselves from the teachings out of intimidation or fear of being tortured or killed. The Message had united everybody as equal before the eyes of the Creator but aristocracy and slavery had re-entered on the two extremes and was commonly visible. Nobody cared for the plight of the poor and there was no one to hear call for justice. The Message had given equal status to poor as citizen and had championed for a minimum guaranteed sustenance quota out of the State exchequer but the rulers were living a life of grandeur and pomp, ate in silver and gold utensils, whereas the poor died of hunger under the shadows of their fortresses. The Message had encouraged pursuit of knowledge, but the knowledgeable were being harassed and killed out of fear that may reveal the truth to the masses. The Message had believed in the conquest of hearts and minds, unless forced into an armed combat, but the self-appointed Caliphs and rulers were sending armed expeditions on all frontiers to capture new territories each day. On the whole, the Message had taught and trained to remember the one and only God, not only through the five time prayers that each Muslim is supposed to offer, but through all acts that one perform from morning till evening. And the self-appointed guardians of faith usurped wealth of the masses, killed and murdered innocent at will, indulged themselves in drinking, maintained harems where women were brought from all corners of the empire, publicly insulted the might of the Almighty and those He created; all their acts revealing that they were men of the world. Husain was a silent spectator to all this! The Message had taught him to raise voice of dissent against injustice, corruption and evil, yet he knew that most of the people who would have stood up to fight with him were either

killed or imprisoned. He knew there was no support to come. He saw with unease the degradation of the moral values of the people and public insult of the values cherished by God, through the hands of despotic and arrogant Yazid and his men. Yet he did not want to be labeled a rebel against a ruler, so he kept quiet. Yazid himself left him with limited options when he asked for Husains bayt a custom in the Arab world where a person put a hand on the hand of the ruler, signifying that he attested the rulers claim and policies. Through the eyes of a person used to the worldly ways of society, it was a God-sent opportunity as Husain even had a chance to live with splendour, if only he had he negotiated for a hefty sum in lieu of his bayt. Or else he could have done so in the desert of Karbala, returned to Medina with all the wealth, and lively happily afterwards. On the other hand, anyone who has understood the gist of the teachings of either Gita or Quran would agree that it was the most impossible thing to do. Husain offered Yazid to let go of the question of bayt and let him live quietly in Medina. When Yazid didnt agree, he gave him another offer that he would quietly go to India, a place outside the dominions of Yazid. When Yazids commander didnt agree to this as well, Husain, surrounded as he was with a huge army numbering into thousands of soldiers, just asked for one thing: deferment of fight for a night so that he can pray his God. The outcome was certain, 100-odd men faced against an entire army. Yet the night was spent in prayers, so much so that historians have commented that for the entire night only the buzz of prayers could be heard from Husains camps. Remember: Remember Me and fight in Gita. No one attempted to escape in the darkness of the night. No one panicked as this was a stand taken

willingly by each one of them. None grieved over the expected fate of their near and dear ones husbands, sons, brothers, fathers, relatives and friends. No one lamented or blamed Husain, as they were a selected bunch of men who shared the same ideals and belief. All immersed themselves in prayers, as this was the last night when they could pray. The fighting started even before the time for the morning prayers, yet the prayers were offered for God, who was centre to all the fight. Noon prayers were offered under the shower of arrows, at a time when this army of 100-odd people was reduced to less than half. Meanwhile, God was never forgotten, even in the treatment of corpses of the enemy, or letting go those who fled, only to come back later. As the day progressed, Husain kept loosing his companions one by one, who fought valiantly but being outnumbered, hungry and thirsty for three days, they could not stand out for long. Scholars and teachers, traders and slaves, whites and blacks, young and the old, all who shared the same cause as that of Husain that of upholding righteousness and fighting against evil fought till their last breath. Husains friends, relatives, brothers, nephews, and sons too were put to death before Husain himself was martyred. But before Husains martyrdom, an event occurred which exposed the true character of Yazid and his army and put a seal till the end of the world that Yazid was a symbol of evil and Husain a symbol of virtue brought together. It also silenced the mouth of all those who would have labeled this as a war to crush an uprising, as Yazid tried to put forward though unsuccessfully. The uprising from Husains side was even done by an infant barely sixmonth old. River Euphrates flowed a few hundred meters ahead but Yazids army had put forces on water and prevented

Husain and his companions from gaining access to it. On Husains side were also women and children. Summer was at its peak and the barren rocky land of Karbala only heightened the heat as it reflected from the rocks. There was no other source of water. Water that was present in Husains camp got exhausted on the 7th morning. Food had exhausted even before. For three days, Husain and his companions including infants and children remained without food or water. This was being done to the same Husain who had offered water to the mortally tired soldiers of the first band of 1000 soldiers of Yazids army, under the command of Hur, who had stopped Husain from moving further. It was very easy for Husain to order his companions to kill this band, dying of water. The effect of this act was such that about a week later, and after doing much introspection, Hur came to Husains side, along with his son. By the 10 th of Muharram, the condition in the Husains camp had become such that children were crying thirst, thirst and there was no water. At a time when nearly all the companions on Husains side had been killed, and Husain was preparing to go the battlefield, he was told that the 6-month old son Ali Asghar was dying of thirst. Husain took the infant in his arms to the battlefield and asked Yazids forces to give the child some water as he was dying of thirst. He even said that even if they considered Husain to be a sinner, the child had done no harm and was innocent as per all religions and beliefs. Not only this, Husain laid the child on the hot sand and moved back, so that they can give water to the child through their own hands, if they feared that Husain would drink it under the pretext of offering water to the child. The river flowed nearby as a proof of Gods gift to humanity and there was no water for that young sibling, yet to know of the rules of humanity. No water was given. Husain lifted the child in hands, as Shimr

from Yazids force asked Hurmula to shoot an arrow at the child. Hurmula was the most famous marksman of the army. The arrow hit the child on his throat and the tender neck of child was slit open, while he was in his fathers arms. Children do not commit a sin. This is the belief of all religions. They are pure in the eyes of all. The presence of a six-month old child in the list of those martyred in Karbala on Husains side proved the innocence of all who were there on Husains side. When the elders came in the battlefield, they came with a sword or spear. People could have said that since they had come to fight, they had no alternative but to kill. When the arrow from the side of Yazids army killed this child in the arms of Husain, it became evident that all were innocent. Husains turn to go to fight came, as the lone survivor of all who formed this army, a shade prior to the time for evening prayers. Wounded and without water for three days, he fought bravely. When he fell from the horseback, the time for evening prayers had just come. Husain decided to remember his God, one last time, and began to pray. As he kneeled down to say, subhaanallah . . . (what accolades can be showered on my God who is supreme and worthy of all praises), one from amongst the army of the then Caliph of the Muslims severed his head from the body, only to be put on top of the spear, taken from city to city till it reached Yazids palace in Damascus along with all the prisoners of war. Husain had died but the name of God and his Message survived, written as it was by the self-sacrificing blood of Husain and his followers. Nothing but the bare corpses of Husain and his followers under the heat of the sun, the flow of innocent blood in plenty and the severed heads of the most pious of men on the edges of spears, raised in the sky to

celebrate the victory, could have aroused the underlying sensibilities of the society. Husain knew that the unconscious cannot be awakened but from the sprinkling of his own blood, and that of his relatives, friends and co-thinkers. No doubt, Husain and his companions were brutally killed, even children small enough to feed on their mothers milk not spared by the arrows targeting them, remaining children and womenfolk arrested and tortured, but all this sorrow and suffering was too small a sacrifice, against Husains complete devotion to God. So much so that whenever he was faced with a severe calamity, when 6-month old child was killed by an arrow, he just had a Quranic verse Inna-ilaihe wainna ilaihe rajeoon on his lips, to which he added another line Rizan be qazaehee wa tasleeman le amrehe meaning We are from God and we are to return to God, we are in agreement with all that happens to us and all our actions are meant for Him. Those who have understood Gita, please reflect: Is not Husains life and stand in Karbala, the highest living example of the way of life that Gita taught and desires from us? Once Husain was martyred, his head severed from the body while he was still alive and put on top of a spear as a mark of victory. The camps of the womenfolk were set on fire, their belongings looted and all women and children and a sole male member in the form of Husains sick son, Ali bin Husain Zainul Abidin were taken prisoners. All were tied with one rope and made to sit on camel-backs and taken in the form of a victory procession from Karbala to Kufa (in present Iraq) and to Damascus (in present Syria) in such a manner that women and children, tied together, were on the camelbacks with the severed heads of their husbands, brothers, sons and children on top of the spears, in front of them. The result was arousal with a vengeance. Husains sacrifice helped change innumerable minds. A clear

line was drawn with red forever between the original Message and those who wanted to corrupt it. Those mightily armed rulers, who had made subjugation of territories as their goal in life, were vanquished by a handful of men with Husain, who died fighting but still rules our hearts and mind. Husain gave a voice to all the downtrodden of the world and became synonymous with all fights against all isms, including imperialism, materialism, communalism, etc. besides injustice, corruption and cruelty. And gave a parallel approach for love of all humanity and of course God, who is the creator and sustainer of the entire world. People will continue to do all possible sins, even calling themselves as believers of God, but their acts will not be viewed as being justified by Gods teachings; true teachings will always be visible parallel to it for those who wish to imbibe them in their lives.

Noor and Spirit

We know from our study of Upanishads and Vedas that fourteen divine selfs were created prior to the creation. Shias are of the opinion that they are the 14 Ahlebayt, including the Prophet. They are of the view that Quran talks about them at several places but the Muslims in general, who discarded the Ahlebayt immediately after the death of Prophet, despite all the attempts of the Prophets, have chosen to ignore those verses. Muntahiur Aamal talks of Yaume-Alast and says that each and every particle pledged the Oneness of God, at the time of Creation. The Holy Prophet said:

You shall not be annihilated, because you have been created to last till eternity. You only go from this life of actions (good or bad) to the life of happiness or misery.
In this regard, Pooya/Ali commentary states: The creator Lord created a group of His chosen representatives, thoroughly purified them, gave them His wisdom, and then commissioned them to guide mankind, in every age and every clime, till eternity. One after another the prophets of Allah came with divine guidance at every stage of development in the human society; and in the end the last messenger of Allah, the Holy Prophet, came with the final message, after which the office of prophethood was terminated. To protect and preserve the revealed truth in its original form, uncorrupted, the merciful Lord, after risalat, established the institution of imamat, and appointed Imams (guideleaders). Through the Imams of the Ahlebayt, the thoroughly purified, the divine guidance will continue

to guide the people to the end of this world. Allah has shown him (man) the right way (Dahr: 3), and given him the free choice to identify these rightly guided guides and obtain true guidance, or reject them and go astray. Muslims had digressed the moment they chose to digress from Prophets public announcement telling Ali as his successor and Imam. This closed the doors to all the guidance that we would have received from the true knowers of Quran. Consequently, even the Quran was only half understood. So much so that we are sure that several portions of Quran would now be understood from the knowledge gained from our study of Vedas, Upanishads and Gita. We have already mentioned before that Prophet Mohammad once said:

I was a prophet when Adam was yet amidst water and clay.
And on another occasion he said:

Ali and myself are the two halves of the same noor (light).
There are many instances when Quran talks of light (noor), and surely it is this noor of Mohammad through which the entire cosmos was created is being talked about.

Then those who believe in him (Mohammad) honour him, help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him: They are the successful. Q URAN, 7:157
And said:

Now hath come unto you light (noor) from God and a plain scripture. Q URAN , 5:15
And said:

Is he whose bosom God hath expanded for the surrender (unto Him), so that he followeth a light from His Lord (as he who disbelieveth)? Then woe unto those whose hearts are hardened against remembrance of God. Such are in plain error. Q URAN , 39:22
Also the following verse may be talking about the darkness that prevailed when Allah created the noor of the 14 devas or Ahlebayts, prior to the rest of creation.

Allah is the guardian of those who believe. He brings them out of the darkness into the light; and (as to) those who disbelieve, their guardians are Shaytans who take them out of the light into the darkness; they are the inmates of the fire, in it they shall abide. Q URAN , 2:257
In addition to this, there are several narrations relating to Imams that talk of the subject of a Divine Spirit. We invite you to see some of these hadeeses. From the narrations of the Imams, it is evident that they were aware of the exact knowledge regarding the spirit and its composition but either modesty or the need of the time prevented them from describing the true nature of Divine Spirit. Some of the hadeeses are as follows: Hadees no 714 from Al-Kafi tells that Jafar Sadiq, the sixth Imam, said:

O Jabir! Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime, created the creatures in three classes; and this is the word of Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty: And you shall be three bands Companions of the Right (O Companions of the Right!), Companions of the Left (O Companions of the Left!), and the Outstrippers; the Outstrippers those are they who

are brought near (al-Waqiah, 56: 7-11). The Outstrippers are the Messengers of Allah and they have a special relation with Allah among His creatures. He put in them five arwah (pl. of ruh, that is, spirit). He sustained them with the ruhulqudus (the Pure Spirit), by which they perceive things (as they really are); and He sustained them with the ruhu `l-iman (the Spirit of Faith), by which they fear Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty; and He sustained them with the ruhu `l-quwwah (the Spirit of Power), by which they were empowered to obey Allah; and He sustained them with the ruhu `sh-shahwah (the Spirit of Desire), by which they were made desirous of obedience to Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, and made to dislike obedience to Him; and He put in them the ruhu `l-madraj (the Spirit of Movement), by which people go and come. And He put in the believers, the Companions of the Right, the Spirit of Faith, by which they fear Allah; and He put in them the Spirit of Power, by which they were empowered to obey Allah; and He put in them the Spirit of Desire, by which they were made desirous of obedience to Allah; and He put in them the Spirit of Movement, by which the people go and come.
This narration clearly hits at those who feel they would be spared because of lack of knowledge. Even if there is lack of knowledge, it is because you have not aspired to get it. Yes, if you aspire and do not reach the truth, despite sincerity, then you will surely be forgiven. Moreover, it is to be noted that there is no middle way, of half good, or a half bad. There are two types: Companions of the right and the companions of the left. The Pure Spirit is only in the Prophet and passes

on to the Imams at the death of the previous Imam. This Pure Spirit is all-powerful. Mohammad Baqar was asked about the Knowledge of man of Knowledge (Hadees no. 715). He said:

O Jabir! There are five arwah in the prophets and the successors. The ruhul-qudus (the Pure Spirit), the ruhul-iman (the Spirit of Faith), the ruhulhayat (the Spirit of Life equivalent to the Spirit of Movement in no. 714), and the ruhul-quwwah (the Spirit of Power) and the ruhush-shahwah (the Spirit of Desire). Then, by the Pure Spirit, O Jabir, they perceive what is below the Throne down to what is within the earth. Then he said: O Jabir! These four arwah may be affected by contingencies, but the Pure Spirit is never diverted nor plays (i.e., it never acts purposelessly).
This is the reason why none of the actions of the Prophet and Imams can be purposeless. How sad that certain people said that the Prophet was mumbling when he asked for a pen and a tablet to write. The entire description is entirely in sync with the Upanishads and a fresh translation will only increase the similarities. Even (in Hadees no. 716), Jafar Sadiq tells the reason how the Imam knows what is all over the earth when he is in his house with the curtain lowered. He said:

O Mufaddal! Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime, has put five arwah in the Prophet: the ruhul-hayat (the Spirit of Life), by which he moves and comes and goes; the ruhul-quwwah (the Spirit of Power), by which he rises and struggles; the ruhushshahwah (the Spirit of Desire), by which he eats and drinks and comes to women lawfully; and the ruhul-iman (the Spirit of Faith), by which he accepts

the faith and acts justly; and the ruhul-qudus (the Pure Spirit), by which he bears the prophethood. Then, when the Prophet is taken away, the Pure Sprit is transferred and reaches the imams. The Pure Spirit does not sleep nor does it become neglectful, it is not diverted, nor does it falsely display. But the (other) four arwah (spirits) sleep, are neglectful, falsely display themselves and are diverted. He (the Prophet or the Imam) sees (everything) by the Pure Spirit.
On another occasion, Imam Jafar Sadiq the sixth Imam talks of the Spirit by which Allah directs the steps of the Imams. Abu Basir (Hadees no. 717) asked Imam Jafar Sadiq about the words of Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime:

Even so We have revealed to thee a Spirit of Our bidding. Thou knewest not what the Book was, nor faith. Q URAN , A SH-SHURA , 42:52
He said:

(It is) one of the created things of Allah to whom belong Mighty and Majesty; (it is) greater than Gabriel and Mikail. It was with the Messenger of Allah; it informed him and directed his steps, and it is with the Imams after him.
More about this Spirit is mentioned in Hadees no. 718. A man from Hit (a town in Iraq) asked him (the Imam) about the words of Allah, to whom belong Might and Majesty: Even so We have revealed to thee a Spirit of Our bidding. He said: Since Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, sent this Spirit down on Mohammad, it has not ascended to Heaven; and it is in us. In 719, Abu Basir says that he asked Jafar Sadiq about the words of Allah, to Whom belong Might and

Majesty: They will question thee concerning the Spirit. Say: The Spirit is of the bidding of my Lord (al-Isra, 17:85). He said: (It is) a created thing greater than Gabriel and Mikail; it was with the Messenger of Allah, it is with the Imams, and it is from the Kingdom (alMalakut). Hadees no. 721 relates to the subject of Knowledge and Spirit. Abu Hamzah asked Jafar Sadiq, the sixth Imam about knowledge: Is it knowledge which the knower gets to know from the mouths of men, or (is it) in the book which is with you which you recite and learn from? He said: The matter is greater than that and more essential. Have you not heard the words of Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty: Even so We have revealed to thee a Spirit of Our Bidding. Thou knowest not what the Book was, nor faith? Then he said: What do your companions say about this verse? Do they accept that he (the Messenger) was in a state in which he did not know what the book was, nor faith? I said: May I be made your ransom, I dont know what they say. He said (to me): Indeed, he was in a state in which he did not know what the Book was, nor faith, until Allah Most High sent forth Spirit which is mentioned in the Book; and because He revealed it to him, He taught knowledge and understanding through it. This is the Spirit which Allah Most High gives to whom He wishes; and when He gives it to a slave, He teaches him understanding. Another misconception that is present among the Muslims who regard Gabriel as the spirit is discounted in Hadees no. 722: A man came to Amir al-muminin (Ali) and asked him about the Spirit: Is it not Gabriel? Amir al-muminin said to him: Jibril (Gabriel) is one of the angels, and the Spirit is not Jibril. and he repeated this to the man then he (the man) said to him: You have said something very important; no one claims that the Spirit is not Jibril. Amir al-muminin said to him:

You are wrongly guided, and you recount from the people of misguidance. Allah Most High has said to His Prophet: Allahs command comes; see not to hasten it. Glory be to Him! High be the exalted above that they associate with Him! He sends down the angels with the Spirit (Q. an-Nahl, 16:1-2), and the Spirit is not the angels, may the blessings of Allah be upon them. See how the description comes exactly close to the descriptions of the Vedas, Upanishads and Puranas. The following quotes from the Holy Prophet further sheds light on the subject discussed in the Upanishads.

(1) I and Ali are of one and the same light. (2) Ali is a part of me and I am a part of Ali. (3) The root of Ali and me is the same, but all other people come from various other origins.
(Zaynul Fata; Ibna Maghazali; Shafa-i; Kanzul Ummal, Ahmad ibna Hanbal). The Holy Prophet has said:

Allah selected Adam in preference to all other creatures; from among the descendants of Adam, He selected Nuh; from among the descendants of Nuh, He selected Ibrahim; from among the descendants of Ibrahim, He selected Ishmael; from among the Quraish, He selected Hashim. All of them carried my noor (the first light which came forth from the absolute and goes on till the day of resurrection to manifest ultimately in the arc of ascent). It passed through Abd al Muttalib to Abdullah and Abu Talib. I am from Abdullah and Ali is from Abu Talib. Ali and I are one and the same noor.
Verse 3:34 from Quran too cannot be explained until you rely on our argument.

Offspring one of the other; and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

Scholars till now have wrongly understood this verse now. Our view is that since the Masooms kept taking birth again and again in this world, either for the purpose of maintaining the continuity as noor passed from one to another or for the more greater purpose of keeping the torch of worship and knowledge burning, or merely for the purpose of maintaining continuance of their presence on earth, as it is essential for the very survival of this earth, they kept taking birth from one another. Therefore, it is possible that Fatima b. Asad and Fatima b. Mohammad may be the same devi. That is why the Quran says that they were offsprings of each other. How else can you explain this?

The 14 are Truthful

In his speech on October 25, 1984, Allama Ali Naqi Naqvi talked about in length about the Ahlebayt, who, he said, are meant by the term truthful in Quran. A Quranic verse addresses the faithful and asks them to understand the elements of greatness of Allah, be with those who are truthful. The very fact that these two are mentioned together is a clear indicator that the greatness of Allah can be understood through being with the truthful, whoever they are. In explanation of this verse, Allama says: If we ordinary people are to call somebody truthful, we say so from the limitations of our sight. We do not know whether the person who is being referred to by truthful is really truthful or not. We do not know what he says and what he thinks is same or not, but if his thoughts are different from his acts, then how can the character be truthful. How are we to perceive what is there in heart? Clearly, it is not possible. Whats inside is beyond our compression. Suppose we realize that the thoughts and actions of the person being termed as truthful are on the same lines, but how can we see whether his modalities of senses and mind are on the true path. If we do not understand all this, how true is it to label somebody as truthful. However, this is when we ordinary people call somebody truthful. If the one who is the Knower of All, Allah or God says a person or a group of person as truthful, then it means the Knower of All has found their deeds as truthful, their thoughts too as truthful and also their modalities of the mind and senses as truthful. Only when He has seen all through His immense Knowledge, He would have said so. This means that neither a word uttered by them can be away from truth, neither an

action of theirs can be away from truth, and not even the purpose in mind can be different from truth. God calling them truthful is a guarantee by Him for all their words, all their acts and all their thinking. If God calls an entire group as truthful, this would mean that the whole group is such that He is taking guarantee for the truthfulness of all their words, all their acts, all their thought-processes. Be it a group of 5, or 12 or 14. Now ponder over this. If there are two people who have differences, one says something, the other says something else, one does something, and the other does something else. In such a scenario, it is possible that both are wrong, but it is not possible at all that both are truthful. And here none else but God calls an entire group as truthful. We will have to believe that all the persons who are included in this group, who are being referred to as the truthful ones, are united in words that they utter, the acts that they do, and the thoughtprocesses that influence the mind. When there are 14 such persons, then it would mean that the eyes are of fourteen but the vision is one, hands are of fourteen but the work is one, feet are of 14 but the purpose is one. The skin-colour of the fourteen can be different. Isnt it possible that all fall in the highest parameters of beauty, despite being of different colours. Height can be different, names can be different and even a bit of nature can also be different, but that mould of the character that befits them to be truthful, will be one. Now names are different and because of living in different times and faced with different situations some virtues of character became more highlighted than the rest, the appellations too are different. Someone got more chance to reveal the secrets of hidden knowledge,

so his appellation became Baqar; the enemies recognized someones truthfulness as well, so his appellation became Sadiq; someone had to control his anger all through his life, his appellation became Salim. Despite this, the basic character is one. Owing to the mould of character being one, when the Prophet would tell their names, he would say: The first of them is Mohammad, the middle of them is Muhammad, the last of them is Muhammad, all of them are Muhammad. I have access to the number of these truthful people. If we it is not possible for us to identify one truthful person, when we do not know whether the truthful acts being committed by him are also committed in private, when we do not know what is there in the persons heart and how his modalities of mind function, then how would it be possible for us to identify more than one truthful people, Sadiqeen (plural of sadiq or truthful). God, who has asked us to be with those who are truthful, should also be shedding light on their identity as well. Otherwise, He asks us to be with those who are truthful, and we are unable to recognize who are really the truthful ones, then this verse would remain just for reciting and remembering but not for acting. And He is addressing us directly. There are certain verses of the Quran that were addressed directly to the Prophet, but this is addressed to us. If I, after more than 1400 years since this verse was revealed, am finding problem in identifying the truthful ones without guidance from God, the people in the time of Prophet too were intelligent, and they had direct access to the Prophet. It is they who were being directly addressed, then why is it they didnt ask from the Prophet about the identity of those truthful ones, whose company is made obligatory on us. And if they did ask, somebody should show us one instance in the books on the period, which tell us

that they asked, and what did the Prophet reply in return. And if no such incident is mentioned that people came to ask, then we will have to believe that they told but the general people forgot what was told to them. Let us see some of the incidents when they were identified as the truthful ones. Remember that there are two ways to tell. First way is to bring all the truthful ones at a place and show their faces to the public so that they can see and recognize them. This is the way that even the less wise ones, who do not feel any need to use their wisdom, or have the urge to ponder or investigate, will get to see all the truthful ones of the chain, who were present in that time. Thereafter, each truthful one would keep identifying the next to us and their presence would continue till the end of this world. We do not have to search much to find this incident. In broad daylight, the Prophet brought these people to public view and the Quranic verse that was revealed and the Prophets act, together showed who were the truthful ones. This act of Prophet Muhammad was performed in the Maiden-e-Mubahilah and the verse of Quran that justify from Quran about the identity of these people is the Ayat-e-Mubahilah (verse pertaining to Mubahilah). Mubahilah means mutual imprecation to prove truth of ones point. We give in brief the background of what happened at Maidan-e-Mubahilah (the ground of Mubahilah). The centre of Christian activities in Yemen was located at Najran. When the message of Islam reached Najran, the Christians there decided to send a delegation to Medina. Consequently, a delegation of 70 people was sent comprising all the revered priests and clergy. I wish to congratulate them on their reasonable act that they realized that it was a matter concerning religion

and there was not a need to send an army. So those who were the soldiers from the field of religion were sent. Generally it is believed that they were sent to investigate but when we look at the incidents that unfolded, we realize that they were not there just to investigate but also come to an agreement. It means that the delegation was empowered to decide as to do whatever they thought best. I wish to address the people from that religion from whom this delegation was sent. You were so reasonable then why did you leave its side so much so that you that the picture that you portrayed of Islam was having sword in one hand and the book in other. If this was the way in which Islam spread, then why was sword not drawn against you? Sword not coming against your delegation is a proof that sword was drawn only against those who came with drawn swords. The delegation from Najran came to Medina. They had heard that they were going to the Tajdare Medina the crowned ruler of Medina. This one of the appellations given to the Prophet, and it clearly shows the mentality of the Muslims of the time. Is it difficult to comprehend from this why the Caliphate of the Muslims turned into a monarchy that conquered territories to spread their domain? As long as Prophet Muhammad was at the helm of affairs or one of the truthful persons was a Caliph, no such aggression was witnessed. The Christian priests comprising the delegation too had this notion in mind. Therefore, they got garments stitched that befit a royal durbar. They came to the Prophet wearing those. When they came they had heard accounts of Prophets manners and courteousness. Contrary to this, the Prophet did not even look at them. They kept waiting till they were sure that this was a willful act. Then they went back saying that we had heard so much about the Prophets manners and courteousness, but

this experience on the contrary showed ill manners and discourtesy. However, they had heard so much about the Prophets courteous behaviour towards all that their own experience wasnt enough to discount what they had heard. Otherwise, why did they wait? They should have gone back. They started inquiring from people about this behaviour and when they couldnt tell, they were led to the doorsteps of one where all, who couldnt get right answers, came to seek knowledge the doorsteps of Ali. All who had not been able to answer the question of these priests too were accompanying them. Perhaps the behaviour of Prophet was contrary to what they too had seen all through. Ali looked at their clothes and asked whether they went to meet the Prophet wearing them. They said yes, thereby meaning that this was not against the durbar culture. Ali said to them that they were the priests, they were the ones who were supposed to have left the world, and these clothes do not befit them. Therefore, they went to meet the Prophet wearing simple clothes and he stood up to greet them. There are some who said after Prophet that Quran was enough for them. What to say of Quran, even the actions of the Prophet could not be understood without coming to the doorsteps of Ali. Discussions started and whatever the Prophet said, they agreed to it. In the end, discussion reached a stage where they asked Muhammad his view on Isa (Jesus). Muhammad read the verses from Chapter Imran. They said all this is correct but do you consider Isa as the son of God or not? Muhammad replied in negative. Then they argued saying that if Isa was not Gods son then whose son was he. The verse was revealed from God that said that Isas position was similar to Adam. Here there is one of the two parents, Adam was born with a

father or mother. They could not have opposed this logic as Adams birth without a father and mother is explicitly told in the Bible. However, those who do not wish to believe cannot be made to believe by even God or His Prophet. Then the verse that was revealed seemed to be admonishing them. It said that even after such proofs, if they do not believe then tell them to come, we bring our sons and you bring your sons, we bring our women and you bring your women, we bring our selfs and you bring your selfs and then lets come for mubahilah. We both pray to God for Gods wrath on those who are not truthful. From this it is evident, and no logical reasoning is required, as the Quran itself is giving a proof that when it is not enough to solve doubts, then these people are brought in front. Can there be a better proof that mere Quran cannot be enough? Remember that from opposite the opposite is recognized. If it would have been said that Allahs wrath on the kafars then it would have meant that those who are brought against them are mumins (ones with complete faith). If it would have been said that Allahs wrath on the zaalemeen (unjust) then it would have been that those who are brought against them are aadil (just). Both these terms have been used in Quran on several occasions. Nobody can be better than God in usage of words and seriousness of the subject. Here Quran is saying that Allahs wrath be on those who are not truthful thereby confirming that those who would come against them would be truthful. Lets look at the Maidan-eMubahilah and all those who would come are sure to be the truthful ones that God is referring to in the other verse. Historical narrations tell that when the day of Mubahilah dawned, Prophet Mohammad came out of

his house in such a manner that he was in the front, with Husain in one of his arms and holding the finger of Hasan by the other. Fatima was behind him who was followed by Ali. Those who are aware of the public psyche would know that the very coming the Christian delegation to Medina must have aroused interest. Moreover, all meetings with the priests were held at a public place, viz. the mosque. It is but natural that peoples curiosity was aroused so as to see the faces that Mohammad was to bring along. If some secretly cherished the hope of being among them, we do not know. However, there is no doubt that several people must have accumulated at the site, even if for the sake of curiosity. That the priests had already positioned themselves when the Prophet appeared is evident. As the Prophet drew near with his entourage of four viz. two children, his daughter and her husband, the chief of the priests asked his companions not to go for Mubahilah with Mohammad. History has recorded his words in the following manner: I am seeing faces if they ask the mountain to move, it would move from its place.

The Most Knowledgeable

There is no denying the fact that Masooms were the most knowledgeable of all men ever to be born on earth. We give here a few narrations that confirm the high position of the Masooms. Hadees 684 of chapter 49 of al-Kafi states that there was no knowledge that God had given to Prophet that he did not share with Ali. See the narration:

Indeed (angel) Gabriel brought two pomegranates to the Messenger of Allah ate one of them; then he broke the other into two, and ate one half himself and gave the other half to Ali to eat. Then the Messenger of Allah said: O my brother! Do you know what these two pomegranates ere? He said: No. He said: The first was the prophethood and you have no part in it, but the other was Knowledge and you are an (equal) partner with me in it. I said: May Allah make things well for you, how is this? How did he become a partner with him in it? He said: Allah did not teach Mohammad any knowledge, without commanding him to teach it to Ali.
You will be interested to know that a verse from Svetasvatara-Upanishad says: One ate the sweet fruit and the other looked on without eating Not only this, it is evident from the preceding verses that Mohammad and Ali are being talked about. See for yourself:

IV.I. He who is one, without any colour, by the manifold exercise of his power distributes many colours in his hidden purpose and into whom in

the beginning and at the end the universe is gathered. May He endow us with a clear understanding. IV.2. That indeed is Agni, that is Aditya, that is Vayu and that is the moon. That indeed is the pure. That is Brahma. That is the waters. That is Prajapati. IV.3. You are woman (Fatima). You are man (Ali). You are the youth and the maiden too. You, as an old man, otter along with a staff. Being born you become facing in every direction. IV. 5. The One Unborn, red, white and black, who produces manifold offspring similar in form (to himself), there lies the one unborn (Ali) delighting. Another unborn gives her up, having had his enjoyment (Mohammad). IV.6. Two birds, companions (who are) always united, cling to the self-same tree. (Of these two) the one eats the sweet fruit, and the other looks on without eating.
Is there any doubt that it talks of Mohammad and Ali, who are described as always united and who both are produced from the same self. As if continuing with Mohammads statement that all the Masooms are same as Mohammad, this verse too confirms their equality and unity. Next verse even states Alis position when caliphate was denied to him.

IV.7. On the self-same tree, a person immersed (in the sorrows of the world) is deluded and grieves on account of his helplessness. When he sees the other, the Lord who is worshipped and His greatness, he becomes freed from sorrow.

There is no doubt that the Masooms were created prior to all the creation. If they possess highest knowledge, then we should not be surprised. Commenting on the dimensions of the knowledge of Imams, Imam Musa Kazim the seventh Imam stated in Hadees 687:

The extent of our knowledge is of three kinds: that which is madin (lit., past), that which is ghabir (lit. continues) and that, which is hadees (i.e. happening now). As for that which is madin, it has been explained (to us by the Holy Prophet), and that which is ghabir is written down (with us), and that which is hadees (comes to us through) being cast into (our hearts, and through) being spoken (naqr, lit., tapped) into (our) ears. This latter is the most excellent of our knowledge, and there is no prophet after our Prophet.
In the same manner, Hadees 692 talks of the narrator who says: I went into the presence of Husain and I heard him say: Truly Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, has educated his Prophet in moral perfections (Addaba) because of His love for him, and He has said: Surely thou art upon a mighty morality (al-Qalam, 68:4). Then He delegated (the duty, for example, to educate others) to him, and He to Whom belong Might and Majesty said: Whatever the Messenger gives you, take; whatever he forbids you, give over (Quran: al-Hashr, 59:7); and He to Whom belong Might and Majesty said: Whosoever obeys the Messenger, thereby obeys Allah (Quran: anNisa, 4:80). He said: Then he said: Verily, the Prophet of Allah delegated (it) to Ali and entrusted (it) to him. Then you accepted this but the (other) people rejected it. By Allah, we desire that you should speak when we speak, and be silent when we are silent. We are what is between you and Allah, to Whom belong Might and

Majesty. Allah has not created any good for anyone against our commands. Again, Upanishads as well as Gita talk of this in exactly the same way. The entire beings were created by God because of them. Gita says the God is to be reached but only through the Self. Upanishads describe that Self comprise of nothing but these. Here too, at another stage, the Imam has confirmed that the original spirit that was created was theirs. Hadees No. 694 also states that the entire affairs of the creatures are presented in front of Mohammad, which is exactly what the Upanishads had meant when they said that the animate and non-animate all very created because of them and when God was pleased of their worship. See: I heard the fifth Imam Mohammad Baqar say: Verily, Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, has delegated to His Prophet the affairs of His creatures, so that He can see how (good) their obedience is. Then they recited this verse: Whatever the Messenger gives you, take; whatever he forbids you, give over. Hadees no. 695 is a long narration from the sixth Imam Jafar Sadiq, which talks of the One Spirit and its relation to Mohammad: I head Jafar Sadiq say to one of the companions of Qays al-Masir: Surely Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, educated His Prophet in moral perfections and made his education excellent, and when He had perfected his education for him he said: Surely thou art upon a mighty morality (Quran: al-Qalam, 68:4). Then he delegated to him the affairs o the religion and the community, so that he might rule over and guide His creatures. And He, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, said: Whatever the Messenger gives you, take; whatever he forbids you, give over (Quran, al-Hashr, 59:7). Verily, the Messenger of Allah was the

one who was rightly guided, the one who succeeded, and the one who was confirmed by the ruhul-qudus (the Pure Spirit). He neither slipped nor erred in anything by which he ruled and guided the creatures. So he was educated in the moral perfection of Allah. `In this way Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty made the prayer obligatory as two two rakahs, then rakahs (all together, in the daily prayers). The Messenger of Allah added to the two rakish, two rakahs (i.e., in the prayers of noon, afternoon and night), and one rakah at sunset (maghrib), and these are counted as equal to the obligatory ones. They may not be omitted except while journeying; and he made the additional rakah in maghrib single and made it fixed both while journeying and while at home. And Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, permitted all of this to him, and the obligation became seventeen rakahs. Then the Messenger of Allah actualized the supererogatory prayers as thirty-four rakahs, twice the obligatory (number of) prayers, and Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, permitted this to him. So the obligatory and supererogatory prayers were fifty-one rakahs. Of these are the two rakahs sitting down after darkness (utamah, that is, after obligatory night prayer), which is counted as one rakah to go with (the one rakah of) al-watr. (The supererogatory prayers are: noon, eight rakish; afternoon, eight; sunset four; after mid-night, eight and two (ash-shaf) and one (al-watr); morning two; altogether thirty three, plus the two maghrib ones sitting counted as one, making a total of thirty-four). `Allah has made the fast of Ramazan obligatory in every year, and the Messenger of Allah actualized the fasting of Shaban and of three days in each month, twice the obligatory (fast) (i.e., 30 plus (3x10) days, not obligatory, just as the supererogatory prayers), and Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty permitted

this to him. Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, made wine (khamr) forbidden in its essence, and the Messenger of Allah made any drink, which intoxicates, forbidden, and Allah permitted all this to him. `The Messenger of Allah detested certain things and showed his dislike of them, but he did not forbid them with an obligatory forbidding (haram), instead he forbade them with the forbidding of detestation and dislike. He conceded that they might be done, and the carrying out of what he had conceded became an obligation on the creatures just as the obligation of carrying out what is forbidden and what is ordained (i.e., it became forbidden for them to abstain absolutely from doing that which was only makruh (detested and disliked]). The Messenger of Allah did not concede to them anything which he had forbidden with an obligatory forbidding, nor (allow them not to do) anything which he had commanded by a command which must be obeyed. So he forbade any intoxicating drink with an obligatory forbidding, and did not concede to anyone in this. And the Messenger of Allah did not concede to anyone any reduction in the two rakahs which he had put with what Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, had made obligatory, but rather he ordained them with an obligatory ordaining. He did not concede to anyone anything of these except for the traveler. No one can permit anything unless the Messenger of Allah has conceded it. Thus the command of the Messenger of Allah corresponds to the command of Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, and his forbidding to the forbidding of Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty; and submission to him was made obligatory on creatures just as submission to Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime. Isnt it proof of our claim, which is also authorized by the Upanishads, that since the creatures were created because God was pleased with the worship of the devatas,

they took it upon them to lead and show the way towards worship of God. It is they who frame the rules, the modes of worship and how we ought to pray. Hadees No. 696 further confirms that we all owe obedience to the Messenger of God. Mohammad Baqar and Jafar Sadiq, the fifth and sixth Imams respectively, have both said: Verily, Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime, has delegated to His Prophet the affairs of His creatures, so that He can see how (good) their obedience is. Then they recited this verse: Whatever the Messenger gives you, take; and whatever he forbids you, give over.

Fore knowledge and Knowledge of the Invisible

We have seen in the chapter on Hadees-e-Kisa that all the Masooms knew beforehand that the verse was about to be revealed. Therefore all of them endeavoured to prepare the ground for the verse. Likewise, we have also seen certain portions in the Upanishads and Puranas seem to be foretelling the events that would happen in future. The incidents related to the coming of Kalki avatar prove our point. Same is the case with the gathering near Mount Meru that has been described in the Vishnu Purana. Similarly, the narration from Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad seems to be mentioning the events that would happen much later in the house of Fatima. This narration is attributed to the sage Yajnavalkya. In this regard, Allama Ali Naqi Naqawi has narrated a few verses from Quran, which says that other than God, there is no one who has the knowledge of the invisible. However, there is a verse in Chapter Jinah, where it is said that He does not pass His knowledge of the invisible to anybody but to those He chooses. Therefore, it is evident that it is up to the wish of God whether he gives the knowledge of the invisible to any of his messengers or not. The True Knower of the Invisible is surely with God he may give more knowledge in a certain field to any of his creations. To what extent he gives that knowledge too is up to him. Moses was a Prophet of higher order than Khizr but Khizr was given that knowledge of the future that even Moses was not aware of. Two of the appellations of Prophet Mohammad are Basheer and Nazeer. Basheer means one who gives

the good news and Nazeer means one who gives the bad news. Nobody can be Basheer and Nazeer unless he has the knowledge of the invisible. After all, telling about the invisible God too means that they had knowledge of the invisible. Every body told of the life after death, heaven and hell, was it not the knowledge of the invisible. Even the fact that the Prophet was the Prophet was based on knowledge of the invisible. If Prophet Mohammad was not aware about the future events, how is it that he mentioned several incidents about the future? He is reported to have narrated the events of Karbala in advance and tears used to come in his eyes while narrating these incidents. When asked the reasons for this behaviour, he said that you do not know the kind of tortures and hardships that Husain would have to face. On other occasion, it is reported that Husain as a child came to the Prophet Mohammad. He lifted Husains garment and started kissing on various parts of the body. Ali asked the reason for this act and Prophet said that he was kissing at all those places where Husain would get wounded from attacks of sword. (Al-Awzai has reported on the authority of Abd Allah b. Shaddad, on the authority of Umm al-Fadl, daughter of al-Harith:) She visited the Apostle of God and said: Apostle of God, I have had a strange dream during the night. What was it? he asked. It was terrible, she said. What was it? he repeated. I saw (something) like a piece of your body cut up and put in my lap, she answered. You have seen well, said the Apostle of God. Fatima will give birth to a boy when she is sitting on

your lap (to give birth). (She reported:) Fatima did give birth to Husain, and he was in my lap just as the Apostle of God had said. One day I took him to the Prophet and I put him in his lap. His gaze turned away from me. Behold, both the eyes of the Apostle of God were flowing with tears. I said: (May I ransom you) with my father and mother, Apostle of God, what is the matter with you? Gabriel came to me, he said. He told me that my community will seek to kill this son of mine and he brought me dust made red by his (blood). (Simak reported on the authority of Ibn al-Mukhariq on the authority of Umm Salama, who said:) One day while the Apostle of God was sitting down and Husain was sitting on his knee, his eyes suddenly filled with tears. I said to him: Apostle of God, why do I see you weeping, may I be your ransom? Gabriel came to me, he said. He consoled me for the death of my son, Husain and he told me that a group of my community will kill him. May God never let them have intercession from me. [Proof that Mohammad will act as intercessor and his followers will be given salvation.] (It is reported with another chain of authorities on the authority of Umm Salama that she said:) One evening the Apostle of God left us and was away for a long time. He came back, he was disheveled and dusty and his hand was holding (something). I said to him: Apostle of God, why do I see you disheveled and dusty? He said: I have just been on a night journey to a place in Iraq called Karbala. There I saw the death of my son, Husain, and a group of my children and the members of my family (Ahlebayt). I could not stop (myself)

form gathering (some of) their blood and here it is in my hand. He opened his hand and said: Take it and look after it. I took it. It was like red soil. I put it in a phial, fastened its top and kept it. When Husain left Mecca on his way to Iraq, I took out that phial every day and night. I used to smell it and look at it. Then I would weep for his fate. On the 10 th of (the month of) Muharram, the day on which Husain was killed, I took it out. At the beginning of the day it was in its usual condition, but at the end of the day, behold, it was fresh blood. I shrieked (with grief) and wept. Then I restrained my anger out of fear that the enemies (of the family of the Prophet) in Medina would hear and would hurry to rejoice at their misfortune. I have kept it secret up to the present tie, then to the day when the messenger bringing the news of his death came to announce it. Then what I had seen was proved. It is reported that one day the Prophet was sitting down. Around him were Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain. He asked them: How would you feel if when you were killed, your tombs were scattered around (the country). Will we die an (ordinary) death or will we be killed? Husain asked. Rather you will be killed unjustly, my little son, and your brother will be killed unjustly, he answered. Your offspring will be scattered over the land. Apostle of God, who will kill us? asked Husain. The evil men among the people, he said. Will anyone visit (our graves) after we are killed? he asked. Yes, my little son, he told him, a group (taifa) of my community will gain my beneficence and favour

through visiting (your graves). On the Day of Resurrection, I will bring them to the place so that I may take them by the arms and save them from its terrors and sorrows. Prophet mentioned the future conduct of one of his wife too. He said that the dogs of a particular place named Howab would bark on one of them, and at that point she would surely be on the wrong. The incident occurred when Ayesha, his wife, and daughter of the first Caliph of Muslims Abu Bakr revolted against Alis caliphate at the instigation of Muawiya, father of Yazid, and others. At another instance, a mosque was being built and while every one was bringing two bricks each Ammare-Yasir was bringing four bricks at a time. On seeing this Prophet said, what to say of Ammar who would be killed by a rebel group. Ammar would be calling them to heaven and they would be calling him to hell. Ammar was later killed at the age of 80 while fighting as the commander of forces sent by Ali to Siffin against the army of Muawiya. Likewise, Prophet told the names of the 12 imams to come and incidents related to the life of the 12 th imam. Even the succeeding imams foretold about the future imams and told of the incidents related to the life of 12 th imam, which are yet to unfold. There are several incidents about the future that were told by Prophet and Imams. Like the Muslims would get divided into 73 sects and only of them would be on the right path. Like a particular friend of Prophet would be killed in such and such manner. And so on. Our opinion, formulated on the basis of our study of Upanishads, Vedas and Gita, is that all the Masooms possessed complete knowledge not only about past but also about future. Upanishads explicitly say that God has given time in their possession. They say that they

created the worlds for the worship of God. This has been their purpose all through life. And they are surely not God; neither are they sons of God. We give here some incidents about knowledge of the invisible from the life of the Masooms. Surely, you would agree that were aware of everything that occurred in the past and that would take place in future. See a few of them. Hadees number 678 from chapter 48 of al-Kafi says: We, a group of Shia, were in the company of Husain at Hijr (a place close to the Kaaba in Mecca). He said: Does anyone have their eyes on us? We turned to the right and to the left, but did not see anyone, and we said: No-one has his eyes on us. Then he said: By the Lord of Kaaba, and by the Lord of this building (the Kaaba), three times (he said this) if I had been with Musa and Khizr, I would have told them that I had more knowledge than them, and I would have informed them of what was not then present to them, for Musa and Khizr were given the knowledge of what was, but were not given the knowledge of what would be and what will be till the Hour (of Judgment) will come, and we indeed have inherited this from the Messenger of Allah (Prophet Mohammad). On another occasion, Al-Kafi states (hadees no. 679) that Husain said:

Verily, I know what is in the heavens and what is in the earth. I know what is in Paradise, I know what is in the Fire (Hell), and I know what has been and what will be. He (the narrator) said: Then he paused for a moment, and then he saw that this was too difficult for those who heard it from him, so he said: I have learnt (all this) from the Book of Allah, to Whom belong Might and

Majesty. Truly Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, says: In it is the classification of all things.
In Hadees no. 681, it is stated the fifth Imam, Mohammad Baqar said to a group of companions: I am surprised at the group who accept our mastership, take us as their Imams and claim that obedience to us is obligatory on them just as obedience of the Messenger of Allah (Mohammad) and then go against the evidence they have and defeat themselves and find fault concerning this (which is explained later) with those whom Allah has given the evidence for the truth of the recognition of us and submission to our degree. Can you conceive that Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime, would make obedience to those He has appointed masters (awliya) obligatory on His creatures, and would then conceal from the information of the heavens and the earth, and would then cut off from the them sources of knowledge concerning (those matters that) turn up for them in which there is (question of) the very basis of their religion? Then Humran said to him: May I be made your ransom, what do you say about the affair of the stance of Ali ibn Abu Talib, Hasan and Husain, their rising up and their establishing the religion of Allah, may His remembrance be glorified, and of those who exceeded in corruption overcoming them and killing them, their being slaughtered and defeated? Then Mohammad Baqar said: O Humran! Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime foreordained this for them, decreed it, finalized it and made it a reality by means of their volition, then He carried it out. Thus Ali, Hasan and Husain stood up through the knowledge which had come to come before from the Messenger of Allah; and through (this) knowledge are silent those among us who are silent. O Humran! When what came to them of the will of Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, befell them, and He caused those who exceeded in corruption to stand over them, if they

had asked Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, that He rid them of this and I had implored Him in their request that the power of those who exceed in corruption be destroyed and their rule be brought to an end, He would have accepted and rid them of it; and then the finishing of the period of those who exceeded in corruption and the termination of their rule would have been quicker than a string of beads which is cut and (the beads) scattered. That which befell them, O Humran, was not because of a wrongdoing that they had committed, nor as a punishment for disobedience in which they disobeyed Allah, but (it was) for stages and honour from Allah, which He wished them to reach. So do not search here and there about them. In Hadees no. 682, it is stated that when Hisham asked Husain from where does he get his knowledge, Husain replied: Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime does not use a Proof as an argument for His creatures unless he has everything of which they are in need. Talking on the same subject, Mohammad Baqar said: No, by Allah, indeed no; no man of knowledge can ever be an ignorant person, (that is,) a man who knows something but is ignorant of something (else). Then he said: Allah is more glorified, more mighty and more generous than that He should make obedience to one slave obligatory, and conceal from him the knowledge of His heaven and His earth. Then he said: H does not conceal that from him. The aforementioned hadees clearly states that Husain and others were Divine Proofs, sent on earth for our well-being. Hadees no. 690 states that the fifth Imam Mohammad Baqar said to a group of associates: If your tongues had been tied (i.e. if you could keep to yourself what you know), I would have told everyone

what is to their advantage and what is to their disadvantage. Fact is that the God too has used this method as proof of the Prophethood of Mohammad and other Prophets. God made manifest Jesus, son of Mary, through illustrious miracles and signs so as to indicate his prophethood. He said:

I will tell you what you will eat and what you will store in your houses. Q URAN , III, 49
God made several similar miraculous signs for Prophet Mohammad. Upon the defeat of the Romans (i.e. Byzantines) horsemen:

Rome has been conquered in the lower lands (of its empire) but in a few years after their defeat they will conquer. Q URAN, XXX 1-4
The matter turned out just as God had said. God said of those who took part in the Battle of Badr before the battle (occurred): The groups (of the enemy) will be defeated and they will turn their backs (in flight).

The matter occurred just as God had said without there being any difference in it. The God also said:

Indeed you will enter the Sacred Mosque in safety, if God wills, with your heads shaved or shortened, without fear. Q URAN , XLVIII 27
The matter took place in the 8 A.H. with the conquest of Makkah. Also He said:

When the help of God comes and victory, you will see the people entering the religion of God in

parties. Q URAN , CX 1-3

This event occurred as He described. Likewise, there are several reports of Ali the commander of the faithful - concerning the unknown and (foretelling) things which would happen before they happen. He never said anything without his statement agreeing with the report of the event so that in this way his truthfulness was established. Some of incidents from the life of Imam Ali are being mentioned here. We wish to tell you that such incidents are in such abundance that they are themselves a subject of an entire book. He said to Talha and Zubair, when they asked permission to leave to go on the lesser pilgrimage: By God, you are not going to make the lesser pilgrimage, you are going to Basra. The matter was as he had said. He also said to Ibn Abbas when informing him about their asking for permission to go on the lesser pilgrimage: I have given them permission despite knowing of the treachery they harboured within themselves. I have appealed for the help of God against them. Indeed God, the Exalted, will rebuff their plotting and give me victory against them. The matter happened as he predicted. Another example of that is what he, peace be on him, said when the Syrians raised copies of the Quran and a group of his followers began to have doubts (about their position) and insisted (that he agree) to making a truce: Shame on you, this is a deceitful trick. Those people do not really mean (to settle the issue by) the Quran because they are not people (who accept) the

Quran. Fear God and carry out your decision to fight against them. If you do not, you will be separated into (different) groups and you will regret it when regret will not bring any advantage. The matter turned out just as he had predicted. This group of people fell into disbelief after the arbitration (between Ali and Muawiya) and they regretted the action which they had previously hastily embarked on and made him accept. They were separated into different groups and destruction came to them soon after. Ali said as he was setting out to fight against the Kharijites: If it was not for the fact that I am afraid that you would just carry on discussions and abandon (all other) action, I would tell you the decision God has made through the words of His Prophet concerning those who fight against these people (i.e. against the Kharijites) as a result of seeing them to be misguided. Indeed, among them is a man with a stunted arm who has breasts like the breasts of a woman. They are the wickedest of creatures and the one who fights against them is the closest in relationship to God among His creatures. The malformation of the man (mukhdaj) had not been known to the people. After the battle, he caused a search to be made for him among those killed saying: By God, I have not lied nor have I been lied to. Eventually (his body) was found among those people and his shirt was torn open. On his shoulder there was a swelling the breast of a woman, on which were hairs. When the hairs were pulled, his shoulder came forward with it. When they were left, his shoulder went back to its position. When he was found, he said: God is greater. In this there is a warning for anyone who reflects.

[The historians (ashab al-sira) report in their account on the authority of Jundub b. Abd Allah al-Azdi, who said:] I (i.e. Jundub b. Abd Allah) took part with Ali in the battles of the Camel and Siffin. I never had any doubts about fighting against those who fought him until I took part in the battle of al-Nahrawan (against the Kharijites). Then doubts came to me about fighting against these people I said: It is our reciters of the Quran and our choice men whom we are killing. This matter is dreadful. In the morning I went for a walk, (taking) some vessels of water with me, until I left the lines (of the army). Then I fixed my spear in the ground, fitted my shield on it and shaded myself from the sun. While I was sitting, the Commander of the faithful, came along. He said to me: Brother from (the tribe of) al-Azd, do you have water for ritual purification with you? Yes, I answered and I gave him a vessel. He went aside so that I could not see him. Then he came back after he had purified himself. He sat down in the shade of the spear. Suddenly a horseman appeared asking for him. I said: Commander of the faithful, there is a horseman who wants you. Make a sign to him (to come here), he told me. I made a sign and he came. He said: Commander of the faithful, the people have crossed the river. No, he retorted, they have not crossed. Yes, by God, they have crossed, (the man) insisted. You are lying, he said. Then another man came. He said: Commander of the faithful, the people have crossed. No, he replied, they have not crossed.

By God, (the man) said, I did not come to you until I saw the standards and the baggage on that side. By God, he declared, They have not done so. (What you want) is to kill them and shed their blood. Then he arose and I arose with him. I said to myself: Praise be to God, who has given me insight into this man and enabled me to recognize his affair. He is one of two men: he is either a thoroughgoing liar or (one given) evidence (for his authority) by his Lord and a covenant by his Prophet. O God, I give You a solemn undertaking which You can ask me about on the Day of Resurrection. If I find that the people have crossed, I will be the first to fight against him, the first to thrust my spear into his eye. If the people have not crossed, then I will go forth with him and fight alongside him. We returned to the lines (of the army) and we found that the standards and baggage were as they had been (before). He took me by the scruff of the neck and pushed me. Then he said: Brother of (the tribe of) al-Azd, has the matter become clear to you? Yes, Commander of the faithful, I replied. Your business is with your enemy, he said. I killed one man from those people (i.e. the Kharijites) and then I killed another, and I and another of them were exchanging blows. I struck him and he struck me. We both fell together. My comrades carried me back. By the time I recovered consciousness, there were none of the people (i.e. the Kharijites) left (there). There is famous account which has a wide circulation among the reporters of historical traditions (athar). In it the man tells of his own solemn undertaking towards the Commander of the faithful and (what

happened) after that. There is no way that it can be rejected or its truthfulness denied. In it (the Commander of the faithful) provides information about the unknown, gives clear evidence of his knowledge of the inner conscience (of man) and his knowledge of what is in mens souls. The evidence in it is outstanding which could only be equaled by evidence of a similar nature in terms of the greatness of the miracle and its clear proof. In a similar vein is the account which Walid b. Harith and others report on the authority of the men (whom they cite): When the Commander of the faithful learnt what Busr b. Artaa had done in Yemen, he said: O God, Busr has sold his religion for the world, so take his reason away. Do not let there remain to him in his religion anything by which he would merit Your mercy. May Busr survive until his mind becomes disordered. (Later) Busr used to ask for a sword and a sword of wood would be brought to him. He would strike with it until he became unconscious. When he recovered consciousness, he would say: The sword, the sword. It would be given to him and he would strike with it. He continued like that until he died. There is another report of his words with the same implication: People, I have called you to the truth and you turned your backs away from me. I have flogged you and you have made me tired. After me rulers will rule you. They will not be satisfied with this (attitude) from you so that they will torment you with whips and iron. Whoever torments people in this world will be tormented by God in the next. The sign of that will be that the ruler of Yemen will come against you to settle

in your midst. A man called Yusuf b. Umar will seize the tax-collectors and those who collect the taxes of the tax-collectors. That happened as he predicted. Then there is the report which the religious scholars recount: Juwayriyya b. Mishar stood at the gate of Alis house. Where is the Commander of the faithful? he asked. Sleeping, was the reply. You who are sleeping wake up, he shouted. For by Him in Whose hands is my soul, a blow will be struck on your head from which your blood will be coloured with blood, as you have told us before. The Commander of the faithful heard that. He called out: Come, Juwayriyya so that I can discuss with you what you are saying. He came and (the Commander of the faithful) said to him: By Him in Whose hands is my soul, you will be pulled before a rough harsh man. He will cut off your hand and your leg. Then you will be crucified below the tree trunk where an unbeliever (has already been crucified). Time went by after that until in the days of Muawiya, Ziyad became governor. He cut off his hand and his leg, then he crucified him on the tree trunk where Ibn Mukabir (was crucified). It was a long trunk and he was under him. Yet another example is reported by Jarir on the authority of al-Mughira, who said:] When al-Hajjaj became governor, he sought for

Kumayl b. Ziyad. The latter fled from him. (al-Hajjaj) deprived his people of their allowances (ata). When Kumayl saw that, he said: I am an old man and my life is nearly finished. It is not right for me to deprive my people of their allowances. So he went and offered his hand to al-Hajjaj. When the latter saw him, he said: I would have liked to have found a way to get you, myself. Dont gnash your teeth at me and dont threaten me, Kumayl replied. What is left of my life is like mere specks of dust. Therefore give judgment as long as you are a judge. For there is an appointed time to be with God and after death there is the reckoning. The Commander of the faithful, told me that you would kill me. Then that is evidence against yourself, al-Hajjaj said to him. But the judgment is yours, answered Kumayl. Indeed, he retorted, you were among those who killed Usman b. Affan. Strike off his head. Then he was executed. This report is also recorded by the non-Shia (amma) which they report on the authority of men whom they regard as trustworthy. The Shia (khassa) participates in reporting it. Hence it has been included in this section where we mention miracles, proofs and evidence (concerning him). There is, in addition, the account recorded by the historians (Ashab al-sira) on various authorities. One day al-Hajjaj b. Yusuf al-Thaqafi said: I would like to strike down one of the followers of Abu Turab (derogatory name of Ali). Through his blood, I would get closer to God.

We know of no one who was a companion of Abu Turab for a longer time than Qanbar, his retainer, he was told. He sent in search of him and he was brought. Are you Qanbar? he asked. Yes, he replied. (Your kunya) is Abu Hamdan? he asked [Kunya means tribe] Yes, he replied. Is your master Ali b. Abu Talib? God is my Master, he replied, and the Commander of the faithful Ali is the master of my provisions. Disassociate yourself from his religion, he ordered him. If I disassociate myself from his religion, will you show me another better than it? he asked. I will kill you, he answered. So choose what sort of death you prefer. I leave that to you, he responded. Why? he asked. Because in whatever way you kill me, you will be killed in the same way, he said. The Commander of the faithful told me that my fate would be to be slaughtered unjustly and without right. Then he ordered him to be slaughtered. This is also one of the reports which is established with regard to the Commander of the faithful, speaking about the unknown. It has been included in the section concerning the compelling miracles and outstanding evidence and the knowledge which God specially endowed to His proof among His prophets, apostles and chosen ones. Therefore it follows on from what has been

presented before. (In the same way Ismail b. Sabih reported on the authority of Yahya b. al-Musawir al-Abdo, on the authority of Ismail b. Ziyad, who said: One day Ali said to al-Bara b. Azib: Bara, my son Husain will be killed while you are alive and you will not help him. After Husain was killed, al-Bara b. Azib used to say: By God, Ali b. Abu Talib spoke the truth about Husain being killed and my not helping him. He showed (much) grief and regret about that. This belongs to what we have mentioned about Ali giving information about the unknown and the prevailing attitudes of mens hearts. A similar incident, showing the knowledge of the unseen, is attributed to Imam Hasan the second Imam. (Abd Allah b. Ibrahim reported on the authority of Ziyad al-Makhariqi, who said:) When death was close to Hasan, he summoned Husain, and said: My brother, I am leaving you and joining my Lord. I have been given poison to drink and have spewed my liver into a basin. I am aware of the person who poisoned me and from where I have been made a subject to this deceitful action. I will oppose him before God, the Mighty and High. Therefore by the right I have with regard to you, say nothing about that and wait for what God, the Mighty and High, will decide concerning me. When I have died, shut my eyes, wash me and shroud me. Then carry me on my bier to the grave of my grandfather, the Apostle of God, so that I may renew my covenant with him. After that take me to the grave of my grandmother, Fatima daughter

of Asad, and bury me there. My brother, the people will think that you intend to bury me with the Apostle of God. For that reason, they will gather to prevent you from doing it. I swear by God that you should not shed even your blood into the cupping-glass in (carrying out) my command. Then he made his testamentary bequests to his family and his children. (He gave him) his heirlooms and the things which the Commander of the faithful had bequeathed to him when he had made him his successor, had declared him worthy to occupy his position, and had indicated to his Shia that he was his successor, and set him up as their sign-post after himself. When he passed on his (final) journey, Husain washed and shrouded his (body). Then he carried him on his bier. Marwan and those of the Banu Umayya who were with him had no doubt that they would try to bury him beside the Apostle of God. They gathered together and armed themselves. When Husain approached the tomb of the Apostle of God with (the body of Hasan) so that he might renew his covenant with him, they came towards them with their group. Ayesha had joined them on a mule and she was saying: What is there between you and me that you should allow someone I dont want to, to enter my house? Marwan began to recite: O Lord, battle is better than ease. (Then he went on:) Should Usman be buried in the outskirts of Medina and Hasan be buried alongside the Prophet? That will never be while I carry a sword. Discord was about to occur between the Banu Umayya and the Banu Hashim. Ibn Abbas hurried to Marwan and said to him: Go back to where you came from, Marwan. Indeed we do not intend to bury our companion with the Apostle of God. But we want him to

be able to renew his covenant with him by visiting him. Then we will take him back to his grandmother, Fatima, and bury him alongside her according to his last instructions concerning that. If he had enjoined that he should be buried alongside the Prophet, you know that you would the least able to deter us from that. However, he, was much too aware of God and His Apostle and the sacredness of his tomb to bring bloodshed to it as others have done (who) have entered it without his permission. We have already mentioned a few incidents from the life of Husain. Here is another: (Abd Allah b.Sharik al-Amiri reported:) I heard the followers of Ali say when Umar b. Saad went through the gate of the mosque: There is the killer of Husain b. Ali. That was some time before he was killed. [Even the followers of Ali had been told of it.] (Salim b. Abi Hafsa reported:) Umar b. Saad said to Husain: Abu Abd Allah, stupid people have come to me claiming that I will kill you. They are not stupid, Husain told him. They are men who dream (of the future). Yet it pleases me that you will not enjoy the land of Iraq for long after me. (Yusuf b. Abida reported: I heard Mohammad b. Sirin say:) Such a redness, which was in the sky, was never seen except after the killing of Husain b. Ali. Saad al-Iskaf reported: Mohammad Baqar the fifth Imam said:) The killer of (Prophet) Yahya b. Zakariyya (John

the Baptist) was a son born out of wedlock. The killer of Husain b. Ali was a son born out of wedlock. The sky only went red for those two. Even Fatima foretold what was to happen in future in her last sermon. See: Fatimas last sermon, when she was ill and the wives of the Emigrants and Companions of the Prophet foretells dire consequences in future, because of not choosing the Caliph designated by the Prophet. The land of Arabia, Iraq and Syria sure has been witness to a lot many of these. What a terrible leader they have elected (Abu Bakr). What a terrible helper they have appointed (Omar). What a wrong and oppressive exchange they have made! By God, they gave superiority to those who deferred their decision to become Muslims rather than to those who were the pioneers. They elected weak ones instead of strong ones. They destroyed those who believe they are performing good affairs. They are corrupters who do not understand. Woe be to them! Is it not more worthy to follow the one who guides rather than the one who cannot find his way if he is not guided? What has happened to you? What kind of a judgment is this? You have impregnated the earth with your act. Just wait until the time when it gives birth. I swear to you, instead of milk, you will have buckets full of blood and poison will flow from the breasts of the newborn. It is then that the destroyers of rights will lose and those who will come in the future will find and realize the terrible results of what the ancestors have done. So you should be satisfied with your daily affairs and live in peace prior to the storm and terrible revolts.

For them, the sharp swords of the dominations of the oppressors, anarchy and the rule of tyrants will overcome you. The oppressors will enslave you. No public assets except a small quantity will remain. They will cultivate with force what you have planted with love. At that time you will only sigh for there will be nothing that you can do because you were blind and could not see the truth. They will oblige you because you have turned your faces from the right way and you did not accept it.

Miracles As Signs
A miracle (a credential of prophethood) is an extraordinary occurrence, which cannot be produced by any natural agency but only by the direct will of Allah. It may be either above natural law or contrary to it or else independent of it. Once we believe in the presence of an Almighty God over us, we should have no problem in believing that He can perform whatever He wills in any manner that He deems fit and necessary. A theist can never question the possibility of miracles, because a miracle is only an exercise of free will on the part of the creator and author of the creation with all its laws a fulfillment of His purpose in a way that appears novel to the onlookers (who can never know that which He knows and controls). It does sometimes happen that the public mind is led to the acceptance of the divine truths not by any rational arguments or moral and spiritual evidence but only by the miraculous manifestations of the divine power at the hands of His approved and appointed representatives to generate conviction in men of average intelligence. Verse 3:49 of Quran states: And (make him [Isa]) a messenger to the children of Israel: That I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I determine for you out of dust like the form of a bird, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with Allahs permission and I heal the blind and the leprous, and bring the dead to life with Allahs permission and I inform you of what you should eat and what you should store in your houses; most surely there is a sign in this for you, if you are believers. This verse states how Isa, by Allahs permission, formed, of clay, a thing like a bird and breathed in to it

(and Allah made the thing alive), cured blindness and leprosy, put life into the dead and told the people their most secret affairs. Matthew 8: 3, 9: 18, 19, 23 to 25, 27 to 30; and Mark 8: 22 to 25; and Luke 7: 12 to 15; Luke 17: 12 to 14; and John 9: 1 to 7, 11:11 to 44 refer to the miracles mentioned in this verse. In the days of Isa the people to whom he was particularly sent (the Jews) could not be effectively convinced with the help of arguments based on reason because of their ready inclination to believe in anything which confounded their raw and undeveloped intelligence. For example, magic and witchcraft excited their imagination. More often than not, they responded to suggestions made through either of them, therefore, the purpose of the miraculous manifestation of the divine powers at his hands was to make them believe in him and in that which he preached, as the prophet of Allah. As Allah says in Quran:

Apostles truly have we already sent before thee (O Mohammad) and wives and offspring have we given them. Yet no apostle had come with miracles unless by the leave of God. To each age its Book. Q URAN .13: 38
Fact is that the birth of Isa itself was a miracle from God. Quran explicitly states that Maryam, the mother of Isa, was a virgin. She did not have any kind of sexual relation with any man before or after the birth of Isa and remained a virgin in the strict sense of the word till she departed from this world, as has been mentioned in verse 12 of al Tahrim that Maryam, the daughter of Imran, guarded her chastity, and Allah breathed into her His spirit (Isa), and she was an obedient servant of Allah, and she testified the truth of the words of her Lord - she neither lied nor kept anything hidden, because, as Allah says, she was truthful.

We are of the opinion that the complex process of the creation and development of a child in the womb is itself no less a miracle of God that is performed innumerable time each passing day. As regards to Maryam, this was even a greater miracle, as there was no male seed involved. The spirit was breathed into Isa and he spoke at the time of his birth. It is unfortunate that Muslims believe this but when the very spirit or, as has been said by Mohammad, the noor of Mohammad was here in person they doubt how Ali could have spoken at the time of his birth. Quran narrates one such miracle in verse 2:243:

Have you not considered those who went forth from their homes, for fear of death, and they were thousands, then Allah said to them, Die; again He gave them life; most surely Allah is Gracious to people, but most people are not grateful.
This is a historical reference here to the children of Israel, who ran away from their homes in thousands out of fear of the plague, thinking that their timely flight would save them from death. On account of their lack of faith in Allah, death caught up with them under His command. Their bodies turned into dust. Only their bones were lying scattered on the ground. Inspired by Allah, their prophet Ezekiel prayed for them by reciting a particular name, after which, Allah brought them to life again, showing that Allah does what He wills. There is no escape from the will of the Lord. Musa too was given several miracles. This is a sad chapter of history that in spite of such clear signs, his followers continued to doubt him all through his life. One such miracle was when people died and were raised back to life. It so happened that a group of seventy (stupid) elders demanded to see Allah and hear His voice, but when the manifestation of the divine glory came on

them, they were destroyed (see Araf: 155). The lightning appeared on the demand of the people, and upon seeing it, they all died. Musa too fell down senseless and when he recovered the others were raised after death. It is evident that the people asked Musa to show them the proof of his prophethood by requesting Allah to appear in person. In their foolishness they did not know that corporeality is for the creatures, not for the uncreated creator, therefore, their demand was met by another proof - the raising after death. In the same manner, when Bani Israel departed from Egypt towards the Philistine via the Red Sea, the Lord all the time went before them, by day a pillar of cloud to guide them on their journey, by night a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel night and day. (Exodus 13) Manna and salwa - two heavenly foods kept coming for the people. Not only this, Quran talks of a mountain that was lifted. This miracle is similar to that performed by Krishna when he lifted the mountain to give shelter to the people from rain. It seems that similar miracles given to several prophets. For instance, returning of the sun is common to Krishna and Yusha ibn Noon. Verse 2:63 of Quran states the miracle of the lifting of the mountain in following words:

And when We took a promise from you and lifted the mountain over you: Take hold of the law (Taurait) We have given you with firmness and bear in mind what is in it, so that you may guard (against evil).
The following wonderful events, which became operative as supernatural phenomena, are narrated in the Quran as the miracles given to Musa to furnish the proof of his prophethood.

1. The rod of Musa transformed into a serpent. 2. The brilliance of the palm of Musa. 3. The splitting of the sea. 4. The gushing of water from the rock. 5. The coming of manna and salwa from the heavens. 6. The shadowing of the cloud over the Bani Israel. 7. The raising of the dead. 8. The suspension of the mountain over the people. 9. The transformation of the transgressors into apes. Verse 2:66 of Quran states:

So We made them an example to those who witnessed it and those who came after it, and an admonition to those who guard (against evil).
In spite of these miracles, people didnt listen to their prophets and in fact killed a lot many of them.

I send you therefore prophets, sages, and teachers; some of them you will kill and crucify, others you will flog in your synagogues and hound from city to city. And so, on you will fall the guilt of all the innocent blood spilt on the ground, from innocent Abel to Zechariah son of Berachiah, whom you murdered between the sanctuary and the altar. M ATTHEW 23: 34 AND 35
Quran states clearly that in spite of all visible signs, those with evil hearts are not going to turn believer. Verse 2:118 states:

And those who have no knowledge say: Why doth not Allah speak unto us, or some sign come unto us? Even thus, as they now speak, spake those (who were) before them. Their hearts are all alike. We have made clear the revelations for people who are sure.

Not that Holy Prophet did not perform miracles! Besides those mentioned in the Quran, a large number of miracles, performed by him, have been recorded in the books of history reported on the authentic and unbreakable evidence of the traditions. We have seen a passage as per which 4444 miracles are assigned to him. Not only the Holy Prophet, but also the divinely chosen holy Imams had performed miracles whenever they deemed it necessary and thought that it could serve a definite purpose but refused to put them to use as an answer to the challenge of any antagonistic individual or group, who even after witnessing a miracle would not accept the truth. It is also true that the belief, generated by a miracle, deprives the individual of the possibility of enjoying the real value of the faith acquired through reason and conviction. The demand for miracles (as stated in verses 90 to 93 of Bani Israel) was made to satisfy the lust for witnessing wonders. It was not the true mission of the last prophet of Allah to satisfy the vain desires of the people who merely wanted to watch and enjoy miracles. The signs of Allah are enough for those who are sure. Likewise when prophet Isa was brought before Herod to perform a miracle, he, who had already performed a large number of miracles and whose very birth was the greatest miracle ever witnessed, refused to comply with the request. At another place he said to the Pharisees:

It is a wicked, godless generation that asks for a sign. M ATTHEW 12: 39

This is the reason why, keeping in mind the higher IQ levels of the people after Mohammad, Quran has even called itself as a miracle or sign from God, and challenged all and sundry to attempt to come with even

a chapter like it. See verse 2:23:

And if you are in doubt as to that which We have revealed to Our servant, then produce a chapter like it and call on your witnesses besides Allah if you are truthful.
Pooya/Ali Commentary says: In this verse the almighty all-wise Allah throws an open challenge to mankind for making an effort to compose even one surah (chapter) in the style and manner of the Quran, not only to assert the genuineness of the divine words revealed to a man who did not receive any type of education from any mortal, but also to put an end to doubts and speculations, for ever, that it could be the fabrication of any human mind. This challenge refers to the Quran as a work of literature and wisdom, and not to its effects as some commentators wrongly try to prove. The inimitable literary excellence and the pure and perfect wisdom of the Quran has been and will always be beyond the reach of the literary and intellectual genius of mankind.

Say (O Mohammad), If men and jinn should unite to produce the like of this Quran they could not produce the like of it though they were helpers one of another. Q URAN, B ANI I SRAEL : 88
Even if any one makes an effort, there will be no witness available to testify to his claim. No attempt has been made so far, and no one shall succeed. Aga Mahdi Puya says: Since the beginning of Islam till today, the enemies of Islam have been trying to belittle Islam but they never dared to answer the challenge, in spite of repeated attempts made by the most celebrated scholars and men of letters, jointly and severally. Another miracle performed by Mohammad shows

why Indra of the Vedas, who is none but Mohammad, came to be called rain-god. During the time of the Prophet, there was a severe drought in Medina as there had been no rain for several years. The people of Medina requested the Prophet for dua (prayer). There is a namaz in Islam called Namaz-e-Istisqa (Namaz for rain) and it is advisable that the namaz should be offered under the open sky, outside the city. The Prophet brought the people to a spot outside Medina, where a mosque called Masjid-e-Ghamama (Cloud) is presently located. Now this city is within the confines of the city. According to some traditions, the Prophet asked Imam Husain, then a young child, to pray for rain. Immediately clouds gathered and it rained.
Some of the Miracles of the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali

(The following are) some of the signs of God, the Exalted, and His clear proof of the Commander of the faithful, which indicate his position with regard to God, the Mighty and High, and his special endowment with miracles by which he was set apart from everyone else through the call for obedience to him, to remain steadfast in respecting his authority and closeness to God (wilaya), to recognize his rights and the certainty of His Imamate, and to aware of his protection (from error), perfection and the demonstration of the proof of him. We give the accounts of miracles here as given by Shaykh Mufid (336A.H./948A.D. 413/1022A.D.) in his book Kitab Al-Irshad.

His Miraculous Victory over the Jinn

Another example is the tradition which has become well known about the Apostle of God sending him to the valley of the jinn. Gabriel had told him that groups of them had gathered to plot against him. (The

Commander of the faithful) took the place of the Apostle of God and through God was sufficient for the believers against the plotting (of the jinn). He repelled them from the believers through his strength by which he was set apart from the rest of them. (Mohammad b. Abi al-Sirri al-Tamimi reported on the authority of Ahmad b. al-Faraj, on the authority of al-Hasan b. Musa al-Nahdi, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Wabira b. al-Harith, on the authority of Ibn al-Abbas, who said:) When the Prophet set out against the Banu alMustaliq, he avoided the road. Night came and stopped near a rugged valley. Towards the end of the night, Gabriel, came down to tell him that a group of unbelieving jinn had gone into the valley with the intention of plotting against him and causing harm to his Companions. He called for the Commander of the faithful and told him: Go to this valley, those of the jinn who are enemies of God, who want (to attack) you, will come against you. Repel them with the strength which God has given you. You will be protected by the names of God which He has specially endowed you with knowledge of. He sent with him a hundred men from different groups among the people. He told them: Stay with him and obey his orders. The Commander of the faithful set out for the valley. When he was near the side of the valley, he ordered the hundred men who had accompanied him to stand close to the side and not do anything until he gave them permission. He went forward and stood at the edge of the valley. He sought refuge with God from his enemies and he named God. He signaled to the people who had followed him to come closer. They came closer and there was a gap between him and them of the distance

of a bowshot. Then he began to god down into the valley when a hurricane arose, which almost made the people fall on their faces because of its violence. They could not keep their feet on the ground because of terror of opposition and terror of what would come upon them. The Commander of the faithful shouted: I am Ali b. Abi Talib b. Abd al-Muttalib, the testamentary trustee of authority (wasi) of the Apostle of God and his cousin. Defy (us) if you want to. Persons in the form of gypsies appeared before the people who seemed to have torches of fire in their hands and they dried up (all) the sides of the valley. The Commander of the faithful penetrated deep into the valley, while reciting the Quran and signaling to right and left with his sword. It was not long before the persons became like black smoke. The Commander of the faithful magnified God. Then he climbed back the way he had come down. He stood with the people who had accompanied him. The place became yellow as a result of what had happened to it. The Companions of the Apostle of God said to him: Abu al-Hassan (Ali), we almost died of fear and anxiety for you because of what you met. It was worse than (anything else) that has happened to us. When the enemy showed themselves to me, he told them, and I shouted the names of God, the Exalted, among them, they became smaller and I knew the terror which had come upon them. Therefore I went into the valley without any fear of them. If they had remained in substantial forms, I would have attacked them to the last one. God was sufficient (protection) against their plotting and He was sufficient (help) for the Muslims against their wickedness. The rest of them will go ahead of me to the Apostle of God in order to (confess that they) believe in him. The Commander of the faithful returned with those who had been with him to the Apostle of God. He gave

him the news. (The Apostle) was delighted with him and prayed for his well being. Then he said to him: Ali, those whom God filled with fear through you have come ahead of you to me. They submitted to Islam and I accepted their submission. Then he continued the journey with all the Muslims and they passed through the valley in safety and without fear.

His Sending Back the Sun

Among the wonderful signs which God has brought forth through the hands of the Commander of the faithful, Ali b. Abi Talib, is one, the reports of which have become widespread among the biographers and historians (ulama al-siyar wa al-athar) and about which the poets have composed verses (namely) when he sent back the sun (to its earlier position) on two occasions, once during the life of the Prophet and another time after his death. The account of it being sent back on the first occasion has been reported by Asma daughter of Umays, Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, Jabir b. Abd Allah al-Ansari, Abu Said al-Khudri and a group of the Companions. One day the Prophet was in his house and Ali was in front of him when Gabriel came to him to speak privately to him about God. When inspiration closed in upon him, he used the thigh of the Commander of the faithful as a pillow. He did not raise his head from it until the sun had set. Thus he compelled the Commander of the faithful in that position. So he prayed the afternoon prayer sitting, giving a nod (with his head) for his bowing and prostration. When (the Apostle) awoke from his trance, he said to the Commander of the faithful: Have you missed the afternoon prayer?

I could not pray it standing because of your position, Apostle of God, and the circumstances of hearing inspiration which I was in, he answered. Ask God to send the sun back for you so that you may pray it standing at its proper time just as (it was) when you missed being able to d it, he told him. God, the Exalted, will answer you because of your obedience to God and to His Apostle. [Note the verses from the Upanishads which say that sun, moon, earth and all beings were created by them; God gave this power owing to the intense worship that they performed.] The Commander of the faithful asked God to send back the sun. It was sent back for him so that it came into its position in the sky at the time for the afternoon prayer. The Commander of the faithful prayed the afternoon prayer at it proper time. Then it set. (Asma reported:) By God we heard it at its setting screeching like the screech of the saw in wood. Another incidence of the sun being sent back happened after the Prophets death when Ali wanted to cross the Euphrates at Babylon and many of his followers were occupied in taking their animals and baggage across. He prayed the afternoon prayer himself with a group who were with him. The people did not finish their crossing and many of them missed the time of the prayer. The people recalled the merit of being together for that (prayer) and they spoke about that. When he heard their talk about it, he asked God to send back the sun so that all his followers might be together to perform the afternoon prayer at its proper time. God, the Exalted, answered him by sending back the sun for him. The horizons became such as they are for the time of the afternoon prayer. When the people had said the final

greeting (at the end of the prayer), the sun disappeared and a violent throbbing was heard from it which terrified the people. They became profuse in their glorification of God, in their declarations of His uniqueness, and in seeking forgiveness form him, and in praising God for the favour which he had shown to them. The reports of that have reached the (distant) horizons and its account is widespread among the people. Concerning that al-Sayyid b. Mohammad al-Himyari recited: The sun was sent back for him when he missed the time of the afternoon prayer and sunset had drawn near. So that its light shone (the same as) at its time for the afternoon. Then it fell like a shooting star. For him it was sent back another time at Babylon. It has not been sent back for any Arab creature, Only so that his first (view of it) may be mixed with his later (view of it) and so that it being sent back me be an explanation of a wondrous matter. Ali talking to the fish too is widely reported, as is the fame of wolves speaking to the Prophet and the stones praising God in the palm of his hand. [Last Hymn of the Yajur Veda that we have described in the Book-III confirms that the sun, the moon, the earth and trees all supplicate to God. Also, we request you to remember The Matsya Purana where a fish talks and tells the future events to a person, perhaps a Prophet. Truth is that the Prophet Mohammad, Ali and the rest of the Imams showed all the miracles collectively that the earlier Apostles were given individually as proof. Therefore, we have seen that some Apostle brought back the sun (like Krishna

and Yusha ibn Noon), some brought dead back to life (like Jesus), some used to talk of animals (like Solomon), some foretold the future (like those on whom Vedas were revealed), and other such miracles performed by the earlier prophets. This is just a small portion of the list of miracles that are attributed to Ali. Likewise, the entire 4444 miracles attributed to the Holy Prophet cannot be recounted here, as that description itself would go into a voluminous book.

The Commander of the Faithful and the Jinn

The historians (hamalat al-athar wa-ruwat alakhbar) have also reported the story of the snake and the sign and miraculous nature of it, which is like the story of the fishes and the abating of the waters of the Euphrates. (They reported:) One day the Commander of the faithful was making a speech on the pulpit at Kufa, when a snake appeared at the side of the pulpit and began to climb up until it was near the Commander of the faithful. The people shook with fear at that and were worried about its purpose and about driving it away from the Commander of the faithful. He signaled to them to keep away from it. When it reached the raised platform on which the Commander of the faithful was standing, he bent down towards the snake and the snake spread itself up towards him so that it could gobble his ear. The people fell silent and became distraught at that. It made a croaking sound that many of them heard. Then it went down from its position. The Commander of the faithful moved his lips in a whisper and the snake acted as if it was listening to him. Then it glided away. The ground had swallowed it up. The Commander of

the faithful went on with his speech and brought it to a close. When he had finished it and gone down, the people gathered around him, questioning him about the circumstances of the snake and the wonder of it. He told them: That was not as you had thought. It was only one of the judges of the jinn, whom a case had confused. He came to me to find out from me about it. I informed him about it. He wished me well and departed. A very interesting incident regarding the Ashabe-Kahf (the Men of the Cave) and Imam Ali is mentioned in the booklet Ziarat Places in Syria published by AlMahdi Special Needs Organization, UK. It says: (The Ashab-e-Kahf said to be sleeping at a place in Syria) are six or nine people. According to history and belief, they are the inhabitants of Rome. At that time the king of Rome was Dakyanus, who used to worship idols and also forced the people to worship idols. But the people of Ashab-e-Kahf used to believe in Allah and never used to worship idols. The king Dakyanus was very angry and ordered that the people of Ashab-e-Kahf be killed. So to save their lives they ran away to this cave, praying to Allah to save them from king. So, by the Grace of the Almighty Allah, they went to sleep. And they were sleeping in such a way that it looked as if they were dead. When the king arrived at the cave with his men, he thought that they were dead and went away. After many years they woke up, and feeling very hungry, they went to the town but found that everything had changed. The coins (money) were also old-fashioned. The King Dakyanus had died and also many years had passed. When the King of that time heard of the incidence, he decided to come and visit them. When the people of the cave heard of this visit, they became very frightened and prayed to Allah to keep them in the same condition

as they were before. So they went to sleep again. When the king came, he saw them and ordered the cave to be closed and they are still sleeping there. It is said that every six months, the angels come and change their sides. When our 12 th Imam will come, they will wake up. The names of these are as follows: a) Yamlikha b) Maksalmina c) Maslina d) Marnosh e) Dabarnosh f) Shaznosh g) Kafshsat-tayush h) Kutmir By the time of Prophet Mohammad, the people had forgotten about the incidence of Ashab-e-Kahf. This incident occurred before the time of Hazrat Isa (Jesus). When Allah revealed the above incidence to the Prophet in Quran in Sura-e-Kahaf, that is the time when people wanted to know more about it. With the permission and blessing of Prophet Mohammad, Hazrat Ali and four other people, namely Umar, Abu Bakr, Salman Farsi and Anas bin Malik sat on a carpet, and by a miracle, they flew in air from Medina to Shaam (Syria) and landed near the cave of Ashab-e-Kahf. Hazrat Ali said: This is the cave. Please salute to them. All of them said salaam. Nobody got the reply. Hazrat Ali went near the cave, put his foot on the stone and said Salaam (greetings) as follows: Assalamun Alaykum Ya Ashabe Kahf Var Raqim. (Salam on you the people of the cave) He got the reply as follows:

Wa Alaykum Salaam Ya Wasiy Yur Rasullulah. (Also Salam on you the vicegerent of the Prophet of Allah.) In Allepp town in Syria, which is on the way to Siffin, there is a mosque where a stone is kept on which Imam Husains head was kept and a drop of blood fell on the stone. There was a noor (light) in that stone and therefore the king of that time preserved it.

Miracles by Friends of Ahlebayts

Quran 2:160 says:

Except those who repent and amend and make manifest (the truth), these it is to whom I turn (mercifully); and I am the Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.
Our view is that performing a miracle is not a big deal. Yes, ordinary mortals cannot perform returning the sun or dividing the moon into two. But events like walking on water or flying in the air have oft been performed, even by those who are not Prophets or Imams, but just true believers in God. Hanuman is not the only one who is reported to have flown in the sky. Puranas recount several such incidents. Likewise, we have seen incidents from the lives of certain pious men throwing something on ground that changed into snake, walking on water, or performing similar extraordinary feats. We narrate here an incident of a companion of Prophet, who surely must have died more than 1300 years back. We narrate it here because of its more contemporary nature. Hazrat Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari was a close companion of the Holy Prophet who lived a long life.

The Holy Prophet had told him that he would see the 5 th Imam Mohammad Baqar and to give him his salaams. He was the first visitor to the graves of Shohada-e-Karbala (martyrs of Karbala). When he went to visit the grave of Imam Husain he performed Ghusl (bath) in Nehre Furat (River Euphrates) and wore Ehram (single-piece garment worn by Hajj pilgrims). In 1934, Shah of Iraq was Shah Faisal. His vazir (chief minister) was Nuripasha. Nuripasha saw the dream for three days wherein Jabir told him that water was coming in his grave and there is too much of dampness in Hozaifas grave and to please transfer them to another grave. It was the water of River Tigris. Nuripasha told Shah Faisal about the dream. Shah had also seen the same dream. Soon after the Hajj, on 20 th Zilhajj, 26 th March 1934 they decided to transfer the bodies. It was announced in the PTI News Agency worldwide. Also some Germans came to witness the transfer of the bodies from the graves. The bodies, when they were taken out of the graves were intact with same Kafan (cloth worn on the dead) and even the eyes were wide open and the hair of beard looked as if it was given ghusl (bath) a few moments before. It was wet. Namaz-e-Mayyat (namaz for the dead) was prayed again. The army saluted the bodies and they were transferred to another grave at a new site at Salman Pak near the grave of Hazrat Salmane-Farsi. Many Germans, upon seeing this, accepted Islam. In 1994, the rauza (mausoleum) with all the graves inside it was built.

Kaaba The House of God

In the province of Hijaz in Arabia, not far from the Red Sea is the town of Makkah. In the centre of the town is a small square-built stone structure called Kaaba. The word Kaaba; literally means square. It is believed that Kaaba was first built by Prophet Adam exactly under Baitul Mamoor, which is in heaven. It is also the same shape as Baitul Mamoor. After the strong waves and currents of Prophet Noahs ship, Kaaba was destroyed but the foundation remained. Prophet Ibrahim later built the walls of the Kaaba again. This was done for the devotees to worship in one God but during with time, the people disobeyed his orders and put hundreds of idols inside the Holy Kaaba. Prophet Ibrahim had to clean the Kaaba. By the time of Prophet Muhammad, hundreds of idols had again found place inside Kaaba. At the time of the conquest of Makkah, these idols were removed from the Kaaba and destroyed. This took place in the 8 th year of Hijra that was 630 AD. About 30 years prior to this, Ali was born inside the Holy Kaaba on the 13th of Rajab, in a miraculous manner; the incident is mentioned in Part-III of this book. Quran says in verse 96 of Chapter 3:

Most surely the first house appointed for men is the one at Bekka, blessed and a guidance for the nations.
Explaining this verse further, Pooya/Ali Commentary says: Bakka is a variant for Makkah, either derived from tabakk i.e. press one another in a crowd, or bakk i.e. break ones neck, because whenever it was attacked by an invader his neck had been broken-defeated and crushed. Another version is that Bakka means the holy

house of Kaaba, a guidance unto the worlds. Aqa Mahdi Puya writes: The great antiquity of this house is undisputed. It had been throughout the ages, even before Ibrahim, the object of the greatest veneration It is reported on the authority of the Ahlebayt that the valley of Makkah was the first part of the earth which emerged above the surface of the water and cooled down when the heavens and the earth (an integrated mass) were split by Allahs command (Anbiya: 30, 31), in support of which there are a number of geological evidences. Many a non-Muslim scholar agrees that this holy place, dedicated to the worship of the Lord of the lords, was not only known to the people of Semitic origin but also to the ancient inhabitants of India according to the references available in pre-Sanskrit literature. Ibrahims prayer in Ibrahim: 37 confirms its antiquity. In Baqarah: 125 and 129, it is implied that Allah commanded Ibrahim to renew its foundations, purify it and establish it as a place of worship of the almighty Lord, and settle down there along with his family. The family of Ishmael was chosen as the first human family to inhabit this land with the sole purpose of dedicating themselves wholly to the worship and the service of the Lord of the worlds. The family of Ishmael was the first to be called the people of the house (Ahlebayt), then Ishaq and his mother (Hud: 73) and after that Musa and his mother (Qasas: 12) were referred to as Ahlebayt. The term Ahlebayt has been used for the descendants of Ibrahim (the lineage of Ibrahim through Ishaq was cut off after Isa). Actually al-bayt (the house) refers to the house of Allah, and the descendants of Ishmael have been referred to as Ahlebayt because they had devoted themselves, without any deviation, gap or drift, to the service of Allah and His house. They were the founders and the protectors of the house of Allah, and it is to

their lineage references have been made in verses 36 and 37 of al Noor. The place they founded and established for the remembrance of Allah has been described as a blessed, sacred sanctuary, and a guidance unto the worlds, because they devoted their lives to its service and attracted mankind to its ultimate purpose through their ideal virtues and righteousness. The house and the people of the house are inseparable. Their house, wherever it may be, is the house of Allah. As they cannot be separated from the Quran (hadees al Saqalayn) the house of Allah can never be without their presence. The house is a guidance if the people of the house are identified and kept in view. The house is a sanctuary and a blessing if one enters it by the permission and pleasure of the Ahlebayt, described as Safinatul Nuh (ship of Nuh or Noah). Verse 3:97 of Quran states:

In it are clear signs, the standing place of Ibrahim, and whoever enters it shall be secure, and pilgrimage to the House is incumbent upon men for the sake of Allah, (upon) every one who is able to undertake the journey to it; and whoever disbelieves, then surely Allah is Self-sufficient, above any need of the worlds.
Writes Pooya/Ali commentary: The station or the standing place of Ibrahim, the model believer in the unity of Allah, has the following points of significance (clear signs). (1) The standing place of Ibrahim has been made the permanent religious centre of all monotheists, because his faith (belief in the unity of Allah) was perfect, an ideal for every believer. (2) It is a sacred sanctuary. Whoso enters it is safe from

the clutches of the disbelievers. It is a historic fact that all invaders who attacked this holy precinct were destroyed. (3) Pilgrimage to the Kaaba to seek spiritual guidance has been made obligatory on mankind forever. The believers shall go to Kaaba to carry out the command of Allah till the day of resurrection. It should be noted that this prophecy was made at a time when the Muslims were in danger of being exterminated by their enemies. Says he on another occasion: This institution of pilgrimage (hajj) has taken root in the lives of the Muslims. Every year a great many pilgrims come to Kaaba to translate their faith into action. There is no sponsor, no convener, no invitation, no compulsion. At Kaaba, during the pilgrimage, they forget their social status, ideology, race, colour, and nationality and become a single party of the servants of Allah, dressed in a simple identical garment, standing in rows, shoulder to shoulder, before their Lord, in front of His holy house, praying to one God, in the language of the Quran, which, truly, is the everlasting miracle of the prophet of Islam, a clear sign of the victory of truth. In the end it is made clear that one who has sufficient means must perform the hajj. Willful neglect of this commandment of Allah amounts to the abandonment of His faith (infidelity). So he who willfully neglects the pilgrimage does so at his own peril, and not to any hurt to his Lord, because He is independent of the worlds. He is self-sufficient. Whether the whole mankind serves Him or none observe His commandments, it makes no difference to Him whatsoever. The hajj has been prescribed for mens own good. There is no profit or gain for Him. It is an escape from the sins a man commits (and its consequences) to take refuge under the shelter

of Allahs mercy. The Holy Prophet has said: He who willfully does not perform the hajj shall rise on the day of resurrection in the state of infidelity, having no vision. Hajj wipes out the sins as fire removes corrosion from the iron. Aqa Mahdi Puya says: (1) Who can afford means ability with ease concerning wealth, health and security. In the case of any adverse condition this ordinance is not applicable. (2) Man kafara (whosoever denies) shows the importance of the pilgrimage. As the Holy Prophet has said the able but willful non-performer becomes an infidel. It is a positive test of the submission to Allahs will and a sure remedy to cure the evil disease of egotism. Millions of Muslims converge to the Kaaba at the time of Hajj each year. Yet none truly knows what is the significance of Kaaba. Muslims continue to believe in One Absolute Non-Visible God. Their belief, particularly those of the Wahabis, is that all material associations with God have to be discarded. For this reason, they have banned tazia processions in their country and also razed the mausoleums of Imams as well as Fatima to the ground. If that is so, what is Kaaba doing there. Why is it that this material structure given so much of importance that one who willfully refrains from performing hajj, in spite of available resources, becomes an infidel? How can all worship, all beliefs, all piety become useless when one does not go to perform hajj? This writer tried to ask this question from several Muslim scholars but none could give a satisfactory answer. This is the dictate of the God, some said. This is the proof of Allahs victory, said others? This is the

consequence of Ibrahims prayer being fulfilled, was another opinion? But why a material structure, when Sauds themselves claim to have vanquished all signs of material attachments? Material attachment is discounted so much so that even taking of photographs or preparing a sketch of a human being is prohibited by a few, even if it is that of the Prophet. Fatimas mausoleum has been brought down citing this argument. If their view is true then how could it be that Islam, which prospered with the concept of denying all associations other than God, left this stone structure on earth? Is this also part of the Sauds belief to bring Kaaba to ground and they are unable to do so out of fear of the Muslim community? Or is it the charm of huge hajjmoney that comes that does not allow them to do so? After all, they need money to spend on their lavish propaganda drives, citing their version of Islam as true, personal investments in Western companies and seeking entertainment on Piccadily Street nightclubs in London. The self-appointed guardians of Kaaba who have razed all the mausoleums of Imams and Fatima need to reply to this! Just think for a moment. Would it be easy for them to forego the guardianship of Kaaba, if the rightful descendent of Prophets house was to appear? It is this guardianship that had given them the respect in the world, so much so that they are using it to implement their concepts of religion. It is this guardianship that has given them the money, which they spend lavishly on propaganda, investments and even seeking entertainment on Piccadily Street nightclubs. Without oil, Kaaba was one of the major revenue earners for the governments of the region. Similar to the Sheikhs of present-day Arabia, the rich and the influential never wanted that that all this money be given to feeding the poor or helping the needy,

of which they had become so sure after seeing the conduct of the members of the Prophets family. They knew that no corruption, no ill-gotten money, no deviation from Islamic principles would ever be tolerated. They had joined Islam to reap on the benefits and consequent to Prophet announcing successor, they were certain that there would be no benefits even in future. They had little choice but to deny Ali the Caliphate. And it was done in such haste that just handfuls were present with Ali to bury the Prophet, while the rest had been terrorized to stay indoors by a sword-wielding gentleman, while they gathered at a place to appoint the successor. No one ever gives a thought why so much preparation was done to the building of this small house. It is said that Adam laid the foundations of Kaaba with stone. Due to the Great Flood, the foundations had crumbled. Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) together with his son Ishmael rebuilt the Kaaba. If we read the story of Ibrahim carefully, we will find that out of way preparations were done prior to building of Kaaba so much so that Hajira (Ibrahims wife) and the young Ishmael were left to fend for themselves at a barren, uninhabited land. Message was clear. And it was the same that Vedas were trying to give: to identify the place where Gods Divine signs were to appear. The entire preparation was related with identifying the concept of the Triad. Gita has said clearly that it is difficult for man with a materialistic bent of mind to comprehend a nonManifest, non-visible power. This was the reason why each time a Prophet came with his teachings, man either deified that prophet or made other structures to give a material form to God. In case of Musa, it barely took a few weeks for them to do so. Fact is that God had no choice but to take help of material devices to prove his presence. Take the case of Quran! Is it not a material thing? Had God any choice

as regards to this? Even if Quran had been confined to speech or presented as written on the face of the sky, material connotations cannot be discounted. If He decided to have Divine Proofs in the form of Ahlebayts, who are we to doubt? Adam knew that this was the first lesson that he was taught (when he was told the names). Therefore, he, immediately upon coming on earth, built the Kaaba, even so it was just a stone that served as an indicator. This was synonymous that the material or allow us to say manifest proofs of God would come, one of whom would bring the book, and all of whom would be ever united with its content. This book or the purpose of showing the path could not have been delegated to ordinary mortals, which could have triggered the same disunity that we had talked earlier and which Islam was trying to remove. Moreover, it cannot be said with guarantee about a person who is pious at the moment that he would remain so in the days ahead. How could it be guaranteed that the Messengers chosen by God do not deviate? It was essential that they be pure to such an extent that God could vouch for their chastity and conduct. It was also essential that they be knowledgeable. Remember, that these parameters of purity, knowledge etc. are not ones made by us but by God. They have to be superior to the thought and reach of all men. This necessitated the creation of 14 devatas or Masooms from the pure essence, right at the beginning of creation. Since God before all Creation created them, there is no doubt that they had knowledge of everything that happened from then onwards. We will prove later that they even possessed knowledge about future, but only to that extent that was given by God. Even those who were born prior to the time when the art of reading or writing developed needed messengers. Therefore, God appointed Apostles or

Prophets who came with the teachings. The level of their purity and auspiciousness decided the amount of this Divine Book they had access to. They tried to highlight one or the other facets of teachings present in this book. The higher the level of the Prophet, the greater was the level of their teachings. There were those Messengers too who only reiterated the teachings of the earlier ones and didnt bring a scripture. Yet all the earlier Messengers made it a point to inform of those who were to bring the entire scripture on earth and who were to take teachings to conclusion. Not only this, they would be those with answers to each and every query or problem faced by us and who would show through practice how each and every line of the entire revealed book can be put to practice. The conclusion is therefore that Hajj was introduced to highlight the importance of Kaaba, which showed that material things couldnt be discounted in Gods scheme of things. The Muslims universally recognize the books (Qurans) importance. Yet, this book was completed only when its teachers were introduced. At Ghadeer-e-Khum, while returning from Hajj (from visit of Kaaba), the Prophet asked thousands of men accompanying him to converge at a point. Then he raised Ali high in his hands and introduced him as the successor. Not only this, all the Muslims accompanying him were told to pay respect to Ali and also told to pass on this vital message to others. It was at this moment that the last of the verse was revealed which informed of the completion of the book. Not only at this moment but also on countless other occasions, the Prophet had clearly told the importance of the Ahlebayt (Men of the Household). Muslims were asked to hold on to book and Ahlebayt. It is unfortunate that Muslims and including Shias thought that from Ahlebayt the members of the House of Prophet were mentioned. However, it can be

proved that by the word Ahlebayt, Members of House of God are meant. Kaaba was a symbolic house of God on earth and Prophet, Fatima and the twelve Imams were the representatives in human form of God Himself. If this is not the case why is Mohammad also addressed as Ahlebayt in Ayat-e-Tatheer (see Hadees-e-Kisa in BookI)? Clearly, the verse was meant for all those under the sheet and Muhammad too was there. And it addressed the Ahlebayt directly, O members of the House (of God), it is Gods wish that you remain pure. Muhammad too is the member of the House, in fact, the head of the members of the House the head deva in heavens. That is why the Prophet tried his best to identify his successors, right from the time when the Message was first made public. The last sermon, Khudba-eGhadeer which is a long speech in which he talked of nothing but the importance of Ali in Gods schemes for future, is a case in point. He even said that I am leaving behind two valuable things, the book and the progeny, and if remain associated with them, you wont ever be misguided. It is the most unfortunate that people left the side of the Caliph-designates appointed by God and identified by the Prophet all through his life and by all the Prophets who had come prior to him, immediately after the death of the Prophet and appointed their own Caliphs. Consequently the teachings of Islam got corrupted and tree of Islam that the Prophet had laboriously strived to grow and maintain, got so feeble within a period of 50 years after Prophet Muhammad that Husain had no choice but to sprinkle his own blood and that of his friends and relatives, to give life to it. Finally, we conclude our discussion. Message is clear! The House of Allah in its material form is in front of you. Book of Allah has been given but it required a material presence of a human to give it. House can never be without inhabitants. Look out for the People of

the House, the Ahlebayt. If Allah has pointed at a structure as His house and you give it so importance that you converge in millions to perform hajj, then keep in mind the People of the House of God. They, and the path shown by them, alone lead to salvation. Look out for them! You will only find them clinging to the book, at all times! As Quran says in 2:149-150:

And from whatsoever place you come forth, turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque; and surely it is the very truth from your Lord, and Allah is not at all heedless of what you do.
And from whatsoever place you come forth, turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque; and wherever you are turn your faces towards it, so that people shall have no accusation against you, except such of them as are unjust; so do not fear them, and fear Me, that I may complete My favor on you and that you may walk on the right course. And see verse 158 of Chapter 2:

Surely the Safa and the Merwa are among the signs appointed by Allah; so whoever makes a pilgrimage to the House or pays a visit (to it), there is no blame on him if he goes round them both; and whoever does good spontaneously, then surely Allah is Grateful, Knowing.
Pooya/Ali commentary says: Safa and Merwa are two clusters of rocks between which the pilgrims run back and forth during hajj. They are the scene of Hajiras running to and fro in search of water, after being left alone with Ishmael in the blistering heat and wilderness of Makkah. Before the Holy Prophet had purified and perfected the rituals of hajj, Usaf, an idol, was kept on Safa, and Nu-allah, another idol, was

kept on Merwah, therefore, people did not like to go to these rocks. Through this verse, the said stigma has been removed and running between the two rocks has been made an obligatory function of the hajj. Sha-a-irillah means signs of Allah, which remind a person of Allah or a representative of Allah - a prophet or an imam, whose remembrance itself would be an act of virtue or devotion to Allah. It is in this sense that the followers of Muhammad and Ali Muhammad give respect to alams, tazias, zarihs, associated with the holy Imams. What sign is there in Safa and Merwah that importance was attached to it. Our view is that Merwah is the same as the Meru of the Vedas. With time a lot many myths got associated with this as well, so much so that Puranas talk of it as a mighty mountain. Yet, Mahabharata states that Arjuna had to go to Mount Meru to meet Indra and even to enter his heaven. Myths state Mount Meru is situated in the centre of the world. Our analysis has shown that it is recorded as being in Asia but certainly not in India. In fact, a direction is pointed from Meru that goes to India. Isnt Kaaba located at the centre of the world? You go a bit east and you reach east, you go a bit west and you reach west, a little north of this place takes you to north and south is sea but that is definitely considered the south. Europe on the west of Arabia is acknowledged as West even today, while India, Pakistan, Afghanistan are acknowledged as East. The countries north of Arabia, Syria, and Iraq and other countries broken from the erstwhile USSR would be termed as situated in the north by anybody. And the equator is not much to its south, beyond which the Southern Hemisphere commenced, though not much was known of it during those times. In fact, minus the discovery of America, Arabia was exactly

at the centre, situated strategically at the centre of all major civilizations, be it in Europe, Africa, India and China. It is stated that when Prophet announced his Prophethood for the first time, he called all Quraish to a mountain, perhaps Merwah, and asked them whether they would believe if he were to say that a mighty army is coming from behind this mountain to attack them. They all said that they would agree, as they had never heard Mohammad saying anything that was incorrect. Then Mohammad told them that he had been appointed by God as His Prophet and invited them all to accept his teachings. The Vishnu Purana states that it had been formerly agreed by the Munis, that any of them who, at a certain time, did not join an assembly held on Mount Meru should incur the guilt of killing a Brahman, within a period of seven nights. Did anybody ever bother to find out what meeting is being talked about?