AND
DEVELOPMENT OF CALCULUS
M.D.SRINIVAS
CENTRE FOR POLICY STUDIES
mdsrinivas50@gmail.com
BACKGROUND TO THE DEVELOPMENT
OF CALCULUS (c.5001350)
Zero, infinitesimals and infinity
Background
1) The concept of pra  ntimantra of opaniad.
2) The concept of lopa in Pini, abhva in Nyya and nya in
Bauddha philosophy.
3) nya as symbol in Chanda Stra (VIII.29) of Pigala (c.300BC)
Brahmagupta (c.628) on the mathematics of zero. The notion of
taccheda.
Bhskara II (c.1150) on the notion of khahara or ananta
Zero, infinitesimals and infinity
Bhskarcrya, while discussing the mathematics of zero in Llvat, notes
that when further operations are contemplated, the quantity being
multiplied by zero should not be changed to zero, but kept as is. Further,
when the quantity which is multiplied by zero is also divided by zero, then
it remains unchanged. He follows this up with an example and declares
that this kind of calculation has great relevance in astronomy.
What is the number which when multiplied by zero, being added to half of
itself multiplied by three and divided by zero, amounts to sixtythree?
[  ]
Zero, infinitesimals and infinity
Bhskara, it seems, had not fully mastered this kind of "calculation with
infinitesimals" as is clear from some of the examples he considers in
Bjagaita, while solving quadratic equations by eliminating the middle
term (ekavaramadhyamharaa).
> ( [ ]
[{0 (x + (x/2)}
2
+ 2 {0(x + (x/2))}]/ 0 = 15.
Bhskara in his Vsan just cancels out the zeroes and obtains x = 2.
Irrationals and iterative approximations
Background
1) ulvastra approximation for squareroot of 2.
2) ulvastra approximation for .
Squareroot algorithm in ryabhaya (Gaita 4) of ryabhaa
(c.499). rdhara (c.850) on approximation of squareroots (Triatik
46).
Nryaa Paita (c.1356) on approximating squareroots by the
solutions of vargaprakti (Bjagaitvatasa 88).
Approximate value of (accurate to four decimal places) in
ryabhaya (Gaita 11). Successive approximations perhaps by
doubling of the circumscribing square, octagon etc. doubling, and
cutting of corners (explained in Yuktibh and Kriykramakar).
Secondorder differences and interpolation in computation of
Rsines
Computation of Rsinetable (accurate to minutes in a circle of
circumference 21,600 minutes) by the method of secondorder
Rsinedifferences in ryabhaya (Gtik 12, Gaita 12) of
ryabhaa (c.499).
B
j
= Rsin (jh)
j
= B
j+1
 B
j
j+1

j
=  B
j
[(
1

2
)/ B
1
]
B
j
/ B
1
Secondorder interpolation formula for finding arbitrary Rsine
values in Khaakhdyaka (c. 665) of Brahmagupta.
Rsin (jh+) = B
j
+ (/h) [(1/2)(
j
+
j+1
)(/h)(
j

j+1
)/2]
= B
j
+ (/h)(
j+1
+
j
)/2 + (/h)
2
(
j+1

j
)/2
= B
j
+ (/h)
j+1
+ (/h) ((/h)1) (
j+1

j
)/2
Summation of infinite geometric series
The geometric series 1 + 2 + ... 2
n
is summed in Pigalas
Chandastra (c.300 BCE). Pigala also gives an algorithm for
evaluating a positive integral power of a number in terms of an
optimal number of squaring and multiplication operations.
Mahvrcrya (c.850), in his Gaitasrasagraha gives the
sum of a geometric series.
Vrasena (c. 816), in his Commentary Dhaval on the
akhagama, has made use of the sum of the following
infinite geometric series in his evaluation of the volume of the
frustum of a right circular cone:
1/4 + (1/4)
2
+ ... (1/4)
n
+ .... = 1/3
Ttklikagati: Instantaneous velocity of a planet
Approximate formula for velocity (mandagati) in terms of
Rsinedifferences was given by Bhskara I (c.630) and he also
comments on its limitation (Laghubhskarya 2.1415).
True velocity (sphuamandagati) in terms of Rcosine (as the
derivative of Rsine) is given Laghumnasa (2.7) of Mujla (c.
932) and Mahsiddhnta (3.15) of ryabhaa II (c. 950).
Bhskara II (c.1150) discusses the notion of instantaneous
velocity (ttklikagati) and contrasts it with the socalled true
daily motion. He also evaluates the mandagati and ghragati
(Vsan on Siddhntairomai 2.3739).
Bhskara II notes the relation between maximum equation of
centre (correction to displacement) and the vanishing of velocity
correction (Vsan on Siddhntairomai, Gola 4.3).
Ttklikagati: Instantaneous velocity of a planet
(U u
? u
> ]
U
> u
[; . ]
" u
?
" u ?
" "
~ U~"
"
[; . ]
Surface area and volume of a sphere
In ryabhaya (Gaitapda 7), the volume of a sphere was
incorrectly estimated as the product of the area of a great circle
by its squareroot.
Bhskarcrya II (c.1150) has given the correct relation between
the diameter, the surface area and the volume of a sphere in his
Llvat.
NRYAA PAITA ON VRASAKALITA (c.1350)
ryabhaya, gives the sum of the sequence of natural numbers
1 + 2 + ... + n = n(n+1)/2
As also the result of first order repeated summation:
1.2/2 + 2.3/2 + ... + n(n+1)/2 = n(n+1)(n+2)/6
ryabhaas result for repeated summation was generalised to arbitrary
order by Nrayaa Paita (c.1350):
THE KERALA SCHOOL OF ASTRONOMY (c.13501825)
Kerala traces its ancient mathematical traditions to Vararuci. There are
speculations that ryabhaa hailed from Kerala. In the classical period,
there were many great AstronomerMathematicians in Kerala such as
Haridatta (c.650700), Devcrya (c.700), Govindasvmin (c.800),
akaranryaa (c.850) and Udayadivkara (c.1100). However it was
Mdhava of Sagamagrma (near Ernakulam) who pioneered a new
School of Astronomy and Mathematics
Mdhava (c.13401425): Vevroha, Sphuacandrpti, and a few tracts
are all that is available apart from citations in later works.
Paramevara of Vaasseri (c.13601455), a disciple of Mdhava:
Dggaita, Goladpik, and commentaries on Sryasiddhnta,
ryabhaya, Mahbhskarya, Laghubhskarya, Laghumnasa and
Llvat and Siddhntadpik on Govindasvmins commentary on
Mhabhskarya.
THE KERALA SCHOOL OF ASTRONOMY (c.13501825)
Nlakaha Somayj of Tkaiyr (c.14441555), student of Dmodara son
of Paramevara: Tantrasagraha, ryabhayabhya, Golasra,
Candracchygaita, Siddhntadarpaa, Jyotirmms and Grahasphu
nayane Vikepavsan.
Jyehadeva of Parakroa (c.1500  1610), student of Dmodara: Gaita
YuktiBh (c. 1530 in Malaylam), Dkkaraa.
Citrabhnu (c.14751550), student of Nlakaha: Karamta,
Ekaviatipranottara.
akara Vriyr of Tkuaveli (c.15001560), student of Citrabhnu:
Karaasra, commentaries Kriykramakar (c.1535) on Llvat, Yuktidpik,
Kriykalpa (in Malaylam) and Laghuvivti on Tantrasagraha.
Acyuta Pirai (c.15501621), student of Jyehadeva and teacher of
Nryana Bhatiri: Sphuanirayatantra, Karaottama, Rigolasphuanti,
Malaylam commentary on Vevroha and a few tracts.
The school continued to flourish till early nineteenth century. Some of the
important works are Karaapaddhati (c.1700?) of Putumana Somayj and
Sadratnaml of akaravarman (c.17741839).
NLAKAHA ON THE IRRATIONALITY OF
One of the main motivations of the mathematical work of the Kerala
school is paridhivysa sambandha, obtaining accurately the relation
between the circumference of a circle. ryabhaa (c.499) had given the
following approximate value for :
? z?
z [ ]
One hundred plus four multiplied by eight and added to sixtytwo
thousand: This is the approximate measure of the circumference of a circle
whose diameter is twentythousand.
Thus, according to ryabhaa, 62832/20000=3.1416
Nlakaha Somayaji in his ryabhayabhya, while discussing square
roots, explains that only the approximate value is given for as the
traditional methods for its evaluation of involve squareroots:
NLAKAHA ON THE IRRATIONALITY OF
Later, Nlakaha states that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter
of a circle cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers exactly.
?
~
...
(
(
"Why then has an approximate value been mentioned here instead of the
actual value? This is the explanation. Because the actual value cannot be
expressed. Why? Given a certain unit of measurement in which the
diameter has no fractional part, the same measure when applied to
measure the circumference will certainly have a fractional part. ...Thus
when both are measured by the same unit they cannot both without
fractional parts. Even if you go a long way (by choosing smaller and
smaller units of measure) a small fractional part will remain. The import
[of sanna] is that there will never be a situation where both are integral."
NLAKAHA ON THE SUM OF INFINITE GEOMETRIC SERIES
Vrasena (c. 816), had made use of the sum of the following infinite
geometric series
1/4+(1/4)
2
+(1/4)
n
+.=1/3
This is proved in the ryabhayabhya by Nlakaha Somayj, who
makes use of this series for deriving an approximate expression for a small
arc in terms of the corresponding chord in a circle. Nlakaha begins his
discussion of the sum of the infinite geometric series by posing the issue
as follows:
U
z ?
"The entire series of powers of 1/4 adds up to just 1/3. How is it
known that [the sum of the series] increases only up to that [limiting
value] and that it actually does increase up to that [limiting value]?"
NLAKAHA ON THE SUM OF INFINITE GEOMETRIC SERIES
Nlakaha obtains the sequence of results
1/3 = 1/4 + 1/(4.3)
1/(4.3) = 1/(4.4) + 1/(4.4.3)
1/(4.4.3) = 1/(4.4.4) + 1/(4.4.4.3)
and so on, from which he derives the general result
1/3  [1/4 + (1/4)
2
+ ... + (1/4)
n
] = (1/4
n
)(1/3)
Nlakaha then goes on to present the following crucial argument to
derive the sum of the infinite geometric series: As we sum more terms, the
difference between 1/3 and sum of powers of 1/4 (as given by the right
hand side of the above equation), becomes extremely small, but never
zero. Only when we take all the terms of the infinite series together do we
obtain the equality
1/4 + (1/4)
2
+ ... + (1/4)
n
+ ... = 1/3
Nlakaha uses the above series to prove the following relation
between the cpa (arc), jy (Rasine and ara (Rversine) for small arc:
Cpa [(1+1/3) ara
2
+ Jy
2
]
1/2
BINOMIAL SERIES EXPANSION
In obtaining the accurate relation between circumference and diameter, the
binomial series expansion plays an important role.
Given three positive numbers a, b, c, with b > c. we have the identity
Now substituting for (bc)/b on the right from the equation and iterating
we get
If we set [(bc)/c] = x, the above is the wellknown binomial series
BINOMIAL SERIES EXPANSION
The derivation of the binomial series as well as the other results that we
discuss are found in GaitaYuktiBha and Kriykramakar.
As regards the binomial series they note that there is no logical end to the
process of iterations and that one may stop after having obtained results to
the desired accuracy when the later terms will only get smaller and
smaller. They also note that the latter will happen only when (bc) < c
(which is the condition for the convergence of the binomial expansion).
SUM OF INTEGRAL POWERS OF NATURAL NUMBERS
The derivation of the Mdhava series for also involves estimating, for
large n, the value of the samaghtasakalita
S
n
(k)
=1
k
+ 2
k
+ ... n
k
Explicit formulae were given by ryabhaa for k = 1, 2 and 3.
S
n
(1)
=1+2+...n
=n(n+1)/2
S
n
(2)
=1
2
+2
2
+...+n
2
=n(n+1)(2n+1)/6
S
n
(3)
=1
3
+2
3
+...+n
3
=[1
+2+...+n]
2
=[n(n+1)/2]
2
V
n
(k)
=V
1
(k1)
+V
2
(k1)
++V
n
(k1)
n
k+1
/[(k+1)!]forlargen
MDHAVA SERIES FOR
The following verses of Mdhava are cited in Yuktibh and
Kriykramar, which also present a detailed derivation of the relation
between diameter and the circumference:
The first verse gives the Mdhava (Leibniz) series
MDHAVA SERIES FOR
Mdhava also gave the cpkaraa series (Gregory Series) giving the cpa
(arc) associated with any jy (Rsine) [It is also noted that we must ensure
that numerator < denominator in each term]:
? H u
u
U +
?
MDHAVA SERIES FOR
By using the cpkaraa series for an arc equal to onetwelfth of the
circumference (30), Mdhava gets a different series (later discovered by
Abraham Sharp) for the ratio of the circumference to the diameter:
~ u
~ H
U +
For an arc s which is onetwelfth of the diameter
END CORRECTION TERMS
The Mdhava series for the circumference of a circle (in terms of odd
numbers p = 1, 3, 5, ...)
C=4d[11/3+....+(1)
(p1)/2
1/p+...]
is an extremely slowly convergent series. In order to facilitate
computation, Mdhava has given a procedure of using endcorrection
terms (antyasaskra), of the form
In fact, the famous verses of Mdhava, which give the relation between
the circumference and diameter, also include the endcorrection term
C=4d[11/3+....+...+(1)
(p1)/2
1/p
+(1)
(p+1)/2
{(p+1)/2}/{(p+1)
2
+1}]
END CORRECTION TERMS
Mdhava has also given a finer endcorrection term
C=4d[11/3+....+...+(1)
(p1)/2
1/p
+(1)
(p+1)/2
[{(p+1)/2}
2
+1]/[{(p+1)
2
+5}{(p+1)/2}]
To Mdhava is attributed a value of accurate to eleven decimal places
which is obtained by just computing fifty terms with the above correction.
MDHAVA CONTINUED FRACTION FOR
Both Yuktibh and Kriykramar give a derivation of the end correction
terms given by Mdhava, which involve a careful estimate of the error
involved in terms of inverse powers of comparison of the odd number p.
By carrying this process further, we find that the endcorrection term 1/a
p
can be expressed as a continued fraction:
Using the above correction term for p = 1, we get what may be called the
Mdhava continued fraction for :
2/(4)=2+1
2
/2+2
2
/2+3
2
/2+...
Brouncker Continued Fraction (1656):
TRANSFORMED SERIES FOR
Adding and subtracting the endcorrection terms, we can write the
Mdhava series for in the form:
By choosing different correction terms we get different transformed series
many of which are also converge faster than the Mdhava (Leibniz) series.
If we choose what may be termed the zeroth order correction divisor,
a
p
= 2p+2, we get the series
TRANSFORMED SERIES FOR
If we choose the firstorder correction divisor given by Mdhava,
then we get the series
( U
: ~
?~
Yuktibh and Kriykramar do not discuss the transformed series when
we use the more accurate correction divisor given by Mdhava. We can
easily see that it involves the seventh powers of the odd numbers.
A HISTORY OF APPROXIMATIONS TO
Approximation to Accuracy
(Decimal
places)
Method Adopted
Rhind Papyrus  Egypt
(Prior to 2000 BCE)
256/81 = 3.1604 1 Geometrical
Babylon (2000 BCE) 25/8 = 3.125 1 Geometrical
ulva Stras (Prior to
800 BCE)
3.0883 1 Geometrical
Jaina Texts (500 BCE) (10) = 3.1623 1 Geometrical
Archimedes (250 BCE) 3 10/71 < < 3 1/7 2 Polygon doubling
(6.2
4
= 96 sides)
Ptolemy (150 CE) 3 17/120 = 3. 141666 3 Polygon doubling
(6.2
6
= 384 sides)
Lui Hui (263) 3.14159 5 Polygon doubling
(6.2
9
= 3072 sides)
Tsu ChhungChih
(480?)
355/113 = 3.1415929
3.1415927
6
7
Polygon doubling
(6.2
9
= 12288
sides)
ryabhaa (499) 62832/20000 = 3.1416 4 Polygon doubling
(4.2
8
= 1024 sides)
A HISTORY OF APPROXIMATIONS TO
Approximation to Accuracy
(Decimal
places)
Method Adopted
Mdhava (1375) 2827433388233/9.10
11
= 3.141592653592
11 Infinite series with
end corrections
Al Kashi (1430) 3.1415926535897932 16 Polygon doubling (6.2
27
sides)
Francois Viete (1579) 3.1415926536 9 Polygon doubling (6. 2
16
sides)
Romanus (1593) 3.1415926535..... 15 Polygon doubling
Ludolph Van Ceulen
(1615)
3.1415926535..... 32 Polygon doubling (2
62
sides)
Wildebrod Snell
(1621)
3.1415926535..... 34 Modified polygon doubling
(2
30
sides)
Grienberger (1630) 3.1415926535..... 39 Modified polygon doubling
Isaac Newton (1665) 3.1415926535..... 15 Infinite series
Abraham Sharp (1699) 3.1415926535..... 71 Infinite series for tan
1
(1/ 3)
John Machin (1706) 3.1415926535..... 100 Infinite series relation
/4 = 4 tan
1
(1/5)
tan
1
(1/239)
Ramanujan (1910,
1914) Gosper (1985)
17
Million
Modular Equation
Kondo, Yee (2010) 5 Trillion Modular Equation
A HISTORY OF EXACT RESULTS FOR
Mdhava (1375) /4 = 1 1/3 + 1/5 1/7 + ...
/ 12 = 1 1/3.3 +1/3
2
.5 1/3
3
.7 +...
/4 = 3/4 + 1/(3
3
3) 1/(5
3
5) + 1/(7
3
7)  ...
/16 = 1/(1
5
+4.1) 1/(3
5
+4.3) +1/(5
5
+4.5)  ...
Francois Viete (1593) 2/ = [1/2] [1/2 + 1/2(1/2)] [1/2 + 1/2(1/2+1/2(1/2))]...
(Infinite product)
John Wallis (1655) 4/ = (3/2)(3/4) (5/4)(5/6)(7/6)(7/8)... (Infinite product)
William Brouncker
(1658)
4/ = 1+ 1
2
/2+ 3
2
/2+ 5
2
/2+ ... (Continued fraction)
Isaac Newton (1665) = 3 3 /4 + 24 [1/3.8 1/5.32 1/7.128 1/9.512...]
James Gregory (1671) tan
1
(x) = 1 x/3 + x
2
/5  ...
Gottfried Leibniz
(1674)
/4 = 1 1/3 + 1/5 1/7 + ...
Abraham Sharp
(1699)
/ 12 = 1 1/3.3 +1/3
2
.5 1/3
3
.7 +...
John Machin (1706) /4 = 4 tan
1
(1/5)  tan
1
(1/239)
Ramanujan (1910, 1914)
RAMANUJANS SERIES FOR
One of Ramanujan's early papers is on the Modular equations and
approximations to . Though published later from London in 1914 (QJM
1914, 350372), it is said to embody so much of Ramanujans early Indian
work. Here is a sample of his results:
Ramanujan also notes that the last series "is extremely rapidly convergent".
Indeed in late 1980s, it blazed a new trail in the saga of computation of .
MDHAVA SERIES FOR RSINE AND RVERSINE
The jy or bhujjy of an arc of a circle is actually the half the chord
(ardhajy or jyrdha) of double the arc. In the figure below, if r is the
radius of the circle, jy (Rsine), koi or koijy (Rcosine) and ara
(Rversine) of the cpa (arc) EC = s= r, are given by:
jy(arcEC)=Rsin(s)=CD=r sin
koi(arcEC)=Rcos(s)=OD
=rcos
ara(arcEC)=Rvers(s)=ED
=rrcos
NLAKAHAS DERIVATION OF RYABHAA RELATION FOR
SECOND ORDER SINE DIFFERENCES
We consider a given arc of arclength s, which is divided into n equal arc
bits. If s = r, then the jth piajy B
j
and the corresponding koijy
K
j
, and the ara S
j
, are
B
j
=Rsin(js/n)=rsin(j/n)=rsin(js/rn) [C
j
P
j
in the Figure]
K
j
=Rcos(js/n)=rcos(j/n)=rcos(js/rn) [C
j
T
j
in the Figure]
S
j
=Rvers(js/n)=r[1cos(j/n)]=r[1cos(js/rn)][P
j
E in the Figure]
j
=B
j+1
B
j
=(/R)K
j+1/2
K
j1/2
K
j+1/2
=(S
j+1/2
S
j1/2
)=(/R)B
j
j+1
j
= (B
j+1
B
j
)(B
j
B
j1
)=(/R)
2
B
j
=(
2
1
)B
j
/B
1
With n =24, ryabhaa used the approximation: (
1
2
)1,B
1
225'
Nlakaha (Tantrasagraha): B
1
224'50",(
1
2
)/B
1
1/233'30"
akara Vriyar (Laghuvivti):B
1
224'50"22"',(
1
2
)/B
1
1/233'32"
MDHAVA SERIES FOR RSINE
~ +
 " z
Yuktibh and Yuktidpik give the derivation of this and the Rversine
series by dividing the arc s into a large number n of equal parts and using
the relations between secondorder Rsine differences (khaajyntara)
and the Rsines of arcs ns/j (piajys)
MDHAVA SERIES FOR RVERSINE
~ +
~ zU
+
 " ~
The verses giving the Rsine and Rversine series also note that the method
of obtaining accurate approximations to Rsine and Rversine values as
encoded in the mnemonics (also due to Mdhava) Vidvn etc and Stena
etc, indeed follow from these series.
NLAKAHAS FORMULA FOR INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY
(c.1500)
Instead of basing the calculation of instantaneous velocity on the
approximate form of mandacorrection, Nlakaha Somayj uses the
exact form of the manda correction
=m+Sin
1
[(r
0
/R)(1/R)Rsin(m)]
Nlakaha gives the correct formula for the correction to the mean
velocity in his treatise Tantrasagraha.
H q
z
Nlakaha gives the derivative of the second term above in the form
[{(r
0
/R)Rcos(m)}/{R
2
(r
0
/R)
2
Rsin
2
(m)}
1/2
][(d/dt)(m)]
ACYUTAS FORMULA FOR INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY (c.1600)
Acyuta Pirai in his Sphuanirayatantra gives the Nlakaha formula
for the instantaneous velocity. He also discusses an alternative prescription
for mandacorrection due to Mujla (c.932) given by
=m+[(r/R)Rsin(m)]/[R(r/R)Rcos(m)]
Acyuta notes that in this model the mandacorrection also depends on the
hypotenuse and hence the correction to the mean velocity is given by:
;
This gives the derivative of the second term above as
[{(r/R)Rcos(m)}{(r/R)Rsin(m)}
2
/{R(r/R)Rcos(m)}]
x [1/{R(r/R)Rcos(m)}] [(d/dt) (m)]
REFERENCES
1. Gaitayuktibh (c.1530) of Jyehadeva (in Malayalam):
Gaitdhyya, Ed., with Notes in Malayalam, by Ramavarma
Thampuran and A. R. Akhileswara Aiyer, Trichur 1948. Ed. with Tr. by
K.V.Sarma with Explanatory Notes by K Ramasubramanian, M D
Srinivas and M.S.Sriram, 2 Volumes, Hindustan Book Agency, Delhi
2008.
2. Kriykramakar (c.1535) of akara Vriyar on Llvat of
Bhskarcrya II: Ed. by K.V. Sarma, Hoshiarpur 1975.
3. K.V.Sarma, A History of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy,
Hoshiarpur (1972)
4. S. Parameswaran, The Golden Age of Indian Mathematics, Swadeshi
Science Movement, Kochi 1998.
5. C.K.Raju, Cultural Foundations of Mathematics: The Nature of
Mathematical Proof and the Transmission of the Calculus from India to
Europe in the 16
th
c.CE, Pearson Education, Delhi 2007.
6. G.G.Joseph, A Passage to Infinity, Sage, Delhi (2009)
7. K.Ramasubramanian and M.D.Srinivas, Development of Calculus in
India, in C.S.Seshadri (ed) , Studies in History of Indian Mathematics,
Hindustan Book Agency, Delhi (2010), pp.201286.
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