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Pourquoi UNPEC ?

Un programme pluriannuel soutenu par

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Partenaires scientifiques :
of un frir te in rra

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m our E p e In til
Les systmes naturels souffrent de plus en plus de la pression croissante de lurbanisation. En effet, des concentrations de population plus leves ncessitent plus despace, plus deau quen requirent des populations plus rduites. Pourtant, pour rpondre aux besoins des communauts humaines, les systmes naturels dont elles dpendent doivent tre prservs. Les aires protges sont une stratgie courante et efficace, bien que dans les milieux urbains cela peut tre particulirement complexe. Pendant quatre ans (2012-2015), UNPEC effectuera un programme interdisciplinaire de recherche applique sur Le Cap, Mumbai, Nairobi, Rio et leurs parcs nationaux urbains. Dans ce contexte, linterdpendance entre les hommes et la nature peut paratre vidente, mais souvent, les gestions des parcs et des villes sont des activits indpendantes. En collaboration avec les dcideurs, UNPEC sattachera comprendre les implications et les consquences de ces dynamiques. Pour les gestionnaires des aires protges et les collectivits locales: UNPEC et le rseau daires protges urbaines (UPA Network) offrent une perspective indpendante sur linteraction entre les villes et leurs espaces protgs. La dimension comparative de ce travail permettra aussi dinteragir directement avec vos homologues dautres aires protges urbaines, dans le cadre de notre discussion commune sur les particularits de la gestion de la nature dans - et pour - leurs contextes urbains. Pour les chercheurs: UNPEC et le Rseau UPA offrent un terreau fertile pour les travaux empiriques et thoriques portant sur les multiples reprsentations de la nature dans les villes, la segmentation spatiale et sociale, les services cosystmiques et les risques, y compris dans leur dimension culturelle, la diffusion des modles globaux de parc national, volle mondiale ou mergence, ainsi que les gouvernances multi-chelles.

s k r a es P l i a t i n C io s & ique t a N trie t thor n a un que e b r U g Co empiri n i vail a g r er le t

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Plus dinformation :
www.upa-network.org
Coordinateurs des sites: Nairobi: Bernard Calas IFRA-Nairobi fracasses@wanadoo.fr Mumbai: Fredric Landy Universit Paris Nanterre Frederic_landy@orange.fr Cape Town: Estienne Rodary IRD/IFAS estienne.rodary@ird.fr Rio de Janeiro: Louise Bruno Institut Libertas louise.bruno@yahoo.fr

UPA
URBAN PROTECTED AREAS NETWORK

Dans les pays mergents et les villes

UNPEC Un partenariat recherche & action


En troite collaboration avec les gestionnaires des parcs et des villes, les quipes pluridisciplinaires entreprendront des travaux sur chaque site, ponctus par trois rencontres internationales: Rio de Janeiro 2012 // Cape Town 2013 // Paris 2014 Parc national de Tijuca

Ci-dessus: Les limites de lexpansion urbaine sur le parc national de Nairobi

SANJAY GANDHI NATIONAL PARK MUMBAI - BOMBAY, INDE

LES THMATIQUES TRANSVERSALES :

Cr en 1950, il couvre aujourdhui 103 km2. Son extension graduelle, parfois conflictuelle, fait que ses limites sont contestes par de multiples acteurs. Son rle dans lapprovisionnement en eau des quelques 20 millions dhabitants est devenu rsiduel, mais la fort, pour lessentiel semi-dcidue, demeure essentielle pour limiter lrosion ou temprer le micro-climat urbain. En 1995, on comptait plus de 500 000 personnes dans les bidonvilles lintrieur du parc, 2 ou 3000 adivasis (aborignes), plus des rsidences bourgeoises. Ecologistes et dfenseurs des bidonvilles saffrontent, tandis que les promoteurs immobiliers guignent les espaces dgags et qulus et administration locale ont un jeu parfois ambigu. Certains ambitionnent grer cet espace comme nimporte quel parc national, tandis que lagglomration nglige son potentiel : un modle de fort urbaine pleinement intgre reste inventer.

LEmergence La notion dmergence fait ressortir la juxtaposition de groupes sociaux et despaces de plus en plus contrasts, avec des systmes de reprsentation de la nature et de la ville divergents. UNPEC travaille sur les discours, formes et modles dmergence des parcs et des villes, entre le local, le national et le mondial. Limites et Flux Malgr des frontires souvent clairement dlimites des aires protges, les flux multiples qui les traversent (faune, eau, produits, personnes, etc.) marquent une profonde interdpendance avec leurs milieux urbains. UNPEC analyse le contenu, les perceptions et les consquences de ces flux. Politiques Urbaines / Solutions Naturelles Tout comme les aires protges contribuent prserver les services cosystmiques essentiels aux besoins des villes, les actions des citadins et des institutions influencent la gestion des aires protges. UNPEC explore ces dynamiques synergiques et contradictoires. Adaptation base sur les cosystmes (EbA) Le changement climatique a des consquences directes sur la sant des cosystmes et le bien-tre des populations. UNPEC tudie le rle des aires protges urbaines dans ladaptation locale et la rsilience.

PARC NATIONAL TABLE MOUNTAIN - LE CAP, AFRIQUE DU SUD


Alors que la ville du Cap continue son expansion, son parc national continue dacqurir de nouvelles terres pour protger un cosystme emblmatique. Quartiers riches et informels exercent de plus en plus de pression sur la ville comme sur le parc. Dimportants changes structurent les interactions entre zones urbaine et protge: TMNP est un des principaux moteurs de lconomie touristique locale, avec de revenus directs qui attirent les convoitises. Les conflits entre hommes et babouins ne peuvent faire oublier un habile mcanisme de gestion bilatrale.

PARC NATIONAL DE NAIROBI - NAIROBI, KENYA

PARC NATIONAL DE TIJUCA - RIO DE JANEIRO, BRSIL

Situ 7 km du centre de Nairobi, cette aire protge marque la limite nord du couloir de migration saisonnier de la faune de quelque 2000 km de savane semi-aride. Le long de ses frontires nord et est, une clture lectrique spare les espaces protgs du parc de la croissance industrielle et urbaine de la mtropole ponyme. Au sud, le parc reste ouvert, permettant la libre circulation de la faune dans lcosystme plus vaste. Cependant, avec la croissance urbaine de Nairobi, les terres autour du NNP sont de plus en plus convoites pour des usages incompatibles avec la conservation. Initialement la pression urbaine stait concentre sur les frontires du parc, mais ces dernires annes ont vu une activit accrue dans les plaines du sud lhabitat historique des Maasai. En raison dun besoin partag despace ouvert, lavenir de leur pratique traditionnelle est profondment li la viabilit du corridor de migration de la faune sauvage.

Le parc national de Tijuca, avec la statue du Christ symbole de Rio de Janeiro, est la fois le plus petit et le plus visit du Brsil. En plus des contributions lconomie touristique locale, cette zone protge contribue galement lquilibre du climat local, tout en offrant un espace de loisirs, de culture et dexpression spirituelle plusieurs millions dhabitants. Dans les frontires du parc, cependant, lexpansion des bidonvilles et quartiers riches exerce des pressions importantes sur la qualit cologique de la fort, alors que la violence urbaine persistante menace son potentiel rcratif. Etant donn ces interactions profondes, le parc et la ville cherchent rduire les impacts urbains sur la fort et promouvoir un quilibre socio-environnemental le long de leurs frontires via une gestion partage.

Why UNPEC?

A research program supported by

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Scientific Partners :
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c e np

m d for e E n I roun

s k r a es P l i a t i n C io s & k t a N trie al wor n a c Urb g Cound theoreti n i l an a g c i er mpir

Increasingly urbanized landscapes put growing pressure on the natural systems they transform: higher concentrations of people demand more land, water and opportunity than smaller populations. Yet to meet the needs of human communities, the natural systems they depend upon must be preserved. One common and effective strategy for this is to protect areas; but in urban settings, this can turn out to be particularly complex. Over a four-year period (2012-2015), UNPEC will conduct an interdisciplinary program of applied research on Cape Town, Mumbai, Nairobi and Rio and their respective Urban National Parks. In such settings, the interdependence between people and nature may seem be obvious but often, it appears City and Park management are undertaken as though they were separate activities. UNPEC will work to understand the implications and consequences of decoupled dynamics. For Protected Area Managers and Urban Institutions: UNPEC and the Urban Protected Area (UPA) Network offer an independent perspective on the interaction between each City and its adjacent National Park. The comparative dimension of this work will also afford several opportunities to interact directly with your counterparts from other Urban Protected Areas, as part of our ongoing interactive discussion about the specificities of managing nature in and for the benefit of urban settings. For Researchers: UNPEC and the UPA Network offer fertile ground for empirical and theoretical work on the representations of nature in the city by different stakeholders, on spatial and social segmentation, on the economic benefits ecosystem services, on environmental risk abatement through ecosystem-based land management, circulation of global models, multi-scale interactions, etc.

Further information :
www.upa-network.org
Site Coordinators: Nairobi: Bernard Calas IFRA-Nairobi - fracasses@wanadoo.fr Mumbai: Frdric Landy Universit Paris Nanterre Frederic_landy@orange.fr Cape Town: Estienne Rodary IRD/IFAS - estienne.rodary@ird.fr Rio de Janeiro: Louise Bruno Institut Libertas - louise.bruno@yahoo.fr

UPA
URBAN PROTECTED AREAS NETWORK

In Emerging Countries & Cities

UNPEC: A Learning Partnership


In close collaboration with local park and city managers, interdisciplinary teams of researchers will undertake three waves of fieldwork in each site, punctuated by three international meetings: Rio de Janeiro 2012 // Cape Town 2013 // Paris 2014

Above: National park boundaries shape urban expansion (Nairobi)

CROSS-CUTTING THEMATIC AREAS


The Emergence A defining characteristic of emerging economies is the sharpening of social and spatial contrasts that arise from evolving lifestyles and economic and cultural disparities. Cities are the vanguard of this transformation, which inevitably yet unevenly reshapes the relationship of urban people with urban nature. With special attention to the linkages between local, national and global scales, UNPEC aims to understand and articulate the implications of emerging city models and discourse across the socioeconomic spectrum. Boundaries & Flows Though each of these protected areas most often exhibits clearly demarcated boundaries, multiple flows across these lines (wildlife, water, revenue, people, etc.) mark a deep interdependence with their respective urban hosts. UNPEC will characterize the nature, perceptions and consequences of these flows. Urban Solutions / Natural Solutions Just as protected areas can support the ecosystem services essential to meet the needs of cities, the actions of urban people and institutions shape the management of these protected areas. UNPEC will explore the nature of these dynamics. Ecosystem Based Adaptation (EbA) Climate change has direct consequences both for the health of natural systems and the well-being of urban people. UNPEC studies the role of protected areas in local adaptation and urban resilience. *The maps on this page illustrate the four protected areas at identical scale though totally removed from their urban contexts. An important aim of UNPEC will be to contextualize these spaces as intrinsic components of the cities that have grown in their midst.

Tijuca National park

SANJAY GANDHI NATIONAL PARK - MUMBAI, INDIA


Sometimes expanding to subsume neighboring communities, at other times yielding to over 200,000 slum-dwellers living within its territory, the SGNP is a densely-forested protected area embedded in the fast-growing metropolitan area of Mumbai (pop. ~20 million). A recent High Court ruling ordered the eviction of all informal residents from park land an event with multiple unintended consequences for people and ecosystems alike. Increasing human-leopard conflicts, an ageing tourist infrastructure, contradictory visions over the future of adivasi (tribal) settlements in the park, imbalanced predator-prey relationships, urban flood-mitigation potential and the overriding question of how the poor can realise their right to the city in the worlds densest metropolis all contribute to an exceedingly complex social-ecological system.

TABLE MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK - CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA


Just as urban Cape Town continues to expand, its emblematic national park also continues to acquire new land. Informal settlements and wealthy communities increasingly exert pressure on City and Park alike. Though largely unfenced, several important crossborder flows into this protected area structure its interaction with the city: TMNP is a major driver of the local tourist economy, yet City authorities explicitly covet the direct revenue it generates; meanwhile, disputes over management of human-baboon conflict predominate an otherwise robust and unique mechanism for bilateral management.

NAIROBI NATIONAL PARK - NAIROBI, KENYA

TIJUCA NATIONAL PARK - RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

Situated 7 km from central Nairobi, this protected area marks the northern limit of seasonal wildlife migration from some 2000 km of semi-arid savanna. Along the parks northern and eastern boundaries, an electric fence separates the urban and industrial growth of the capital city from the formally protected area within. To its south, the park remains unfenced, allowing free movement of wildlife into the broader ecosystem. However, as Nairobi continues to grow, land around NNP is increasingly coveted for uses incompatible with conservation. Early pressure was concentrated on the parks urban-facing boundaries, but recent years have seen increased activity in the southern plains historical home of Maasai pastoralists. Owing to a shared need for open spaces, the future of their traditional practices is deeply tied to the viability of this migratory corridor for wildlife.

Tijuca National Park, with the statue of Christ as symbol of Rio de Janeiro, is both the smallest and most visited in Brazil. Beyond its contributions to the local tourist economy, this protected area also ensures the balance of the local climate, while providing them with spaces for recreation, cultural and spiritual expression. On the parks boundaries, however, expanding slums and wealthy communities exert direct pressure on the forests ecological integrity, while persistent urban violence threatens its recreational potential. Given these deep interdependencies, municipal officials and park managers work on reducing urban impacts on the forest while still promoting a social-environmental balance along their boundaries through collaborative management.