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In organisation Need of communication in organization.

Remove Isolation in company (Transfer of important developments) Access remote programs and remote databases in company or through public sources (Eg. Jones Sang Le selle) File/Hardware/Application sharing User communication Borderless communication (which can be protected and monitored e.g. Nomura) Optimal computer networks give leading edge and (increase learning rate) Cost efficient (Software hard ware sharing reduces expenses and expenditure ) Multiple Sources of Supply (SBI Local Hubs) Greater Flexibility Results :::

decisions of purchase, structure, and operation of computer networks

In Government/ PSUs: Dimensions Of Development: networks might make in economic productivity, health, education, democracy, and quality of life.(UNDP Human Development Index (HDI) as a function of productivity, health, and education) Case Study Of PSN

SBI (central network)

Classification Description


Possible network response


The most sensitive

Elements of land

The Information

business information Strictly for use within the band

claim negotiations

Owner the person most

Natural resources (prospecting, results

responsible for administering the information needs to determine the list of people who are privy to the information

Unauthorized disclosure could seriously and adversely impact the band, members, business partners or future endeavours.

of core sample testing) Prospective economic development plans

Network administrators need to ensure that only those people can have access to the information

In some cases, the network people themselves may not have access to the info and need to resort to tools such as data encryption.


Less-sensitive information that is nonetheless intended

Certain employment contracts, especially personal financial

The Data owner, again, provides a list of who should have access to the data

for use within the band information (except as where the

Unauthorized disclosure could adversely impact the band, members or other stakeholders but to a lesser extent than secret

information is to be disclosed by law) Network administration needs to ensure Employee performance reviews that only those users can get to that information

Social assistance files

Unlike Secret, there are usually a greater number of people who

Health records of members

would have functional access

Creation of new business ventures and their business plans

to this information as part of their daily work practices


Personal information that is intended for use within the band

Internal operations correspondence and performance measures, certain

Information of this type should not be readily available on public-facing websites or network spaces

Unauthorized disclosure could seriously impact the band and/or its employees

routine reports, which may contain some sensitive information

Reasonable attempts to limit unauthorized access should be taken

Information that ultimately will be disclosed to the public, but at this time is incomplete or

misleading (such as over-expenditures on a project where payment from cost-sharing arrangements hasnt been yet received)


Applies to all other information that does not fit into any of the above

Routine reports

Information can be posted in common

Various internal memos

network spaces

Pending nature, this Unauthorized disclosure is against policy but it is not expected to seriously impact the band or members UGC UIDAI(Aadhar) BSNL Shetkari Card Websites Education in primary education etc. escholarship General internal correspondence of routine nature information may be published to the public on websites, etc.

Wireless Phone/Mobile Network Technologies

Some of us might argue, but wireless phone technology existed way before invention of mobile phone (April 3, 1973). It was developed by Germany by military. First time used between Berlin and Zossen (around 50 Kms from Berlin) in military trains. Since then, there have been major advances in mobile network technology from 0G to 4G. 0G : It is Mobile Radio Telephone System (MTS). 0G signifies invention of the technology. The technologies used:
Push to talk(PTT) Mobile Telephone Service(MTS) Improved Mobile Telephone Service(IMTS)

Landmobile Telefoni or Public Land Mobile Telephony(OLT)

Push To Talk(PTT) : It is also known as Press to transmit. It provides half duplex communication to the two way radio, i.e. only one person will speak at a time and other should hear. Here button was used to switch i.e. for speaking and listening; it puts receiver/ transmitter as required. E.g.: Airport, for conversation between Traffic Controller and Pilot. Mobile Telephone System (MTS) : It was introduced in 1946. It used transceivers. Due to very large size, they were installed in vehicles. In MTS, whole area was separated into section where each section had Base station with a single big high power transmitter which controls all actions of that area (same frequency was used in one section). It used PPT technique. Improved Mobile Telephone System (IMTS): It is a progression in MTS. It was first full duplex system. It means voice can be received and transmitted at same time. Also, now there was no need to contact Telephone operator; user can call PSTN. Except, installation high powered transmitter there were not too many fundamental changes. Offentlig Landmobile Telefoni or Public Land Mobile Telephony (OLT):

It was first developed by Teverket(Norway) in 1966. Mobiles used for this were mostly Half Duplex only except few.

1G: It refers to 1st generation of wireless telephone technology. It was based on analogue Cellular System. It is also called as Advanced Mobile Phone System(AMPS). It was introduced in 1978 in USA on commercial basis. It proved to be pioneering technology that helped to drive mass market usage of cellular technology. In this system, only voice calling was possible. Also it had many security problems (eavesdropping, etc) 2G: 1900`s to 2001 2nd generation of mobile phone system was emerged in 1990s. It is a digital cellular system. Because of digital system; other services like FAX,SMS and email were introduced. As being digital in nature, it was more difficult to eavesdropping. 2G proved to be giant leap in mobile network technology (especially in India). It also acted like Semi Global Roaming System, it facilitated connectivity all over the world. This technology took over all the previous existing mobile network technologies and even if is superseded by other technologies like 3G and 4G; 2G is used most widely all over the world. 2G technology was subdivided into 2 other technologies: TDMA CDMA

In TDMA, GSM technology is used most widely (around 80% of all subscribers).And other majorly put into service technology is CDMA (around 17% of global subscribers).These will be discussed subsequently.

2.5 G and 2.75G: 2001-2004

2.5G is short lived wireless network technology between 2G and 3G. It gave importance to many underplayed technologies like GPRS (General Packet Radio Service). It made some serious improvements like packet switching, WAP, MMS, etc. 2.75G is another also called as EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution). It was considered as pre-3G technology. Due to introduction of 2.75, there was considerable augmentation in data speeds. 2G-9kbps 2.5G-56kbps up to 115kbps 2.75G- around 512 kbps 3G: up to Mbps From 2004-05 Main idea is Single Network standard across the globe. e International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) It supports both circuit switched and packet switched data systems. Very high spectrum efficiency In both GSM and CDMA UMTS WCDMA Advantages like alternative billing methods (pay-per-bit, payper-session, flat rate, symmetric bandwidth, and others)
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access)

4G : Upto 20mbps Ultra broadband

50x 3g 3D conferencing Epayment HSPA Network technologies like WiMax and LTE were pitched as 4G networks. But they fail to comply with ITU`s specifications for 4G. 4G 4G is descendant of 3G standards. It is technology enables us to obtain ultra broadband. It can prove itself as a substitute of DSL and cable network.4G may be able to give speed 50 times faster than 3G. But currently it provides speed up to 10 Mbps. 4G data speed can reach up to 1Gbps. 4g doesn`t support circuit switched system. It supports IP based system IP protocol. There are 2 technologies in 4G: Mobile WiMax2 LTE(Long Term Evolution) advanced WiMax(Worldwide Interoperability For Microwave Access): It is designed to provide 30-40 Mbps and with advancement it provides up to 1Gbps on selected locations. WiMax Forum boasts that its technology will be an alternative to cable and DSL netoworks. WiMax was introduced in South Korea for first time in 2006 in 2nd quarter. By end 2008 , network had 350000 subscribers. By end of 2011, it had around 1 billion subscribers. LTE Advanced: LTE did not comply with standards of 4G.ITU has given its Requirements for Further
Advancements for E-UTRA (LTE-Advanced). There were major considerations(Improvements in architecture and radio technology, performance requirements and scenarios, backward compatibility with LTE, etc.) Like WiMax2, there have been many improvisations in LTE technology. And LTE advanced was launched as True 4G by Russian Network Yota in October 2012 in Moscow.


GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications): It is the most widely used technology. Its genesis can be traced down to 1970s in Bell Laboratories. It was created by Confederation of Postal and Telecommunications Administration. Main motive behind this was to develop pan Europe Mobile Network Technology. Around 80% of total subscribers use this technology, which is around 3 billion people. It is based on technology TDMA.

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access): It is type of channel access technology.