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pdf Expert teacher must have a fluent delivery, readiness of with, presence of mind, a great stock of interesting anecdotes and must be able to expound the most dif ficult texts without any difficulty or delay. Teacher's income therefore consisted partly of offerings obtained by him 'on the occasions of rituals and sacrifices and Partly of voluntary gifts given by his students either during or after their course. Usually each teacher had only about 15 to 20 students reading under him. ------Influence of Caste system Education was NOT bound to Brahmanas only. Kshatriya teachers of Vedic and philo sophical subjects existed down the 6th century B.C.(the whole of the third book of the Rig-veda is a composition of the various members of the Kshatriya ViSvami tra family). It was only in later times around 300 B.C. that religious and liter ary education came to be confined to the Brahmanas and professional and industri al training to non-Brahmanas. Caste system was formerly much less rigid than now, mentioned by writer Manu and Apastamba.Shudra can prepare sacred sacrificial food.Brahmana can take meal wit h Marber or milk man. Shudra were rigorously excluded from the Vedic education and rituals because The Aryan's theologians believe was that if there was the slightest mistake in the accent or the pronunciation of the Vedic Mantras, a disaster would inevitably i ssue and as the Vedic Sanskrit was not the mother tongue of the Shudras, it was feared that Vedic hymns would be transformed out of recognition, if they were tr ansmitted orally in Shudra families from generation to generation. Same for Fema le also even if female from Brahmana's family. -----------Girls education mostly at home by Father/Borther or Uncle but at some places ter ms like 'Upadhayayani' shows Lady teachers may probably have confined themselves to the teaching of girl students, though some may have taught boys also. women were regarded as perfectly eligible for the privilege of studying the Vedic lit erature and performing the sacrifices enjoined in it down to about 200 B. C. som etimes boys and girls were educated together while receiving higher education an d sometimes love marriages used to take place as a consequence of it. Intercaste marriages was allowed, provided the bridegroom belonged to a higher caste. Till 500 B.C. girls education continued. After 500 B.C. special effort was made to give girls a good grounding in domesti c and culinary arts and fine arts like music, dancing, painting, garland-making and household decorations. --------Daily schedule of the Student: 4-30 A. M. -- Wake-up Bath --> Morning Prayer --> Fire rituals 7 to 11 a.m --> Study (memorising and revision work) 11 A.M. -- Meal Rest for 1 hr 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. -- Study(New lessons) physical exercises Collect sacred fuel for sacrifices Evening -- Prayer --> Attend fire sacrifice Supper Note: student must beg his food both in the morning and in the evening to teach

them humility and make them realise that it was due to the sympathy and help of society that he was learning the heritage of the race, and being enabled to foll ow a profession that would secure him a living, which consequently removed the differ ence between poor and rich Food and dress were to be simple but sufficient. In extreme case only shows,umbr ella, cots and hair oil were allowed. ----------The Theory of Three Debts : To accept and maintain the best traditions of though t and action of the past generations. 1: All, he owes a debt to gods, and he can liquidate it only by learning how to perform proper sacrifies and by regularly offering them. Religious traditions of the race thus preserved. 2: He owes a debt to the rishis or savants of the bygone ages and can discharge it only by studying their works and continuing their literature and professional traditions. The rising generation was thus enabled to master and maintain the b est literary and professional traditions. 3: The debt to the ancestors, which can be repaid only by raising progeny and by imparting proper education to it. Steps were thus to take to see that the risin g generation became an efficient torch-bearer of the culture and traditions of t he past. ----------Course duration was not fixed and even there was a flxibility to continue higher studies to the bright students. Society didn't prefe study after 25 to 30 as ma rriage would get postponed. Those students who could not be employed by the government used to get some mone tary help to enable them to start their lives. Literacy rate was 75% but a set b ack after about 800 A.D. -------Like hindus, in muslims also, Bismilla Khani celebration at the age of 5 is done at the beginning of primary education. Text books must have gone on changing in course of time when better and more upto-date books written by competent authorities esp if author has passed from tha t school only. Intellectual freedom, individual attention to students, the monitorial system, g urukula ideal, plain living and high thinking, mass education, combination of us eful and liberal education, the locating of educational institutions away from t he din and dust of the city-life, etc.are inherently sound and capable of yieldi ng excellent results even in modern times if applied with due regafct to change d circumtances Upanayana of both boys and girls of Brahmana, Kshatriya and Vaishya classes(Trai varnikas) was universal among the Aryans at 600 B. C. but after approx. 500 A.D. it was ceased to be performed by Kshatriya and Vaishya and hence male literacy came down to around 40%. Literacy further went down by about another 10 percent by the 12th century A. D.(5% among girls and 30 % among men). Limitataion 1. Secular sciences like history, economics, politics, mathematics and astronomy did not receive as much attention as theology, philosophy, ritualism and sacred law which were religious science. 2. Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Varahamihira and Bhaskaracharya knew the true causes of eclipses, but felt powerless because of the mythological explanation canonise d by the Puranas.

------------------Aim of education: Society, State and Education 1. To make the student fit to become a useful and pious member of society 2. Character formation by proper development of the moral feeling 3. Personality development 4. Inculcation of civic and social duties 5. Promotion of social efficiency and happiness 6. Preservation and spread of the national heritage and culture -------------------------1. Pre-historic time to 1000 B.C (consists of EARLY VEDIC AGE (C. upto 1500 B. C .), LATER VEDIC AGE (C. 1500 to 1000 B. C.) i.e. Vedic period Key notes: It was emphasised that gods would be friends of only those who are wi se and learned. No distinction was made between boys and girls. 2. 1000 B.C. TO 200 B.C. (Upanishads, Sutras and Epics) - Leaders Barhadrathas, SiSunagas, Nandas and Mauryas Key notes: Most creative period of Hindu culture and literature , arts and scien ces. In later years, girls education came down. 3. 200 B.C. TO 500 A.D. -- (Dharmasastra) -- Leaders Sungas, Satavahanas, Vakata kas and Guptas Key notes: Age of critical reflection and specialisalion. Child marriage started . Upanayana of Kshatriyas and Vaishyas came down. At a later years, organised p ublic schools and colleges came into picture for the cultured classes. 4. 500 A.D. TO 1200 A.D. -- (Puranas, Digests/Nibandhas) -- Leaders Kings Harsha and Bhoja Key notes: Reputation of an international centre of education. Age of Girl's mar riage came down to 10 - 11 yrs. No upnayan for Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. 5. 1200 A.D. to 1800 A.D. -- Muslim Invador period Post-Vedic works were also significantly affected by destruction of temples and monasteries on a wide scale at the time of the invasions of the Mahomadens and d uring their subsequent long rule. Gurukul was NOT always in forests. Vedic Age believed more in Nurture rather Nature but lateron Aryans have more fa ith on Nature hence have faith on Rebirth also. Plato favours "Nature' and point ed out that education is not like putting sight into blind eyes ; it is only tur ning the eyes to light. Recitation and recapitulation therefore formed an important part in the daily ro utine of the student life. Sastrarthas or learned debates were constantly held in colleges where students o f literature, poetics, philosophy and logic were called upon to defend their own propositions and attack those of their opponents. The training in debates made students ready-witted and developed their powers of speech. There was a daily examination of every student and no new lesson was given until the old one was thoroughly mastered. There were no annual examinations and mass promotions at fixed intervals. ---------------------------After Upanayana (age around 8) -- students used to memorise a few important Vedi c hymns necessary for their daily or ceremonial needs. 8 to 13 Years -- study of elementary Sanskrit grammar and literature.

13 to 23 years -- select one of the subjects among logic, philosophy, poetics, astronomy (or astronomy-cum-astrology) and mathematics for specialisation --------------------------Subjects tought: Logic, Law, Philosophy, Poetics, Litrature, theology, Sculpture & Painting, Astronomy, Civics, military art, medicine and snake charming, class ical Sanskrit literature,rhetoric In Reading and writing form of Grammar,philology, arithmetic, astronomy and metr ics were the Curriculum of Primary Education. MEDICAL EDUCATION: well developed by the 4th century B.C.(Alexander the Great al so acknowledged this). Practice on pumpkins, cucumbers, water melons, etc. Cours e duration was of 8 years(By Charaka and Susruta). Doctors must strive for the w elfare of all humanity. They must not desert a patient, even when their own life was in danger. They must continue study and research throughout their life. ope rations for cataract, hydrocele, abscesses, extraction of dead embryoes was done . (No Proper Army training School). As per Arthashastra, Villagers and citizens th erefore had to make their own arrangements to get the necessary facility in the use of the weapons of the age in order to be ready for any eventuality. Charm of Vedic and philosophical studies dimmed and later on prospect of militar y or commercial career was high Even famous capitals and holy places like Taxila and Benares were centres of a n umber of famous scholars/teachers as individual institutes, but they also impart ed education in their individual capacity, and did not as a rule combine to form any colleges. If number of pupil increased then hired assistant teacher or used his own brilliant student as a teacher. But later on at Ashoka regime, Gurukulas was established like Nalanda University (c. 400A.D.) which was an organised public institutions for education. Teacher student ration was 1:9. At Nalanda there were eight big lecture halls and as many as three hundred small class rooms. The college buildings were stately and several storeys in height. In a class there were no more than 10 to 15 students. Students' rooms were somet imes provided with a stone bench to sleep upon In the Arthasastra of Kautilya, we find a fairly accurate knowledge of the natur e of the ores of gold, silvert copper, etc., and of the processes by which they were purified Famous centres of education in India: Taxila, Bijnor(Matipur monastery)Punjab (C hinapati and Jallandar monasteries) Pataliputra, Kaaauj(Bhadra monastery),Kashmi r(Jayendra monastery),Valabhi,Kathiawar, Mithila and Dhara in northern India and Malkhed, Kalyani and Tanjore in southern India 1. Taxila (till 5 A.D. to 1100 A.D.) -- Major course of archery,elephant lore, M edicine and Surgery 2. Nalanda(Started around 500 A.D.) -- Strength 5000(or perhaps 10,000). 1 mile long and half mile wide campus. Eight big halls and 300 smaller rooms. Nalanda a long with Vikramasila was Destroyed by invaders Bakhtiyar Khilji towards the end of the 12th century. Four Vedas: the RigVeda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the AtharVaVeda. Six Angas: (1) Siksha, the science of pronunciation; (2) Kalpa, the science of r itualism ; (3) Vyakarana, grammer; (4) Nirukta, philology, (5) Chandas, prosody, and (6) jyotisha, astronohty. Note: Hindu philosophers like Gaudapada and Sankaracharya and Buddhist scholars

like Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu Foreign students like Yuan Chwang admired about Indian teachers that they were n ot only keen on memory, which stored numberless texts, but also of their remarkable powers of explanation and exposit ion. 11:14 AM 8/5/2013 12:28 PM 8/5/2013 11:59 AM 8/6/2013