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NAMWATER

Namibia Water Corporation Ltd

DT-RO Pilot Plant Operation at Epukiro Pos 3:


Namibia Sub-standard Water Quality
Improvement

Namibia Water Corporation

Water Quality Services

Private Bag 13389


Windhoek
Namibia

March 2012

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:
(i)

Introduction and Background Information

At present water in Namibia is regulated by the Water Act of 1956. However, in 2004,
Namibia introduced a new Water Resource Management Act, but this has yet to be
made operational. This will be accompanied by new water quality standards that will
replace the current water quality guidelines. These standards are more stringent and
when implemented many of the NamWater schemes will not comply with the standards.
Subsequently, NamWater decided to take a pro-active stand regarding the proposed
standards. This pro-active stand deemed it necessary for NamWater to investigate
schemes that would not comply with these standards and thereafter propose mitigating
actions to ensure that the water produced from such schemes would comply with the
new standards. Such mitigating actions resulted in a desk study and pilot plant
operations. The pilot plant operations were executed at Epukiro Pos 3 and Bethanie
schemes.
(ii)

Objective

The objective of this report is to mainly reveal and discuss results obtained from Epukiro
Pos 3 with regard to water quality improvement and system operation. Finally, the
report proposes a full scale plant for the Epukiro Pos 3 scheme.
(iii)

Epukiro Pos 3 Scheme

The Epukiro Pos 3 village is situated about 137 km NNE of Gobabis. From the water
sales figures the demand for the village is 110 m 3/day. This demand figure is projected
in the Planning Report to reach 150 m3/day. The quality of water supplied to Epukiro
Pos 3 is classified as group C as exceeded by nitrates, sulphates, total hardness and
conductivity. When the new standards would become operational sodium and chlorides
will have to be added to this list. Given this extensive list of parameters that do not
comply with the required standards, Epukiro Pos 3 was therefore a prime candidate for
operating the pilot plant.
(iv)

Pilot Operation and Findings

The pilot system that was chosen for Epukiro Pos 3 was the DT-RO module, a low
pressure (15.5 bar) reverse osmosis system. It was operated with and without antiscalant to investigate the robustness of the system under various conditions. During the
time when the plant was operated without anti-scalant, the running hours was only for
12 hours/day, while the membrane system was soaked in permeate water for the

remaining hours of the day. With anti-scalant the plant was operated for 24 hours
continuously.
Under both conditions the system was able to reduce all parameters of concern to
below the required standards (when compared to the current guidelines or the
anticipated standards). The rejection for both conditions was similar, hovering well
above 90% except for nitrate which averaged at 88% for both conditions. Such results
demonstrate that the DT-RO can be operated without chemicals if it is soaked in the
permeate to avoid excessive membrane scaling.
Another aspect that is worth mentioning, from the results, is the low mineral content of
the permeate water; the calcium carbonate precipitation potential averaged at -209.6
mg/l. That suggests that the final water must be remineralised through blending with
borehole water or chemical stabilisation.
When the plant was operated 24 hrs, continuously, the recovery averaged at 53%. Such
recovery is low for any part of Namibia. Therefore, to improve the system recovery this
paper proposes the blending of borehole water with permeate water at a ratio of 1.7 to
1.0. Such blending would also improve the overall water stability as well as the system
recovery. The report indicates the system recovery to reach figures well above 70%,
and that is acceptable.
For such blending ratios (indicated above) the capital investment for the DT-RO is
estimated at N$ 1.7 million, which is about 14.3 % less than when the system is
operated without blending.
(v)

Cost Estimation

A summary of the Unit Costs for the Epukiro Treatment plant is given in the Table
below. The costs include the annual fixed and variable costs estimated for the Capital
Project. The unit cost of the treated water will amount to N$ 26.75 per m 3 water treated.
The unit cost of the plant will amount to N$ 2,205,000.00 per annum.

ii

Cost Component

Amount
N$/m 3

Amount
N$/a

Fixed Costs
Capital & interest
Energy
Personnel
Materials
Water quality
Maintenance
Overheads

6.55
0.42
5.51
0.76
0.19
0.44
11.27

540,000
34,387
454,250
62,750
15,500
36,200
929,074

1.58
0.03

130,615
2,084

26.75

2,205,000

Variable Costs
Energy
Water Chlorination
Total Unit Costs

(vi)

Conclusion
All parameters of concern (nitrate, sulphate, sodium, chloride, total hardness and
conductivity) were reduced to well below the required levels when compared to the
Namibia proposed standards or Namibia Water Quality Guidelines.
The DT-RO system recovery is about 53% and that could be improved to above
70% through blending (and improved feed water to the system due to the addition of
two other borehole waters).
Blending option can also reduce DT-RO capital investment by 14.3 %.

(vii)

Recommendations

NamWater should share this report with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water
Affairs as well as the relevant Regional Council for a decision regarding the
implementation of a water treatment plant to improve the water quality at NamWater
schemes with substandard water quality.

iii

Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: .......................................................................................................................... i
1.

Introduction:......................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1

Namibia Water Regulation: ....................................................................................................... 1

1.2

Namibia New Water Quality Standards .................................................................................. 1

1.3
Impact of Proposed Standards on the Quality of Water Supplied: A NamWater
Concern Mitigation ................................................................................................................................. 1
2.

Objective of this Report ..................................................................................................................... 5

3.

Epukiro Pos 3 Water Scheme .......................................................................................................... 6

4.

3.1

Background Information ............................................................................................................ 6

3.2

Epukiro Pos 3 Water Quality .................................................................................................... 6

The DT-RO System Process Description: ...................................................................................... 8


4.1

Case for DT-RO System and Process Overview: ................................................................. 8

4.2

Detailed Process Description: .................................................................................................. 8

4.2.1

DT-RO Module:................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.2

High Pressure Pump:....................................................................................................... 13

4.2.3

Cartridge Filter (10 micron): ........................................................................................... 13

4.2.4

Permeate Tank: ................................................................................................................ 13

4.3
5.

6.

DT-RO footprint: ....................................................................................................................... 13

Pilot Operation and Data Collection: ............................................................................................. 15


5.1

Pilot System Configuration...................................................................................................... 15

5.2

Plant Recovery: ........................................................................................................................ 15

5.3

Operation without anti-sealant................................................................................................ 16

5.4

Operations with Anti-Sealant (continuous 24 hours operations)....................................... 16

5.5

Data Collection and Analysis .................................................................................................. 16

5.5.1

Flow Measurements......................................................................................................... 16

5.5.2

Onsite Chemical Analysis and Measurements ............................................................ 17

5.5.3

Windhoek Laboratory Analysis (Data collaboration) ................................................... 18

Results and Discussions: ................................................................................................................ 19


6.1

Water Quality: ........................................................................................................................... 19

6.2

Plant Recovery ......................................................................................................................... 20

6.3

Community Satisfaction:.......................................................................................................... 21

iv

Conceptual Process Design: .......................................................................................................... 23

7.

7.1

Alternative 1: DT-RO Throughput only ................................................................................ 23

7.2

Alternative 2: DT-RO permeate blend with borehole water ............................................... 25

Conclusion: ........................................................................................................................................ 29

8.

8.1

Water Quality ............................................................................................................................ 31

8.2

DT-RO Recovery ...................................................................................................................... 31

8.3

Most Viable Alternative ............................................................................................................ 31

Recommendations ........................................................................................................................... 32

9.
10.

References .................................................................................................................................... 32

APPENDIX: ............................................................................................................................................... 34
A. Pilot Plant Operational Procedure: ............................................................................................... 34
B. Operations Spreadsheet: ............................................................................................................... 35
C. Water Quality Standards ................................................................................................................ 47
D. Sample Calculations: ...................................................................................................................... 48
E. Cost Estimations:............................................................................................................................. 50

List of Tables:
Table 1: Thomas Area (Water Supply Central)-NamWater 2010.................................................................. 2
Table 2: Cuvelai Area (Water Supply North)-NamWater 2010 ..................................................................... 2
Table 3: Karas Area (Water Supply South)-NamWater 2010 ........................................................................ 3
Table 4: Namib Area (Water Supply West)-NamWater 2010 ....................................................................... 3
Table 5: Epukiro Pos 3 water compared to Standards of Drinking Water Quality in Namibia ..................... 6
Table 6: Risks of High Level Contaminants ................................................................................................... 7
Table 7: Chemical Analysis of Permeate (NamWater Laboratory) ............................................................. 19
Table 8: Chemical Analysis from NamWater Laboratory in Windhoek ...................................................... 20
Table 9: Relationship between Feedwater salinity, Brine salinity and Recovery ....................................... 24
Table 10: Relationship between expected permeate and the proposed new standrads ........................... 25

List of Figures:
Figure 1: Inside of DT Module. Source-PALL ROCHEM ................................................................................. 8
Figure 2: Detailed cutaway DT Module diagram (NamWater 2011-AutoCad 2012) .................................. 10
Figure 3: A Membrane Cushion (AutoCad 2012) ........................................................................................ 11
Figure 4: Hydraulic disc; Feed flow path through and across discs (courtesy of Pall-Rochem) ................. 12

Figure 5: Picture of Pilot Plant inside borehole station (NamWater 2010) ................................................ 14
Figure 6: Flow Measurement Diagram ....................................................................................................... 17
Figure 7: Recovery and Permeability versus Cumulative Operating Hour.................................................. 21
Figure 8: Feed Pressure and Recovery versus Cumulative Operating Hours .............................................. 21
Figure 9: Locals collecting drinking water; Councillor, Brave Tjivera tasting product water...................... 22
Figure 10: Proposed Full Scale Plant with RO system only ......................................................................... 27
Figure 11: Proposed Full Scale Plant with RO system & Blending .............................................................. 28

Terms and Glossary


Acronym/Symbol:
ppm
TDS
MF
UF
NF
RO
P

Jw
Aw
CF
R
SR
ci
SDI
MFI
MPFI
CP
BH

Definition:
parts per million
total dissolved solids
micro filtration
ultra filtration
nano filtration
reverse osmosis
hydraulic pressure difference
osmotic pressure difference
Water Flux
pure water permeability
concentration factor
recovery
salt rejection
concentration of i
silt-density index
modified fouling index
mini plugging factor index
concentration polarization
borehole

vi

1.

Introduction:

1.1

Namibia Water Regulation:

Water is essential for life and it is regulated in many countries to protect the user. In
Namibia, over the years, water has been regulated by the Water Act of 1956. However,
the Republic of Namibia has found the need to introduce a new Act after the countrys
Independence. This new Act is known as the Water Resource Management Act of
2004. If properly regulated, it is this new Act that will guide the use of water regarding
quality and other aspects through proper water quality standards implementations.
1.2

Namibia New Water Quality Standards

To accompany the Act (mentioned above), the Government of the Republic of Namibia
proposed new water quality standards during 2008, to replace the water quality
guidelines from the old Water Act of 1956. The proposed standards are more stringent
when compared to the prevailing guidelines (see Appendix D). Thus, at the time when
these standards are promulgated, through the said Act (WRMA), NamWater would be
required to retrofit process systems in order to comply with these new standards; as
such, the impact of the new standards (from systems procurement or otherwise) may
have adverse unknown consequences on the water supply systems in Namibia, and
that is a concern to NamWater.
1.3

Impact of Proposed Standards on the Quality of Water Supplied: A


NamWater Concern Mitigation

Owing to the potential impact, by the proposed standards, on the quality of water
supplied by various NamWater schemes, NamWater took a decision to manage the
situation pro-actively, which would mitigate the concern mentioned above. This proactive decision resulted in two tasks, namely:
(i)
(ii)

Task 1: Conduct a desk study that will identify water supply schemes in Namibia
which will not conform to the newly proposed standards.
Task 2: Where possible, operate pilot plants to identify process systems that will
allow the non-conforming schemes (in (i) above) to conform to the proposed
standards.

The desk study (Task 1) was completed in 2010 and the results for the four areas in
Namibia are shown in the tables below. These tables reveal the 95-percentile for each
1|Page

parameter, at a given scheme, for the period 2005 to 2010. The Epukiro Pos 3 data is
available in Table 1.
Table 1: Thomas Area (Water Supply Central)-NamWater 2010
Khomas Area

pH

Clr

Group B
5.5-9.5 20
New Std
6- 9
15
Aminuis
Buitepos
Dordabis
Epukiro Pos 3
Gobabis
23.0
Gross Barmen
Hochveld
Lister
Oamites
Onderombapa
Osire
16.6
Osona
Otjihase
Otjinene
Otjivero
21.2
Plessis Plaas
Rehoboth
18.0
Talismanis
27.0
VB Tourism Resort
16.0
Whk Airport
Witvlei
City of Whk
3
Schemes / Grp B
Parameter New
6

NTU- NTUCond
GW
SW
5
300
2
0.5
300

376

Na

Ca

Mg

TH

SO4

NO3 NO2

Cl

Fe

400
300

500
375

420
292

650
400

600
300

2
2

600
300

1
0.3

303

779

479

1258

604

20
11
13.6
13.3
15.8
35.9

0
0.5

590

2.6
1.1
15.9
17.2
453

11.6
14.2
1.1
0.9

395

390

17.7

8.6
401
1.8
2.1

13.4
1.4
2.2

2.5
0
2

0.9
1
9

1
1

0
2

1
1

395

730

327

11.5

1
2

2
4

1
3

1
11

0
1

Mn

Parameters /
Scheme
1
0.1 Grp B New
0
1
0
1
0
1
6
8
1
2
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
2
0
1
0
1
0
3
0.2
2
3
0
1
0
2
1
3
0
2
0
1
1
5
0
1
0
1

22

Table 2: Cuvelai Area (Water Supply North)-NamWater 2010


Cuvelai Area

pH

Clr

Group B
New Std
Alpha Base
Eenhana
Elim
Ogongo
Ohangwena
Okahao
Okatope
Olushandja
Omafo
Okmakango
Omapale
Ombalantu
Omungwelume
Omuthiya
Onambutu
Onandjokwe
Onayena
Ondangwa
Ongha
Ongwediva
Opuwo
Oshakati
Oshali
Oshigambo
Oshikango
Oshikuku
Oshitayi
Ruacana
Tsandi
Schemes / Grp B
Parameter
New

5.5-9.5
6- 9

20
15

9.05

56.0
18.2

NTUGW

NTUCond
SW
5
300
0.5
300

Na

Ca

Mg

TH

SO 4

NO 3

NO 2

Cl

Fe

Mn

400
300

500
375

420
292
300

650
400
559

600
300

20
11

0
0.5

2
2

600
300

1
0.3

1
0.1

2.6
4.6
6.5
3.4
4.9
2.3
7.6
2.2
6.5
5.0
19.5
5.0
1.6
0.6
6.0
2.6
2.7
3.0
5.4

0.8

875

0
1

1
2

5.0
2.4
4.8
6.5
1.7
4.3
4.7
6.2
11
27

1231

639

0.3

1
2

1
2

1
1

0
2

Parameters /
Scheme
Grp B
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
2
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
3
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1

New
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1

12

29

2|Page

Table 3: Karas Area (Water Supply South)-NamWater 2010

Karas Area

pH

Clr

Group B

5.5-9.5

20

New Std

6- 9

15

NTU- NTUCond
GW
SW

Na

Ca

Mg

TH

SO4

Cl

Fe

Mn

300

400

500

420

650

600

20

600

300

300

375

292

400

300

11

0.5

300

0.3

303

392

513

437

Ariamsvlei

469

757

13.3

Aroab

405

647

Ai-Ais

5
2

0.5

2.3

Aus

NO3 NO2

Parameters /
Scheme

0.1 Grp B

New

308

360

21.9

13.3

Bethanie

3.1

Gabis

2.4

2.3

Grnau

393

600

26.0

Karasburg

11.3

Keetmanshoop

0.86

Kosis

543

Mariental

715

25.4

15.5

4.29

Noordoewer

15

2.59

Rosh Pinah

17.4

6.9

Tses

440

Warmbad

353

471

539

432

Schemes /
Parameter

359

21.6
2.5

437

15

Grp B

New

Cl

Table 4: Namib Area (Water Supply West)-NamWater 2010

Namib Area

pH

Clr

Group B

5.5-9.5

20

New Std

6- 9

15

NTU- NTUCond
GW
SW

5
2

0.5

Na

Ca

Mg

TH

SO4

NO3 NO2

300

400

500

420

650

600

20

600

300

300

375

292

400

300

11

0.5

300

0.3

Anichab

Mn

16.7

360

505

535

816

410

1.6

Henties Bay
Karibib

34.0

710

411

372

370

304

11

0.1
433

Rssing Mine
Swakopmund
Terrrace Bay

363

11.1

Tubisis

328

Uis

449

611

2.5

629

Usakos

New

2.2

Otjimbingwe

Parameters /
Scheme

0.1 Grp B

2.7

Gobabeb

Schemes /
Parameter

Fe

456

422
Grp B

New

To execute Task 2, NamWater needed to obtain pilot treatment plants and operate them
at specific schemes of concern. The operation of such a treatment plant was made
possible when NamWater procured two RO plants during 2010, on rental basis, from
Pall International Company, in the UK, at a cost of US$ 100 000. The agreement was
to pilot these plants for a period of 3 months at specifically identified water supply
schemes.
3|Page

The two schemes that NamWater identified for piloting were Epukiro Pos 3 and
Bethanie.

4|Page

2.

Objective of this Report

Although this report will concentrate mainly on the Epukiro Pos 3 scheme, its objective
is twofold:
(1) Firstly, to reveal and discuss the Epukiro Pos 3 pilot system operation, and
thereby evaluates the Pall Pilot System at Epukiro Pos 3 against the following
issues:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

Product water nitrate levels versus proposed standards


Product water total hardness levels versus proposed standards
Product water chloride levels versus proposed standards
Product water sodium levels versus proposed standards
Product water sulphate levels versus proposed standards
Optimum system recovery rate

(2) Secondly, it is also the objective of this report to propose a conceptual process
design, based on the DT-RO system, with a high level cost estimate.

5|Page

3.

Epukiro Pos 3 Water Scheme

3.1

Background Information

Epukiro Pos 3 is a rural settlement near the eastern border of Namibia, directly north of
the town of Gobabis in the Omaheke region (137km north east of Gobabis). The latest
Namibian survey of 2003 puts the population of Epukiro Pos 3 at approximately 7135
people (National Planning Commission, Central Bureau of Statistics, 2001). Using the
sales figures of between 2005 and 2010, the demand of Epukiro Pos 3 can be
estimated at about 110 m3/day. The water supply to the village is through three
boreholes (BH-467, BH-30533, BH-21542) that are pumped into a reservoir and
thereafter distributed by gravitation through the community distribution system. Over
the years the quality of this water has been objectionable to the end-user, mainly due to
taste which is caused by excessive hardness. However, as will be shown later in this
document (regarding water quality), chlorides, nitrates, sulphates and sodium levels are
also too high and could pose health and other risks to the consumers.
3.2
Epukiro Pos 3 Water Quality
The Epukiro Pos 3 water quality, as shown in Table 5 below, indicates six (6)
parameters that do not conform to the new proposed standards. It is these parameters
that were evaluated, against the proposed standards, during the pilot operations.
Table 5: Epukiro Pos 3 water compared to Standards of Drinking Water Quality in Namibia

Epukiro Pos 3

Actual Namibian Guidelines


Proposed New Standards
Group B Group C Group D
Ideal
Acceptable
2004 - 2009
(good) (low risk) (high risk) Guidelines Standards
95 Percentile
95 Percentile Requirement

Determinant

Units

Nitrates
Sulphates
Sodium
Total Hardness
Chloride
Conductivity

mg/l (as N)
mg/l
mg/l

604.0
304.0

mg/L as CaCO3

1286.7

mg/l
mS/m

592.0

35.9

377.6

10 20

20 40

> 40

<6

< 11

200 600 600 1200

> 1200

< 100

< 300

100 400 400 800


300 650 650 1300

> 800

< 100

< 300

> 1300

< 323.5

< 663

> 1200

< 100

< 300

> 400

< 80

< 300

250 600 600 1200


150 300 300 400

The risks associated with these parameters are indicated in Table 6. The main health
risk is associated with the nitrates (which level is about 230% above the limit when
compared to the Namibian standards or the WHO guidelines, 2011). Research done by
the Pall Company, claims successful use of membrane processes to reduce nitrates to
within required levels, especially the DT-RO membrane system.

6|Page

Table 6: Risks of High Level Contaminants

Parameter
nitrates
sulphates
sodium
chloride

total hardness

High Level Risks


Methoglobinemia or 'blue baby' syndrome in
infants below six months old and pregnant
women
diarrhea; dehydration; bitter tase
No health risk; hypertension; salty taste
Unpleasant taste; hypertension; Cause corrosion
of some metals in pumps, pipes etc
No health risks; Nuisance due to mineral buildup in plumbing systems and anti-foaming
tendency; Alkali taste

7|Page

4.

The DT-RO System Process Description:

4.1
Case for DT-RO System and Process Overview:
One of the membrane systems proposed by the Pall Company was the DT-RO system,
which was also the system that was piloted at Epukiro Pos 3. The unique design of the
DT module has a lot of advantages (as alleged by PALL). It minimizes concentration
polarization on the surfaces of the membrane discs because of the short flow path
lengths (6cm) of the feed water along the membrane cushions, which enhance the
mixing of the thin feed water film present in the open channels.
The module can be easily assembled and dismantled to replace and/or inspect
individual membrane discs.
It is further alleged by Pall that due to high velocity flux across the membranes the DTRO can withstand water with high total hardness the Epukiro Pos 3 was a classic case
to prove such a claim. The process overview (as shown in Figure 1.0) consists of the
following process units:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

DT-RO Module
High Pressure Pump
Cartridge Filter (10 micron)
Permeate Tank

4.2

Detailed Process Description:

4.2.1

DT-RO Module:

Two pictures of the inside of the DT-RO Module are shown in Figure 1.
Octagonal
Membrane Cushion
Hydraulic Disc

Figure 1: Inside of DT Module. Source-PALL ROCHEM

As shown in Figure 1, a standard 1 meter DT Module consists of a tubular pressure


vessel that houses 170 circular hydraulic discs with octagonal-shaped membrane
8|Page

cushions positioned between every two discs (except for the bottom-most disc). The
hydraulic discs are held in place inside the pressure vessel by a central tension rod.
The discs together with the membrane cushions create a membrane stack. The
pressure vessel is sealed by stainless steel end-flanges with rubber seal lining. The
top-end flange or joining flange has openings for the feed input, the brine outlet and the
permeate outlet. An open feed channel (gap) is formed between the outside of the
membrane stack and the inside of the pressure vessel. The flow configuration, for the
DT-Module is as described below.
4.2.1.1 Flow Path through DT-Module:

A detailed cutaway schematic diagram shows the actual path of the feed, permeate and
concentrate through the module (Fig. 2). Feed water is introduced at the bottom end of
the module. It moves up through the raw water channel (gap) between the inside of the
pressure vessel and the hydraulic disc stacking. It enters the top of the membrane
stack via the ring gap in the rubber lining of the top-end flange. The feed water flows
through the first hydraulic discs feed water flow slots into the first open channel and
where it makes contact with the first membrane. The feed water flows over the top side
of the membrane and makes a 180 turn at the octagonal welded edge of the
membrane cushions; flowing in the reverse direction toward the feed water flow slots of
the second hydraulic disc. As the water flows over the top side and bottom side of the
membrane cushion the water molecules are continuously being permeated through the
membrane surfaces into the membrane cushion. The feed water flows through the slots
and make another 180 turn and flow over the top-side of the second membrane sheet
and the bottom side of the disc. The feed water gradually becomes concentrated until it
leaves the last membrane at the bottom of the vessel where it is discharges as the
brine/concentrate.

9|Page

Figure 2: Detailed cutaway DT Module diagram (NamWater 2011-AutoCad 2012)

After permeating through the membrane surfaces, the pure water flows between the
fleece sheet and the inside of a membrane sheet toward the permeate channel. The Orings from two alternate hydraulic discs pin the two membrane sheets of one membrane
cushion between them and as pure water is permeated into the membrane cushion it
flows into the open permeate flow channels down the middle of the module, adjacent to
the central tension rod. The permeate exits the module at the bottom of the pressure
vessel at atmospheric pressure.
The hydraulic disc and the membrane cushion, the two main components of the DT-RO
Module, are briefly described below.
4.2.1.2 Membrane Cushion:

Each membrane cushion consists of a porous spacer (fleece sheet) that is sandwiched
between two individual membrane sheets. The three components of the membrane
cushion are sealed at the outer ends by ultrasonic welding. The spacer separates the
two membranes and produces flow channels for the permeate to be drained.

10 | P a g e

Ultrasonically
Welded

Fleece
Sheet
Bottom
Membrane

Top
Membrane

Figure 3: A Membrane Cushion (AutoCad 2012)

Figure 3 shows a typical membrane cushion with its flow channel opening on the inside
of the cushion. The bottom-most hydraulic disc forms a ring gap with the rubber sealing
of the bottom-end flange. This allows the feed water to enter the membrane stacking
from the bottom.
4.2.1.3 Hydraulic Disc:

The main function of the hydraulic disc is to give support to the membranes. Figure 4
details a descriptive diagram of the top and bottom sides of a hydraulic disc that also
indicates the feed flow path through flow slots. The 170 circular hydraulic discs are
tightly fitted and aligned with alignment pins, on top of each other. A single membrane
cushion is arranged between the every two alternative discs. Each hydraulic disc is
further designed with flat topped nodules to support the membrane cushion and allow
feed water flow across the surface of each membrane. The nodules generate additional
feed water turbulence that reduces possible concentration polarization on the
membrane surfaces.

11 | P a g e

TOP
SIDE

BOTTOM
SIDE
Nodules to
support
Membrane
Holes
to
receive
Permeat
e flow
channels
Feed
Water
Flow
Alignme
nt Pins

Feed flow over top


side of disc
and through the

Feed flow through


flow slots
and over the
bottom side of

Figure 4: Hydraulic disc; Feed flow path through and across discs (courtesy of Pall-Rochem)

Feed water flow slots on the inner side of the discs permit feed waters to flow from one
disc-channel to the next. O-rings are mounted on both sides of each disc; is to prevent
feed water to come in contact with the product water (permeate). Each hydraulic disc is
designed with manifolds along its inside that create the permeate open channel along
the central tension rod.

12 | P a g e

4.2.2

High Pressure Pump:

A high pressure centrifugal pump is used to generate the pressure required by the
reverse osmosis process [up to a pressure of 16.5 bar].
4.2.3

Cartridge Filter (10 micron):

The DT-Module system includes a 10 micron cartridge filter which removes suspended
particles that may cause damage and/or clogging of the membranes.
4.2.4 Permeate Tank:

A 200 liter permeate tank is connected to the DT Module pilot rig which is used to
collect permeate used for rinsing the membranes during plant shut-down.
4.3
DT-RO footprint:
Figure 5 shows the relative foot print of the DT-RO rig. The system is 1.5 m x 2.5 m x
1m and can easily fit on a pickup and it is therefore easy to transport anywhere.
At Epukiro Pos 3 the plant was assembled by the NamWater maintenance team. The
training and commissioning was done on-site and it was conducted by a Pall specialist
from Senegal, Mr. Diop. The one week training which focused on system assembly
also included system recovery optimisation before pilot operation kicked off/started.

13 | P a g e

Figure 5: Picture of Pilot Plant inside borehole station (NamWater 2010)

14 | P a g e

5.

Pilot Operation and Data Collection:

5.1

Pilot System Configuration

The pilot configuration was as shown in Figure 6, below. As seen in Figure 6 the
system was connected to the borehole with the worst water quality (averaging a total
hardness of 1985 mg/l as CaCO3). The brine was connected to the sewerage drain to
prevent cattle from drinking the high nitrate water. Initially the plant was operated only
during the day and overnight the membranes was soaked in permeate. At a later
stage, after 48 days of operation, the plant was operated for 24hr/day (continuously) to
have a feel for scale formation as well as investigating the need for chemical cleaning.
However, before the actual process was started there was a need to determine a
recovery mode where scale formation was not going to do irreversible damage to the
membrane system.
5.2
Plant Recovery:
As was mentioned earlier, given the high levels of hardness in the feed water, it was
deemed necessary (by Pall Company) to determine the maximum recovery at which the
plant could operate with minimum scaling/fouling on the membranes. The chronology of
events regarding recovery optimisation was as follows:

On the first day, because of the poor water quality, the specialist commissioned
the plant at a recovery of only 26%.
On the second day, the recovery was increased to 31.6% and recording of data
was started. This recovery was maintained for 2 hours while the feed and brine
pressures were continuously monitored for possible scaling and/or fouling.
The recovery was thereafter increased to 36% for another 2 hours of monitoring.
The feed and brine pressures remained constant and there was therefore no
danger of immediate fouling and/or scaling of the membranes.
The recovery was consequently increased to 42.7% for another 2 hours and
another hour the next day. A slight increase in both the brine and feed pressures
was observed; indicating that fouling/scaling took place and the plant was
therefore shut-down.
This prompted the specialist to recommend an initial 2 week operation at a
recovery of 35%.
The recovery was thereafter increased by 5% every 2 weeks while closely to
monitoring the plant for possible fouling and/or scaling.

The most suitable recovery for the system could thus be achieved by increasing the
recovery from 35% in increments of 5% until, in the absence of scaling, the maximum
allowable pressure is reached. The recovery was determined using the drop test
method on both the permeate and brine streams.
15 | P a g e

5.3
Operation without anti-sealant
As was alluded to, earlier, in the initial stages, the plant was operated only during the
day to establish the most suitable recovery for the system. Operations typically started
early in the morning and ceased in the late afternoon. At this stage fouling of the
membranes were not expected yet and chemical addition was consequently not
necessary. The daily plant shut-down was followed by rinsing/flushing of the membrane
and soaking it overnight in permeate water. This allowed for lime scaling that could
have occurred during the day operation, to be dissolved into the soaking permeate
water. The system was operated with this mode for 48 days and the necessary data
were collected for evaluation.
5.4
Operations with Anti-Sealant (continuous 24 hours operations)
As will be discussed in the next section, upon reaching the most suitable recovery, antisealant was introduced as a form of pre-treatment to avoid excessive fouling and
scaling. At this stage (after 415 cumulative operating hours) the daily operating time
was also increased from 12 hours daily to 24 hours per day continuous operations. The
harshest conditions possible were therefore created to enable observation and
monitoring of the pilot system at the worst case scenario. The continuous operation did
not allow for membrane rinsing and flushing, except when the permeate tank became
full after conducting numerous drop tests.
The feed pressure was kept constant at 15.5 bar. This pressure corresponded to the
manufacturers (Pall Company) maximum recommended pressure that the piping
system could handle. The other parameters were monitored and noted on a 2 hourly
basis.

5.5

Data Collection and Analysis

5.5.1

Flow Measurements

To calculate the system recovery, both the permeate and feed flow are required. To
measure the permeate flow Tap 1 was closed and Tap 2 was opened (Figure 6) and the
volume timed in a 2 L measuring cylinder. Similarly, the brine flow was measured by
closing Tap 3 and opening Tap 4 (also in Figure 6) and the feed flow was calculated by
adding the brine flow to the permeate flow. These measurements were performed 2
hourly for most part of the project duration.

16 | P a g e

Disc Tube Module

Permate directed to community ouside station

Flow Meter

Brine
Tap3

Tap1

Sa m
pling
Tap

Sa m
pling
Tap

Tap4
Tap2

Pressure

200L
Permeate
Tank
bav

10 Filter

tov

Pressure

fav

Sa
mp
Ta ling
p

Flow Meter

fv

Feed from the


borehole

LEGEND:

High Pressure
Pump

Positive
Displacement Pump

Anti-Scalant
Container

fv
bov
pov
bav
fav
tov

feed valve
brine outlet valve
permeate outlet valve
brine adjustment valve
feed adjustment valve
tank outlet valve

Figure 6: Flow Measurement Diagram

5.5.2

Onsite Chemical Analysis and Measurements

Data were collected, on-site, every 2 hours to analyse for conductivity, temperature,
total hardness, nitrates and pH. Due to the expensive reagent associated with nitrate
analysis, nitrates were only analysed every 7 days.
The nitrates, conductivities and temperatures were measured using the portable HACH
instruments. On-site volumetric analysis by the common titration methods was used to
determine the total hardness concentrations. The conventional drop-test was used to
determine the different flow-rates after it was suspected that parallax errors could be
introduced when using the rota meter type flow meters of the plant.
17 | P a g e

5.5.3

Windhoek Laboratory Analysis (Data collaboration)

In addition to do on-site chemical analysis, samples were collected once a week and
sent to the Windhoek laboratory for full chemical analysis. In all instances the
Windhoek laboratory results collaborated with the on-site measurements.

18 | P a g e

6.

Results and Discussions:

6.1
Water Quality:
As was previously mentioned (in this report) water quality analysis was done on-site
every 2 hours and at the Windhoek Laboratory, once a week.
The quality of water produced from the DT-RO plant and analysed once per week at the
Windhoek Laboratory is shown in Table 7. Table 7 is also comparing the various
parameters of concern with the proposed new water quality standards and all the
parameters are well below these Standards. The quality of water produced by the DTRO plant further strengthen the notion of blending as was alluded to earlier.
Table 7: Chemical Analysis of Permeate (NamWater Laboratory)

Total
Hardness
(mg/l)

Nitrates
(mg/l)

Sodium
(mg/l)

New Standards

< 663

< 11

< 300

< 300

< 300

< 300

2-Jun-10
7-Jun-10
29-Jun-10
15-Jul-10
28-Jul-10
27-Aug-10
Average
8-Sep-10
16-Oct-10
20-Oct-10
21-Oct-10
15-Nov-10
21-Nov-10
Average

47.5
37.5
77.5
33.3
28.3
58.3
47.1
145.8
28.3
113.3
28.3
87.5
32.5
72.6

3.6
0.5
3.2
4.6
4.7
5.9
3.8
4.2
3.9
4.5
3.9
3.9
4.1
4.1

26.0
30.0
27.0
30.0
32.0
40.0
30.8
30.0
27.0
31.0
27.0
29.0
32.0
29.3

9.0
17.0
12.0
9.0
8.0
14.0
11.5
11.0
10.0
12.0
12.0
7.0
9.0
10.2

42.0
56.0
40.0
41.0
40.0
54.0
45.5
43.0
38.0
45.0
37.0
36.0
41.0
40.0

26.3
23.6
33.5
24.6
24.2
37.4
28.3
43.6
23.2
43.3
23.6
31.8
24.6
31.7

with anti-scalant
& 24 hours

without ant-scalant

Operation Permeate

Sulphate Chloride
(mg/l)
(mg/l)

Conductivity
(Sm/m)

The percentage rejection was also calculated for the data analysed once a week at the
Windhoek laboratory, see Table 8. Table 8 is split in two to reflect the time when the
plant was operated with and without anti-sealant so as to evaluate the degree of
rejection for both conditions.

19 | P a g e

Table 8: Chemical Analysis from NamWater Laboratory in Windhoek

Date
2-Jun
7-Jun
29-Jun
15-Jul
28-Jul
27-Aug
Averages
8-Sep
16-Oct
20-Oct
21-Oct
15-Nov
21-Nov
Average

Total
Hardness
Rejection
97.5%
97.8%
95.9%
98.1%
98.4%
96.6%
97.4%
91.8%
98.6%
94.1%
98.5%
95.2%
98.1%
96.1%

Nitrate
Sodium Sulphate Chloride Conductivity Calcium Magnesium
Rejection Rejection Rejection Rejection Rejection Rejection Rejection
91.0%
92.5%
87.9%
88.4%
86.5%
83.5%
88.3%
89.3%
88.1%
86.2%
89.5%
87.8%
89.7%
88.5%

93.2%
92.7%
93.4%
92.3%
92.7%
91.5%
92.6%
93.0%
92.7%
92.6%
93.7%
94.1%
93.3%
93.2%

98.8%
97.8%
98.4%
98.9%
98.9%
98.4%
98.5%
98.8%
99.0%
98.8%
98.8%
99.3%
99.1%
99.0%

95.7%
94.3%
96.3%
96.0%
95.7%
94.4%
95.4%
95.7%
96.4%
95.7%
96.5%
96.3%
95.9%
96.1%

95.2%
95.6%
94.0%
95.6%
95.7%
93.3%
94.9%
92.2%
95.8%
92.2%
95.9%
93.5%
95.2%
94.1%

98.2%
93.8%
98.5%
93.1%
98.5%
91.3%
95.6%
95.6%
98.2%
97.8%
94.7%
97.2%
97.8%
96.9%

98.1%
98.0%
98.6%
96.4%
98.6%
92.8%
97.1%
98.6%
98.6%
98.7%
98.1%
98.0%
97.9%
98.3%

Alkalinity
Rejection

Flouride
Rejection

94.4%
77.4%
95.4%
68.2%
94.8%
62.0%
82.0%
88.5%
95.9%
94.7%
81.0%
92.7%
95.9%
91.5%

75.0%
75.0%
75.0%
75.0%
75.0%
66.7%
73.6%
81.3%
75.0%
75.0%
66.7%
75.0%
66.7%
73.3%

6.2
Plant Recovery
NamWater started plant operations on the 1st of June 2010 at a recovery of 36.1%
which corresponds with a feed pressure of 12.3 bar. Operations were thereafter varied
(by gradually increasing the inlet flow) to obtain the most optimum recovery point. The
recovery was kept constant for a period of 2 weeks after which incremental increases of
5% recovery were done for every succeeding 2 weeks until the end of August,
representing 403 cumulative operating hours. At the end of this period the inlet
pressure was at 15.5 bar and that was the maximum allowable pressure, as per supplier
specification.
Recovery is a function of membrane permeability. It can be seen, from Figure 7, that
permeability dropped by about 30% from the time when the DT-RO was operated for 12
hours/day to the time the DT-RO was operated for 24 hours/day. Since permeability is
a function of both flux and net driving pressure (which in turn is a function of both
osmotic pressure and inlet pressure), such significant drop in permeability is a clear
indication of Epukiro hardness in affecting membrane performance.
At the maximum pressure, the recovery ranged between 60 and 70%. It was during this
time that the anti-scalant was introduced to prevent permanent membrane scaling.
From Figure 8 it is clear that at a feed pressure of 15.5 bar, the DT-RO system
averages about a 53% recovery rate, when it is operated 24 hours continuously. Again,
since the water quality output from the DT-RO system, is far superior from the proposed
water quality standards, this low recovery rate can be increased to well beyond 60%
through blending of RO water with borehole water.

20 | P a g e

75.0
70.0
65.0
60.0
55.0
50.0
45.0
40.0
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

0.40
0.35
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
0

100

200

300

400
500
600
700
cumulative operating hours

800

900

Permeability(L/min.bar.m^2)

Recovery(%)

The pilot results therefore demonstrate that the membrane life cycle could be
lengthened more by overnight soaking in the permeate as opposed to operating 24
hours/day continuously. Hence, the DT-RO Module system could be more suitable for
schemes with low demand that could afford membrane soaking during the night.

1000

Figure 7: Recovery and Permeability versus Cumulative Operating Hour

18

100.00

16

90.00
80.00

12
10

70.00

60.00

Recovery(%)

Pressure(bar)

14

50.00

4
40.00

2
0

30.00
0

100

200

300

400
500
600
700
Cumulative Operating Time(hrs)

800

900

1000

Figure 8: Feed Pressure and Recovery versus Cumulative Operating Hours

6.3
Community Satisfaction:
As was indicated in Figure 6 (earlier in this document) that the permeate water was
directly supplied to the towns inhabitants for the period the pilot study was conducted.
21 | P a g e

Many of the community members expressed their satisfaction and joy regarding the
taste of the water: tea was tasting differently; for many inhabitants the first taste of the
Omauozonjanda taste of the water was something special and there was a total new
expectation of what the future could hold, regarding this water.
However, although the palatability of the water was excellent, permeate quality was too
corrosive (due to low CCPP) and cannot be supplied as is. It is envisaged that the
CCPP correction can be easily achieved with permeate and borehole water blending.
Such a blending scenario is highlighted in the conceptual design, which is the focus of
the next section.

Figure 9: Locals collecting drinking water; Councillor, Brave Tjivera tasting product water

22 | P a g e

7.

Conceptual Process Design:

As was indicated earlier, in the objective, it is the aim of this document to propose a full
scale plant for Epukiro that will produce acceptable quality water to the community in a
sustainable manner. This section therefore presents the treatment process (conceptual
process design) for the proposed Epukiro Water Supply Scheme, taking into
consideration the newly proposed water quality standards. Two alternatives are
discussed.
7.1
Alternative 1: DT-RO Throughput only
The current thought process is that the plant will be located adjacent to the existing
reservoir (Figure 10). Water will be pumped from the 3 boreholes to the RO feed tank.
It is assumed that the quality of water in the RO feed tank will be the same as the
current water quality from the Epukiro Pos 3 distribution reservoir (see Table 1 as
previously shown in this document).
Table 1 indicates that the current total hardness, based on the three boreholes
(combined) operation, averages at 1258 mg/l, which is approximately 40% lower than
the figure of 1985 mg/l (the average for BH-467) on which the pilot plant was evaluated.
These two figures (of 1258 mg/l and 1985 mg/l) correspond to TDS values of 2858 mg/l
and 4194 mg/l, respectively.
During the pilot operation, as was demonstrated earlier in this report, at equilibrium the
pilot plant yielded a recovery of about 53%. However, given the lower TDS value (of
2858 mg/l) a higher recovery is expected as will be demonstrated below, using
information from Table 9.

23 | P a g e

Table 9: Relationship between Feedwater salinity, Brine salinity and Recovery

%Recovery
Concentration Factor
Feed TDS = 10,000 mg/l
Feed TDS = 9,000 mg/l
Feed TDS = 8,000 mg/l
Feed TDS = 7,000 mg/l
Feed TDS = 6,000 mg/l
Feed TDS = 5,000 mg/l
Feed TDS = 4,139 mg/l
Feed TDS = 4,000 mg/l
Feed TDS = 3,000 mg/l
Feed TDS = 2,858 mg/l
Feed TDS = 2,000 mg/l
Feed TDS = 1,000 mg/l
Feed TDS = 500 mg/l

80
5.00
50000
45000
40000
35000
30000
25000
20695
20000
15000
14290
10000
5000
2500

75
4.00
40000
36000
32000
28000
24000
20000
16556
16000
12000
11432
8000
4000
2000

70
3.33
33333
30000
26667
23333
20000
16667
13797
13333
10000
9527
6667
3333
1667

65.88
2.93
29308
26377
23446
20516
17585
14654
12131
11723
8792
8376
5862
2931
1465

Brine TDS(mg/l) at different Recoveries


65
60
55 50.59
50
2.86
2.50
2.22
2.02
2.00
28571 25000 22222 20237 20000
25714 22500 20000 18213 18000
22857 20000 17778 16190 16000
20000 17500 15556 14166 14000
17143 15000 13333 12142 12000
14286 12500 11111 10119 10000
11826 10348 9198 8376 8278
11429 10000 8889 8095 8000
8571 7500 6667 6071 6000
8166 7145 6351 5784 5716
5714 5000 4444 4047 4000
2857 2500 2222 2024 2000
1429 1250 1111 1012 1000

45
1.82
18182
16364
14545
12727
10909
9091
7525
7273
5455
5196
3636
1818
909

40
1.67
16667
15000
13333
11667
10000
8333
6898
6667
5000
4763
3333
1667
833

35
1.54
15385
13846
12308
10769
9231
7692
6368
6154
4615
4397
3077
1538
769

30
1.43
14286
12857
11429
10000
8571
7143
5913
5714
4286
4083
2857
1429
714

NOTE: The shaded figures (15000 mg/l) will cause rapid fouling/scaling in the DT-RO Module.

Table 9 (courtesy of El-Manharawy and Hafez, 2001) illustrates the effects of feed water
TDS, for given recovery rates, on corresponding brine TDS. During the pilot plant
operation the average brine TDS was 8376 mg/l at a feed TDS of 4139 mg/l. From this
table the corresponding recovery is 51% and it confirms the actual value obtained from
the pilot operation (53%). For this alternative, the brine TDS value (of 8376 mg/l) is
taken as the maximum; therefore, at a feed TDS of 2858 mg/l the corresponding
recovery (from Table 9.0) is 65.88%.
Based on the new feed water quality (for this alternative) the expected permeate is
calculated using the rejection values obtained from the pilot work; the results are shown
in Table 10. From Table 10 the parameters of concern are all below the proposed
Namibian standards except for the CCPP a value of -259.6 mg/l makes the water too
aggressive.

24 | P a g e

Table 10: Relationship between expected permeate and the proposed new standrads
Ca

Mg

SO4

NO3

Cl

Alkalinity

Temperature

CCPP

mS/m

mg/l

mg/l as CaCO3

mg/l as CaCO3

mg/l

as N in mg/l

mg/l

as CaCO3

mg/l

283.23
0.93
20.00
<300

733.37
0.96
27.69
<375

447.12
0.98
10.24
<290

535.19
0.99
6.70
<300

24.81
0.88
2.88
<11

553.46 339.45
0.96 0.87
23.53 45.01
<300

20

92.53

5.7
6 to 9

354.07
0.95
19.44
<300

20

-259.6
3 to 6

8.05

43.99

20.00

4.710

pH

Average Feed water quality


Rejection ( as fraction)
Expected Permeate quality
Proposed New Standards
NaOH[313 mg/l] and Ca(OH)2 [13
mg/l] treatment of permeate(in
Stasoft Program)

7.60

Conductivity Na in mg/l

40.35

245.63

The water above (in Table 10), due to low calcium (at 27.69 mg/l as CaCO3), requires
correction with hydrated lime to add the minimum required calcium, namely 40 mg/l as
calcium carbonate. The Stasoft modelling, to obtain a CCPP of at least 4mg/l, indicates
a hydrated lime dosage of 182 mg/l (or 1kg/hr) that is for a flow of 5.6 m3/hr.
Based on these considerations the proposed system for this alternative is shown in
Figure 10. The proposed system has a feed of 8.61 m3/h and a permeate flow of 5.6
m3/h. The brine stream at 3.02 m3/h requires a proper brine disposal methodology
investigation with recommendations, and that is not the discussion of this document.
This relatively high brine flow could be reduced if a blending of the permeate with
borehole water is applied. Such blending could also resolve the situation of low CCPP
in the permeate water, as is illustrated in Alternative 2 below.
The capital cost quoted (Pall International) for Alternative 1 (excluding water
stabilisation) is N$ 2.1 million.

7.2

Alternative 2: DT-RO permeate blend with borehole water

For this alternative the system configuration is as shown in Figure 11 below. The
streams calculations for this alternative were based on the nitrate concentration, as this
parameter is the one with lowest rejection rate. Therefore, to ensure the nitrate
concentration remains within the limit of 11 mg/l (as proposed in the new standards), the
values for the blending ratios were calculated as 3.5 m 3/hr and 2.1 m3/hr for permeate
and borehole feed water, respectively. Based on these flow configurations the final
product water quality is calculated to be as shown in Table 10. Table 10 indicates that
the water still requires stabilisation. Again, from the Stasoft software the required lime
dosage for this purpose will be 13mg/l, about 200% less than the dosage required for
Alternative 1.

25 | P a g e

For this alternative the overall recovery is 75.57% - an improvement of 9.69% when
compared to Alternative 1. The capital cost for Alternative 2 has been given by Pall
Company to be N$ 1.8 million.
A comparison of the two alternatives reveals that Alternative 2 requires less chemical
addition; it also has a higher recovery rate as well as a lower capital investment.
Therefore, the DT-RO system is effective in improving the water quality at Epukiro Pos
3 (or perhaps at many plants with similar water quality), but the system can only be cost
effective if blending with borehole water is incorporated.

26 | P a g e

P-31

RO DT Module
R = 65%

8.0 m3/h

10 Filter

P-12

RO Feed Stream
NO3-

mg/l
36

ClTotal Hardness

590
1258

Permeate Stream
NO3

mg/l
4

ClTotal Hardness

41
33

P-15

5.6 m3/h

2.4 m3/h

Brine Stream
NO3

mg/l
63.6

ClTotal Hardness

1940
3417

10 m^3
Permeate
Holding Tank

8.0 m3/h
P-29

Borehole 1

10 m^3
Raw Water
Mixing Tank

Borehole 2

Borehole 3

Epukiro Pos 3
Reservior
High Pressure Pump

P-30

Figure 10: Proposed Full Scale Plant with RO system only

27 | P a g e

P-32

Bypass

Raw Water Stream


NO3

mg/l
36

ClTotal Hardness

590
1258

RO DT Module
R = 65.88%
3

6.3 m /h

10 Filter

P-12

RO Feed Stream
NO3-

mg/l
36

ClTotal Hardness

590
1258

Permeate Stream
NO3

mg/l
4

ClTotal Hardness

41
33
3

4.4 m /h

1.9 m3/h

P-29

1.2 m3/h

Brine Stream
NO3

mg/l
63.6

ClTotal Hardness

1940
3417

5.6 m3/h

Blended Stream
NO3
-

Cl
Total Hardness

P-15

mg/l
11

10 m^3
Permeate
Holding Tank

250
300
P-30

7.5 m3/h

Borehole 1

10 m^3
Raw Water
Mixing Tank

Borehole 2

Borehole 3

Epukiro Pos 3
Reservior
High Pressure Pump

P-31

Figure 11: Proposed Full Scale Plant with RO system & Blending

28 | P a g e

8.

Cost Estimations:

A summary of the Unit Costs for the Epukiro Treatment plant is given in the Table
below. The costs include the annual fixed and variable costs estimated for the Capital
Project. The unit cost of the treated water will amount to N$ 26.75 per m 3 water treated.
The unit cost of the plant will amount to N$ 2,205,000.00 per annum.
Cost Component

Amount
N$/m 3

Amount
N$/a

Fixed Costs
Capital & interest
Energy
Personnel
Materials
Water quality
Maintenance
Overheads

6.55
0.42
5.51
0.76
0.19
0.44
11.27

540,000
34,387
454,250
62,750
15,500
36,200
929,074

1.58
0.03

130,615
2,084

26.75

2,205,000

Variable Costs
Energy
Water Chlorination
Total Unit Costs

8.1
Design and Costing of Evaporation Ponds
The proposed plant at Epukiro Pos 3 will produce brine at an approximate flow rate of
2.5 m3/hr. This brine will be routed to two evaporation ponds situated appropriately
close to the plant. The two ponds will be used interchangeably to allow for maximum
evaporation during the year. The required area of one of the ponds can be calculated
using the general material balance equation below. The calculations will include the
brine flowing into the ponds, the portion of water evaporated as well as the assumed
annual rain downfall.

Material Balance:

The generation term will equal zero as there will be no generation of material inside the
ponds. The above generalized equation will yield the following:

29 | P a g e

Rearranging,

Assuming a PAN evaporation rate of 2900 mm/year for the Epukiro Pos 3 area and a
maximum pond depth of 1.5 meters, gives the following pond area calculations:
NOTE: seepage will be assumed to be negligible, due to salt crusts created in the
ponds, preventing seepage. Salt deposits on the bottom of each pond will occur rapidly
due to the extremely high concentration of salts (super saturation) in the brine.
(

A mean annual rainfall of 400 mm is also assumed for the Epukiro Pos 3 area. Since
there will be two identical ponds adjacent to each other, their surface areas will both be
1825 m2.
8.2

Cost of Civil Works for Evaporation Ponds

Assumptions:

Cost of Civil Works is N$ 75/m3


Method of construction is landfill
Number of ponds = 2
Distance between ponds = 3 m
Assuming rectangular block type ponds

Volume of earth to be removed:


The depth of the two ponds is 1.5 m and the calculated total surface area is 3 650 m2.
This means that a total of 2 737.5 m3 volume of earth should be removed for one pond
and 5 475 m3 volume of earth for both the ponds. The cost estimate for constructing the
two ponds will therefore be in the order of N$ 75/m3 x 5 475 m3 = N$ 410 625.

30 | P a g e

9.

Conclusion:

From this DT-RO Pilot operation the following issues can be concluded:
9.1
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

Water Quality
Nitrate can be reduced by 88.4% from levels of 36.5 mg/l to levels as low as 4
mg/l which is well below the 11 mg/l acceptable limit of the Namibian proposed
standards.
Sulphate can be reduced by 98.7% from levels of 880 mg/l to levels as low as
10.2 mg/l which is well below the 300 mg/l acceptable limit of the Namibian
proposed standards.
Sodium can be reduced by 92.9% from levels of 426.7 mg/l to levels as low as
29.3 mg/l which is well below the 300 mg/l acceptable limit of the Namibian
proposed standards.
Chloride can be reduced by 95.7% from levels of 1009.2 mg/l to levels as low as
45.5 mg/l which is well below the 300 mg/l acceptable limit of the Namibian
proposed standards.
Total Hardness can be reduced by 96.7% from levels of 1827.1 mg/l to levels as
low as 72.6 mg/l which is well below the 663 mg/l acceptable limit of the
Namibian proposed standards.
Conductivity can be reduced by 94.5% from levels of 546.7 mS/m to levels as
low as 28.3 mg/l which is well below the 300 mS/m acceptable limit of the
Namibian proposed standards.

9.2
(i)

DT-RO Recovery
When the system is operated during daytime and soaked in permeate during the
night, higher recoveries of between 60 and 70% can be obtained. However, to
make a reliable decision (regarding maximum achievable recovery) a longer
operating period is required for recoveries of between 60 and 70% the pilot
was only operated for a period of 28 days.

(ii)

Soaking the system overnight in permeate can permit operations without the
application of anti-scaling treatment.

(iii)

Operating the system continuously on a 24 hours/day basis, and with antiscalant, yields recoveries averaging at 51% only (feed water Total Hardness of
1827.1 mg/l).

(iv)

However, higher recoveries in the order of 66% can be achieved with a better
feed water quality (i.e mixed borehole Total Hardness of 1180.49 mg/l).

9.3
Most Viable Alternative
The results from the pilot operation indicate that the most viable option/alternative is to
blend the DT-RO permeate with untreated borehole water, when considering a full scale
31 | P a g e

treatment plant. Such a scenario improves the resultant water stability as well as
improving the overall system recovery, to as much as 75.55%. Blending also reduces
the cost, associated with DT-RO system capital investment, by as much as 14.3% (N$
1,744,689.00 for Blending and N$ 2,036,554.00 for RO-only).

10.

Recommendations

(i)

NamWater should share this report with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and
Water Affairs as well as the Omaheke Regional Council for a decision regarding
the implementation of a DT-RO water treatment plant at Epukiro Pos 3.

(ii)

If a decision is taken to implement a DT-RO water treatment plant, the system


must utilise the option of blending with borehole water to achieve higher recovery
rates.

(iii)

It is important for NamWater to confirm the recovery figures of between 60 and


70% that were obtained when the pilot was operated during daytime and soaked
in permeate during the night; therefore, it is recommended that this pilot plant be
tested at substandard water schemes such as Warmbad, Grunau, Ai-Ais,
Ariamsvlei, Aruab, Mpunguvlei etc.

11.

References

Fetter, C. W (1994). Applied Hydrogeology. 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall


Peters, T. A (2001). High Advanced Open Channel Membrane Desalination (Disc Tube Module). ELSEVIER
32 | P a g e

Peters, T. A (1999). Desalination of Seawater and Brackish Water with Reverse Osmosis and the Disc
Tube Module DT. ELSEVIER
M. Afonso, J. Jaber, M. S. Mohsen (2004). Brackish Groundwater Treatment by Reverse Osmosis in
Jordan. ELSEVIER
J.D.Seader, E. J. Henley (2006). Separation Process Principles. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Jol Mallevialle, P. E. Odendaal, M. R. Wiesner (1996). Water Treatment Membrane Processes. American
Water Works Association Research Foundation, Lyonnaise des Eaux, Water Research Commission of
South Africa.
Belkacem. M, Bekhti. S, Bensadok (2007). Groundwater treatment by reverse osmosis. ELSEVIER
Alawadhi. A. A (1997). Pretreatment plant design- Key to successful reverse osmosis desalination plant.
ELSEVIER
Schoeman. J. J (2009). Nitrate-nitrogen removal with small-scale reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and ioexchange units in rural areas. Water SA Vol. 35 No 5
Kim. S. L, Chen.J. P, Ting. Y. P (2002). Study on feed pretreatment for membrane filtration of secondary
effluent. ELSEVIER
Schoeman. J. J, Steyn. A (2003). Nitrate removal with reverse osmosis in a rural are in South Africa.
ELSEVIER
Bilidt. H (1985). THE USE OF REVERSE OSMOSIS FOR REMOVAL OF NITRATE IN DRINKING WATER.
Elsevier Science Publishers
Bohdziewicz. J, Bodzek. M, Wasik. E (1999). The application of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration to the
removal of nitrates from groundwater. ELSEVIER
Salvestrin. H, Hagare. P (2009). Removal of nitrates from groundwater in remote indigenous settings in
arid Central Australia. Desalination Publications (www.deswater.com)
Shrestha. P.R, Engle. O, Karlsson. M (2009). Water Hardness Removal For Potable Water. VVAN01, Lund
WHO, (2004). Chapter 6, Water treatment process for reducing nitrate concentrations.
Bilidt. H (1985). THE USE OF REVERSE OSMOSIS FOR REMOVAL OF NITRATE IN DRINKING WATER.
Elsevier Science Publishers

33 | P a g e

APPENDIX:
A. Pilot Plant Operational Procedure:
The Pilot Plant is very easy to operate and maintain. The start-up and shut-down
procedures is also operator friendly and is summarized below:
Start-Up:
1. Keeping the pump off, let the feed water run through the system for at least 10
minutes. To achieve this, the permeate outlet valve (pov), the brine outlet valve
(bov), the brine adjustment valve (bav), the feed adjustment (fav) as well as the
feed valve(fv) must be completely open.
2. After flushing the system for 10 minutes, the fav and bav must be completely closed
and thereafter re-opening bav with half a turn.
3. Keep pov and bov valves open.
4. Turn the pump on and progressively open the fav valve to obtain the desired feed
pressure reading on the feed pressure gauge or alternatively to obtain the desired
feed flowrate.
5. Adjust the brine flow or pressure by adjusting the bav valve.
6. After achieving the desired flowrates and/or pressures start filling the permeate tank
up to the total volume, to later use in the rinsing of the membrane before shutdown.
Shut-Down:
1. Open the tov, while simultaneously closing the fv. This should be done as quickly
as possible as the pressure from the borehole will cause particulates to enter the
tank.
2. Allow the water from the tank to run through the system to rinse the module.
3. When the tank is nearly empty, turn the pump off.
4. Immediately close all valves, starting downstream at the outlet valves moving
systematically back toward the borehole feed valve.

34 | P a g e

B. Operations Spreadsheet:
The following spreadsheet was drawn up to monitor plant operations on an hourly basis.
DT Module Area
7.65 m2
Permeate Pressure = 1 atm = 1.01325 bar
Pf
1.01325 bar

TDS Factors

Feed
Date
2/6/2010
2/6/2010
2/6/2010
2/6/2010
2/6/2010
3/6/2010
3/6/2010
3/6/2010
3/6/2010
3/6/2010
4/6/2010
4/6/2010
4/6/2010
4/6/2010
4/6/2010
4/6/2010
4/6/2010
4/6/2010
4/6/2010
5/6/2010
5/6/2010
5/6/2010
5/6/2010
5/6/2010
5/6/2010
5/6/2010
5/6/2010
5/6/2010
6/6/2010
6/6/2010
6/6/2010
6/6/2010
6/6/2010
6/6/2010
6/6/2010
6/6/2010
6/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010
7/6/2010

Time
9h50
10h50
13h50
14h50
17h45
9h15
10h15
14h35
15h35
16h35
9h15
10h15
11h15
12h15
13h15
14h15
15h15
16h15
17h15
9h20
10h20
11h20
12h20
13h20
14h20
15h20
16h20
17h20
9h00
10h00
11h00
12h00
13h00
14h00
15h00
16h00
17h00
9H00
10H00
11H00
12H00
13H00
14H00
15H00
16H00
17H00
18H00
19H00
20H00
21H00
22H00
23H00

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
60
120
60
120
60
60
120
60
120
180
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
660
720
780
840
900

Temperature Pressure
(C)
(bar)
24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4
24
24
23.5
24.5
24.6
24.2
24.1
24.3
24.7
24.5
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.9
25.2
24.4
24.5
24.7
24.3
24.9
24.8
24.7
24.8
25
24.3
24.7
24.9
24.8
24.9
24.9
24.8
24.6
24.3
24
24.7
24.9
24.8
24.9
25.2
25.4
25.1
24.6
23.4
23.4
24.1
23.7
23.5
23.1

10.6
10.6
12.3
12.5
13
12.9
12.9
11.4
11.4
11.4
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3

Feed
Permeate Brine
0.784
0.598
0.83

Brine
Flowrate
(L/min)
12.74
12.74
13.47
13.47
12.37
12.05
12.05
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.94
12.94
12.94
12.94
12.94
12.94
12.94
12.94
12.94
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85
12.85

Pressure
(bar)
7.5
7.5
9
9
10.3
10.2
10.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1

Permeate

Flowrate
(L/min)
8.71
8.71
8.61
8.61
7.17
6.9
6.9
8.32
8.32
8.32
8.52
8.52
8.52
8.52
8.52
8.52
8.52
8.52
8.52
8.44
8.44
8.44
8.44
8.44
8.44
8.44
8.44
8.44
8.39
8.39
8.39
8.39
8.39
8.39
8.39
8.39
8.39
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49
8.49

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.03
4.03
4.86
4.86
5.2
5.15
5.15
4.18
4.18
4.18
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
2300
2300
2600
2600
2500
2300
2300
2200
2200
2200
2300
2300
2200
2200
2300
2300
2300
2300
2400
2950
2950
2600
2600
2500
2500
2500
2600
2600
2500
2500
2200
2200
2300
2300
2350
2350
2300
2550
2550
2600
2600
2600
2600
2400
2400
2400
2400
2400
2400
2300
2300
2300

Permeate
90
90
65
65
90
75
75
85
85
85
95
95
100
100
95
95
85
85
65
85
85
95
95
90
85
85
80
80
85
85
65
65
70
70
85
85
95
75
75
75
75
80
80
75
75
80
80
80
80
75
75
75

Conductivity (mS/m)

Brine
3800
3800
4100
4100
4500
4400
4400
4500
4500
4500
4600
4600
4400
4400
4600
4600
4500
4500
4400
3900
3900
4000
4000
3900
4000
4000
4000
4000
3900
3900
3300
3300
4000
4000
3900
3900
4000
4300
4300
4300
4300
4400
4400
4100
4100
4200
4200
3800
3800
3900
3900
3900

Feed
5.45
5.45
5.43
5.44
5.43
5.43
5.44
5.37
5.37
5.57
5.43
5.43
5.31
5.43
5.33
5.35
5.38
5.36
5.41
5.43
5.42
5.33
5.31
5.35
5.48
5.53
5.53
5.49
5.45
5.48
5.43
5.4
5.58
5.41
5.56
5.5
5.5
5.48
5.45
5.46
5.44
5.43
5.5
5.48
5.45
5.45
5.44
5.45
5.43
5.43
5.47
5.47

Permeate
0.276
0.264
0.245
0.241
0.244
0.254
0.249
0.249
0.253
0.254
0.247
0.255
0.246
0.237
0.26
0.261
0.263
0.26
0.267
0.261
0.252
0.241
0.243
0.247
0.26
0.253
0.256
0.259
0.259
0.259
0.259
0.255
0.259
0.25
0.25
0.244
0.244
0.247
0.258
0.254
0.247
0.249
0.251
0.249
0.252
0.24
0.239
0.238
0.239
0.249
0.242
0.252

permeability

Brine
7.65
7.6
8.04
8.09
8.7
8.77
8.78
7.96
7.9
8.24
7.56
7.85
7.68
7.73
7.75
7.73
7.75
7.72
7.8
7.79
7.88
7.75
7.77
7.76
7.94
8
8
7.88
7.81
7.78
7.78
7.8
8.03
7.82
8.15
7.95
7.95
7.78
7.9
7.88
7.9
7.92
7.99
7.93
7.88
7.89
7.87
7.84
7.87
7.78
7.83
7.72

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
31.63
96.09
94.94
31.63
96.09
95.16
36.08
97.50
95.49
36.08
97.50
95.57
42.04
96.40
95.51
42.74
96.74
95.32
42.74
96.74
95.42
33.44
96.14
95.36
33.44
96.14
95.29
33.44
96.14
95.44
34.16
95.87
95.45
34.16
95.87
95.30
34.16
95.45
95.37
34.16
95.45
95.64
34.16
95.87
95.12
34.16
95.87
95.12
34.16
96.30
95.11
34.16
96.30
95.15
34.16
97.29
95.06
34.57
97.12
95.19
34.57
97.12
95.35
34.57
96.35
95.48
34.57
96.35
95.42
34.57
96.40
95.38
34.57
96.60
95.26
34.57
96.60
95.42
34.57
96.92
95.37
34.57
96.92
95.28
33.94
96.60
95.25
33.94
96.60
95.27
33.94
97.05
95.23
33.94
97.05
95.28
33.94
96.96
95.36
33.94
96.96
95.38
33.94
96.38
95.50
33.94
96.38
95.56
33.94
95.87
95.56
33.93
97.06
95.49
33.93
97.06
95.27
33.93
97.12
95.35
33.93
97.12
95.46
33.93
96.92
95.41
33.93
96.92
95.44
33.93
96.88
95.46
33.93
96.88
95.38
33.93
96.67
95.60
33.93
96.67
95.61
33.93
96.67
95.63
33.93
96.67
95.60
33.93
96.74
95.41
33.93
96.74
95.58
33.93
96.74
95.39

CF
1.46
1.46
1.56
1.56
1.73
1.75
1.75
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51

flux
0.53
0.53
0.64
0.64
0.68
0.67
0.67
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57

P
9.59
9.59
11.29
11.49
11.99
11.89
11.89
10.39
10.39
10.39
10.49
10.49
10.49
10.49
10.49
10.49
10.49
10.49
10.49
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.09
10.09
10.09
10.09
10.09
10.09
10.09
10.09
10.09
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29
10.29

4.75
4.75
5.06
5.07
5.58
5.65
5.66
4.81
4.81
4.99
4.91
4.91
4.81
4.91
4.82
4.84
4.87
4.85
4.90
4.95
4.94
4.85
4.84
4.87
4.99
5.04
5.04
5.00
4.92
4.94
4.90
4.87
5.03
4.88
5.01
4.96
4.96
4.94
4.91
4.92
4.91
4.90
4.96
4.94
4.91
4.91
4.91
4.91
4.90
4.90
4.93
4.93

Aw
(L/m in.bar.m 2)

0.10891
0.10891
0.10205
0.09902
0.10613
0.10795
0.10813
0.09793
0.09793
0.10118
0.10368
0.10368
0.10170
0.10368
0.10202
0.10235
0.10284
0.10251
0.10334
0.10914
0.10896
0.10731
0.10696
0.10768
0.11008
0.11104
0.11104
0.11027
0.10895
0.10952
0.10857
0.10801
0.11148
0.10819
0.11108
0.10991
0.10991
0.10664
0.10610
0.10628
0.10592
0.10574
0.10700
0.10664
0.10610
0.10610
0.10592
0.10610
0.10574
0.10574
0.10646
0.10646

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4273
4273
4257
4265
4257
4257
4265
4210
4210
4367
4257
4257
4163
4257
4179
4194
4218
4202
4241
4257
4249
4179
4163
4194
4296
4336
4336
4304
4273
4296
4257
4234
4375
4241
4359
4312
4312
4296
4273
4281
4265
4257
4312
4296
4273
4273
4265
4273
4257
4257
4288
4288

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

35 | P a g e

Feed
Date
7/6/2010
22/6/2010
22/6/2010
22/6/2010
23/6/2010
23/6/2010
23/6/2010
23/6/2010
23/6/2010
23/6/2010
23/6/2010
23/6/2010
23/6/2010
24/6/2010
24/6/2010
24/6/2010
24/6/2010
24/6/2010
24/6/2010
24/6/2010
24/6/2010
24/6/2010
26/6/2010
26/6/2010
26/6/2010
26/6/2010
26/6/2010
26/6/2010
26/6/2010
26/6/2010
26/6/2010
27/6.2010
27/6/2010
27/6/2010
27/6/2010
27/6/2010
27/6/2010
27/6/2010
27/6/2010
27/6/2010
28/6/2010
28/6/2010
28/6/2010
28/6/2010
28/6/2010
28/6/2010
28/6/2010
28/6/2010
28/6/2010
29/6/2010
29/6/2010
29/6/2010
29/6/2010
29/6/2010
29/6/2010
29/6/2010
29/6/2010
29/6/2010
30/6/2010

Time
24H00
15H10
16H10
17H10
9H19
10H19
11H19
12H19
13H19
14H19
15H19
16H19
17H19
9H20
10H20
11H20
12H20
13H20
14H20
15H20
16H20
17H20
9H05
10H05
11H05
12H05
13H05
14H05
15H05
16H05
17H05
8H20
9H20
10H20
11H20
12H20
13H20
14H20
15H20
16H20
8H15
9H15
10H15
11H15
12H15
13H15
14H15
15H15
16H15
8H10
9H10
10H10
11H10
12H10
13H10
14H10
15H10
16H10
8H15

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
960
60
120
180
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60

Temperature Pressure
(C)
(bar)
22.8
24.5
24.5
24.6
23.7
24
24.4
24.5
24.5
24.6
24.6
24.4
24.4
23.5
24.5
24.2
24.4
24.7
25
25.2
24.3
24.3
23.8
23.1
23.6
24.6
24.5
24.8
24.5
24.5
24.4
24.1
24
24.2
24.5
24.5
24.8
24.7
24.6
24.4
23.3
23.9
24.4
24.5
24.6
24.6
24.3
24.6
24.6
22.6
23.8
24.8
24.4
24.5
25
25.2
24.5
24.5
23.5

11.3
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.55
11.4
11.4
11.4
11.4
11.4
11.4
11.4
11.4
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6

Brine
Flowrate
(L/min)
12.85
12.804
12.804
12.804
12.39
12.39
12.39
12.39
12.39
12.39
12.39
12.39
12.39
12.255
12.255
12.255
12.255
12.255
12.255
12.255
12.255
12.255
12.564
12.564
12.564
12.564
12.564
12.564
12.564
12.564
12.564
12.509
12.509
12.509
12.509
12.509
12.509
12.509
12.509
12.509
12.225
12.225
12.225
12.225
12.225
12.225
12.225
12.225
12.225
12.365
12.365
12.365
12.365
12.365
12.365
12.365
12.365
12.365
12.374

Pressure
(bar)
8.1
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.55
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6

Permeate

Flowrate
(L/min)
8.49
8.199
8.199
8.199
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.829
7.829
7.829
7.829
7.829
7.829
7.829
7.829
7.829
8.028
8.028
8.028
8.028
8.028
8.028
8.028
8.028
8.028
8.017
8.017
8.017
8.017
8.017
8.017
8.017
8.017
8.017
7.724
7.724
7.724
7.724
7.724
7.724
7.724
7.724
7.724
7.854
7.854
7.854
7.854
7.854
7.854
7.854
7.854
7.854
7.865

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.36
4.605
4.605
4.605
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.426
4.426
4.426
4.426
4.426
4.426
4.426
4.426
4.426
4.536
4.536
4.536
4.536
4.536
4.536
4.536
4.536
4.536
4.492
4.492
4.492
4.492
4.492
4.492
4.492
4.492
4.492
4.501
4.501
4.501
4.501
4.501
4.501
4.501
4.501
4.501
4.511
4.511
4.511
4.511
4.511
4.511
4.511
4.511
4.511
4.509

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
2300
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2596.75
2596.75
2596.75
2596.75
2596.75
2652
2652
2817.75
2817.75
2652
2652
2762.5
2817.75
2817.75
2817.75
2817.75
2817.75
2817.75
2873
2873
2762.5
2762.5
2817.75
2817.75
2817.75
2928.25
2928.25
2928.25
2928.25
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2817.75
2817.75
2707.25
2707.25
2873
2873
2873
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25

Permeate
75
93.925
93.925
93.925
88.4
88.4
82.875
82.875
82.875
93.925
93.925
99.45
99.45
93.925
93.925
88.4
88.4
93.925
99.45
99.45
99.45
99.45
93.925
93.925
99.45
99.45
93.925
93.925
104.975
104.975
104.975
88.4
88.4
99.45
99.45
93.925
93.925
93.925
93.925
93.925
93.925
93.925
88.4
88.4
93.925
93.925
93.925
93.925
93.925
99.45
99.45
93.925
93.925
99.45
99.45
99.45
99.45
99.45
93.925

Brine
3900
5525
5525
5525
4751.5
4751.5
4972.5
4972.5
4972.5
4641
4641
4751.5
4751.5
4751.5
4751.5
4862
4862
4751
5414.5
5414.5
5414.5
5414.5
5083
5083
5414.5
5414.5
5193.5
5193.5
5525
5525
5525
4862
4862
5.304
5.304
4.862
4.862
4.862
4.862
4.862
4972.5
4972.5
5304
5304
5193.5
5193.5
5.525
5.525
5.525
5304
5304
4641
4641
4751.5
4751.5
4751.5
4751.5
4751.5
5304

Conductivity (mS/m)
Feed
5.52
5.33
5.3
5.33
5.5
5.49
5.47
5.48
5.47
5.5
5.47
5.45
5.47
5.49
5.51
5.47
5.45
5.47
5.52
5.46
5.45
5.43
5.39
5.57
5.57
5.42
5.43
5.41
5.56
5.43
5.55
5.5
5.49
5.5
5.52
5.49
5.42
5.51
5.5
5.49
5.41
5.51
5.5
5.48
5.5
5.5
5.55
5.5
5.51
5.42
5.47
5.49
5.49
5.49
5.5
5.49
5.43
5.43
5.49

Permeate
0.249
0.242
0.239
0.242
0.252
0.257
0.26
0.252
0.252
0.248
0.246
0.253
0.249
0.25
0.248
0.249
0.252
0.248
0.251
0.247
0.242
0.24
0.251
0.269
0.25
0.248
0.269
0.265
0.253
0.276
0.258
0.247
0.251
0.245
0.246
0.248
0.271
0.239
0.243
0.242
0.249
0.25
0.252
0.245
0.246
0.239
0.241
0.238
0.24
0.248
0.25
0.248
0.237
0.24
0.242
0.239
0.235
0.234
0.248

permeability

Brine
7.76
7.73
7.83
7.81
8.02
8.11
8.13
8.17
8.18
8.14
8.15
8.01
8.13
8.01
7.97
8.17
8.15
7.99
8.03
8.01
8.1
8.12
7.84
8.09
8.08
8.02
8.03
8.1
8.19
8.02
8.15
8.07
8.19
8.2
8.19
8.17
8.04
8.17
8.17
8.14
8.03
8.26
8.21
8.22
8.21
8.21
8.22
8.22
8.24
7.94
8.01
8.04
8.04
8.15
8.11
8.01
8.09
8.1
8.12

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
33.93
96.74
95.49
35.97
96.53
95.46
35.97
96.53
95.49
35.97
96.53
95.46
36.24
96.73
95.42
36.24
96.73
95.32
36.24
96.81
95.25
36.24
96.81
95.40
36.24
96.81
95.39
36.24
96.38
95.49
36.24
96.38
95.50
36.24
96.25
95.36
36.24
96.25
95.45
36.12
96.67
95.45
36.12
96.67
95.50
36.12
96.67
95.45
36.12
96.67
95.38
36.12
96.60
95.47
36.12
96.47
95.45
36.12
96.47
95.48
36.12
96.47
95.56
36.12
96.47
95.58
36.10
96.67
95.34
36.10
96.67
95.17
36.10
96.54
95.51
36.10
96.54
95.42
36.10
96.60
95.05
36.10
96.60
95.10
36.10
96.27
95.45
36.10
96.27
94.92
36.10
96.27
95.35
35.91
96.98
95.51
35.91
96.98
95.43
35.91
96.60
95.55
35.91
96.60
95.54
35.91
96.60
95.48
35.91
96.60
95.00
35.91
96.60
95.66
35.91
96.60
95.58
35.91
96.60
95.59
36.82
96.60
95.40
36.82
96.60
95.46
36.82
96.86
95.42
36.82
96.86
95.53
36.82
96.53
95.53
36.82
96.53
95.65
36.82
96.73
95.66
36.82
96.73
95.67
36.82
96.73
95.64
36.48
96.40
95.42
36.48
96.40
95.43
36.48
96.60
95.48
36.48
96.60
95.68
36.48
96.33
95.63
36.48
96.33
95.60
36.48
96.33
95.65
36.48
96.33
95.67
36.48
96.33
95.69
36.44
96.53
95.48

CF
1.51
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57

flux
0.57
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59

P
10.29
10.49
10.49
10.49
10.54
10.39
10.39
10.39
10.39
10.39
10.39
10.39
10.39
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59

4.98
4.96
4.93
4.96
5.14
5.13
5.11
5.12
5.11
5.14
5.11
5.09
5.11
5.12
5.14
5.10
5.08
5.10
5.15
5.09
5.08
5.06
5.03
5.19
5.19
5.05
5.06
5.04
5.18
5.06
5.18
5.11
5.10
5.11
5.13
5.10
5.04
5.12
5.11
5.10
5.10
5.20
5.19
5.17
5.19
5.19
5.23
5.19
5.20
5.08
5.13
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.16
5.15
5.09
5.09
5.15

Aw
(L/m in.bar.m 2)

0.10736
0.10891
0.10836
0.10891
0.10875
0.11166
0.11126
0.11146
0.11126
0.11186
0.11126
0.11087
0.11126
0.10584
0.10620
0.10548
0.10512
0.10548
0.10639
0.10530
0.10512
0.10477
0.10663
0.10995
0.10995
0.10717
0.10735
0.10699
0.10976
0.10735
0.10957
0.10728
0.10710
0.10728
0.10765
0.10710
0.10584
0.10746
0.10728
0.10710
0.10727
0.10915
0.10896
0.10858
0.10896
0.10896
0.10992
0.10896
0.10915
0.10717
0.10809
0.10846
0.10846
0.10846
0.10865
0.10846
0.10735
0.10735
0.10834

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4328
4179
4155
4179
4312
4304
4288
4296
4288
4312
4288
4273
4288
4304
4320
4288
4273
4288
4328
4281
4273
4257
4226
4367
4367
4249
4257
4241
4359
4257
4351
4312
4304
4312
4328
4304
4249
4320
4312
4304
4241
4320
4312
4296
4312
4312
4351
4312
4320
4249
4288
4304
4304
4304
4312
4304
4257
4257
4304

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110

36 | P a g e

Feed
Date
30/6/2010
30/6/2010
30/6/2010
30/6/2010
30/6/2010
30/6/2010
30/6/2010
30/6/2010
1/7/2010
1/7/2010
1/7/2010
1/7/2010
1/7/2010
1/7/2010
1/7/2010
1/7/2010
1/7/2010
8/7/2010
8/7/2010
8/7/2010
8/7/2010
8/7/2010
8/7/2010
8/7/2010
8/7/2010
8/7/2010
9/7/2010
9/7/2010
9/7/2010
9/7/2010
9/7/2010
9/7/2010
9/7/2010
9/7/2010
9/7/2010
9/7/2010
10/7/2010
10/7/2010
10/7/2010
10/7/2010
10/7/2010
10/7/2010
10/7/2010
10/7/2010
10/7/2010
11/7/2010
11/7/2010
11/7/2010
11/7/2010
11/7/2010
11/7/2010
11/7/2010
11/7/2010
11/7/2010
11/7/2010
12/7/2010
12/7/2010
12/7/2010
12/7/2010
12/7/2010

Time
9H15
10H15
11H15
12H15
13H15
14H15
15H15
16H15
8H20
9H20
10H20
11H20
12H20
13H20
14H20
15H20
16H20
8H35
9H35
10H35
11H35
12H35
13H35
14H35
15h35
16H35
8H40
9H40
10H40
11H40
12H40
13H40
14H40
15H40
16H40
17H40
9H25
10H25
11H25
12H25
13H25
14H25
15H25
16H25
17H25
8H30
9H30
10H30
11H30
12H30
13H30
14H30
15H30
16H30
17H30
8H30
9H30
10H30
11H30
12H30

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
60
120
180
240
300

Brine

Temperature Pressure Flowrate


(C)
(bar)
(L/min)
23.7
23.8
24.5
24.7
24.7
24.8
24.9
24.7
24.1
24.3
25
25.1
25.1
25.4
25.2
25
24.8
23.6
23.9
24.1
24.4
24.5
24.5
24.4
23.3
24.3
23.7
23.9
24.1
24
24.5
24.1
24.3
24.3
24.3
22.9
23.8
24.3
24.5
24.6
24.7
24.7
24.6
24.6
24.5
23.4
23.4
23.8
24.3
24.5
24.3
24.1
23.8
24.3
24.2
22.6
22.9
23.2
23.4
23.1

11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.35
11.35
11.35
11.35
11.35
11.35
11.35
11.35
11.35
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12
12
12
12
12
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12
12
12

12.374
12.374
12.374
12.374
12.374
12.374
12.374
12.374
12.699
12.699
12.699
12.699
12.699
12.699
12.699
12.699
12.699
11.914
11.914
11.914
11.914
11.914
11.914
11.914
11.914
11.914
12.039
12.039
12.039
12.039
12.039
12.039
12.039
12.039
12.039
12.039
11.981
11.981
11.981
11.981
11.981
11.981
11.981
11.981
11.981
12.125
12.125
12.125
12.125
12.125
12.125
12.125
12.125
12.125
12.125
12.029
12.029
12.029
12.029
12.029

Pressure
(bar)
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.35
9.35
9.35

Permeate

Flowrate Flowrate
(L/min)
(L/min)
7.865
7.865
7.865
7.865
7.865
7.865
7.865
7.865
8.051
8.051
8.051
8.051
8.051
8.051
8.051
8.051
8.051
7.114
7.114
7.114
7.114
7.114
7.114
7.114
7.114
7.114
7.238
7.238
7.238
7.238
7.238
7.238
7.238
7.238
7.238
7.238
7.041
7.041
7.041
7.041
7.041
7.041
7.041
7.041
7.041
6.907
6.907
6.907
6.907
6.907
6.907
6.907
6.907
6.907
6.907
7.206
7.206
7.206
7.206
7.206

4.509
4.509
4.509
4.509
4.509
4.509
4.509
4.509
4.648
4.648
4.648
4.648
4.648
4.648
4.648
4.648
4.648
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.94
4.94
4.94
4.94
4.94
4.94
4.94
4.94
4.94
5.218
5.218
5.218
5.218
5.218
5.218
5.218
5.218
5.218
5.218
4.823
4.823
4.823
4.823
4.823

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
2707.25
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2707.25
2596.75
2596.75
2707.25
2707.25
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2762.5
2762.5
2652
2652
2817.75
2817.75
2652
2652
2652
2817.75
2817.75
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2817.75
2817.75
2817.75
2817.75
2817.75
2817.75
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2817.75
2817.75
2817.75
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2817.75
2817.75
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2210
2210
2707.25
2707.25
2817.75

Permeate
93.925
93.925
93.925
93.925
93.925
88.4
82.875
82.875
77.35
77.35
82.875
82.875
77.35
77.35
82.875
82.875
82.875
88.4
88.4
82.875
82.875
93.925
93.925
82.875
82.875
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
93.925
93.925
93.925
93.925
93.925
93.925
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
82.875
82.875
82.875
88.4
88.4
93.925
93.925
104.975
104.975
88.4
88.4
82.875
82.875
66.3
66.3
88.4
88.4
93.925

Brine
5304
5414.5
5414.5
5414.5
5414.5
5304
5414.5
5414.5
5193.5
5193.5
5083
5083
4751.5
4751.5
5083
5083
5083
5304
5304
5414.5
5414.5
5525
5525
5304
5304
5193.5
5304
5304
5414.5
5414.5
5304
5304
5525
5525
5525
5525
5525
5525
5414.5
5414.5
5304
5304
5525
5525
5525
5525
5525
5414.5
5414.5
5304
5304
5193.5
5193.5
5304
5304
3757
3757
5414.5
5414.5
5304

Conductivity (mS/m)
Feed
5.46
5.47
5.44
5.47
5.41
5.39
5.48
5.45
5.21
4.84
5.21
5.21
5.15
5.13
5.15
5.15
5.19
5.5
5.53
5.48
5.48
5.46
5.51
5.43
5.48
5.42
5.51
5.53
5.5
5.49
5.49
5.52
5.47
5.49
5.51
5.55
5.11
5.16
5.16
5.19
5.21
5.22
5.24
5.36
5.29
5.12
5.15
5.33
5.31
5.36
5.37
5.39
5.33
5.36
5.37
5.08
5.14
5.12
5.14
5.25

Permeate
0.25
0.249
0.246
0.239
0.24
0.237
0.242
0.237
0.233
0.227
0.231
0.228
0.222
0.228
0.237
0.231
0.224
0.254
0.25
0.287
0.247
0.248
0.244
0.253
0.238
0.238
0.242
0.245
0.244
0.242
0.238
0.239
0.237
0.243
0.254
0.241
0.229
0.227
0.22
0.224
0.227
0.228
0.23
0.257
0.236
0.226
0.226
0.235
0.245
0.242
0.232
0.233
0.229
0.229
0.23
0.223
0.221
0.222
0.222
0.223

permeability

Brine
8.22
8.17
7.99
8.14
8.09
8.1
8.01
7.96
7.76
7.58
7.79
7.76
7.71
7.76
7.68
7.68
7.68
8.61
8.7
8.59
8.66
8.6
8.68
8.59
8.62
8.55
8.48
8.62
8.66
8.64
8.66
8.64
8.67
8.71
8.66
8.64
8.24
8.25
8.24
8.31
8.31
8.28
8.33
8.48
8.41
7.92
8.27
8.49
8.48
8.51
8.54
8.59
8.56
8.55
8.57
8.1
8.14
8.2
8.17
8.24

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
36.44
96.53
95.42
36.44
96.60
95.45
36.44
96.60
95.48
36.44
96.60
95.63
36.44
96.60
95.56
36.44
96.73
95.60
36.44
96.81
95.58
36.44
96.81
95.65
36.60
97.14
95.53
36.60
97.14
95.31
36.60
97.00
95.57
36.60
97.00
95.62
36.60
97.20
95.69
36.60
97.20
95.56
36.60
96.94
95.40
36.60
96.94
95.51
36.60
96.94
95.68
40.29
96.80
95.38
40.29
96.80
95.48
40.29
96.88
94.76
40.29
96.88
95.49
40.29
96.67
95.46
40.29
96.67
95.57
40.29
96.88
95.34
40.29
96.88
95.66
40.29
96.67
95.61
39.88
96.86
95.61
39.88
96.86
95.57
39.88
96.80
95.56
39.88
96.80
95.59
39.88
96.60
95.66
39.88
96.60
95.67
39.88
96.67
95.67
39.88
96.67
95.57
39.88
96.67
95.39
39.88
96.67
95.66
41.23
96.86
95.52
41.23
96.86
95.60
41.23
96.80
95.74
41.23
96.80
95.68
41.23
96.80
95.64
41.23
96.80
95.63
41.23
97.06
95.61
41.23
97.06
95.21
41.23
97.06
95.54
43.04
96.80
95.59
43.04
96.80
95.61
43.04
96.60
95.59
43.04
96.60
95.39
43.04
96.27
95.49
43.04
96.27
95.68
43.04
96.73
95.68
43.04
96.73
95.70
43.04
96.94
95.73
43.04
96.94
95.72
40.09
97.00
95.61
40.09
97.00
95.70
40.09
96.73
95.66
40.09
96.73
95.68
40.09
96.67
95.75

CF
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.76
1.76
1.76
1.76
1.76
1.76
1.76
1.76
1.76
1.76
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67

flux
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63

P
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.59
10.34
10.34
10.34
10.34
10.34
10.34
10.34
10.34
10.34
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
10.99
10.99
10.99
10.99
10.99
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
10.94
10.94
10.94
10.94
10.94
10.94
10.94
10.94
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
10.99
10.99
10.99

5.12
5.13
5.10
5.13
5.07
5.05
5.14
5.11
4.90
4.55
4.90
4.90
4.84
4.82
4.84
4.84
4.88
5.49
5.52
5.47
5.47
5.45
5.50
5.42
5.47
5.41
5.46
5.48
5.45
5.44
5.44
5.47
5.42
5.44
5.46
5.50
5.18
5.23
5.23
5.26
5.28
5.29
5.31
5.43
5.36
5.36
5.39
5.58
5.55
5.61
5.62
5.64
5.58
5.61
5.62
5.05
5.11
5.09
5.11
5.22

Aw
(L/min.bar.m 2)

0.10779
0.10797
0.10742
0.10797
0.10687
0.10651
0.10816
0.10760
0.11168
0.10497
0.11168
0.11168
0.11054
0.11016
0.11054
0.11054
0.11130
0.11208
0.11268
0.11168
0.11168
0.11329
0.11432
0.11268
0.11370
0.11248
0.11155
0.11194
0.11135
0.11116
0.11116
0.11175
0.11077
0.11116
0.11155
0.11234
0.10934
0.11319
0.11319
0.11380
0.11420
0.11441
0.11482
0.11736
0.11587
0.11901
0.11967
0.12375
0.12329
0.12446
0.12470
0.12518
0.12375
0.12446
0.12470
0.10448
0.10553
0.10696
0.10732
0.10936

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4281
4288
4265
4288
4241
4226
4296
4273
4085
3795
4085
4085
4038
4022
4038
4038
4069
4312
4336
4296
4296
4281
4320
4257
4296
4249
4320
4336
4312
4304
4304
4328
4288
4304
4320
4351
4006
4045
4045
4069
4085
4092
4108
4202
4147
4014
4038
4179
4163
4202
4210
4226
4179
4202
4210
3983
4030
4014
4030
4116

111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170

37 | P a g e

Feed
Date
12/7/2010
12/7/2010
12/7/2010
12/7/2010
12/7/2010
13/7/2010
13/7/2010
13/7/2010
13/7/2010
13/7/2010
13/7/2010
13/7/2010
13/7/2010
13/7/2010
13/7/2010
14/7/2010
14/7/2010
14/7/2010
14/7/2010
14/7/2010
14/7/2010
14/7/2010
14/7/2010
14/7/2010
15/7/2010
15/7/2010
15/7/2010
15/7/2010
15/7/2010
15/7/2010
15/7/2010
15/7/2010
15/7/2010
21/7/2010
21/7/2011
21/7/2012
21/7/2013
21/7/2014
21/7/2015
21/7/2016
21/7/2017
21/7/2018
22/7/2010
22/7/2011
22/7/2012
22/7/2013
22/7/2014
22/7/2015
22/7/2016
22/7/2017
22/7/2018
23/7/2010
23/7/2010
23/7/2010
23/7/2010
23/7/2010
23/7/2010

Time
13H30
14H30
15H30
16H30
17H30
8H40
9H40
10H40
11H40
12H40
13H40
14H40
15H40
16H40
17H40
8H50
9H50
10H50
11H50
12H50
13H50
14H50
15H50
16H50
8H25
9H25
10H25
11H25
12H25
13H25
14H25
15H25
16H25
8H26
9H26
10H26
11H26
12H26
13H26
14H26
15H26
16H26
8H50
9H50
10H50
11H50
12H50
13H50
14H50
15H50
16H50
8H47
9H47
10H47
11H47
12H47
13H47

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
360
420
480
540
600
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360

Brine

Temperature Pressure Flowrate


(C)
(bar)
(L/min)
23.5
23.5
23.5
22.9
22.4
22.7
23.1
23.8
24
23.9
23.9
23.3
23.7
23.6
23.4
24
24.2
24.3
24
24
23.9
23.7
23.6
23.6
24
24.2
24.3
24.2
24.2
24.5
24.6
24.9
24.9
23.9
24.2
24.1
24
24
24.3
24.5
24.6
24.5
23.9
24
24.2
24.5
24.4
24.6
24.7
24.4
24.2
23.8
24.2
24.4
24.7
24.7
24.7

12
12
12
12
12
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
13
13
12.95
12.95
12.95
12.95
12.95
12.95
12.95
13
13
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9

12.029
12.029
12.029
12.029
12.029
12.493
12.493
12.493
12.493
12.493
12.493
12.493
12.493
12.493
12.493
12.044
12.044
12.044
12.044
12.044
12.044
12.044
12.044
12.044
12.489
12.489
12.489
12.489
12.489
12.489
12.489
12.489
12.489
11.62
11.62
11.62
11.62
11.62
11.62
11.62
11.62
11.62
11.745
11.745
11.745
11.745
11.745
11.745
11.745
11.745
11.745
11.925
11.925
11.925
11.925
11.925
11.925

Pressure
(bar)
9.35
9.35
9.35
9.35
9.35
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.35
9.35
9.35
9.35
9.35
9.35
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.45
10.45
10.45
10.45
10.45
10.45
10.5
10.5
10.45
10.45
10.45
10.45
10.45
10.45
10.45
10.5
10.5
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.4

Permeate

Flowrate
(L/min)
7.206
7.206
7.206
7.206
7.206
7.24
7.24
7.24
7.24
7.24
7.24
7.24
7.24
7.24
7.24
7.253
7.253
7.253
7.253
7.253
7.253
7.253
7.253
7.253
7.529
7.529
7.529
7.529
7.529
7.529
7.529
7.529
7.529
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.457
6.457
6.457
6.457
6.457
6.457
6.457
6.457
6.457
6.659
6.659
6.659
6.659
6.659
6.659

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.823
4.823
4.823
4.823
4.823
5.253
5.253
5.253
5.253
5.253
5.253
5.253
5.253
5.253
5.253
4.791
4.791
4.791
4.791
4.791
4.791
4.791
4.791
4.791
4.96
4.96
4.96
4.96
4.96
4.96
4.96
4.96
4.96
5.22
5.22
5.22
5.22
5.22
5.22
5.22
5.22
5.22
5.288
5.288
5.288
5.288
5.288
5.288
5.288
5.288
5.288
5.266
5.266
5.266
5.266
5.266
5.266

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
2817.75
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2762.5
2762.5
2817.75
2817.75
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2762.5
2762.5
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2707.25
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2762.5
2817.75
2817.75
2817.75
2150
2150
2200
2200
1950
1950
1750
1750
1750
1950
1950
2000
2000
2000
2000
2250
2250
2250
1900
1900
1950
1950
2200
2200

Permeate
93.925
66.3
66.3
66.3
66.3
77.35
77.35
88.4
88.4
82.875
82.875
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
93.925
93.925
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
93.925
93.925
104.975
104.975
88.4
88.4
88.4
20
20
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
25
25
20
20
25
25
30
30
30
30
30
25
25
20
20

Brine
5304
5193.5
5193.5
5193.5
5193.5
4641
4641
4641
4641
5414.5
5414.5
5193.5
5193.5
5193.5
5193.5
5414.5
5414.5
5414.5
5414.5
5193.5
5193.5
5414.5
5414.5
5414.5
5414.5
5414.5
5304
5304
5414.5
5414.5
5193.5
5193.5
5193.5
4100
4100
4000
4000
3900
3900
3600
3600
3600
3800
3800
4300
4300
4100
4100
4400
4400
4400
3800
3800
4200
4200
3500
3500

Conductivity (mS/m)
Feed
5.22
5.25
5.18
5.14
5.2
5.29
5.47
5.44
5.43
5.45
5.54
5.6
5.52
5.51
5.49
5.37
5.41
5.42
5.53
5.48
5.54
5.52
5.53
5.6
5.45
5.49
5.42
5.52
5.49
5.51
5.48
5.46
5.5
5.55
5.47
5.51
5.51
5.49
5.5
5.49
5.5
5.54
5.44
5.59
5.56
5.51
5.46
5.51
5.53
5.5
5.52
5.44
5.54
5.55
5.57
5.56
5.56

Permeate
0.222
0.223
0.228
0.228
0.23
0.241
0.244
0.24
0.241
0.235
0.244
0.247
0.237
0.239
0.238
0.238
0.241
0.244
0.244
0.249
0.241
0.239
0.24
0.244
0.24
0.243
0.236
0.237
0.24
0.24
0.236
0.239
0.242
0.242
0.245
0.244
0.267
0.251
0.245
0.241
0.267
0.242
0.242
0.256
0.263
0.268
0.237
0.242
0.239
0.235
0.244
0.248
0.239
0.241
0.245
0.242
0.249

permeability

Brine
8.26
8.24
8.2
8.17
8.29
8.4
8.63
8.56
8.55
8.54
8.73
8.7
8.66
8.61
8.63
8.41
8.5
8.52
8.71
8.69
8.73
8.69
8.71
8.66
8.51
8.47
8.5
8.58
8.6
8.62
8.57
8.59
8.65
9.3
9.23
9.33
9.41
9.46
9.38
9.41
9.34
9.32
9.01
9.26
9.32
9.32
9.13
9.31
9.25
9.25
9.25
9.02
9.25
9.23
9.28
9.24
9.26

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
40.09
96.67
95.75
40.09
97.55
95.75
40.09
97.55
95.60
40.09
97.55
95.56
40.09
97.55
95.58
42.05
97.14
95.44
42.05
97.14
95.54
42.05
96.80
95.59
42.05
96.80
95.56
42.05
97.06
95.69
42.05
97.06
95.60
42.05
96.73
95.59
42.05
96.73
95.71
42.05
96.73
95.66
42.05
96.73
95.66
39.78
96.60
95.57
39.78
96.60
95.55
39.78
96.73
95.50
39.78
96.73
95.59
39.78
96.73
95.46
39.78
96.73
95.65
39.78
96.80
95.67
39.78
96.80
95.66
39.78
96.80
95.64
39.71
96.80
95.60
39.71
96.80
95.57
39.71
96.60
95.65
39.71
96.60
95.71
39.71
96.20
95.63
39.71
96.20
95.64
39.71
96.86
95.69
39.71
96.86
95.62
39.71
96.86
95.60
44.92
99.07
95.64
44.92
99.07
95.52
44.92
98.64
95.57
44.92
98.64
95.15
44.92
98.97
95.43
44.92
98.97
95.55
44.92
98.86
95.61
44.92
98.86
95.15
44.92
98.86
95.63
45.02
98.72
95.55
45.02
98.72
95.42
45.02
99.00
95.27
45.02
99.00
95.14
45.02
98.75
95.66
45.02
98.75
95.61
45.02
98.67
95.68
45.02
98.67
95.73
45.02
98.67
95.58
44.16
98.42
95.44
44.16
98.42
95.69
44.16
98.72
95.66
44.16
98.72
95.60
44.16
99.09
95.65
44.16
99.09
95.52

CF
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.79
1.79
1.79
1.79
1.79
1.79

flux
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69

P
10.99
10.99
10.99
10.99
10.99
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
11.09
10.99
10.99
10.99
10.99
10.99
11.99
11.99
11.99
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.99
11.99
11.94
11.94
11.94
11.94
11.94
11.94
11.94
11.99
11.99
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89

5.19
5.22
5.15
5.11
5.17
5.44
5.62
5.59
5.58
5.60
5.70
5.76
5.68
5.67
5.64
5.31
5.35
5.36
5.47
5.42
5.48
5.46
5.47
5.54
5.39
5.43
5.36
5.46
5.43
5.45
5.42
5.40
5.44
6.00
5.92
5.96
5.96
5.94
5.95
5.94
5.95
5.99
5.90
6.06
6.03
5.97
5.92
5.97
5.99
5.96
5.98
5.80
5.91
5.92
5.94
5.93
5.93

Aw
(L/min.bar.m 2)

0.10880
0.10936
0.10806
0.10732
0.10843
0.12158
0.12570
0.12499
0.12476
0.12523
0.12738
0.12885
0.12689
0.12665
0.12617
0.10847
0.10922
0.10941
0.11153
0.11056
0.11173
0.11134
0.11153
0.11292
0.11375
0.11454
0.11316
0.11514
0.11660
0.11702
0.11639
0.11598
0.11681
0.11406
0.11243
0.11324
0.11515
0.11473
0.11494
0.11473
0.11494
0.11578
0.11349
0.11660
0.11695
0.11588
0.11484
0.11588
0.11631
0.11567
0.11609
0.11135
0.11330
0.11541
0.11582
0.11561
0.11561

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4092
4116
4061
4030
4077
4147
4288
4265
4257
4273
4343
4390
4328
4320
4304
4210
4241
4249
4336
4296
4343
4328
4336
4390
4273
4304
4249
4328
4304
4320
4296
4281
4312
4351
4288
4320
4320
4304
4312
4304
4312
4343
4265
4383
4359
4320
4281
4320
4336
4312
4328
4265
4343
4351
4367
4359
4359

171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
216
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240

38 | P a g e

Feed
Date
23/7/2010
23/7/2010
23/7/2010
24/7/2010
24/7/2010
24/7/2010
24/7/2010
24/7/2010
24/7/2010
24/7/2010
24/7/2010
24/7/2010
24/7/2010
25/7/2010
25/7/2010
25/7/2010
25/7/2010
25/7/2010
25/7/2010
25/7/2010
25/7/2010
25/7/2010
26/7/2010
26/7/2010
26/7/2010
26/7/2010
26/7/2010
26/7/2010
26/7/2010
26/7/2010
26/7/2010
4/8/2010
4/8/2010
4/8/2010
4/8/2010
4/8/2010
4/8/2010
4/8/2010
4/8/2010
4/8/2010
4/8/2010
5/8/2010
5/8/2010
5/8/2010
5/8/2010
5/8/2010
5/8/2010
5/8/2010
5/8/2010
5/8/2010
5/8/2010
6/8/2010
6/8/2010
6/8/2010
6/8/2010
6/8/2010
6/8/2010
6/8/2010
6/8/2010
6/8/2010
6/8/2010
7/8/2010
7/8/2010
7/8/2010
7/8/2010
7/8/2010
7/8/2010
7/8/2010
7/8/2010
7/8/2010

Time
14H47
15H47
16H47
8H00
9H00
10H00
11H00
12H00
13H00
14H00
15H00
16H00
17H00
8H35
9H25
10H25
11H35
12H35
13H35
14H35
15H35
16H35
8H15
9H15
10H15
11H15
12H15
13H15
14H15
15H15
16H15
8H24
9H24
10H24
11H24
12H24
13H24
14H24
15H24
16H24
17H24
8H37
9H37
10H37
11H37
12H37
13H37
14H37
15H37
16H37
17H37
8H18
9H18
10H18
11H18
12H18
13H18
14H18
15H18
16H18
17H18
8H25
9H25
10H25
11H25
12h25
13h25
14h25
15h25
16h25

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540

Temperature Pressure
(C)
(bar)
24.8
24.8
24.8
23.9
24.3
24.7
24.9
24.9
25.2
24.9
24.9
24.8
24.7
24.3
24.9
24.9
25
25
24.9
24.8
24.3
24.8
24
24.5
24.7
24.7
24.8
24.8
24.7
24.5
24.7
23.9
24
24
24.2
24.1
24.4
24.5
24.8
24.7
24.1
23.9
23.9
25.2
25.4
25.1
25.1
25.1
25
24.9
24.8
23.9
24.2
24.6
24.8
24.8
24.9
25
25.2
25.3
24.9
24.1
24.4
24.5
24.7
24.9
25
25.2
25.4
25.5

12.9
12.8
12.8
13
13
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
13
13
13
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
13
13
13
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
14.4
14.4
14.35
14.35
14.35
14.35
14.35
14.35
14.35
14.35
14.4
14.4
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.4
14.4
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3

Brine
Flowrate
(L/min)
11.925
11.925
11.925
11.647
11.647
11.647
11.647
11.647
11.647
11.647
11.647
11.647
11.647
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.968
11.968
11.968
11.968
11.968
11.968
11.968
11.968
11.968
11.895
11.895
11.895
11.895
11.895
11.895
11.895
11.895
11.895
11.895
11.964
11.964
11.964
11.964
11.964
11.964
11.964
11.964
11.964
11.964
11.777
11.777
11.777
11.777
11.777
11.777
11.777
11.777
11.777
11.777
11.848
11.848
11.848
11.848
11.848
11.848
11.848
11.848
11.848

Pressure
(bar)
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.55
10.55
10.55
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
12
12
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
12
12
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
12
12
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
12
12
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95

Permeate

Flowrate
(L/min)
6.659
6.659
6.659
6.366
6.366
6.366
6.366
6.366
6.366
6.366
6.366
6.366
6.366
6.214
6.214
6.214
6.214
6.214
6.214
6.214
6.214
6.214
6.443
6.443
6.443
6.443
6.443
6.443
6.443
6.443
6.443
5.963
5.963
5.963
5.963
5.963
5.963
5.963
5.963
5.963
5.963
6.031
6.031
6.031
6.031
6.031
6.031
6.031
6.031
6.031
6.031
5.888
5.888
5.888
5.888
5.888
5.888
5.888
5.888
5.888
5.888
5.894
5.894
5.894
5.894
5.894
5.894
5.894
5.894
5.894

Flowrate
(L/min)
5.266
5.266
5.266
5.281
5.281
5.281
5.281
5.281
5.281
5.281
5.281
5.281
5.281
5.286
5.286
5.286
5.286
5.286
5.286
5.286
5.286
5.286
5.525
5.525
5.525
5.525
5.525
5.525
5.525
5.525
5.525
5.932
5.932
5.932
5.932
5.932
5.932
5.932
5.932
5.932
5.932
5.933
5.933
5.933
5.933
5.933
5.933
5.933
5.933
5.933
5.933
5.889
5.889
5.889
5.889
5.889
5.889
5.889
5.889
5.889
5.889
5.954
5.954
5.954
5.954
5.954
5.954
5.954
5.954
5.954

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
1750
1750
1750
2250
2250
1900
1900
2000
2000
1950
1950
1950
1950
2050
2050
1950
1950
2150
2150
1900
1900
1900
1950
1950
2050
2050
1950
1950
2100
2100
2100
2350
2350
2200
2200
2150
2150
2550
2550
2550
2550
2250
2250
2300
2300
2000
2000
2300
2300
2300
2300
2000
2000
2250
2250
2100
2100
2400
2400
2400
2400
2150
2150
2250
2250
2200
2200
2000
2000
2000

Permeate
20
20
20
25
25
20
20
20
20
25
25
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
30
30
30
15
15
25
25
15
15
20
20
20
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
30
30
20
20
15
15
25
25
20
20
20
20
20
20
25
25
20
20
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
25
25
15
15
15

Conductivity (mS/m)

Brine
3200
3200
3200
3600
3600
4500
4500
4500
4500
4400
4400
4000
4000
4000
4000
3900
3900
4300
4300
4800
4800
4800
3800
3800
4100
4100
3600
3600
4600
4600
4600
4200
4200
4400
4400
4600
4600
5200
5200
5200
5200
5000
5000
4800
4800
4500
4500
5200
5200
5200
5200
4200
4200
4500
4500
4300
4300
5100
5100
5100
5100
4700
4700
4900
4900
5500
5500
4400
4400
4400

Feed
5.54
5.52
5.49
5.4
5.53
5.54
5.56
5.55
5.49
5.56
5.57
5.54
5.54
5.42
5.49
5.51
5.52
5.53
5.55
5.53
5.6
5.55
5.38
5.55
5.54
5.56
5.56
5.57
5.54
5.53
5.58
5.43
5.44
5.5
5.52
5.48
5.46
5.5
5.55
5.54
5.5
5.54
5.56
5.49
5.44
5.47
5.5
5.46
5.48
5.51
5.5
5.48
5.46
5.54
5.4
5.5
5.51
5.48
5.53
5.44
5.45
5.48
5.47
5.48
5.5
5.46
5.45
5.48
5.49
5.51

Permeate
0.264
0.248
0.241
0.247
0.251
0.246
0.242
0.244
0.241
0.24
0.243
0.242
0.237
0.241
0.244
0.238
0.238
0.236
0.237
0.248
0.244
0.238
0.24
0.237
0.234
0.239
0.237
0.242
0.243
0.244
0.239
0.242
0.239
0.238
0.241
0.24
0.241
0.24
0.236
0.239
0.236
0.242
0.244
0.239
0.24
0.241
0.241
0.233
0.228
0.241
0.239
0.242
0.242
0.243
0.234
0.236
0.24
0.238
0.244
0.237
0.238
0.25
0.237
0.247
0.246
0.258
0.233
0.238
0.235
0.239

permeability

Brine
9.2
9.2
9.22
9.15
9.35
9.39
9.41
9.42
9.39
9.41
9.44
9.38
9.4
9.13
9.37
9.39
9.42
9.41
9.45
9.45
9.36
9.45
9.27
9.34
9.37
9.41
9.38
9.43
9.41
9.45
9.37
9.77
9.85
9.92
9.99
9.94
9.98
10
9.92
9.98
10.01
9.89
9.95
10.03
10.05
9.99
10.05
9.98
10.04
10
10.04
9.82
9.92
10.01
9.9
9.97
10.02
9.92
10.04
10.1
9.92
9.81
10.09
10.07
10.08
10.1
10.07
9.95
9.99
10.04

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
44.16
98.86
95.23
44.16
98.86
95.51
44.16
98.86
95.61
45.34
98.89
95.43
45.34
98.89
95.46
45.34
98.95
95.56
45.34
98.95
95.65
45.34
99.00
95.60
45.34
99.00
95.61
45.34
98.72
95.68
45.34
98.72
95.64
45.34
99.23
95.63
45.34
99.23
95.72
45.97
99.02
95.55
45.97
99.02
95.56
45.97
98.72
95.68
45.97
98.72
95.69
45.97
98.60
95.73
45.97
98.60
95.73
45.97
98.42
95.52
45.97
98.42
95.64
45.97
98.42
95.71
46.16
99.23
95.54
46.16
99.23
95.73
46.16
98.78
95.78
46.16
98.78
95.70
46.16
99.23
95.74
46.16
99.23
95.66
46.16
99.05
95.61
46.16
99.05
95.59
46.16
99.05
95.72
49.87
99.36
95.54
49.87
99.36
95.61
49.87
99.09
95.67
49.87
99.09
95.63
49.87
98.84
95.62
49.87
98.84
95.59
49.87
98.82
95.64
49.87
98.82
95.75
49.87
98.82
95.69
49.87
98.82
95.71
49.59
99.11
95.63
49.59
99.11
95.61
49.59
99.35
95.65
49.59
99.35
95.59
49.59
98.75
95.59
49.59
98.75
95.62
49.59
99.13
95.73
49.59
99.13
95.84
49.59
99.13
95.63
49.59
99.13
95.65
50.00
99.00
95.58
50.00
99.00
95.57
50.00
98.89
95.61
50.00
98.89
95.67
50.00
99.05
95.71
50.00
99.05
95.64
50.00
98.75
95.66
50.00
98.75
95.59
50.00
98.75
95.64
50.00
98.75
95.63
50.25
99.07
95.44
50.25
99.07
95.67
50.25
99.11
95.49
50.25
99.11
95.53
50.25
98.86
95.27
50.25
98.86
95.72
50.25
99.25
95.66
50.25
99.25
95.72
50.25
99.25
95.66

CF
1.79
1.79
1.79
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.85
1.85
1.85
1.85
1.85
1.85
1.85
1.85
1.85
1.86
1.86
1.86
1.86
1.86
1.86
1.86
1.86
1.86
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01

flux
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.69
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78

P
11.89
11.79
11.79
11.99
11.99
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.99
11.99
11.99
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.99
11.99
11.99
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
11.89
13.39
13.39
13.34
13.34
13.34
13.34
13.34
13.34
13.34
13.34
13.39
13.39
13.19
13.19
13.19
13.19
13.19
13.19
13.19
13.19
13.39
13.39
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.39
13.39
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29

5.91
5.89
5.86
5.89
6.03
6.04
6.06
6.05
5.98
6.06
6.07
6.04
6.04
5.98
6.05
6.08
6.09
6.10
6.12
6.10
6.18
6.12
5.95
6.14
6.13
6.15
6.15
6.16
6.13
6.12
6.18
6.45
6.47
6.54
6.56
6.51
6.49
6.54
6.60
6.58
6.54
6.55
6.57
6.49
6.43
6.47
6.50
6.45
6.48
6.51
6.50
6.53
6.51
6.60
6.44
6.55
6.57
6.53
6.59
6.48
6.50
6.56
6.55
6.56
6.59
6.54
6.53
6.56
6.58
6.60

Aw
(L/m in.bar.m 2)

0.11520
0.11674
0.11611
0.11317
0.11586
0.11806
0.11850
0.11828
0.11697
0.11850
0.11872
0.11806
0.11806
0.11497
0.11647
0.11690
0.11914
0.11936
0.11982
0.11936
0.12098
0.11982
0.11973
0.12358
0.12335
0.12598
0.12598
0.12622
0.12549
0.12525
0.12646
0.11185
0.11204
0.11404
0.11444
0.11364
0.11325
0.11404
0.11505
0.11484
0.11404
0.11341
0.11380
0.11580
0.11478
0.11539
0.11600
0.11519
0.11559
0.11621
0.11600
0.11229
0.11190
0.11517
0.11236
0.11435
0.11455
0.11395
0.11496
0.11315
0.11335
0.11407
0.11387
0.11577
0.11618
0.11535
0.11515
0.11577
0.11597
0.11639

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4343
4328
4304
4234
4336
4343
4359
4351
4304
4359
4367
4343
4343
4249
4304
4320
4328
4336
4351
4336
4390
4351
4218
4351
4343
4359
4359
4367
4343
4336
4375
4257
4265
4312
4328
4296
4281
4312
4351
4343
4312
4343
4359
4304
4265
4288
4312
4281
4296
4320
4312
4296
4281
4343
4234
4312
4320
4296
4336
4265
4273
4296
4288
4296
4312
4281
4273
4296
4304
4320

241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310

39 | P a g e

Feed
Date
8/8/2010
8/8/2010
8/8/2010
8/8/2010
8/8/2010
8/8/2010
8/8/2010
8/8/2010
8/8/2010
9/8/2010
9/8/2010
9/8/2010
9/8/2010
9/8/2010
9/8/2010
9/8/2010
9/8/2010
9/8/2010
9/8/2010
10/8/2010
10/8/2010
10/8/2010
10/8/2010
10/8/2010
10/8/2010
10/8/2010
10/8/2010
10/8/2010
10/8/2010
11/8/2010
11/8/2010
11/8/2010
11/8/2010
11/8/2010
11/8/2010
11/8/2010
11/8/2010
11/8/2010
15/8/2010
15/8/2010
15/8/2010
15/8/2010
15/8/2010
15/8/2010
15/8/2010
15/8/2010
15/8/2010
16/8/2010
16/8/2010
16/8/2010
16/8/2010
16/8/2010
16/8/2010
16/8/2010
16/8/2010
16/8/2010
16/8/2010
17/8/2010
17/8/2010
17/8/2010
17/8/2010
17/8/2010
17/8/2010
17/8/2010
17/8/2010
17/8/2010
19/8/2010
19/8/2010
19/8/2010
19/8/2010

Time
8H15
9H15
10H15
11H15
12H15
13H15
14H15
15H15
16H15
8H10
9H10
10H10
11H10
12H10
13H10
14H10
15H10
16H10
17H10
8H05
9H05
10H05
11H05
12H05
13H05
14H05
15H05
16H05
17H05
7H57
8H57
9H57
10H57
11H57
12H57
13H57
14H57
15H57
8H50
9H50
10H50
11H50
12H50
13H50
14H50
15H50
16H50
7H58
8H58
9H58
10H58
11H58
12H58
13H58
14H58
15H58
16H58
8H42
9H42
10H42
11H42
12H42
13H42
14H42
15H42
16H42
8H45
9H45
10H45
11H45

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240

Temperature Pressure
(C)
(bar)
23.3
23.7
23.8
24.3
24.4
24.4
24.5
24.5
24.4
23.2
23.3
23.6
23.8
24.1
24
24
24.1
23.5
23.2
23
23.3
23.7
23.9
24.3
24.4
24.4
24.5
24.7
24.3
22.3
23.3
23.3
23.3
23.1
23.8
23.9
24
24.1
24.1
24.2
24.5
24.6
25
24.8
23.9
23.9
24.2
23.3
24
24.1
24.1
24.3
24.3
24.7
24.7
24.9
25.1
23.9
24.6
24.6
24.8
24.9
25
25.1
24.9
24.8
24
24.4
24.8
24.8

14.4
14.4
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
15
15
15
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
15
15
15
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
15
15
15
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
15
15
15
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
15
15
15
14.9

Brine
Flowrate
(L/min)
11.699
11.699
11.699
11.699
11.699
11.699
11.699
11.699
11.699
11.751
11.751
11.751
11.751
11.751
11.751
11.751
11.751
11.751
11.751
11.743
11.743
11.743
11.743
11.743
11.743
11.743
11.743
11.743
11.743
10.905
10.905
10.905
10.905
10.905
10.905
10.905
10.905
10.905
10.761
10.761
10.761
10.761
10.761
10.761
10.761
10.761
10.761
10.785
10.785
10.785
10.785
10.785
10.785
10.785
10.785
10.785
10.785
10.826
10.826
10.826
10.826
10.826
10.826
10.826
10.826
10.826
10.933
10.933
10.933
10.933

Pressure
(bar)
12.1
12.1
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
11.95
12.1
12.1
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
13
13
13
12.95
12.95
12.95
12.95
12.95
12.95
13
13
13
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
13
13
13
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
13
13
13
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
13.05
13.05
13.05
12.9

Permeate

Flowrate
(L/min)
5.801
5.801
5.801
5.801
5.801
5.801
5.801
5.801
5.801
5.885
5.885
5.885
5.885
5.885
5.885
5.885
5.885
5.885
5.885
5.877
5.877
5.877
5.877
5.877
5.877
5.877
5.877
5.877
5.877
4.851
4.851
4.851
4.851
4.851
4.851
4.851
4.851
4.851
4.734
4.734
4.734
4.734
4.734
4.734
4.734
4.734
4.734
4.763
4.763
4.763
4.763
4.763
4.763
4.763
4.763
4.763
4.763
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.801
4.836
4.836
4.836
4.836

Flowrate
(L/min)
5.898
5.898
5.898
5.898
5.898
5.898
5.898
5.898
5.898
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
5.866
6.054
6.054
6.054
6.054
6.054
6.054
6.054
6.054
6.054
6.027
6.027
6.027
6.027
6.027
6.027
6.027
6.027
6.027
6.022
6.022
6.022
6.022
6.022
6.022
6.022
6.022
6.022
6.022
6.025
6.025
6.025
6.025
6.025
6.025
6.025
6.025
6.025
6.097
6.097
6.097
6.097

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
2550
2550
2600
2600
2400
2400
2550
2550
2550
2550
2550
2100
2100
2400
2400
2300
2300
2300
2300
2100
2100
2100
2100
2100
1950
1950
1950
1950
1950
2200
2200
2200
2200
2300
2300
2300
2300
2300
2450
2450
2450
2300
2300
2300
2550
2550
2550
2300
2300
2300
2450
2450
2450
2550
2550
2550
2550
2600
2600
2600
2750
2750
2750
2150
2150
2150
2450
2450
2450
2550

Permeate
35
35
25
25
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
20
20
20
35
35
35
15
15
15
20
20
20
30
30
30
30
45
45
45
20
20
20
15
15
15
20
20
20
20

Conductivity (mS/m)

Brine
5400
5400
5800
5800
5500
5500
5900
5900
5900
5500
5500
4500
4500
5400
5400
5200
5200
5200
5200
3800
3800
3800
3800
3800
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4800
4800
4800
4800
5200
5200
5200
5200
5200
5600
5600
5600
5500
5500
5500
5800
5800
5800
5500
5500
5500
5800
5800
5800
6000
6000
6000
6000
6200
6200
6200
5300
5300
5300
5500
5500
5500
5800
5800
5800
5900

Feed
5.48
5.45
5.46
5.43
5.47
5.5
5.45
5.47
5.49
5.42
5.49
5.46
5.46
5.44
5.48
5.5
5.47
5.51
5.48
5.48
5.53
5.55
5.55
5.53
5.52
5.54
5.49
5.53
5.56
5.55
5.55
5.49
5.52
5.53
5.54
5.56
5.6
5.52
5.48
5.47
5.54
5.55
5.49
5.63
5.51
5.64
5.47
5.55
5.57
5.53
5.52
5.55
5.52
5.49
5.51
5.54
5.55
5.52
5.54
5.53
5.53
5.57
5.58
5.57
5.68
5.65
5.55
5.54
5.55
5.49

Permeate
0.242
0.249
0.232
0.233
0.25
0.242
0.243
0.237
0.233
0.23
0.234
0.246
0.235
0.232
0.232
0.231
0.229
0.246
0.236
0.236
0.236
0.233
0.231
0.237
0.238
0.234
0.233
0.235
0.252
0.252
0.249
0.246
0.248
0.251
0.258
0.256
0.256
0.255
0.246
0.248
0.251
0.25
0.25
0.253
0.249
0.252
0.249
0.256
0.25
0.246
0.245
0.248
0.249
0.252
0.251
0.248
0.243
0.244
0.271
0.247
0.247
0.247
0.244
0.245
0.254
0.254
0.25
0.247
0.246
0.245

permeability

Brine
9.92
9.98
10.01
10.11
10.05
9.98
10.03
10.04
10.09
9.82
10.06
10.05
10.07
10.11
10.08
10.13
10.1
10.04
9.99
9.92
10.09
10.17
10.2
10.16
10.18
10.18
10.22
10.18
10.22
11.2
11.22
11.25
11.17
11.22
11.3
11.25
11.28
11.33
10.97
11.02
11.19
11.15
11.2
11.38
11.29
11.31
11.28
11.08
11.32
11.11
11.13
11.03
11.17
11.25
11.12
11.01
11.28
11.02
11.23
11.16
11.21
11.23
11.26
11.25
11.47
11.43
11.17
11.17
11.24
11.12

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
50.41
98.63
95.58
50.41
98.63
95.43
50.41
99.04
95.75
50.41
99.04
95.71
50.41
99.17
95.43
50.41
99.17
95.60
50.41
99.22
95.54
50.41
99.22
95.67
50.41
99.22
95.76
49.92
99.22
95.76
49.92
99.22
95.74
49.92
99.05
95.49
49.92
99.05
95.70
49.92
98.96
95.74
49.92
98.96
95.77
49.92
98.91
95.80
49.92
98.91
95.81
49.92
98.91
95.54
49.92
98.91
95.69
49.95
98.81
95.69
49.95
98.81
95.73
49.95
98.81
95.80
49.95
98.81
95.84
49.95
98.81
95.71
49.95
98.97
95.69
49.95
98.97
95.78
49.95
98.97
95.76
49.95
98.97
95.75
49.95
98.97
95.47
55.52
99.09
95.46
55.52
99.09
95.51
55.52
99.09
95.52
55.52
99.09
95.51
55.52
98.91
95.46
55.52
98.91
95.34
55.52
98.91
95.40
55.52
98.91
95.43
55.52
98.91
95.38
56.01
98.98
95.51
56.01
98.98
95.47
56.01
98.98
95.47
56.01
99.13
95.50
56.01
99.13
95.45
56.01
99.13
95.51
56.01
98.63
95.48
56.01
98.63
95.53
56.01
98.63
95.45
55.84
99.35
95.39
55.84
99.35
95.51
55.84
99.35
95.55
55.84
99.18
95.56
55.84
99.18
95.53
55.84
99.18
95.49
55.84
98.82
95.41
55.84
98.82
95.44
55.84
98.82
95.52
55.84
98.82
95.62
55.65
98.27
95.58
55.65
98.27
95.11
55.65
98.27
95.53
55.65
99.27
95.53
55.65
99.27
95.57
55.65
99.27
95.63
55.65
99.30
95.60
55.65
99.30
95.53
55.65
99.30
95.50
55.77
99.18
95.50
55.77
99.18
95.54
55.77
99.18
95.57
55.77
99.22
95.54

CF
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.27
2.27
2.27
2.27
2.27
2.27
2.27
2.27
2.27
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26

flux
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80

P
13.39
13.39
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.39
13.39
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.29
13.39
13.39
13.39
13.39
13.39
13.39
13.39
13.39
13.39
13.39
13.99
13.99
13.99
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.99
13.99
13.99
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.99
13.99
13.99
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.99
13.99
13.99
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.99
13.99
13.99
13.89

6.59
6.55
6.56
6.52
6.57
6.61
6.55
6.57
6.60
6.45
6.53
6.50
6.50
6.47
6.52
6.54
6.51
6.56
6.52
6.52
6.58
6.61
6.61
6.58
6.57
6.60
6.54
6.58
6.62
7.43
7.43
7.35
7.39
7.41
7.42
7.45
7.50
7.39
7.42
7.41
7.50
7.52
7.44
7.63
7.46
7.64
7.41
7.49
7.51
7.46
7.45
7.49
7.45
7.41
7.43
7.47
7.49
7.42
7.44
7.43
7.43
7.48
7.50
7.48
7.63
7.59
7.48
7.46
7.48
7.40

Aw
(L/m in.bar.m 2)

0.11335
0.11275
0.11463
0.11402
0.11484
0.11546
0.11443
0.11484
0.11525
0.11052
0.11186
0.11292
0.11292
0.11252
0.11332
0.11372
0.11312
0.11392
0.11332
0.11174
0.11272
0.11311
0.11311
0.11272
0.11252
0.11291
0.11193
0.11272
0.11331
0.12077
0.12077
0.11930
0.12188
0.12213
0.12239
0.12289
0.12393
0.12188
0.12002
0.11977
0.12152
0.12369
0.12213
0.12583
0.12264
0.12610
0.12162
0.12113
0.12163
0.12063
0.12225
0.12302
0.12225
0.12148
0.12199
0.12276
0.12302
0.11987
0.12037
0.12012
0.12198
0.12300
0.12326
0.12300
0.12591
0.12510
0.12241
0.12216
0.12241
0.12278

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4296
4273
4281
4257
4288
4312
4273
4288
4304
4249
4304
4281
4281
4265
4296
4312
4288
4320
4296
4296
4336
4351
4351
4336
4328
4343
4304
4336
4359
4351
4351
4304
4328
4336
4343
4359
4390
4328
4296
4288
4343
4351
4304
4414
4320
4422
4288
4351
4367
4336
4328
4351
4328
4304
4320
4343
4351
4328
4343
4336
4336
4367
4375
4367
4453
4430
4351
4343
4351
4304

311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380

40 | P a g e

Feed
Date
19/8/2010
19/8/2010
19/8/2010
19/8/2010
19/8/2010
20/8/2010
20/8/2010
20/8/2010
20/8/2010
20/8/2010
20/8/2010
20/8/2010
20/8/2010
20/8/2010
21/8/2010
21/8/2010
21/8/2010
21/8/2010
21/8/2010
21/8/2010
21/8/2010
21/8/2010
21/8/2010
22/8/2010
22/8/2010
22/8/2010
24/8/2010
24/8/2010
24/8/2010
24/8/2010
24/8/2010
24/8/2010
24/8/2010
24/8/2010
24/8/2010
25/8/2010
25/8/2010
25/8/2010
25/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
26/8/2010
27/8/2010
27/8/2010
27/8/2010
3/9/2010
3/9/2010
3/9/2010
3/9/2010
3/9/2010
3/9/2010
3/9/2010
3/9/2010
3/9/2010

Time
12H45
13H45
14H45
15H45
16H45
8H50
9H50
10H50
11H50
12H50
13H50
14H50
15H50
16H50
8H45
9H45
10H45
11H45
12H45
13H45
14H45
15H45
16H45
8H30
9H30
10H30
8H15
9H15
10H15
11H15
12H15
13H15
14H15
15H15
16H15
8H00
9H00
10H00
11H00
8H30
9H30
10H30
11H30
12H30
13H30
14H30
15H30
16H30
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
9H15
10H15
11H15
12H15
13H15
14H15
15H15
16H15
18H00

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
60
120
180
240
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
630
750
870
990
1010
1130
1250
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
685

Temperature Pressure
(C)
(bar)
25.1
25.3
25.4
25.5
25.5
24.2
24.5
24.6
24.9
24.9
25.1
25.1
25.5
25.5
24
24.5
25
25
25.1
25.2
25.2
25.3
25.3
23.8
23.8
24.3
24
23.8
24.4
24.9
25
25.4
25.3
25.6
25.5
23.2
23.4
24.6
24.8
23.8
23.9
24.4
24.8
25
25
25.1
25.1
25
24.7
24.4
24.1
24.2
24.3
24.3
24.3
23.9
24.4
24.8
25
25
25.1
25.1
25
24.8

14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
15.4
15.4
15.35
15.35
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.45
15.45
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5

Brine
Flowrate
(L/min)
10.933
10.933
10.933
10.933
10.933
9.435
9.435
9.435
9.435
9.435
9.435
9.435
9.435
9.435
8.745
8.745
8.745
8.745
8.745
8.745
8.745
8.745
8.745
8.667
8.667
8.667
8.43
8.43
8.43
8.43
8.43
8.43
8.43
8.43
8.43
8.403
8.403
8.403
8.403
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
8.369
7.993
7.487
7.679
7.794
7.313
7.758
7.612
7.283
7.887

Pressure
(bar)
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
12.9
14
14
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.9
14.3
14.3
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.4
14.7
14.6
14.5
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.5
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.4
14.4
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.8
14.8
14.85
14.85
14.8
14.2
14.2
14.1
14.1
14
14.3
14.4
14.6
14.5
14.55
14.6
14.5
14.6
14.7

Permeate

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.836
4.836
4.836
4.836
4.836
3.429
3.645
3.645
3.586
3.586
3.767
3.767
3.767
3.767
2.941
2.941
2.941
2.941
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
2.706
3.343
3.271
2.472
2.841
2.947
2.947
3.15
3.15
3.064
3.064
3.064
2.895
2.895
2.895
2.895
2.958
2.958
3.055
3.055
3.211
3.211
3.453
3.502
3.658
3.683
3.417
3.395
3.308
3.354
3.46
3.415
3.1
2.78
2.48
2.99
2.5
2.64
2.59
2.36
3.1

Flowrate
(L/min)
6.097
6.097
6.097
6.097
6.097
6.006
5.79
5.79
5.849
5.849
5.668
5.668
5.668
5.668
5.804
5.804
5.804
5.804
5.695
5.695
5.695
5.695
5.695
5.961
5.324
5.396
5.958
5.589
5.483
5.483
5.28
5.28
5.366
5.366
5.366
5.508
5.508
5.508
5.508
5.411
5.411
5.314
5.314
5.158
5.158
4.916
4.867
4.711
4.686
4.952
4.974
5.061
5.015
4.909
4.954
4.975
4.811
4.902
4.855
4.78
4.855
4.855
4.757
4.77

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
2550
2550
2450
2450
2450
2550
2550
2500
2500
2650
2650
2400
2400
2400
2550
2550
2550
2500
2500
2500
2450
2450
2450
2450
2450
2450
2450
2450
2450
2450
2450
2300
2300
2300
2300
2200
2200
2200
2200
2000
2000
2000
2200
2200
2200
2200
2200
2200
2200
2200
2200
2200
2200
2200
2200
2550
2500
2500
2650
2650
2400
2400
2400
2550

Permeate
20
20
25
25
25
25
25
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
25
25
25
30
30
30
25
25
25
30
30
30
15
15
15
15
15
20
20
20
20
40
40
40
40
15
15
15
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
25
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
25

Conductivity (mS/m)

Brine
5900
5900
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6200
6200
5900
5900
6300
6300
6300
6300
6300
6300
6400
6400
6400
6100
6100
6100
6200
6200
6200
6100
6100
6100
6100
6100
5900
5900
5900
5900
6600
6600
6600
6600
3900
3900
3900
4300
4300
4300
4300
4300
4300
4300
4300
4300
4300
4300
4300
4300
6000
6200
6200
5900
5900
6300
6300
6300
6300

Feed
5.48
5.42
5.47
5.4
5.42
5.54
5.44
5.48
5.47
5.49
5.48
5.47
5.61
5.52
5.5
5.48
5.49
5.53
5.51
5.49
5.51
5.48
5.49
5.44
5.46
5.41
5.4
5.42
5.43
5.47
5.49
5.51
5.49
5.5
5.49
5.58
5.62
5.56
5.58
5.33
5.38
5.35
5.35
5.4
5.47
5.45
5.48
5.15
5.53
5.55
5.59
5.58
5.65
5.62
5.63
5.38
5.35
5.35
5.4
5.47
5.45
5.48
5.15
5.69

Permeate
0.238
0.24
0.241
0.24
0.243
0.281
0.296
0.289
0.285
0.291
0.292
0.284
0.304
0.302
0.294
0.293
0.299
0.3
0.291
0.295
0.294
0.299
0.286
0.3
0.344
0.329
0.321
0.322
0.328
0.314
0.306
0.308
0.305
0.311
0.31
0.288
0.289
0.358
0.349
0.285
0.298
0.288
0.323
0.274
0.31
0.311
0.318
0.298
0.28
0.291
0.241
0.241
0.232
0.231
0.225
0.298
0.288
0.323
0.274
0.31
0.311
0.318
0.298
0.289

permeability

Brine
11.09
11.07
11.1
11.07
11.15
13.01
13.84
13.77
13.69
13.99
14
13.89
14.17
14.2
13.6
13.76
13.88
13.82
13.79
14.01
13.89
13.88
13.71
13.97
16.26
15.4
15.82
16.34
16.29
15.26
15.33
15.01
15.19
15.35
15.48
13.68
13.78
16.73
16.62
13.22
13.45
13.96
15.89
13.6
15.44
15.48
15.54
15.35
13.92
14.52
11.57
11.76
11.34
11.31
11.03
13.45
13.96
15.89
13.6
15.44
15.48
15.54
15.35
14.03

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
55.77
99.22
95.66
55.77
99.22
95.57
55.77
98.98
95.59
55.77
98.98
95.56
55.77
98.98
95.52
63.66
99.02
94.93
61.37
99.02
94.56
61.37
98.80
94.73
61.99
98.80
94.79
61.99
99.25
94.70
60.07
99.25
94.67
60.07
99.17
94.81
60.07
99.17
94.58
60.07
99.17
94.53
66.37
99.02
94.65
66.37
99.02
94.65
66.37
99.02
94.55
66.37
98.80
94.58
65.12
98.80
94.72
65.12
98.80
94.63
65.12
98.98
94.66
65.12
98.98
94.54
65.12
98.98
94.79
68.78
98.78
94.49
61.43
98.78
93.70
62.26
98.78
93.92
70.68
99.39
94.06
66.30
99.39
94.06
65.04
99.39
93.96
65.04
99.39
94.26
62.63
99.39
94.43
62.63
99.13
94.41
63.65
99.13
94.44
63.65
99.13
94.35
63.65
99.13
94.35
65.55
98.18
94.84
65.55
98.18
94.86
65.55
98.18
93.56
65.55
98.18
93.75
64.66
99.25
94.65
64.66
99.25
94.46
63.50
99.25
94.62
63.50
99.09
93.96
61.63
99.09
94.93
61.63
99.09
94.33
58.74
99.09
94.29
58.16
99.09
94.20
56.29
99.09
94.21
55.99
99.09
94.94
59.17
99.09
94.76
59.43
99.09
95.69
60.47
99.09
95.68
59.92
99.09
95.89
58.66
99.09
95.89
59.19
99.09
96.00
62.24
99.02
94.46
64.26
98.80
94.62
63.84
98.80
93.96
62.29
99.25
94.93
65.36
99.25
94.33
62.58
99.17
94.29
63.78
99.17
94.20
65.32
99.17
94.21
60.48
99.02
94.92

CF
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.75
2.59
2.59
2.63
2.63
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.97
2.97
2.97
2.97
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
3.20
2.59
2.65
3.41
2.97
2.86
2.86
2.68
2.68
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.90
2.90
2.90
2.90
2.83
2.83
2.74
2.74
2.61
2.61
2.42
2.39
2.29
2.27
2.45
2.47
2.53
2.50
2.42
2.45
2.65
2.80
2.77
2.65
2.89
2.67
2.76
2.88
2.53

flux
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.79
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.74
0.74
0.74
0.74
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.74
0.74
0.74
0.74
0.74
0.78
0.70
0.71
0.78
0.73
0.72
0.72
0.69
0.69
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.71
0.71
0.69
0.69
0.67
0.67
0.64
0.64
0.62
0.61
0.65
0.65
0.66
0.66
0.64
0.65
0.65
0.63
0.64
0.63
0.62
0.63
0.63
0.62
0.62

P
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
13.89
14.39
14.39
14.34
14.34
14.29
14.29
14.29
14.29
14.29
14.44
14.44
14.29
14.29
14.29
14.29
14.29
14.29
14.29
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49

7.38
7.30
7.37
7.27
7.30
9.08
8.39
8.45
8.58
8.61
8.18
8.16
8.37
8.24
9.74
9.71
9.73
9.80
9.41
9.38
9.41
9.36
9.38
10.38
8.43
8.54
10.97
9.58
9.26
9.32
8.75
8.79
9.00
9.02
9.00
9.65
9.72
9.62
9.65
8.99
9.07
8.73
8.73
8.39
8.49
7.87
7.80
7.02
7.49
8.10
8.21
8.41
8.40
8.10
8.22
8.49
8.92
8.81
8.53
9.41
8.68
9.02
8.85
8.58

Aw
(L/m in.bar.m 2)

0.12252
0.12102
0.12227
0.12052
0.12102
0.14802
0.12622
0.12861
0.13271
0.13461
0.12129
0.12100
0.12527
0.12249
0.16169
0.16048
0.16638
0.16901
0.15275
0.15169
0.15275
0.15116
0.15169
0.18982
0.11499
0.11864
0.22161
0.14897
0.13700
0.13881
0.12040
0.12107
0.12784
0.12822
0.12784
0.14888
0.15104
0.14782
0.14888
0.12857
0.13057
0.12072
0.12072
0.11052
0.11252
0.09713
0.09519
0.08248
0.08751
0.10134
0.10360
0.10890
0.10771
0.10047
0.10335
0.10844
0.11295
0.11297
0.10659
0.12307
0.10926
0.11599
0.11027
0.10554

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4296
4249
4288
4234
4249
4343
4265
4296
4288
4304
4296
4288
4398
4328
4312
4296
4304
4336
4320
4304
4320
4296
4304
4265
4281
4241
4234
4249
4257
4288
4304
4320
4304
4312
4304
4375
4406
4359
4375
4179
4218
4194
4194
4234
4288
4273
4296
4038
4336
4351
4383
4375
4430
4406
4414
4218
4194
4194
4234
4288
4273
4296
4038
4461

381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429.5
431.5
433.5
435.5
437.5
439.5
441.5
442.5
443.5
444.5
445.5
446.5
447.5
448.5
449.5
450.5

41 | P a g e

Feed
Date
3/9/2010
3/9/2010
3/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
4/9/2010
5/9/2010
5/9/2010
5/9/2010
5/9/2010
5/9/2010
5/9/2010
5/9/2010
5/9/2010
5/9/2010
5/9/2010
5/9/2010
6/9/2010
6/9/2010
6/9/2010
6/9/2010
6/9/2010
6/9/2010
6/9/2010
6/9/2010
6/9/2010
6/9/2010
6/9/2010
6/9/2010
7/9/2010
7/9/2010
7/9/2010
7/9/2010
7/9/2010
7/9/2010
7/9/2010
7/9/2010
7/9/2010
7/9/2010
7/9/2010
7/9/2010
8/9/2010
8/9/2010
8/9/2010
16/10/2010
16/10/2010
16/10/2010
16/10/2010
16/10/2010

Time
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
10H00
11H00
12H00
13H00
14H00
15H00
16H00
17H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
11H00
13H00
15H00
17H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
8H30
10H30
12H30
14H30
16H30

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
885
1085
1285
1485
1685
1885
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
660
780
900
1020
1140
1260
60
180
300
420
480
600
720
840
960
1080
1200
1320
1440
1560
1680
1800
1920
2040
2160
2280
2400
2520
2640
2760
2880
3000
3120
3240
3360
3480
3600
3720
3840
3960
4080
60
180
300
420
540

Temperature Pressure
(C)
(bar)
24.1
24.1
24.4
24
24.1
24.1
24.9
25.2
25.3
25.3
25.3
25
25
25
24.9
24.3
24.5
24.4
24.2
23.9
24
25
25.3
25.4
25.3
25.1
24.6
24.3
24.3
23
23.5
23.6
23.4
24.7
25.2
25.4
25.6
25.1
24.4
24.3
24
23.7
23.4
23.5
23.7
24.8
25.5
25.3
25.4
25.3
24.5
23.7
23.7
23.7
22
22.2
24.4
25
25
25.4
25.6

15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5

Brine
Flowrate
(L/min)
9.076
9.076
9.044
8.48
8.503
9.114
7.491
7.489
7.839
7.839
7.839
7.637
7.637
7.373
7.373
8.016
9.061
8.534
9.072
8.681
8.38
7.609
7.32
7.339
7.639
7.371
7.773
8.253
8.784
8.674
8.52
8.407
8.664
7.378
7.333
7.373
7.395
7.371
8.353
8.8
8.22
8.707
8.659
8.593
8.025
7.685
7.198
7.32
7.019
6.782
7.685
8.283
7.982
8.937
8.448
9.156
8.167
8.035
8.233
7.792
7.835

Pressure
(bar)
14.3
14.3
14
14
14.1
14.3
14
14.6
14.6
14.55
14.6
14.55
14.55
14.6
14.6
14.5
14
14.3
14.2
14.2
14.3
14.55
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.5
14.4
14.2
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.2
14.55
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.5
14.4
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.6
14.7
14.6
14.5
14.4
14.4
14.1
14.2
14
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.45
14.45

Permeate

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.58
4.58
4.55
4.05
4.02
4.65
2.98
3.08
3.29
3.29
3.29
3.23
3.23
3.23
3.1
3.68
4.34
4.13
4.45
4.38
4.12
3.72
3.05
3.08
3.35
2.98
3.47
3.9
4.4
4.5
4.5
4.25
4.38
3.68
3.16
3.19
3.2
2.98
3.874
4.46
4.08
4.34
4.58
4.5
4.2
3.7
3.14
3.05
2.98
3.02
3.64
3.914
3.85
4.58
4.58
4.88
3.94
3.86
3.88
3.63
3.76

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.875
4.875
4.85
4.738
4.812
4.781
4.738
4.71
4.907
4.907
4.907
4.72
4.72
4.634
4.634
4.663
4.651
4.658
4.677
4.629
4.665
4.604
4.606
4.478
4.583
4.586
4.532
4.544
4.611
4.555
4.536
4.546
4.583
4.424
4.451
4.45
4.483
4.586
4.479
4.524
4.428
4.465
4.471
4.399
4.434
4.44
4.356
4.606
4.344
4.307
4.298
4.369
4.341
4.397
4.364
4.431
4.659
4.604
4.626
4.541
4.486

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
2550
2550
2500
2500
2500
2450
2450
1750
1750
1750
1750
1050
1050
1100
1100
1100
1100
1100
1100
1100
1100
1300
1250
1150
1300
1300
1250
1350
1350
1300
1250
1300
1200
1250
1300
1250
1250
1250
1300
1200
1200
1200
1250
1100
1100
1300
1250
1150
1300
1300
1250
1350
1350
1300
1250
1300
1200
1250
1300
1250
1250

Permeate
25
25
30
30
30
25
25
20
20
20
20
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
45
50
55
35
35
50
40
40
35
30
40
35
40
35
35
35
40
50
45
45
40
40
15
15
45
50
55
35
35
50
40
40
35
30
40
35
40
35
35
35

Conductivity (mS/m)

Brine
6300
6300
6400
6400
6400
6100
6100
2900
2900
2900
2900
2900
2900
2800
2800
2800
2800
2800
2800
2800
2800
2600
2700
2600
2500
3000
2800
2800
3100
2900
2900
3000
2900
2900
2800
2900
3000
2900
3100
3000
2900
2900
3000
2800
2800
2600
2700
2600
2500
3000
2800
2800
3100
2900
2900
3000
2900
2900
2800
2900
3000

Feed
5.68
5.68
5.61
5.64
5.63
5.66
5.59
5.61
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.61
5.61
5.6
5.63
5.64
5.64
5.63
5.63
5.67
5.63
5.63
5.62
5.63
5.63
5.63
5.64
5.68
5.67
5.73
5.71
5.7
5.64
5.82
5.68
5.67
5.69
5.63
5.67
5.75
5.66
5.69
5.79
5.72
5.71
5.66
5.67
5.62
5.64
5.62
5.58
5.7
5.68
5.65
5.72
5.66
5.44
5.53
5.54
5.57
5.58

Permeate
0.232
0.232
0.233
0.243
0.243
0.239
0.273
0.277
0.272
0.272
0.272
0.265
0.265
0.269
0.27
0.249
0.237
0.237
0.233
0.23
0.235
0.246
0.276
0.271
0.257
0.281
0.258
0.241
0.229
0.228
0.223
0.226
0.233
0.259
0.262
0.271
0.269
0.281
0.256
0.232
0.238
0.233
0.227
0.259
0.23
0.256
0.273
0.276
0.271
0.263
0.249
0.255
0.248
0.232
0.227
0.231
0.261
0.266
0.271
0.277
0.282

permeability

Brine
10.98
10.98
10.97
11.56
11.59
10.81
13.67
13.25
12.91
12.91
12.91
12.96
12.96
12.46
13.06
12.01
11.57
11.39
11.21
11.05
11.16
11.24
13.11
13.03
12.56
13.49
12.32
11.77
11.07
10.83
10.66
11.06
10.93
11.45
12.79
12.75
12.75
13.49
11.93
11.13
11.16
11.15
10.78
10.68
10.66
11.49
12.69
13.11
12.96
12.26
11.55
11.55
11.53
10.8
10.39
10.47
11.03
11.21
11.42
11.68
11.37

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
53.71
99.02
95.92
53.71
99.02
95.92
53.63
98.80
95.85
55.87
98.80
95.69
56.59
98.80
95.68
52.46
98.98
95.78
63.25
98.98
95.12
62.89
98.86
95.06
62.60
98.86
95.14
62.60
98.86
95.14
62.60
98.86
95.14
61.80
98.57
95.28
61.80
98.57
95.28
62.85
98.64
95.20
62.85
98.64
95.20
58.17
98.64
95.59
51.33
98.64
95.80
54.58
98.64
95.79
51.55
98.64
95.86
53.32
98.64
95.94
55.67
98.64
95.83
60.51
96.54
95.63
62.92
96.00
95.09
61.02
95.22
95.19
59.99
97.31
95.44
62.22
97.31
95.01
58.30
96.00
95.43
55.06
97.04
95.76
52.49
97.04
95.96
52.51
97.31
96.02
53.24
97.60
96.09
54.07
96.92
96.04
52.90
97.08
95.87
59.96
96.80
95.55
60.70
97.31
95.39
60.36
97.20
95.22
60.62
97.20
95.27
62.22
96.80
95.01
53.62
96.15
95.49
51.41
96.25
95.97
53.87
96.25
95.80
51.28
96.67
95.91
51.63
96.80
96.08
51.19
98.64
95.47
55.25
98.64
95.97
57.77
96.54
95.48
60.52
96.00
95.19
62.92
95.22
95.09
61.89
97.31
95.20
63.51
97.31
95.32
55.93
96.00
95.54
52.75
97.04
95.53
54.38
97.04
95.63
49.20
97.31
95.89
51.66
97.60
96.03
48.39
96.92
95.92
57.05
97.08
95.20
57.30
96.80
95.19
56.19
97.31
95.11
58.28
97.20
95.03
57.26
97.20
94.95

CF
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.27
2.30
2.10
2.72
2.69
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.62
2.62
2.69
2.69
2.39
2.05
2.20
2.06
2.14
2.26
2.53
2.70
2.57
2.50
2.65
2.40
2.23
2.10
2.11
2.14
2.18
2.12
2.50
2.54
2.52
2.54
2.65
2.16
2.06
2.17
2.05
2.07
2.05
2.23
2.37
2.53
2.70
2.62
2.74
2.27
2.12
2.19
1.97
2.07
1.94
2.33
2.34
2.28
2.40
2.34

flux
0.64
0.64
0.63
0.62
0.63
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.64
0.64
0.64
0.62
0.62
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.60
0.60
0.59
0.60
0.60
0.59
0.59
0.60
0.60
0.59
0.59
0.60
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.59
0.60
0.59
0.59
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.57
0.60
0.57
0.56
0.56
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.58
0.61
0.60
0.60
0.59
0.59

P
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49

7.31
7.31
7.21
7.62
7.73
7.09
9.06
9.01
8.92
8.92
8.92
8.75
8.75
8.98
9.03
8.03
6.90
7.39
6.92
7.24
7.57
8.49
9.03
8.61
8.39
8.88
8.06
7.53
7.11
7.19
7.28
7.40
7.13
8.66
8.61
8.52
8.61
8.88
7.28
7.05
7.31
6.96
7.13
6.98
7.60
7.99
8.56
9.03
8.82
9.18
7.54
7.19
7.42
6.63
7.05
6.54
7.55
7.72
7.53
7.95
7.78

Aw
(L/m in.bar.m 2)

0.08882
0.08882
0.08710
0.09014
0.09307
0.08453
0.11419
0.11238
0.11525
0.11525
0.11525
0.10758
0.10758
0.11004
0.11101
0.09446
0.08019
0.08575
0.08084
0.08348
0.08813
0.10043
0.11037
0.09952
0.09819
0.10689
0.09218
0.08539
0.08172
0.08160
0.08223
0.08380
0.08148
0.09927
0.09903
0.09752
0.09971
0.10689
0.08129
0.07953
0.08066
0.07753
0.07948
0.07663
0.08420
0.08929
0.09602
0.11037
0.10017
0.10601
0.08092
0.07824
0.08029
0.07313
0.07671
0.07284
0.08775
0.08889
0.08698
0.09087
0.08741

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4453
4453
4398
4422
4414
4437
4383
4398
4390
4390
4390
4398
4398
4390
4414
4422
4422
4414
4414
4445
4414
4414
4406
4414
4414
4414
4422
4453
4445
4492
4477
4469
4422
4563
4453
4445
4461
4414
4445
4508
4437
4461
4539
4484
4477
4437
4445
4406
4422
4406
4375
4469
4453
4430
4484
4437
4265
4336
4343
4367
4375

452.25
454.25
456.25
458.25
460.25
462.25
464.25
465.25
466.25
467.25
468.25
469.25
470.25
471.25
472.25
473.25
475.25
477.25
479.25
481.25
483.25
485.25
486.25
488.25
490.25
492.25
493.25
495.25
497.25
499.25
501.25
503.25
505.25
507.25
509.25
511.25
513.25
515.25
517.25
519.25
521.25
523.25
525.25
527.25
529.25
531.25
533.25
535.25
537.25
539.25
541.25
543.25
545.25
547.25
549.25
551.25
553.25
554.25
556.25
558.25
560.25

42 | P a g e

Feed
Date
16/10/2010
16/10/2010
16/10/2010
16/10/2010
17/10/2010
17/10/2010
17/10/2010
17/10/2010
17/10/2010
17/10/2010
17/10/2010
17/10/2010
17/10/2010
17/10/2010
17/10/2010
18/10/2010
18/10/2010
18/10/2010
18/10/2010
18/10/2010
18/10/2010
18/10/2010
18/10/2010
18/10/2010
18/10/2010
18/10/2010
18/10/2010
19/10/2010
19/10/2010
19/10/2010
19/10/2010
19/10/2010
19/10/2010
19/10/2010
19/10/2010
19/10/2010
19/10/2010
19/10/2010
19/10/2010
20/10/2010
20/10/2010
20/10/2010
20/10/2010
20/10/2010
20/10/2010
20/10/2010
20/10/2010
20/10/2010
20/10/2010
20/10/2010
21/10/2010
21/10/2010
21/10/2010
21/10/2010
21/10/2010
21/10/2010
22/10/2010
22/10/2010
22/10/2010
22/10/2010

Time
18H30
20H30
22H30
24H30
02H30
04H30
06H30
08H30
10H30
12H30
14H30
16H30
18H30
20H30
22H30
24H30
02H30
04H30
06H30
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
660
780
900
1020
1140
1260
1380
1500
1620
1740
1860
1980
2100
2220
2340
2460
2580
2700
2820
60
180
300
420
540
660
780
900
1020
1140
1260
1380
1500
1620
1740
1860
1980
2100
2220
2340
2460
2580
2700
2820
2940
3060
3180
3300
3420
3540
3660
3780
3900
4020
60
180
300
420
540
660
780

Brine

Temperature Pressure Flowrate


(C)
(bar)
(L/min)
25
24.5
23.6
22.9
22.5
21.8
21.9
23.9
24.9
25.6
25.4
25.6
25.9
25
23.3
23
23.5
22.8
22.1
24.9
25.4
25.7
25.7
25.6
25.6
24.6
24.2
23.9
23.2
22.7
24
25.2
25.7
25.7
25.8
25.7
25.1
24.9
24.4
24.5
23
22.9
24.6
24.8
25.4
25.7
25.8
25.2
24.7
24
23.6
23.2
23.2
25.8
25.3
25.3
24.9
24.2
23.8
24.6

15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5

8.042
7.962
9.095
9.098
9.051
9.285
9.111
9.091
8.386
8.374
8.087
7.886
7.701
8.069
8.826
9.07
9.314
8.807
9.297
8.39
7.965
7.895
7.782
7.834
7.705
8.535
9.05
8.997
9.061
8.97
9.048
8.467
7.956
7.518
7.534
7.556
8.336
9.218
8.446
9.174
8.814
8.785
8.433
8.344
7.654
7.361
7.585
7.422
8.913
8.27
8.879
9.156
8.477
8
8.288
8.297
8.101
9.019
9.082
8.433

Pressure
(bar)
14.4
14.4
14
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.8
14
14.3
14.35
14.45
14.45
14.4
14.4
14.1
13.9
14
14
14
14.25
14.45
14.4
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.4
14
14
14.1
14
14.05
14.2
14.4
14.5
14.55
14.6
14.2
14
14.3
14.05
14
14.1
14.3
14.4
14.45
14.55
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.3
14.6
14
14.1
14.5
14.3
14.3
14
14
14
14.2

Permeate

Flowrate
(L/min)
3.84
3.79
4.9
5
5
4.2
5.1
4.94
4.26
4.2
3.9
3.749
3.57
3.8
4.7
5.15
5.23
4.835
5.05
4.2
3.68
3.82
3.74
3.6
3.622
4.655
4.75
4.96
5.009
5.01
4.96
4.4
4.1
3.58
3.48
3.49
3.88
4.941
4.67
5.08
4.89
4.92
4.515
4.4
3.953
3.486
3.58
3.53
4.42
4.7
4.98
5.2
4.79
3.95
3.929
4.28
4.253
5.08
5.094
4.51

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.539
4.473
4.527
4.554
4.513
4.645
4.507
4.572
4.521
4.495
4.508
4.467
4.404
4.45
4.44
4.459
4.46
4.432
4.416
4.511
4.476
4.419
4.441
4.489
4.383
4.43
4.462
4.435
4.469
4.386
4.517
4.418
4.458
4.379
4.416
4.427
4.408
4.486
4.376
4.392
4.386
4.333
4.398
4.345
4.281
4.315
4.315
4.255
4.305
4.275
4.333
4.303
4.287
4.36
4.379
4.398
3.848
4.389
4.418
4.398

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
1250
1300
1200
1200
1200
1250
1350
1350
1300
1250
1300
1200
1250
1300
1250
1250
1250
1300
1200
1300
1250
1250
1250
1300
1200
1200
1200
1250
1350
1350
1300
1250
1250
1250
1300
1200
1200
1200
1250
1350
1350
1300
1250
1250
1250
1300
1200
1200
1200
1250
1350
1350
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1250
1300

Permeate
40
50
45
45
40
40
40
40
35
30
40
35
40
35
35
35
40
50
45
35
35
35
40
50
45
45
40
40
40
40
35
35
35
40
50
45
45
40
40
40
40
35
35
35
40
50
45
45
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
35
40

Conductivity (mS/m)

Brine
2900
3100
3000
2900
2900
3000
2800
3100
2900
2900
3000
2900
2900
2800
2900
3000
2900
3100
3000
2800
2900
3000
2900
3100
3000
2900
2900
3000
2800
3100
2800
2900
3000
2900
3100
3000
2900
2900
3000
2800
3100
2800
2900
3000
2900
3100
3000
2900
2900
3000
2800
3100
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600

Feed
5.54
5.56
5.65
5.68
5.69
4.52
5.59
5.6
5.56
5.57
5.55
5.55
5.49
5.51
5.59
5.67
5.62
5.71
5.69
5.59
5.59
5.59
5.56
5.56
5.56
5.65
5.67
5.67
5.69
5.75
5.61
5.65
5.62
5.6
5.57
5.56
5.54
5.55
5.66
5.64
5.65
5.73
5.57
5.57
5.53
5.55
5.53
5.52
5.55
5.62
5.61
5.67
5.67
5.53
5.54
5.52
5.55
5.55
5.54
5.57

Permeate
0.264
0.267
0.244
0.254
0.265
0.22
0.256
0.243
0.255
0.262
0.266
0.28
0.273
0.298
0.263
0.255
0.261
0.273
0.239
0.259
0.273
0.271
0.271
0.275
0.264
0.249
0.273
0.253
0.243
0.237
0.235
0.248
0.257
0.28
0.273
0.275
0.268
0.245
0.244
0.255
0.277
0.261
0.243
0.25
0.252
0.277
0.273
0.266
0.252
0.252
0.29
0.24
0.26
0.26
0.268
0.268
0.272
0.25
0.255
0.248

permeability

Brine
11.35
11.39
10.27
10.16
10.13
9.7
9.83
10.11
10.75
10.82
11.27
11.35
11.53
11.35
10.22
9.79
9.78
10.21
10.23
10.95
11.82
11.22
11.32
11.77
11.58
10.17
10.53
10.13
10.05
10.1
10.09
10.6
10.65
11.45
11.79
11.71
11.65
10.15
10.03
9.95
10
10
10.22
10.35
10.48
11.45
11.45
11.34
10.92
9.74
9.74
9.81
9.86
10.92
11.34
10.47
10.3
9.69
9.68
10.22

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
56.44
96.80
95.23
56.18
96.15
95.20
49.77
96.25
95.68
50.05
96.25
95.53
49.86
96.67
95.34
50.03
96.80
95.13
49.47
97.04
95.42
50.29
97.04
95.66
53.91
97.31
95.41
53.68
97.60
95.30
55.74
96.92
95.21
56.64
97.08
94.95
57.19
96.80
95.03
55.15
97.31
94.59
50.31
97.20
95.30
49.16
97.20
95.50
47.88
96.80
95.36
50.32
96.15
95.22
47.50
96.25
95.80
53.77
97.31
95.37
56.20
97.20
95.12
55.97
97.20
95.15
57.07
96.80
95.13
57.30
96.15
95.05
56.89
96.25
95.25
51.90
96.25
95.59
49.30
96.67
95.19
49.29
96.80
95.54
49.32
97.04
95.73
48.90
97.04
95.88
49.92
97.31
95.81
52.18
97.20
95.61
56.03
97.20
95.43
58.25
96.80
95.00
58.61
96.15
95.10
58.59
96.25
95.05
52.88
96.25
95.16
48.67
96.67
95.59
51.81
96.80
95.69
47.87
97.04
95.48
49.76
97.04
95.10
49.32
97.31
95.45
52.15
97.20
95.64
52.07
97.20
95.51
55.93
96.80
95.44
58.62
96.15
95.01
56.89
96.25
95.06
57.33
96.25
95.18
48.30
96.67
95.46
51.69
96.80
95.52
48.80
97.04
94.83
47.00
97.04
95.77
50.57
96.92
95.41
54.50
96.92
95.30
52.84
96.92
95.16
53.01
96.92
95.14
47.50
96.92
95.10
48.66
96.92
95.50
48.65
97.20
95.40
52.15
96.92
95.55

CF
2.30
2.28
1.99
2.00
1.99
2.00
1.98
2.01
2.17
2.16
2.26
2.31
2.34
2.23
2.01
1.97
1.92
2.01
1.90
2.16
2.28
2.27
2.33
2.34
2.32
2.08
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.96
2.00
2.09
2.27
2.40
2.42
2.41
2.12
1.95
2.08
1.92
1.99
1.97
2.09
2.09
2.27
2.42
2.32
2.34
1.93
2.07
1.95
1.89
2.02
2.20
2.12
2.13
1.90
1.95
1.95
2.09

flux
0.59
0.58
0.59
0.60
0.59
0.61
0.59
0.60
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.59
0.59
0.58
0.58
0.59
0.57
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.57
0.59
0.58
0.58
0.57
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.59
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.57
0.56
0.56
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.50
0.57
0.58
0.57

P
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49

7.58
7.56
6.70
6.78
6.76
5.39
6.59
6.71
7.19
7.16
7.47
7.63
7.64
7.32
6.70
6.65
6.43
6.85
6.46
7.20
7.60
7.57
7.72
7.76
7.68
7.00
6.66
6.66
6.69
6.70
6.67
7.04
7.62
7.99
8.02
8.00
7.01
6.44
7.00
6.45
6.70
6.74
6.94
6.92
7.48
7.99
7.64
7.71
6.40
6.93
6.53
6.37
6.84
7.24
7.00
7.00
6.30
6.44
6.43
6.94

Aw
(L/min.bar.m 2)

0.08588
0.08441
0.07602
0.07721
0.07637
0.06674
0.07462
0.07688
0.08097
0.08025
0.08401
0.08513
0.08409
0.08117
0.07456
0.07433
0.07232
0.07585
0.07190
0.08097
0.08501
0.08345
0.08575
0.08722
0.08422
0.07734
0.07456
0.07410
0.07493
0.07367
0.07559
0.07755
0.08482
0.08813
0.08925
0.08921
0.07702
0.07289
0.07639
0.07141
0.07364
0.07309
0.07614
0.07511
0.07983
0.08684
0.08242
0.08205
0.06956
0.07397
0.07117
0.06933
0.07324
0.07867
0.07645
0.07678
0.06143
0.07131
0.07166
0.07614

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4343
4359
4430
4453
4461
3544
4383
4390
4359
4367
4351
4351
4304
4320
4383
4445
4406
4477
4461
4383
4383
4383
4359
4359
4359
4430
4445
4445
4461
4508
4398
4430
4406
4390
4367
4359
4343
4351
4437
4422
4430
4492
4367
4367
4336
4351
4336
4328
4351
4406
4398
4445
4445
4336
4343
4328
4351
4351
4343
4367

562.25
564.25
566.25
568.25
570.25
572.25
574.25
576.25
578.25
580.25
582.25
584.25
586.25
588.25
590.25
592.25
594.25
596.25
598.25
600.25
601.25
603.25
605.25
607.25
609.25
611.25
613.25
615.25
617.25
619.25
621.25
623.25
625.25
627.25
629.25
631.25
633.25
635.25
637.25
639.25
641.25
643.25
645.25
647.25
649.25
651.25
653.25
655.25
657.25
659.25
661.25
663.25
665.25
667.25
668.25
670.25
672.25
674.25
676.25
678.25

43 | P a g e

Feed
Date
22/10/2010
22/10/2010
22/10/2010
22/10/2010
22/10/2010
22/10/2010
22/10/2010
22/10/2010
23/10/2010
23/10/2010
23/10/2010
23/10/2010
23/10/2010
23/10/2010
23/10/2010
23/10/2010
23/10/2010
23/10/2010
23/10/2010
23/10/2010
24/10/2010
24/10/2010
24/10/2010
24/10/2010
24/10/2010
24/10/2010
24/10/2010
24/10/2010
24/10/2010
25/10/2010
25/10/2010
25/10/2010
3/11/2010
3/11/2010
3/11/2010
3/11/2010
3/11/2010
3/11/2010
4/11/2010
4/11/2010
4/11/2010
4/11/2010
4/11/2010
4/11/2010
4/11/2010
4/11/2010
4/11/2010
4/11/2010
4/11/2010
4/11/2010
5/11/2010
5/11/2010
5/11/2010
5/11/2010
5/11/2010
5/11/2010
5/11/2010
5/11/2010
5/11/2010
6/11/2010

Time
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
900
1020
1140
1260
1380
1500
1620
1740
1860
1980
2100
2220
2340
2460
2580
2700
2820
2940
3060
3180
3300
3420
3540
60
180
300
420
540
660
780
900
1020
60
180
300
420
540
660
780
900
1020
1140
1260
1380
1500
1620
1740
1860
1980
2100
2220
2340
2460
2580
2700
2820
60
180
300
420

Temperature Pressure
(C)
(bar)
25.1
25.6
25.5
25.5
25.2
24.9
24.7
24.4
23.4
23.2
24
24.7
24.7
25.4
25.5
25.6
25.3
25.7
24.6
24.5
24.1
22.8
22.6
25.6
25.4
25.1
25.5
24.6
23.9
23.7
23
23.8
25.7
25.4
25.3
25.1
24.4
24.4
23.3
23.1
22.9
24.6
24.9
25.3
25.4
25.7
25.9
25.7
25.1
24.2
24.3
23.8
23.8
24.5
24.9
25.3
25.8
25.2
25.3
24.9

15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5

Brine
Flowrate
(L/min)
8.34
8.022
7.361
7.854
8.467
8.192
8.395
8.609
9.432
9.166
9.153
8.539
8.338
7.541
7.709
7.697
8.467
7.465
8.539
8.631
9.084
9.163
9.24
7.725
7.76
8.479
7.503
8.99
8.97
8.97
8.99
8.963
6.975
7.522
7.917
8.211
8.133
8.789
9.066
9.514
9.01
8.011
8.057
7.967
7.75
7.278
7.94
7.83
8.321
8.792
9.149
9.204
9.236
8.943
8.057
7.63
7.822
8.205
8.204
9.147

Pressure
(bar)
14.3
14.4
14.55
14.45
14.35
14.3
14.3
14.3
13.9
13.9
14
14.15
14.25
14.6
14.4
14.5
14.4
14.5
14.2
14.2
14
14
14
14.4
14.4
14.3
14.5
14.5
14
14
14
14
14.7
14.5
14.45
14.3
14.4
14.1
14
14
14
14.3
14.4
14.45
14.5
14.6
14.4
14.4
14.3
14.1
14
14
14
14.1
14.4
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.4
14

Permeate

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.6
4.09
3.546
3.886
4.219
4.2
4.44
4.658
5.192
5.4
5.28
4.81
4.45
4.05
3.605
3.61
4.149
3.676
4.262
4.634
5.16
5.35
5.43
3.68
3.79
4.255
3.728
4.767
5.14
5.1
5.146
5.12
2.98
3.395
3.683
4.19
4.14
4.795
4.99
5.4
4.981
4.45
4.19
3.916
3.798
3.536
3.743
3.857
4.19
4.867
5.13
5.23
5.4
5.15
4.18
3.87
3.866
4.12
4.3
4.817

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.401
4.425
4.315
4.318
4.418
4.328
4.291
4.341
4.4
4.326
4.357
4.309
4.358
4.309
4.304
4.301
4.418
4.209
4.327
4.317
4.278
4.238
4.266
4.32
4.304
4.424
4.235
4.273
4.28
4.298
4.284
4.267
4.318
4.327
4.394
4.394
4.382
4.394
4.368
4.375
4.385
4.356
4.306
4.307
4.372
4.262
4.337
4.273
4.332
4.325
4.378
4.331
4.311
4.315
4.306
4.272
4.256
4.265
4.244
4.26

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1250
1300
1300
1300
1300
1250
1300
1300
1300
1250
1250
1250
1350
1300
1300
1300
1250
1300
1300
1300
1250
1250
1250
1350
1300
1300
1300
1250
1300
1300
1300
1250
1250
1250
1350
1300
1300
1300
1250
1300
1300
1300
1250
1250
1250
1350
1300
1300
1300
1250
1300
1300
1300
1250

Permeate
40
40
40
40
40
40
35
40
45
45
45
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
40
45
45
45
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
40
45
45
45
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
40
45
45
45
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
40
45
45
45
35
35
35
35
35

Conductivity (mS/m)

Brine
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2500
2500
2500
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2800
2500
2500
2500
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2800
2500
2500
2500
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2800
2500
2500
2500
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2800
2500
2500
2500
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600

Feed
5.44
5.47
5.55
5.47
5.48
5.5
5.53
5.54
5.55
5.59
5.51
5.5
5.49
5.46
5.45
5.49
5.52
5.43
5.48
5.49
5.49
5.58
5.56
5.47
5.52
5.5
5.5
5.55
5.57
5.51
5.56
5.51
5.36
5.47
5.52
5.5
5.51
5.48
5.5
5.5
5.47
5.43
5.46
5.41
5.41
5.41
5.45
5.44
5.46
5.49
5.46
5.47
5.52
5.49
5.47
5.47
5.44
5.42
5.46
5.44

Permeate
0.24
0.251
0.276
0.267
0.267
0.246
0.252
0.273
0.272
0.263
0.264
0.242
0.248
0.252
0.277
0.286
0.258
0.278
0.275
0.251
0.233
0.233
0.253
0.279
0.261
0.265
0.273
0.272
0.253
0.269
0.238
0.238
0.323
0.309
0.303
0.275
0.296
0.276
0.283
0.289
0.271
0.271
0.27
0.284
0.293
0.291
0.304
0.29
0.285
0.282
0.248
0.268
0.255
0.251
0.275
0.279
0.278
0.252
0.262
0.271

permeability

Brine
9.62
10.53
11.22
10.82
10.78
10.46
10.28
10.03
9.86
9.26
9.4
9.53
10.11
9.9
11.35
11.35
10.95
10.75
10.75
9.97
9.47
9.4
9.24
11.22
10.98
10.68
10.76
10.19
9.51
9.46
9.51
9.48
12.07
11.75
11.49
10.51
10.55
9.86
9.74
9.45
9.7
9.6
10.22
10.7
10.73
10.8
11.2
10.7
10.6
9.69
9.58
9.39
9.24
9.35
10.34
10.46
10.67
10.5
10.13
10.05

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
52.77
96.92
95.59
55.16
96.92
95.41
58.62
96.92
95.03
54.98
96.92
95.12
52.18
96.92
95.13
52.83
96.92
95.53
51.11
97.20
95.44
50.42
96.92
95.07
46.65
96.54
95.10
47.20
96.54
95.30
47.60
96.54
95.21
50.46
97.20
95.60
52.27
97.31
95.48
57.14
97.31
95.38
55.83
97.31
94.92
55.88
97.20
94.79
52.18
97.20
95.33
56.38
97.20
94.88
50.67
97.04
94.98
50.02
96.54
95.43
47.09
96.54
95.76
46.25
96.54
95.82
46.17
97.20
95.45
55.92
97.31
94.90
55.46
97.31
95.27
52.18
97.31
95.18
56.44
97.20
95.04
47.53
97.20
95.10
47.71
97.20
95.46
47.92
97.04
95.12
47.65
96.54
95.72
47.61
96.54
95.68
61.91
96.54
93.97
57.52
97.20
94.35
55.50
97.31
94.51
53.51
97.31
95.00
53.88
97.31
94.63
49.99
97.20
94.96
48.18
97.20
94.85
45.98
97.20
94.75
48.67
97.04
95.05
54.38
96.54
95.01
53.44
96.54
95.05
54.06
96.54
94.75
56.41
97.20
94.58
58.56
97.31
94.62
54.62
97.31
94.42
54.57
97.31
94.67
52.06
97.20
94.78
49.19
97.20
94.86
47.85
97.20
95.46
47.06
97.04
95.10
46.68
96.54
95.38
48.25
96.54
95.43
53.44
96.54
94.97
55.99
97.20
94.90
54.41
97.31
94.89
51.98
97.31
95.35
51.73
97.31
95.20
46.57
97.20
95.02

CF
2.12
2.23
2.42
2.22
2.09
2.12
2.05
2.02
1.87
1.89
1.91
2.02
2.09
2.33
2.26
2.27
2.09
2.29
2.03
2.00
1.89
1.86
1.86
2.27
2.25
2.09
2.30
1.91
1.91
1.92
1.91
1.91
2.63
2.35
2.25
2.15
2.17
2.00
1.93
1.85
1.95
2.19
2.15
2.18
2.29
2.41
2.20
2.20
2.09
1.97
1.92
1.89
1.88
1.93
2.15
2.27
2.19
2.08
2.07
1.87

flux
0.58
0.58
0.56
0.56
0.58
0.57
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.57
0.57
0.56
0.57
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.58
0.55
0.57
0.56
0.56
0.55
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.58
0.55
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.56
0.56
0.57
0.56
0.57
0.56
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.55
0.56

P
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49

6.86
7.27
7.99
7.24
6.83
6.95
6.74
6.66
6.20
6.31
6.27
6.62
6.85
7.59
7.35
7.41
6.88
7.42
6.62
6.54
6.18
6.19
6.15
7.39
7.39
6.85
7.52
6.30
6.35
6.30
6.33
6.27
8.38
7.67
7.39
7.05
7.12
6.53
6.32
6.07
6.35
7.09
6.99
7.02
7.40
7.78
7.16
7.14
6.79
6.44
6.24
6.16
6.17
6.32
7.00
7.41
7.11
6.73
6.74
6.07

Aw
(L/m in.bar.m 2)

0.07546
0.08014
0.08684
0.07788
0.07541
0.07504
0.07241
0.07249
0.06939
0.06914
0.06928
0.07156
0.07463
0.08168
0.07886
0.07949
0.07590
0.07783
0.07190
0.07105
0.06734
0.06674
0.06692
0.07962
0.07922
0.07575
0.07951
0.06825
0.06874
0.06865
0.06864
0.06785
0.09249
0.08301
0.08095
0.07723
0.07774
0.07218
0.06995
0.06792
0.07044
0.07700
0.07506
0.07537
0.08059
0.08305
0.07734
0.07598
0.07354
0.07024
0.06938
0.06796
0.06774
0.06908
0.07519
0.07886
0.07542
0.07183
0.07161
0.06614

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4265
4288
4351
4288
4296
4312
4336
4343
4351
4383
4320
4312
4304
4281
4273
4304
4328
4257
4296
4304
4304
4375
4359
4288
4328
4312
4312
4351
4367
4320
4359
4320
4202
4288
4328
4312
4320
4296
4312
4312
4288
4257
4281
4241
4241
4241
4273
4265
4281
4304
4281
4288
4328
4304
4288
4288
4265
4249
4281
4265

680.25
682.25
684.25
686.25
688.25
690.25
692.25
694.25
696.25
698.25
700.25
702.25
704.25
706.25
708.25
710.25
712.25
714.25
716.25
718.25
720.25
722.25
724.25
726.25
727.25
729.25
731.25
733.25
735.25
737.25
739.25
741.25
743.25
744.25
746.25
748.25
750.25
752.25
754.25
756.25
758.25
760.25
762.25
764.25
766.25
768.25
770.25
772.25
774.25
776.25
778.25
780.25
782.25
784.25
786.25
788.25
790.25
791.25
793.25
795.25

44 | P a g e

Feed
Date
6/11/2010
6/11/2010
6/11/2010
6/11/2010
6/11/2010
6/11/2010
6/11/2010
6/11/2010
6/11/2010
6/11/2010
6/11/2010
7/11/2010
7/11/2010
7/11/2010
7/11/2010
7/11/2010
7/11/2010
7/11/2010
7/11/2010
7/11/2010
7/11/2010
7/11/2010
7/11/2010
8/11/2010
8/11/2010
8/11/2010
8/11/2010
8/11/2010
8/11/2010
8/11/2010
8/11/2010
8/11/2010
8/11/2010
9/11/2010
9/11/2010
9/11/2010
9/11/2010
9/11/2010
9/11/2010
9/11/2010
9/11/2010
9/11/2010
9/11/2010
9/11/2010
9/11/2010
10/11/2010
10/11/2010
10/11/2010
10/11/2010
10/11/2010
10/11/2010
10/11/2010
10/11/2010
10/11/2010
10/11/2010
10/11/2010
10/11/2010
11/11/2010
11/11/2010
11/11/2010

Time
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
540
660
780
900
1020
1140
1260
1380
1500
1620
1740
1860
1980
2100
2220
2340
2460
2580
2700
2820
2940
3060
3180
3300
3420
3540
3660
60
180
300
420
540
660
780
900
1020
1140
1260
1380
1500
1620
1740
1860
1980
2100
2220
2340
2460
2580
2700
2820
2940
3060
3180
3300
3420
3540
3660
3780
3900

Temperature Pressure
(C)
(bar)
24.1
23.3
24.5
25.2
25.3
25.7
25.8
25.4
25.9
25.1
25.2
24.8
24.4
23.8
24.8
25.2
26
25.6
26.1
26
25.9
24.9
25.1
25.4
25
24.3
25.3
25.8
25.7
25.4
26.2
25.3
24.3
24
24
23
25.2
25.1
26
25.6
26.1
26.1
24.9
24.9
23.9
24.1
24.1
22.6
25.5
26
26
26.4
25.7
25.7
25.8
24
24
24.4
24.4
25.7

15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5

Brine
Flowrate
(L/min)
8.867
9.063
8.17
8.331
8.1
7.321
7.4
7.75
7.977
8.265
9.117
9.181
9.186
9.132
9.096
8.331
7.812
7.863
7.427
7.411
8.128
8.477
8.68
9.005
8.923
9.201
7.534
7.803
7.685
7.446
8.01
8.13
9.136
8.915
8.915
9.353
8.337
7.907
7.812
7.863
8.082
8.082
8.087
8.087
8.692
8.889
8.889
8.87
8.656
8.242
8.242
8.025
7.59
7.59
7.547
8.698
8.698
9.037
9.037
8.345

Pressure
(bar)
14.1
14
14.4
14.3
14.5
14.55
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.4
14
14
14
14
14.05
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.5
14.4
14.3
14.3
14
14
14
14.5
14.5
14.55
14.6
14.3
14.4
14
14.1
14.1
14
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.5
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.3
14
14
14.1
14.1
14.3
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.5
14.5
14
14
14
14
14.3

Permeate

Flowrate
(L/min)
5.08
5.13
4.6
4.593
4.24
3.54
3.48
3.77
3.814
4.18
5.03
5.3
5.38
5.32
5.22
4.613
3.937
3.977
3.575
3.686
4.189
4.515
4.692
4.948
5.12
5.3
4.12
3.98
3.84
3.698
3.9288
4.19
4.821
5.1
5.1
5.391
4.42
4.28
3.947
3.977
4.4
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.595
5.06
5.04
5.13
4.862
4.541
4.541
4.19
3.892
3.892
3.805
4.38
4.38
5.29
5.29
4.834

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.286
4.234
4.303
4.238
4.281
4.211
4.258
4.372
4.253
4.256
4.258
4.292
4.265
4.214
4.321
4.238
4.205
4.226
4.162
4.145
4.217
4.262
4.281
4.257
4.238
4.255
4.228
4.188
4.216
4.168
4.125
4.275
4.255
4.276
4.276
4.222
4.217
4.242
4.205
4.226
4.18
4.18
4.181
4.181
4.197
4.289
4.289
4.24
4.234
4.221
4.221
4.2
4.138
4.138
4.122
4.058
4.058
4.228
4.228
4.198

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
1250
1250
1350
1300
1300
1300
1250
1300
1300
1300
1250
1250
1250
1350
1300
1300
1300
1250
1300
1300
1300
1250
1250
1250
1250
1350
1350
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1250
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1250
1300
1300
1300
1250
1250
1250
1350
1350
1300
1300
1300

Permeate
35
35
40
45
45
45
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
40
45
45
45
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
35
40
40
40
40
40
45
45
45
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
40
40
40
40
40

Conductivity (mS/m)

Brine
2600
2600
2800
2500
2500
2500
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2800
2500
2500
2500
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2800
2800
2600
2600
2600
2600
2500
2500
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2500
2500
2500
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2800
2800
2600
2600
2600

Feed
5.46
5.51
5.46
5.38
5.44
5.44
5.45
5.45
5.42
5.4
5.49
5.41
5.44
5.45
5.44
5.38
5.36
5.34
5.3
5.28
5.4
5.46
5.45
5.4
5.4
5.42
5.4
5.38
5.4
5.41
5.35
5.39
5.4
5.36
5.36
5.41
5.37
5.34
5.36
5.34
5.34
5.34
5.36
5.36
5.34
5.34
5.34
5.48
5.38
5.3
5.3
5.36
5.29
5.29
5.31
5.39
5.39
5.38
5.38
5.34

Permeate
0.253
0.278
0.25
0.254
0.272
0.284
0.286
0.294
0.287
0.271
0.261
0.256
0.24
0.263
0.244
0.254
0.284
0.278
0.279
0.274
0.271
0.26
0.273
0.253
0.261
0.252
0.258
0.252
0.27
0.279
0.257
0.27
0.239
0.247
0.247
0.267
0.272
0.26
0.284
0.278
0.243
0.243
0.266
0.266
0.253
0.252
0.252
0.251
0.269
0.253
0.253
0.284
0.278
0.278
0.28
0.294
0.294
0.249
0.249
0.238

permeability

Brine
9.32
9.48
9.54
9.51
10.15
10.96
11.24
10.94
11.07
10.4
9.72
9.21
9.14
9.13
9.3
9.51
10.32
10.28
10.66
10.31
10.25
10.01
9.8
9.62
9.22
9.18
9.71
10.35
10.57
10.6
10.6
10.23
10
9.21
9.21
9.19
9.84
9.68
10.32
10.28
9.56
9.56
9.89
9.89
9.85
9.23
9.23
9.26
9.35
9.4
9.4
9.99
10.01
10.01
10.29
10.41
10.41
8.97
8.97
9.07

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
48.34
97.20
95.37
46.72
97.20
94.95
52.67
97.04
95.42
50.87
96.54
95.28
52.85
96.54
95.00
57.52
96.54
94.78
57.54
97.20
94.75
56.41
97.31
94.61
53.32
97.31
94.70
51.49
97.31
94.98
46.70
97.20
95.25
46.75
97.20
95.27
46.43
97.20
95.59
46.15
97.04
95.17
47.50
96.54
95.51
50.87
96.54
95.28
53.83
96.54
94.70
53.75
97.20
94.79
56.04
97.31
94.74
55.93
97.31
94.81
51.88
97.31
94.98
50.28
97.20
95.24
49.32
97.20
94.99
47.27
97.20
95.31
47.50
97.20
95.17
46.24
97.04
95.35
56.12
97.04
95.22
53.67
96.92
95.32
54.86
96.92
95.00
55.98
96.92
94.84
51.50
96.92
95.20
52.58
96.92
94.99
46.57
96.92
95.57
47.96
96.92
95.39
47.96
96.92
95.39
45.14
96.92
95.06
50.58
96.92
94.93
53.65
96.92
95.13
53.83
96.92
94.70
53.75
97.20
94.79
51.72
96.92
95.45
51.72
96.92
95.45
51.70
96.92
95.04
51.70
96.92
95.04
48.29
96.92
95.26
48.25
96.54
95.28
48.25
96.54
95.28
47.80
96.54
95.42
48.91
97.20
95.00
51.21
97.31
95.23
51.21
97.31
95.23
52.34
97.31
94.70
54.52
97.20
94.74
54.52
97.20
94.74
54.62
97.20
94.73
46.65
97.04
94.55
46.65
97.04
94.55
46.79
96.92
95.37
46.79
96.92
95.37
50.31
96.92
95.54

CF
1.94
1.88
2.11
2.04
2.12
2.35
2.36
2.29
2.14
2.06
1.88
1.88
1.87
1.86
1.90
2.04
2.17
2.16
2.27
2.27
2.08
2.01
1.97
1.90
1.90
1.86
2.28
2.16
2.22
2.27
2.06
2.11
1.87
1.92
1.92
1.82
2.02
2.16
2.17
2.16
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07
1.93
1.93
1.93
1.92
1.96
2.05
2.05
2.10
2.20
2.20
2.20
1.87
1.87
1.88
1.88
2.01

flux
0.56
0.55
0.56
0.55
0.56
0.55
0.56
0.57
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.55
0.56
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.54
0.54
0.55
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.55
0.56
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.54
0.54
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.56
0.56
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.54
0.54
0.54
0.53
0.53
0.55
0.55
0.55

P
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49

6.30
6.16
6.87
6.52
6.87
7.63
7.65
7.45
6.92
6.63
6.14
6.05
6.05
6.03
6.17
6.52
6.92
6.88
7.18
7.14
6.69
6.54
6.41
6.10
6.13
6.01
7.33
6.92
7.13
7.32
6.57
6.77
6.02
6.14
6.14
5.88
6.47
6.86
6.92
6.88
6.59
6.59
6.61
6.61
6.15
6.15
6.15
6.26
6.27
6.47
6.47
6.70
6.93
6.93
6.97
6.02
6.02
6.02
6.02
6.40

Aw
(L/m in.bar.m 2)

0.06841
0.06648
0.07388
0.06958
0.07352
0.08028
0.08139
0.08122
0.07345
0.07084
0.06667
0.06653
0.06609
0.06514
0.06795
0.06958
0.07261
0.07261
0.07449
0.07374
0.07067
0.07013
0.06927
0.06637
0.06628
0.06560
0.07725
0.07234
0.07489
0.07605
0.06813
0.07245
0.06571
0.06695
0.06695
0.06409
0.06880
0.07275
0.07261
0.07261
0.06920
0.06920
0.06941
0.06941
0.06583
0.06724
0.06724
0.06733
0.06740
0.06885
0.06885
0.07051
0.07158
0.07158
0.07170
0.06265
0.06265
0.06531
0.06531
0.06788

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4281
4320
4281
4218
4265
4265
4273
4273
4249
4234
4304
4241
4265
4273
4265
4218
4202
4187
4155
4140
4234
4281
4273
4234
4234
4249
4234
4218
4234
4241
4194
4226
4234
4202
4202
4241
4210
4187
4202
4187
4187
4187
4202
4202
4187
4187
4187
4296
4218
4155
4155
4202
4147
4147
4163
4226
4226
4218
4218
4187

797.25
799.25
801.25
803.25
805.25
807.25
809.25
811.25
813.25
815.25
817.25
819.25
821.25
823.25
825.25
827.25
829.25
831.25
833.25
835.25
837.25
839.25
841.25
843.25
845.25
847.25
849.25
851.25
852.25
854.25
856.25
858.25
860.25
862.25
864.25
866.25
868.25
870.25
872.25
874.25
876.25
878.25
880.25
882.25
884.25
886.25
888.25
890.25
892.25
894.25
896.25
898.25
900.25
902.25
904.25
906.25
908.25
910.25
912.25
914.25

45 | P a g e

Feed
Date
11/11/2010
11/11/2010
11/11/2010
11/11/2010
12/11/2010
12/11/2010
12/11/2010
12/11/2010
13/11/2010
13/11/2010
13/11/2010
13/11/2010
17/11/2010
17/11/2010
18/11/2010
18/11/2010
18/11/2010
18/11/2010
20/11/2010
20/11/2010
20/11/2010
20/11/2010
20/11/2010
20/11/2010
21/11/2010
21/11/2010
21/11/2010
21/11/2010
21/11/2010
21/11/2010
21/11/2010
22/11/2010
22/11/2010
22/11/2010
22/11/2010
22/11/2010
22/11/2010
22/11/2010
22/11/2010
22/11/2010
22/11/2010
22/11/2010
22/11/2010
23/11/2010
23/11/2010
23/11/2010
23/11/2010
23/11/2010
23/11/2010
23/11/2010
23/11/2010
23/11/2010
23/11/2010
23/11/2010
23/11/2010
24/11/2010
24/11/2010
24/11/2010

Time
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00
08H00
10H00
12H00
14H00
16H00
18H00
20H00
22H00
24H00
02H00
04H00
06H00

Test Cumulated
Duration (hours)
4020
4140
4260
4380
60
180
300
420
540
660
780
900
60
180
300
420
540
660
60
180
300
60
180
300
420
540
660
780
60
180
300
420
540
660
780
900
1020
1140
1260
1380
1500
1620
1740
1860
1980
2100
2220
2340
2460
2580
2700
2820
2940
3060
3180
3300
3420
3540

Brine

Temperature Pressure Flowrate


(C)
(bar)
(L/min)
25.7
26.6
26.6
26.2
25.1
25.1
25.1
25.1
24.5
24.5
24.4
24.8
24.4
24.1
24.1
24.1
24.2
24.5
24.6
25
25.2
25.1
24.9
24.7
24.8
24.3
24.2
24.7
25.1
25
24.9
24.7
24.4
23.4
24.7
25.1
25.5
25.5
25.9
25.3
25
25.1
24.6
24.7
24.4
24.6
24.8
25.1
25.2
25.5
25.1
25.1
24.7
24.5
24.7
24.5
24.3
24.2

15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5

8.345
8.258
8.258
8.134
7.775
8.029
9.075
9.075
9.025
9.025
8.998
7.91
9.517
9.586
9.516
9.437
9.514
8.945
8.236
7.871
7.723
8.276
8.609
8.597
8.706
9.463
8.371
8.107
7.671
8
9.011
9.025
8.983
8.817
8.107
7.825
7.667
7.39
7.17
7.946
7.96
8.95
8.923
9.089
8.89
8.758
8.107
7.825
7.723
7.39
6.927
8.308
8.993
9.213
8.882
9.323
8.993
8.95

Pressure
(bar)
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.4
14
14
14.1
14.1
14
14.4
13.9
13.9
14
13.9
13.8
14
14.3
14.45
14.5
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
14
14.4
14.4
14.5
14
14.1
14.1
14
14.1
14.4
14.45
14.5
14.55
14.6
14.4
14.4
14
14
14
14.1
14.1
14.4
14.45
14.5
14.55
14.65
14.35
14
14
14.1
13.9
14.1
14

Permeate

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.834
4.517
4.517
4.38
3.586
3.882
5.054
5.054
5.1
5.1
5.15
4.53
5.32
5.731
5.719
5.586
5.628
5.34
4.607
4.15
3.699
3.472
4.523
4.591
4.578
5.39
4.933
4.26
3.578
3.986
4.991
4.991
5.09
4.938
4.28
4.02
3.785
3.643
3.488
4.06
4.06
4.545
5.01
5.1
5.06
4.91
4.28
3.992
3.721
3.573
3.63
4.2
4.486
5.25
4.988
5.29
5.1
5.1

Flowrate
(L/min)
4.198
4.211
4.211
4.151
4.229
4.247
4.261
4.261
4.257
4.257
4.286
4.166
4.227
4.203
4.217
4.212
4.212
4.144
4.329
4.174
4.238
4.314
4.306
4.316
4.328
4.273
4.258
4.238
4.253
4.298
4.3
4.308
4.289
4.265
4.238
4.163
4.211
4.187
4.142
4.134
4.187
4.205
4.217
4.414
4.18
4.205
4.238
4.163
4.238
4.187
4.071
4.248
4.207
4.242
4.227
4.233
4.214
4.213

Total Hardness (mg/l)


Feed
1300
1300
1300
1300
1350
1350
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1350
1350
1350
1350
1350
1350
1300
1300
1350
1350
1300
1350
1350
1350
1350
1300
1300
1350
1350
1300
1350
1350
1300
1350
1350
1350
1350
1350
1300
1300
1350
1350
1350
1350
1350
1350
1300
1300
1350
1300

Permeate
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

Conductivity (mS/m)

Brine
2600
2500
2500
2500
3100
3100
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2550
2550
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2550
2550
2600
2600
2550
2600
2600
2600
2600
2550
2550
2600
2600
2550
2600
2600
2550
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2550
2550
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2600
2550
2550
2600
2550

Feed
5.34
5.33
5.33
5.3
5.42
5.39
5.53
5.53
5.54
5.54
5.56
5.53
5.61
5.61
5.57
5.63
5.52
5.59
5.55
5.58
5.66
5.34
5.35
5.38
5.38
5.51
5.59
5.49
5.38
5.41
5.47
5.48
5.59
5.56
5.49
5.58
5.67
5.78
5.79
5.66
5.65
5.64
5.66
5.65
5.7
5.62
5.48
5.58
5.66
5.71
5.6
5.6
5.61
5.66
5.63
5.64
5.64
5.64

Permeate
0.238
0.257
0.257
0.253
0.284
0.27
0.254
0.254
0.267
0.267
0.26
0.257
0.244
0.24
0.245
0.255
0.253
0.244
0.262
0.274
0.303
0.31
0.252
0.254
0.257
0.279
0.259
0.265
0.28
0.281
0.246
0.248
0.247
0.255
0.265
0.276
0.284
0.294
0.293
0.275
0.277
0.26
0.255
0.247
0.25
0.263
0.265
0.262
0.301
0.291
0.272
0.266
0.271
0.256
0.27
0.244
0.259
0.25

permeability

Brine
9.07
9.57
9.57
9.67
11.45
10.86
9.73
9.73
9.59
9.59
9.55
9.47
9.84
9.18
9.13
9.32
9.14
9.18
9.68
10.39
11.44
12.27
9.91
9.82
10.01
9.45
9.27
10.18
11.22
10.53
9.63
9.67
9.68
9.71
10.18
10.6
11.18
11.48
11.61
10.8
10.79
10.83
9.88
9.85
9.8
9.85
10.11
10.71
11.43
11.55
10.4
10.76
10.99
9.72
9.82
9.76
9.75
9.7

Total
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
(%)
Rejection Rejection (%)
(%)
50.31
96.92
95.54
50.99
96.92
95.18
50.99
96.92
95.18
51.03
96.92
95.23
54.39
97.04
94.76
52.90
97.04
94.99
46.95
96.92
95.41
46.95
96.92
95.41
47.17
96.92
95.18
47.17
96.92
95.18
47.63
96.92
95.32
52.67
96.92
95.35
44.42
96.92
95.65
43.85
96.92
95.72
44.31
96.92
95.60
44.63
96.92
95.47
44.27
96.92
95.42
46.33
96.92
95.64
52.56
97.04
95.28
53.03
97.04
95.09
54.88
97.04
94.65
52.13
97.04
94.19
50.02
97.04
95.29
50.20
97.04
95.28
49.71
96.92
95.22
45.15
96.92
94.94
50.87
97.04
95.37
52.28
97.04
95.17
55.44
96.92
94.80
53.73
97.04
94.81
47.72
97.04
95.50
47.73
97.04
95.47
47.75
97.04
95.58
48.37
96.92
95.41
52.28
96.92
95.17
53.20
97.04
95.05
54.92
97.04
94.99
56.66
96.92
94.91
57.77
97.04
94.94
52.03
97.04
95.14
52.60
96.92
95.10
46.98
97.04
95.39
47.26
97.04
95.49
48.56
97.04
95.63
47.02
97.04
95.61
48.01
97.04
95.32
52.28
96.92
95.16
53.20
96.92
95.30
54.88
97.04
94.68
56.66
97.04
94.90
58.77
97.04
95.14
51.13
97.04
95.25
46.78
97.04
95.17
46.04
97.04
95.48
47.59
96.92
95.20
45.40
96.92
95.67
46.86
97.04
95.41
47.07
96.92
95.57

CF
2.01
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.19
2.12
1.89
1.89
1.89
1.89
1.91
2.11
1.80
1.78
1.80
1.81
1.79
1.86
2.11
2.13
2.22
2.09
2.00
2.01
1.99
1.82
2.04
2.10
2.24
2.16
1.91
1.91
1.91
1.94
2.10
2.14
2.22
2.31
2.37
2.08
2.11
1.89
1.90
1.94
1.89
1.92
2.10
2.14
2.22
2.31
2.43
2.05
1.88
1.85
1.91
1.83
1.88
1.89

flux
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.54
0.55
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.54
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.54
0.57
0.55
0.55
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.57
0.56
0.56
0.55
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.55
0.54
0.55
0.55
0.54
0.54
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.58
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.54
0.55
0.55
0.53
0.56
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

P
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49
14.49

6.40
6.48
6.48
6.45
7.08
6.82
6.21
6.21
6.25
6.25
6.33
6.96
6.01
5.95
5.96
6.06
5.90
6.21
6.97
7.08
7.47
6.65
6.38
6.44
6.37
5.99
6.78
6.85
7.19
6.97
6.23
6.25
6.37
6.42
6.85
7.10
7.49
7.95
8.17
7.03
7.10
6.34
6.39
6.55
6.41
6.44
6.84
7.10
7.47
7.85
8.09
6.83
6.28
6.25
6.40
6.16
6.32
6.35

Aw
(L/m in.bar.m 2)

0.06788
0.06875
0.06875
0.06751
0.07465
0.07239
0.06731
0.06731
0.06754
0.06754
0.06866
0.07237
0.06521
0.06438
0.06465
0.06533
0.06413
0.06541
0.07529
0.07365
0.07899
0.07192
0.06941
0.07009
0.06974
0.06571
0.07221
0.07258
0.07624
0.07470
0.06811
0.06835
0.06911
0.06909
0.07258
0.07371
0.07873
0.08368
0.08570
0.07247
0.07412
0.06746
0.06812
0.07265
0.06766
0.06832
0.07246
0.07371
0.07899
0.08246
0.08323
0.07250
0.06702
0.06732
0.06833
0.06641
0.06748
0.06768

Feed
TDS (mg/l)

Cumulative
Duration (hrs)

4187
4179
4179
4155
4249
4226
4336
4336
4343
4343
4359
4336
4398
4398
4367
4414
4328
4383
4351
4375
4437
4187
4194
4218
4218
4320
4383
4304
4218
4241
4288
4296
4383
4359
4304
4375
4445
4532
4539
4437
4430
4422
4437
4430
4469
4406
4296
4375
4437
4477
4390
4390
4398
4437
4414
4422
4422
4422

916.25
918.25
920.25
922.25
924.25
925.25
927.25
929.25
931.25
933.25
935.25
937.25
939.25
940.25
942.25
944.25
946.25
948.25
950.25
951.25
953.25
955.25
956.25
958.25
960.25
962.25
964.25
966.25
968.25
969.25
971.25
973.25
975.25
977.25
979.25
981.25
983.25
985.25
987.25
989.25
991.25
993.25
995.25
997.25
999.25
1001.25
1003.25
1005.25
1007.25
1009.25
1011.25
1013.25
1015.25
1017.25
1019.25
1021.25
1023.25
1025.25

46 | P a g e

C. Water Quality Standards


Table 1. Water Quality Guidelines and Standards for Potable Water
Specifications for water quality intended for human consumption from the source and piped
water supply
Status

Ranges and upper limits

Interpretation
DETERMINANTS

(Ideal guideline)
Unit

Format

Concern

(Acceptable
Standard)

95 Percentile Requirement

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC REQUIREMENTS


Temperature

Colour

PTU

or mg/litre

Ambient temperature

10

<15

Taste

O,E

No objectionable taste

Odour

O,E

No objectionable odour

Turbidity (treated surface water)

NTU

or TU

H,I

< 0,3

< 0,5

Turbidity (groundwater)

NTU

or TU

H,I

< 0,5

<2

pH @ 20 C

pH

6.0 to 8,5

6 to 9

Electric Conductivity @ 25 C

mS/m***

H,I

< 80

< 300

Total Dissolved Solids

mg/litre

H,I

< 500

< 2 000

E.C.

INORGANIC MACRO DETERMINANTS


Ammonia

mg/litre

< 0.2

< 0.5

Calcium

mg/litre

Ca

< 80

< 150

Chloride

mg/litre

Cl

H,I

< 100

< 300

Fluoride

mg/litre

< 0.7

< 2,0

Magnesium

mg/litre

Mg

< 30

< 70

Nitrate

mg/litre

<6

< 11

Nitrite

mg/litre

NO2

< 0.2

< 0.5

Potassium

mg/litre

< 25

< 100

Sodium

mg/litre

Na

H.I

< 100

< 300

Sulphate

mg/litre

SO4

H,O

100

< 300

Asbestos (fibres longer than 10 m)

Fibres/litre

<500 000

< 1000 000

47 | P a g e

D. Sample Calculations:
The following sample data will be used to illustrate the calculation method and
equations used to determine the relevant performance parameters.
Feed

Permeate Total Hardness (mg/l) Conductivity (mS/m)

permeability Feed

Test
Total
Cumulated Temperature Pressure Flowrate Flowrate
Recovery Hardness Conductivity
Cumulative
Aw
Date
Feed Permeate Feed Permeate
CF
flux
P

TDS (mg/l)
Duration
(C)
(bar) (L/min) (L/min)
(%) Rejection Rejection (%)
(L/min.bar.m 2)
Duration (hrs)
(hours)
(%)
2/6/2010
60
24.1 10.6 12.74 4.03 2300
90 5.45 0.276 31.63 96.09
94.94 1.46 0.53 9.59 4.75
0.10891 4273
1

The percentage of water in the feed, that becomes the product water is referred to as
the recovery and is calculated using equation 1.
( )

(1)

Salt rejection may include total hardness and conductivity rejections as it pertain to salt
content. It is therefore that the following general equation applies to all rejections.
(

(
(

(2)
)

The Concentration Factor is calculated using the instantaneous recovery of the process,
as shown in equation 3.
(

(3)

Concentration Factor
P is the hydraulic pressure difference across the membrane and it is equal to,
48 | P a g e

(4)

Theoretically, the hydraulic pressure (Pfeed) needed to reverse the naturally existing
osmotic pressure of a solution can be approximated to about 0.76 bar per 1000 mg/l
TDS (El-Manharaway and Hafez, 2001). This is a typical estimation for brackish water.
If the above parameters are determined, Equation 5 can then be used to determine the
osmotic pressure of the brine. To further calculate the difference in osmotic pressure
() across the membrane and given the low concentration of dissolved solids in the
permeate, it may be safe to approximate the permeate osmotic pressure to zero
(permeate 0).
(
(

(5)

)
bar

The equation for determining product water flux (Jw) through the membrane is given by
Equation 6.
{

(6)

The pure water permeability (Aw) of the membrane is calculated using equation 4.
(
(

) {
{

}
}

(7)
(8)

49 | P a g e

E. Cost Estimations:

Epukiro Pos 3 - Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plant

Summary of Unit Costs in 2012/13


Cost Component

Amount
N$/m 3

Amount
N$/a

Cost Component

Amount
N$/m 3

Fixed Costs
Capital & interest
Energy
Personnel
Materials
Water quality
Maintenance
Overheads

6.55
0.42
5.51
0.76
0.19
0.44
11.27

540,000
34,387
454,250
62,750
15,500
36,200
929,074

Energy
Personnel
Water treatment & quality
Maintenance
HO, regional, area
Capital & interest

2.00
5.51
0.97
0.44
11.27
6.55

Total Unit Costs

26.75

Variable Costs
Energy
Water Chlorination
Total Unit Costs

Cost Component

1.58
0.03

130,615
2,084

26.75

2,205,000

Amount
N$/m 3

Capital Development Cost to be paid upfront

Amount
N$/a
4,030,000

Capital & Interest@12% to be repaid over 20years


Operations
Maintenance
Overheads

0.00
8.49
0.44
11.27

0
699,586
36,200
929,074

Total Unit Costs

20.19

1,664,860

Cost Component

Capital & interest


Operations
Maintenance

0
700,000
0

Overheads

900,000

Total Annual Costs

Cost Component
Cost of Desalinated Water @Epukiro Pos 3
Variable cost
Fixed cost
Total Unit Costs

Amount
N$/m 3
20.00
1.61
25.14
46.75

Amount
N$/a

1,600,000

Amount
N$/a
132,700
2,072,160
2,204,860

50 | P a g e

Epukiro Pos 3 - Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plant

Capital Development Cost Estimate

Description

Unit

Amount
2012/13

Civil Work s
- Installation of Plant
-Shade (for RO Plant)
- Clearing Site & Evaporation Pond Fencing
- Evaporation Ponds Construction
- Preliminary & General, 20%
- Contingencies, 10%
- Professional fees, 5%

N$
N$
N$
N$
N$
N$
N$
N$

1,550,000
100,000
500,000
129,000
410,625
227,925
113,963
68,378

Pack age Treatment Plant


- Water Treatment Package
- Preliminary & General, 12.5%
- Contingencies, 10%
- Professional supervision fees, 5%

N$
N$
N$
N$
N$

2,361,000
1,842,539
230,317
184,254
103,643

M&E Work s
- M&E work & Installations
- Piping Systems
- Bulk Power Lines, 33 kV
- Transformers, 100, 75, 50, 25 ,25kVA, 33kV-400V
- Local power distribution
- Instrumentation
- Flow meters
- Control/telemetry/voice communication.
- Preliminary & General, 10%
- Contingencies, 5%
- Professional fees, 5%

N$
N$
N$
N$
N$
N$

N$
N$
N$

121,000
50,000
50,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
10,000
5,000
5,500

Total Development Cost in 2012/13

N$

4,030,000

Total Development Cost in 2012/13

N$

4,030,000

51 | P a g e

Epukiro Pos 3 - Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plant

Estimated Volumes in 2012/13


Description

Unit

Amount

Annual sales volume to Epukiro Pos 3


Annual production losses

m3/a
%

82,440.00
28.0%

Annual production volume - total

m3/a

105,523.20

52 | P a g e