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Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors


Piezo Step Motors, Ultrasonic Motors, Servo Motors & Flexure Actuators

Piezo Nano Positioning

Piezoelectric & Motorized Drive Solutions


Actuators for Automation and High-Precision Motion Control
PI is the leading manufacturer of piezo ceramic actuators for nanopositioning and micropositioning applications in indusDifferent Types of Linear Actuators
Max. Travel Range PiezoWalk Actuators p. 1-3 ff

tries such as: Semiconductors; Biotechnology and Medicine; Lasers, Optics, Microscopy; Aerospace Engineering; Preci-

sion Machining; Astronomy and Microsystems Technology.

Max. Push/Pull Force 600 N

Max. Velocity 15 mm/s

Drive Type NEXLINE or NEXACT

Special Features Non magnetic, UHV compatible drive principle, self-locking at rest

20 mm for integrated drive, basically unlimited

Ultrasonic Linear Actuators / Motors p. 1-23 ff

150 mm for integrated drive, basically unlimited

30 N

0.6 m/s

PILine motors

Non magnetic, UHV compatible drive principle, self-locking at rest

Motorized Actuators p. 1-39 ff

50 mm

400 N

30 mm/s

Stepper or DC servo motors

Manual versions available, piezo-tip option for nanometer resolution

Preloaded / FlexureAmplified Actuators p. 1-61 ff

500 m

30,000 N (push force), 3500 N (pull force)

<millisecond response time

PICMA multilayer or PICA stack actuators

Non magnetic, UHV compatible drive principle

Unpacked Piezo Actuators p. 1-82 ff


Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

180 m

100,000 N (push force only)

<millisecond response time

PICMA multilayer or PICA stack actuators

Non magnetic, UHV compatible drive principle

All linear drives and motors are intended for integration into a customers system and feature no guidance. If off-axis motion cannot be tolerated external guidance is required.

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Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors

PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators

Piezo Nano Positioning

Selection Guide: PiezoWalk Actuators


Piezo Linear Motor Solutions: Actuators to 6-Axis Stages
PiezoWalk non-resonant piezo stepping motors can provide much higher resolution (to Picometers) and forces (to 600 N) than other types of piezo motors.
Models N-111 N-214, N-215 N-310 N-380 N-661 N-510 N-515KNPH N-510KHFS Description NEXLINE PiezoWalk nanopositioning motor, subnanometer resolution. High force NEXLINE nanopositioning motor, subnanometer resolution, closed-loop option. NEXACT ultra-compact nanopositioning motor, subnanometer resolution. NEXACT compact nanopositioning actuator NEXACT miniature linear slide, subnanometer resolution Tripod Z-Tip/Tilt nanopositioning platform with NEXLINE piezo motor actuators Nonmagnetic 6-axis piezo Hexapod precision positioning system with NEXLINE piezo motor actuators Tripod Z-Tip/Tilt nanopositioning platform with additional fine positioning

They generate motion through succession of coordinated clamp/unclamp of several actuators. PI offers two basic types: the high-force NEXLINE drives

(higher forces, lower speed) and the ultra-compact NEXACT motors (higher speed, lower force). All linear drives and motors are intended for integra-

tion into a customers system and feature no guidance. If offaxis motion cannot be tolerated external guidance is required.

Travel [mm] 5 20 20 20 20 1.3, 10 mrad to 10 mm / 6 0.4 plus 40 m

Push/Pull Force [N] 80 to 600 10 10 10 200 500 25

Page 1-8 1-10 1-12 1-14 1-16 1-17 1-17 1-17

Controllers for PiezoWalk Actuators


Models E-755 E-861 Description Piezo controller for NEXLINE linear motors and positioners Networkable controller for NEXACT linear motors and positioners Channels 1 1 Voltage [V] 250 -10 to +45 Power [W] 15 40 Interface RS-232 USB, RS-232 Page 1-18 1-20

N-310 NEXACT compact nanopositioning motor, sub-nm resolution

N-380 NEXACT compact nanopositioning actuator

N-111 NEXLINE PiezoWalk motor, sub-nm resolution

N-214, N-215 NEXLINE high-load motor

N-661 NEXACT miniature slide

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

N-510 Tripod Z-tip/tilt nanopositioning platform

N-515KNPH: non-magnetic 6-axis Hexapod

N-510KHFS high-load Z/tip/tilt E-755 NEXLINE piezo motor NEXLINE stage controller

E-861 NEXACT piezo motor controller

More ceramic actuators: See p. 1-23 ff & 1-61 ff Classical motorized linear actuators: See p. 1-39 ff Notes on specifications see p. 1-22

1-4

Piezo Nano Positioning

PiezoWalk Precision Drives


Millimeter Travel, Nanometer Resolution, High Forces
PiezoWalk drives break away from the limitations of conventional Nanopositioning actuators. They offer a basically unlimited travel range and still provide the characteristic features of a piezoelectric actuator: an open-loop resolution down to 30 picometers and a very high stiffness for dynamic operation and force generation. PI offers two product lines based on different versions of the PiezoWalk principle: NEXLINE and NEXACT. Both provide specific advantages depending on the application. PiezoWalk piezo stepping drives usually consist of several individual piezo actuators and generate motion through succession of coordinated clamp / unclamp and shearmotion cycles (steps). Each cycle provides only a few microns of motion, but running at hundreds of hertz, the drive achieves continuous motion in the mm/second range. The PiezoWalk working principle provides high force capabilities, resolution and repeatability. These properties are typi

cally better for piezo stepping actuators compared to inertia drives or ultrasonic motors. The operation is possible in two different modes: a highresolution, high dynamics analog mode within a single step, and a step mode with virtually unlimited travel range.

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning
50 picometer steps with a NEXLINE drive, measured with external ultrahigh-resolution capacitive sensor. This performance provides a big safety margin for next generation nanotechnology applications

Index

Custom PiezoWalk linear actuator

Features and Advantages of PiezoWalk Drives

PiezoWalk drives are available for non-magnetic applications such as super-conductivity experiments. They do not create magnetic fields nor are they influenced by them. The active parts in PiezoWalk drives are made of vacuum-compatible ceramics. The drives also work in UV-light environments. NEXLINE drives can survive shock loads of several g during transportation. PiezoWalk drives are available in three levels of integration to provide flexibility for OEMs: OEM drives, packaged actuators and integrated into complex positioning systems such as multi-axis translation stages or 6-DOF Hexapods.

Very high resolution, limited


typically only by the sensor. In fine-adjustment, analog mode, resolution of 30 picometers has been demonstrated. High force generation and stiffness. NEXLINE drives can hold and generate forces to 600 N, NEXACT to 15 N. PiezoWalk drives hold a stable position to nanometer level in power-off mode. Due to the actuator design, the maximum clamping force is applied at rest. Because a position can be held with zero operating voltage, leakage currents cannot affect the integrity of the piezo drive.

6-axis parallel-kinematic nanopositioning system (Hexapod) with N-215 based NEXLINE high-load actuators for use in strong magnetic fields

NEXLINE linear actuator principle

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Piezo Nano Positioning

NEXLINE High-Force Drives for Nanopositioning NEXLINE systems are based on very rugged, high-efficiency shear and clamping actuators and incorporate a preloading mechanism to provide pushing and holding forces up to 600 N with high lifetime. The rigid design with resonant frequencies of hundreds of hertz allows the construction of very stiff structures and helps to suppress vibration. The analog operating mode can be used for dithering and active vibration cancellation.

N-215 high-load NEXLINE linear drive provides holding forces to 600 N and 20 mm travel

Compact NEXACT Drives for Moderate Forces NEXACT drives use bending actuators which combine the feed forward and the clamping cycles. They provide push/pull forces to 15 N with maximum velocities of more than 10 mm/s at low operating voltages of 40 V. The compact and cost-effective NEXACT drives are available with various drive electronics, ranging from costeffective OEM drives for openloop operation in stepping mode to the sophisticated E-861 servo-controller for highresolution, closed-loop linear translation stages.

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

N-310 actuartor with E-861 servo-controller (integrated drive electronics)

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Piezo Nano Positioning

Typical Applications for PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators


Semiconductor Technology Nanoalignment Systems with Long Travel Ranges Nanoimprint CD Testing Mask and Wafer Alignment Objective Precision Positioning Lithography Optics Testing Biotechnology, Life Science, Medical Design, Medical Technology Flow Cytometry Cell Sorting Electrophysiology, Patch Clamp Intra-Cell Metrology Cell Penetration Microdosing Handling OCT, WLI Diagnostics Dermatology Ophthalmology Nanotechnology, Nanofabrication, NanoAutomation Nanoimprint Nanoassembly Nanofabrication Nanojoining Nanomechanics Nanomaterials Testing Microgrippers, Manipulators Aeronautics, Image Processing, Cryogenic & Vacuum Environments Microwave Antenna Precision Alignment Precision Linear Actuators Beamline Experiments Angular Alignment Sample Positioning
Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

1-7

Piezo Nano Positioning

N-111 NEXLINE OEM Linear Motor/Actuator


PiezoWalk Drive for Long-Range Nanopositioning
all be optimized for a particular application. NEXLINE PiezoWalk Piezoceramic clamping and shear elements act directly on a moving runner that is coupled to the moved object. While the runner can be moved larger distances in step mode, analog operation over a distance of less than one step enables high-dynamics positioning with resolutions far below one nanometer. The patented PiezoWalk overcomes the limitations of conventional nanopositioning actuators and combines long travel ranges with high resolution and stiffness.

Ordering Information
N-111.30 NEXLINE OEM Nanopositioning Drive, 5 mm, 40 N N-111.3A NEXLINE OEM Nanopositioning Drive, 5 mm, 40 N, Closed-Loop, 5 nm Resolution Ask about custom designs

Self-locking when powered Zero backlash, no wear or


maintenance, no mechanical components like gears or leadscrews. Non-magnetic and vacuum compatible operating principle NEXLINE Actuators are Distinguished by a Number of Unique Outstanding Features: down; no holding current

N-111 compact high-load OEM nanopositioning actuator

5 mm Travel 0.025 nm Open-Loop Resolution and 5 nm Closed-Loop


Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Resolution To 40 N Pull / Push Force and 60 N Holding Force Self Locking at Rest, no Heat Generation Non-Magnetic and Vacuum-Compatible Working Principle The innovative N-111 NEXLINE OEM drives are compact actuators for nanopositioning with travel ranges to 5 mm, high resolution, and generated forces to 40 N. Two versions are available, the N-111.3A closed-loop model and N-111.30 open-loop model. Both can be operated with the sophisticated E-755 NEXLINE motion controller. The N-111.3A is equipped with a 5 nm resolution linear encoder for long-range position control. Due to its low-noise, 24 bit D/A converters, the E-755 controller can provide picometer level resolution in the highly-dynamic short-range / dithering mode. NEXLINE Working Principle for Application Flexibility NEXLINE PiezoWalk drives can be used wherever high loads must be positioned very precisely over long distances and then perhaps subjected to small-amplitude dynamic adjustment, as for active vibration control. By varying the combination of longitudinal and shear piezo elements, the step size, dynamic operating range (analog travel), clamping force, speed and stiffness can

Advantages of PiezoWalk Piezo Stepping Drives NEXLINE and NEXACT drives offer several advantages over traditional drive technologies:

Resolution in the picometer Compact dimensions High drive forces from ten
newtons (NEXACT) up to several hundred newtons (NEXLINE) High dynamic performance with sub-microsecond response range

Cleanroom compatibility Vacuum compatibility Operation under conditions,


which prohibit usage of magnetic drives Notes The products described in this document are in part protected by the following patents: German Patent No. 10148267 US Patent No. 6,800,984

Application Examples

Semiconductor technology Semiconductor testing Wafer inspection Nano lithography Nano imprint Nanometrology Active vibration damping Motion in strong magnetic fields

Z / tip / tilt platform with NEXLINE drives and position sensors; 300 mm (12) diameter, 200 N load capacity, 1.3 mm travel range, 10 mrad tilt range

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Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors


5,5

PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors


64

DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components


57,8 6 82
1

Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators


M3 8 g6

6,5 3,4 3,4

Technical Data
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Step size (in step mode) Integrated sensor Sensor resolution Analog mode travel range Open-loop resolution Closed-loop resolution Step frequency Open-loop velocity** Closed-loop velocity** Mechanical properties Stiffness in motion direction Push / Pull force (active) Holding force (passive) Drive properties Drive type Operating voltage Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Cable length Connector Recommended controller / driver N-111.30 X 5 mm 10 nm to 5 m 2.5 m 0.025 nm 100 Hz* 0.2 mm/s 15 N/m 40 N 60 N NEXLINE linear drive 250 V -40 to 80 C Al (anodized), steel 115 g 1.5 m Sub-D NEXLINE connector, single-channel E-755.101 (see p. 1-18) N-111.3A X 5 mm 10 nm to 5 m Linear encoder 5 nm 2.5 m 0.025 nm 5 nm 100 Hz* 0.2 mm/s 0.1 mm/s 15 N/m 40 N 60 N NEXLINE linear drive 250 V -40 to 80 C Al (anodized), steel 135 g 1.5 m Sub-D NEXLINE connector, single-channel; sensor connector E-755.1A1 (see p. 1-18) 5 % 10 mm 20 % Max. Min. Max. Typ. Tolerance

*Depends on control electronics **Depends on control electronics. The maximum speed in step mode is set so as to ensure the highest possible velocity constancy, with no speed fluctuations while steps are being performed.

4 30 2,5x45 8 61
2 3

Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology
72
4

Micropositioning

Index
38 46

N-111 dimensions in mm

1-9

Piezo Nano Positioning

N-214, N-215 NEXLINE Linear Motor/Actuator


High-Force PiezoWalk Drive for Long-Range Nanopositioning
justment, as for active vibration control. By varying the combination of longitudinal and shear piezo elements, the step size, dynamic operating range (analog travel), clamping force, speed and stiffness can all be optimized for a particular application. NEXLINE PiezoWalk Piezoceramic clamping and shear elements act directly on a moving runner that is coupled to the moved object. While the runner can be moved larger distances in step mode, analog operation over a distance of less than one step enables high-dynamics positioning with resolutions far below one nanometer. The patented PiezoWalk overcomes the limitations of conventional nanopositioning actuators and combines long travel ranges with high resolution and stiffness. High-Resolution Dynamic Operation In analog mode the motion is effectuated exclusively by the very stiff shear elements, providing a resonant frequency in the direction of motion of several kilohertz. The motion resolution here is limited only by the stability of the drive electronics, or, in closed-loop operation, by the sensor. Basically Unlimited Travel Range Step mode involves a sequence of coordinated shear and
Ordering Information
N-214.00 NEXLINE High-Load Actuator, 20 mm, 200 N, linear encoder, 5 nm resolution N-215.00 NEXLINE High-Load Actuator, 20 mm, 400 N, open-loop

N-215 NEXLINE high-load actuator

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

20 mm Travel Range 0.03 nm Resolution Open-Loop and 5 nm Closed-Loop To 400 N Push / Pull Force and 600 N Holding Force Self Locking when Power down, No Heat Generation Non-Magnetic and Vacuum-Compatible Working Principle

clamping moves. That is why piezo stepping drives have no intrinsic travel limitation and can be used flexibly. The max. step frequency of 100 Hz and is determined by the controller. It allows velocities up to 1 mm/s, depending on the step size and / or analog range. Unlimited Lifetime The application area of NEXLINE drives often lies in the difficult-to-access internals of machines, where nanometerrealm adjustment and vibration cancellation are required. Long lifetime is therefore a basic requirement for NEXLINE actuators. To promote long lifetime, the controller can reduce the operating voltage on all the piezo elements to zero at any position and still maintain the full holding force. Note The products described in this document are in part protected by the following patents: German Patent No. 10148267 US Patent No. 6,800,984

The innovative N-214 / N-215 NEXLINE OEM linear drives are ultra-precision nanopositioning actuators with travel ranges to 20 mm and push / pull forces to 400 N. The novel, patented NEXLINE PiezoWalk drive design combines long travel ranges with high mechanical stiffness and piezoclass resolution of better than 0.1 nm.

PiezoWalk supports two different motion modes: a high-resolution, high-dynamics short range (analog) mode and a stepping mode with virtually unlimited travel range. Two versions are available, the N-214 closed-loop model and N-215 open-loop model. Both can be operated with the sophisticated E-755 NEXLINE motion controller. The N-214 is equipped with a 5 nm resolution linear encoder for longrange position control. Due to its low-noise, 24 bit D/A conver ters, the E-755 controller can provide picometer level resolution in the highly-dynamic short-range / dithering mode. NEXLINE Working Principle for Application Flexibility NEXLINE PiezoWalk drives can be used wherever high loads must be positioned very precisely over long distances and then perhaps subjected to small-amplitude dynamic ad-

Application example

Semiconductor technology Semiconductor testing Wafer inspection Nano lithography Nano imprint Nanometrology Active vibration damping Motion in strong magnetic fields

Train of 1 nm steps in open-loop analog mode with an N-215 NEXLINE actuator

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Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors

PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..
NEXLINE linear actuator principle

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics
Six-axis parallel-kinematics Hexapod with N-215-based NEXLINE high-load actuators for use in strong magnetic fields.

Nanometrology

Model Active Axes Motion and positioning Travel range Step size in stepping mode Integrated sensor Sensor resolution Travel range in analog mode Open-loop resolution Closed-loop resolution Step frequency Open-loop velocity** Closed-loop velocity** Mechanical properties Stiffness in motion direction Drive force (active) Holding force (passive) Drive properties Drive type Operating voltage Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Cable length Connector

N-214.00 X 20 mm 10 nm to 6 m Linear encoder 5 nm 3 m 0.03 nm 5 nm 100 Hz* 0.3 mm/s 0.15 mm/s 75 N/m 200 N 300 N NEXLINE linear drive 250 V -40 to 80 C Al (anodized), steel 1050 g 4.0 m D-sub single-channel NEXLINE connector, plus separate sensor connector E-755.1A1 (see p. 1-18)

N-215.00 X

Micropositioning

Index 20 mm 10 nm to 6 m 3 m 0.03 nm 100 Hz* 0.3 mm/s 150 N/m 400 N 600 N NEXLINE linear drive 250 V -40 to 80 C Al (anodized), steel 1150 g 2.0 m D-sub single-channel NEXLINE connector E-755.101 (see p. 1-18)

Recommended controller / driver

*Depends on control electronics **Depends on control electronics. The maximum speed in step mode is set so as to ensure the highest possible velocity constancy, with no speed fluctuations while steps are being performed.

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Piezo Nano Positioning

N-310 NEXACT OEM Miniature Linear Motor/Actuator


Compact, High-Speed PiezoWalk Drive
Self-locking when powered
down; no holding current Zero backlash, no wear or maintenance, no mechanical components like gears or leadscrews. Non-Magnetic and Vacuum Compatible Operating Principle Working Principle for Application Flexibility NEXACT PiezoWalk technology overcomes the limitations of conventional nanopositioning drives and combines virtually unlimited travel ranges with high stiffness in a very small package. Furthermore, NEXACT actuators provide piezo-class resolution (far below one nanometer) and millisecond responsiveness. The special drive design reduces the operating voltage to 45 V and below. In operation, piezoceramic bending elements act on the runner, which is connected to the moving part of the application. The length of the runner determines the travel range. Force capacity, resolution and velocity are determined by the piezo geometry and drive electronics and are scalable. To move the runner over longer distances the stepping mode is used, whereas for distances smaller than one step, the linear (analog) mode enables high-dynamics positioning with resolutions far below one nanometer. Wear- and Maintenance-Free In contrast to ordinary DC or stepper motor drives, the PiezoWalk drives effect linear motion directly, without the need to transform rotation with mechanical elements such as gears, leadscrews and nuts. Therefore, mechanical limitations such as backlash and wear are eliminated and the drive is maintenance-free. Self-Locking PiezoWalk Piezo Stepping Drive NEXLINE and NEXACT exhibit high stiffness and are selflocking even when powered down due to the clamping action of the piezo actuators in the mechanics. This entails nanometer position stability at rest, with no heat dissipation or servo-dither. Controller and Drive Electronics Optimized for the Application NEXACT actuators require special drive electronics to control the complex stepping sequences. The E-860 series NEXACT controllers are a vailable in different open-and closed-loop versions. For example, the E-861 includes a complete NEXACT servo-controller with low-noise, 24-bit drivers and a powerful DSP. It also comes with ample software for easy integration and highly effective computer control. For applications which do not require the highest resolution lower-priced drive electronics, ranging all the way to OEM boards, can be ordered. The products described in this document are in part protected by the following patents: German Patent No. P4408618.0
Ordering Information
N-310.01 NEXACT OEM linear drive, 20 mm, 10 N Ask about custom designs

N-310 Actuator with E-861 Servo-Controller (integrated drive electronics)

20 mm Standard Travel Range, Flexible Choice of the


Runner Length Compact and Cost-Effective Design 0.03 nm Resolution** To 10 N Push/Pull Force Low Operating Voltage Self Locking at Rest, No Head Dissipation, Nanometer Stability Non-Magnetic and Vacuum-Compatible Working Principle

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

N-310 NEXACT PiezoWalk linear drives feature travel ranges of 20 mm and push/pull force capacities to 10 N in a compact package of only 25 x 25 x 12 mm. With their high resolution, NEXACT drives, are ideal for high-precision positioning over long travel ranges.
Application Examples

The N-310 can be operated in open-loop and closed-loop mode (with the addition of an external position sensor). A variety of NEXACT controllers facilitates the integration into microor nanopositioning applications. Advantages of PiezoWalk Piezo Stepping Drives NEXLINE and NEXACT drives offer several advantages over traditional drive technologies: Resolution in the picometer range Compact dimensions High drive forces from ten newtons (NEXACT) up to several hundred newtons (NEXLINE) High-dynamics performance with sub-microsecond response

Semiconductor technology Wafer inspection Nano lithography Surface Measurement Technique Profilometry Microscopy Motion in strong magnetic fields

1-12

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors

3 6,1M

PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

5,71 3

Technical Data
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Step size (in step mode) Travel range in analog operation Open-loop resolution Step frequency Max. speed Mechanical properties Push/Pull force (active) Drive properties Drive type Operating voltage Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Body material Mass Cable length Connector Recommended controller/driver N-310.01 X 20 mm 5 nm to 5 m 7 m 0.03 nm** 1.5 kHz* 10 mm/s* 10 N NEXACT linear drive -10 V to +45 V 0 to 50 C Stainless steel, non-magnetic 50 g 1.5 m HD Sub-D connector 15 pin, single channel E-860-series (see p. 1-20) 5 % 10 mm max. typ. max. max. max. Tolerance

*Depending on the control electronics. **Depending on the drive electronics. 5 nm with E-861.

21 6 8,5 60 25 18,5 52,0 4 2,7 5 52

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics
Translation stage with N-310 NEXACT drive. The positioner offers 20 mm travel range with an encoder resolution of 25 nm

N-310.01 Actuator, dimensions in mm

54,5 61

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

1-13

Piezo Nano Positioning

N-380, N-381 NEXACT Linear Actuator, Manipulator, Piezo Stepper


High-Resolution PiezoWalk Linear Actuator with Optional Position Sensor
sion applications where the absolute position is not important or is controlled by an external loop (video, laser, quadcell, etc.). Piezo Stepping Drivethe Multi-Functional Piezo Linear Motor A great advantage characteristic of the NEXACT piezo stepping drive is its dual-mode operating principle combining the best features of other piezo motor designs, such as high resolution, high force and high speed into one compact unit. At the target position the drive requires no current and generates no heat while providing long-term, nanometer stability. This autolocking feature also completely eliminates servoOrdering Information
N-380 Open-Loop NEXACT Linear Actuator, 30 mm N-381 Closed-Loop NEXACT Linear Actuator, 30 mm, 20 nm Encoder Resolution Available on request Ask about custom designs!

N-381 piezo stepper linear actuator for sample positioning and manipulation provides long travel, high speed and very high resolution

Travel Range 30 mm Novel, Zero-Wear Piezo Stepping Drive, Ideal for Micro- and
Nano-Manipulation

Integrated Linear Encoder Option for Highest Accuracy with


Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

jitter as it occurs with other closed-loop motors. Since motion is not based on dynamic friction as with piezo inertial drives (stick-slip-motors) but solely caused by the nanometer precise motion of clamped piezo actuators, there is no wear to limit the lifetime. When operated in closed-loop, excellent velocity control is achieved.

20 nm Resolution

Very High Acceleration, e.g. for Cell Penetration Two Operating Modes: Continuous Stepping Mode and
Continuously Variable, High-Dynamics Analog Mode for 30 pm Resolution** Up to 10 N Force Generation Self Locking at Rest, no Heat Generation Smooth Motion, no Closed-Loop Jitter Vacuum-Compatible and Non-Magnetic Versions 10 mm/s and forces up to 10 N enable high-dynamics and throughput for automation tasks. The PiezoWalk drive principle allows long travel ranges and fast oscillations of 7 m amplitude with frequencies up to several 100 Hz. This analog mode can be used to provide rapid acceleration, e.g. in cell penetration applications, or smooth motion for dynamic laser tuning or even for active damping of oscillations. Two models are available, both very compact, measuring only 122 mm in length: The N-381 model is equipped with a highresolution position sensor, allowing sub-micrometer re peatability in closed-loop operation. The N-380 open-loop version is intended for high preci-

The compact N-380/N-381 linear actuators are ideal drives and micro manipulators e.g. for biotechnology and nanotechnology applications. Rapid accelerations, velocities of

Application Examples

Drive unit for scanning stage Cell manipulation, biohandling Micromanipulation Life science Photonics Laser tuning Motion in strong magnetic fields

N-380/N-381 dimensions in mm

1-14

Piezo Nano Positioning

Working Principle for Application Flexibility NEXACT PiezoWalk technology overcomes the limitations of conventional nanopositioning drives and combines virtually unlimited travel ranges with high stiffness in a very small package. Furthermore, NEXACT actuators provide piezo-class resolution (far below one nanometer) and millisecond responsiveness. The special drive design reduces the operating voltage to 45 V and below. In operation, piezoceramic bending elements act on the runner, which is connected to the moving part of the application. The length of the runner determines the travel range and can be chosen as required. Force capacity, resolution and
Technical Data (Preliminary)
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Step size (in step mode) Integrated sensor Sensor resolution Travel range in analog mode Open-loop resolution Closed-loop resolution Step frequency Max. velocity Mechanical properties Stiffness in motion direction Max. push / pull force (active) Max. holding force (passive) Lateral force Drive properties Drive type Operating voltage Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Cable length Connector Recommended controller/driver

velocity are determined by the piezo geometry and drive electronics and are scalable. To move the runner over longer distances the stepping mode is used, whereas for distances smaller than one step, the linear (analog) mode enables high-dynamics positioning with resolutions far below one nanometer. Controllers and Drivers Optimized for the Application NEXACT actuators require special drive electronics to control the complex stepping sequences. The E-860 series NEXACT controllers are available in different open-and closed-loop versions. For example, the E-861 includes a complete NEXACT servo-controller with low-noise drivers and a powerful DSP. It also

comes with ample software for easy integration and highly effective computer control. For applications which do not require the highest resolution lower-priced drive electronics, ranging all the way to OEM boards, can be ordered. The products described in this document are in part protected by the following patents: German Patent No. P4408618.0

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

N-380 Open-Loop X 30 mm To 5 m 7 m 0.03 nm** 1.5 kHz 10 mm/s* 2.4 N/m 10 N 15 N 10 N NEXACT linear drive -10 V to +45 V 0 to 50 C Stainless steel 250 g 1.5 m 15-pin sub-HDD connector, one channel E-860 series (see p. 1-20)

N-381 Closed-Loop X 30 mm To 5 m Incremental linear encoder 20 nm* 7 m 0.03 nm** 20 nm* 1.5 kHz 10 mm/s* 2.4 N/m 10 N 15 N 10 N NEXACT linear drive -10 V to +45 V 0 to 50 C Stainless steel 255 g 1.5 m 15-pin sub-HDD connector, one channel E-861.1A1 (see p. 1-20)

*With E-861. Depending on drive electronics. **Depending on the drive electronics.

1-15

Piezo Nano Positioning

N-661 Miniature Linear Stage with NEXACT Drive


PiezoWalk Drive Provides Nanometer Precision and Smooth Motion
The compact N-661 nanopositioning stage is based on the NEXACT PiezoWalk drive. This dual-mode, high-performance piezo stepping linear motor can provide sub-nanometer resolution and high force, along with very rapid response. When run in its analog mode, fast oscillations with amplitudes up to 7 microns and resolutions down to 30 pm can be achieved. This mode is of great value in highthroughput applications as well as in dynamic laser tuning, cell penetration applications, or even for active vibration damping. The stage is equipped with a precision guiding system and an optical linear encoder to enable highly repeatable positioning.
Technical Data (Preliminary)
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Step size in stepping mode (open-loop) Integrated sensor Sensor resolution Travel range in analog mode Open-loop resolution Closed-loop resolution Bidirectional repeatability Pitch Yaw Step frequency Max. velocity Mechanical properties Stiffness in motion direction Max. load capacity Max. push / pull force (active) Max. holding force (passive) Lateral Force Drive properties Drive type Operating voltage Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Cable length Connector Recommended controller/driver
Dimensions of N-661

Ordering Information
N-661 Miniature NEXACT Translation Stage, 20 mm, Linear Encoder, 20 nm Resolution Available on request Ask about custom designs

Application Examples

Life science Photonics Laser tuning Motion in strong magnetic fields

The N-661 miniature linear stage integrates a PiezoWalk NEXACT linear motor combined with a high-resolution linear encoder. It provides 20 mm travel and resolution down to the nanometer range.


Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Travel Range 20 mm Self Locking at Rest, no Heat Generation, no Servo Dither Compact Design: 70 x 50 x 20 mm Zero-Wear Piezo Stepping Drive, Ideal for Micro- and NanoManipulation Integrated Linear Encoder Option for Highest Accuracy with 20 nm Resolution Two Operating Modes: Continuous Stepping Mode and Continuously Variable, High-Dynamics Analog Mode for 30 pm Resolution** Up to 10 N Force Generation

The products described in this document are in part protected by the following patents: German Patent No. P4408618.0
N-661 X 20 mm To 5 m Linear encoder 20 nm* 7 m 0.03 nm** 20 nm* 40 nm 50 rad 50 rad 1.5 kHz 10 mm/s* 2.4 N/m 20 N 10 N 15 N 50 N NEXACT linear drive -10 to +45 V 0 to 50 C Aluminum 150 g 1.5 m 15-pin sub-HDD connector, one channel E-861.1A1 Controller for NEXACT Linear Drives and Positioners (see p. 1-20)

*With E-861. Depending on drive electronics. **Depending on the drive electronics.

1-16

Piezo Nano Positioning

N-515K Non-Magnetic Piezo Hexapod


6-Axis Precision Positioning System with NEXLINE Linear Drives

Travel Ranges 10 mm Linear, 6 Rotation Large Clear Aperture 202 mm Non-Magnetic Nanometer Resolution Low-Profile: 140 mm Height Only Parallel Kinematics for Enhanced Dynamics and Better Multi-Axis Accuracy Up to 500 N Force Generation Self Locking at Rest, No Heat Generation
6-axis parallel kinematics (Hexapod) with integrated N-215 NEXLINE high-load actuators, suitable for applications in strong magnetic fields Model N-515KNPH NEXLINE Piezo Hexapod Travel Range X, Y, Z: 10 mm X, Y, Z: 6 Load capacity 50 kg Dimensions Outer baseplate, 380 mm moved platform (top) 300 mm 140 mm height

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

N-510 High-Force NEXLINE Z/Tip/Tilt Platform

Micropositioning

Nanometer Precision for Semiconductor Industry, Wafer Alignment


Self Locking at Rest, No Heat Generation Vacuum Compatible and Non-Magnetic Designs Feasible Parallel Kinematics for Enhanced Dynamics and
Better Multi-Axis Accuracy
Index

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

NEXLINE Piezo Walking Drive Free from Wear and Tear Load Capacity 200 N High Precision with Integrated 5 nm Incremental Sensors +
Picometer Resolution Dithering Mode

Model Z, tip, tilt nanopositioning platform with 3 integrated drives (tripod design) N-510 NEXLINE Z, tip, tilt platform

Travel 1,3 mm vertical range 10 mrad tilt angle

Load capacity 200 N

Linear velocity 0.2 mm/s

Dimensions 300 mm (12) clear aperture 250 mm

N-510K High-Stiffness NEXLINE Z Stage


High-Precision Positioning, with Capacitive Sensors

Self Locking at Rest, No Heat Generation Hybrid Drive: PiezoWalk plus PICMA Travel Range: 400 m Coarse + 40 m Fine 2 nm Closed-Loop Resolution Direct Metrology: One Single Control Loop with Capacitive Sensors High Push and Holding Force to 25 N Piezo Walking Drive w/o Wear and Tear & Outstanding Lifetime due to PICMA Piezo Actuators
The N-510KHFS hybrid-drive nanopositioner offers maximum accuracy for semiconductor inspection applications
Model

Vertical travel

Velocity

Bidirectional repeatability 50 nm (full travel)

Load capacity 25 N

Dimensions 300 mm 68.5 mm height

N-510KHFS 400 m coarse 1 mm/sec Hybrid40 m fine Focus System

1-17

Piezo Nano Positioning

E-755 Digital NEXLINE Controller


Controller for Picometer-Precision PiezoWalk Linear Actuators / Positioners
The sensors supported may provide better than nanometer resolution. A power-down routine in the E-755 firmware saves the current position, allowing a closed-loop system to be ready for operation without referencing next time it is powered up. NEXLINE Working Principle for Application Flexibility NEXLINE PiezoWalk drives are ideal wherever high loads must be positioned very precisely over long distances and then perhaps subjected to small-amplitude dynamic adjustment, as for active vibration control. By varying the characteristics of the longitudinal and shear piezo elements, the step size, dynamic operating range (analog travel), clamping force, speed and stiffness can all be optimized for a particular application. NEXLINE PiezoWalk piezoceramic clamping and shearing elements act directly on a moving runner that is coupled to the moved part in the application. While the runner
Ordering Information
E-755.1A1 Digital Controller for NEXLINE Nanopositioning Linear Drives, Incremental Sensors E-755.101 Digital Controller for NEXLINE Nanopositioning Linear Drives

E-755 digital NEXLINE controller with N-214 nanopositioner, 20 mm travel range.

Special Control Algorithms for NEXLINE Nanopositioning


Linear-Motor Actuators 32-Bit Digital Filters 24-Bit DAC Resolution Fully Programmable Low-Pass and Notch Filters Non-Volatile User Settings and Last-Position Data Daisy-Chain Networking for up to 16 Axes PI GCS (General Command Set) Compatible break through the barriers of conventional nanopositioning actuators. The E-755 offers two different control modes for the NEXLINE walking drives: a highresolution, high dynamics direct piezo mode, with basically unlimited resolution (analog mode), and a long-range stepping mode with theoretically unlimited travel range.

can bemoved large distances in step mode, high-dynamics positioning over distances of less than one step is possible with resolutions far below one nanometer in analog mode. The patented PiezoWalk thus overcomes the limitations of conventional nanopositioning actuators and combines long travel ranges with high resolution and stiffness. Extreme Actuator Lifetime To eliminate long-term offset voltages, which limit the lifetime of conventional piezo drives, the E-755 controller uses a special procedure to bring the actuator to a fullholding-force, zero-voltage condition, no matter where it may be along its travel range. Due to the resulting long lifetime, NEXLINE nanoposition-

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

E-755 digital single-axis nanopositioning controllers are designed to drive the patented NEXLINE nanopositioning linear drives. Combining advanced control technology and sensor signal processing with special drive algorithms, the E-755 can provide precision motion control over hundreds of millimeters with picometer-range resolution. Coordinated action of shearing and clamping piezo elements is what allows NEXLINE to
Application Examples

High-Resolution ServoControl E-755 controllers are based on powerful 32-bit DSPs and come in open- and closedloop versions. Both versions feature four high-resolution (24-bit) linear amplifiers with the output range of 250 V required to control a singleaxis NEXLINE drive. For the closed-loop models, high-resolution incremental position sensors are supported by special excitation and read-out electronics.

Semiconductor technology Quality assurance testing in semiconductor industry Astronomical telescopes Truss structures Active vibration control Alignment in high magnetic fields, as in particle physics, atomic fusion and superconductivity research

Steps of 5 nm performed by a system consisting of an N-214 NEXLINE nanopositioner and an E-755.1A1 controller, measured by a high-resolution interferometer. Note the excellent system response to consecutive 5 nm step commands. In this case the closed-loop resolution is limited by the linear encoder in the N-214 (5 nm / increment); the E-755 can work with linear encoders with sub-nanometer resolution

1-18

Piezo Nano Positioning

ing actuators are ideal for installation in inaccessible locations deep inside complex equipment, where nanometer-precise alignment and vibration cancellation are required.

Linearization E-755-controlled nanopositioning systems provide outstanding linearity, achieved by digital polynomial linearization. The linearization can improve linearity to

0.001 % over the full travel range. The products described in this datasheet are in part protected by the following patents: German Patent No. 10148267 US Patent No. 6,800,984

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components

Six-axis nonmagnetic Hexapod with N-215-based NEXLINE high-load actuators for use in high magnetic fields. The system is driven by six E-755 controllers and additional hardware/firmware to automatically perform the necessary parallelkinematics coordinate transformation

Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology
Steps of 50 picometers with a NEXLINE drive in open-loop mode measured with external, ultra-high-resolution, capacitive sensor

Micropositioning

Technical Data
Model Funktion E-755.1A1 Digital controller for NEXLINE nanopositioning linear drives with incremental encoder 1 DSP 32-bit floating point, 50 MHz 1 0.2 ms 0.1 ms 0.2 ms P-I, notch filter Incremental sensor 4 -250 to +250 V 5.5 W 3 W, limited by temperature sensor 44 mA 25 mA, limited by temperature sensor Short-circuit-proof 24 bit RS-232 Sub-D Special 15-pin sub-D connector Daisy-chain, up to 16 units GCS PIMikroMove, NanoCapture , PITerminal LabVIEW drivers, DLLs NEXLINE Control algorithms (closed-loop), data recorder, position storage Status LEDs 4th order polynomial 5 to 50 C Deactivation at 70 C 264 x 260 x 47 mm 2.3 kg 24 V (power supply included) 48 W, 2 A max. E-755.101 Digital controller for NEXLINE nanopositioning linear drives 1 DSP 32-bit floating point, 50 MHz 0.1 ms 4 -250 to +250 V 5.5 W 3 W, limited by temperature sensor 44 mA 25 mA, limited by temperature sensor Short-circuit-proof 24 bit RS-232 Sub-D Special Daisy-chain, up to 16 units GCS PIMikroMove, NanoCapture , PITerminal LabVIEW drivers, DLLs NEXLINE Control algorithms (open-loop), data recorder Status LEDs 4th order polynomial 5 to 50 C Deactivation at 70 C 264 x 260 x 47 mm 2.3 kg 24 V (power supply included) 48 W, 2 A max.

Index

Axes Processor Sensor Sensor channels Servo update time Sensor sampling time Dynamic cycle time Servo characteristics Sensor type A mplif ier Amplifier channels Output voltage Peak output power per channel Average output power per channel Peak current Average current per channel Current limitation Resolution DAC Int erf ac es and operation Communication interfaces Piezo connector Sensor connector Controller network Command set User software Software drivers Supported functionality Display Linearization Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Overtemp protection Dimensions Mass Operating voltage Power consumption

1-19

Piezo Nano Positioning

E-861 PiezoWalk NEXACT Controller/Driver


Networkable Controller for NEXACT Linear Drives and Positioners
Ordering Information
E-861.1A1 NEXACT Controller, 1 Channel, Linear Encoder

Easy System Setup, Comprehensive Software All parameters can be set and checked by software. System setup and configuration is done with the included PIMikroMove user-interface software. Interfacing to custom software is facilitated with included LabView drivers and DLLs. With the PI General Command Set (GCS), system programming is the same with all PI controllers, so controlling a system with a variety of different controllers is possible without difficulty.

PiezoWalk System: E-861.1A1 NEXACT Controller with open-loop N-310.01 NEXACT linear drive; suitable for installation in stage with linear encoder

For NEXACT Drives and Positioning Systems Complete System with Controller,
Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Integrated Power Amplifiers and Software Open-Loop Operation, or Closed-Loop with Linear Encoder High Performance at Low Cost Daisy-Chain Networking for Multi-Axis Operation Non-Volatile Macro Storage for Stand-Alone Functionality with Autostart Macro I/O for Automation, Joystick for Manual Operation Parameter Changes On-the-Fly

The new, compact E-861 controller is designed to operate NEXACT linear drives and closed-loop positioning systems using them, simply and precisely. In perfect harmony with the mechanics, the E-861 supports both motion modes of the PiezoWalk stepping drive: for longer moves, the stepping mode, and for moves shorter than typically 7 m, the analog mode, which provides high-dynamics positioning with resolutions of less than 1 nm. The NEXACT drive design minimizes piezo operating voltages to 45 V and below. Flexible Automation E-861 controllers offer a number of features to support automation and handling. For example, macros can be stored in non-volatile memory.
1-20

A programmable autostart macro allows stand-alone operation without external communication. Upon powerup, the macro with its internal command sequence is executed automatically. For easy synchronization of motion with internal or external trigger signals, four input and four output lines are provided. Multi-Axis Operation Up to 16 E-861 controllers can be networked and controlled over a single PC interface. Such daisy chain networks are flexible, can be extended at any time and are compatible with other PI controllers (e.g. DC servo-motor and stepper motor controllers).

Piezo Nano Positioning

Technical Data
Model Function Drive type Channels Motion and control Servo characteristics Trajectory profile modes Encoder input E-861.1A1 Controller for NEXACT drives / systems N-310.01 NEXACT linear drive 1

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators P-I-D servo control, parameter change on-the-fly Trapezoidal Analog encoder input sine-cosine, interpolation circuit preset for differential transmission, 2 Vpp amplitude and 2.27 V offset of the encoder signal Servo off, triggered by programmable position error 2 x TTL (pull-up/pull-down, programmable) 1 x TTL max. 40 W -10 to +45 V max. 2 A USB 1.0, RS-232 (9-pin (m) D-Sub) D-Sub 15-pin (f) High Density D-Sub 15-pin (m) High Density Up to 16 units on single interface 4 analog/digital in, 4 digital out (TTL) PI General Command Set (GCS) PIMikroMove, PI Terminal GCS-DLL, LabVIEW drivers Start-up macro; data recorder for categories like current position or velocity; internal safety circuitry: watchdog timer Joystick, Y-cable for 2D motion, pushbutton box 24 V included: external power supply, 24 V, 2.5 A 0 to +50 C 1.1 kg 206 x 130 x 66 mm (with mounting rails) Index Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Stall detection Input limit switch Input reference switch Electrical properties Output power Output voltage Current consumption Interfaces and operation Communication interfaces Motor connector Sensor connector Controller network I/O ports Command set User software Software drivers Supported functionality Manual control (optional) Miscellaneous Operating voltage Operating temperature range Mass Dimensions

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

1-21

Piezo Nano Positioning

Notes on Specifications for PiezoWalk Drives


Motion and Positioning
Travel Range The maximum allowed travel is limited by the length of the output shaft in a PiezoWalk drive. If present, the distance between two limit switches defines the travel range. Step size (in step mode) In step mode, the step size can be defined within the given range. Bigger steps allow higher velocity while smaller steps are for fine adjustment tasks. Analog mode travel range The analog mode travel range describes approximately half of the maximum stepsize. The analog travel mode allows for sub-nanometer motion resolution. Open-loop resolution Resolution of PiezoWalk drives is basically infinitesimal because it is not limited by stiction and friction. Instead of resolution, the noise equivalent motion in analog mode is specified. Values are typical results (RMS, 1 sigma). Closed-loop resolution Requires position feedback. Resolution of PiezoWalk drives is basically infinitesimal because it is not limited by stiction and friction. Instead of resolution, the noise equivalent motion in closed-loop analog mode is specified. Values are typical results (RMS, 1 sigma). For linear encoders, the closedloop resolution describes the Max. velocity The maximum velocity depends on the used controller. The main parameters which influence the velocity are the step frequency and the step size. resolution of the of the position feedback sensor system. Step frequency Maximum operating frequency of the drive in step mode. The step frequency depends on the controller. It is recommended to operate PiezoWalk drives with PI controllers only.

Mechanical properties
Stiffness in motion direction The stiffness in motion direction has a typical tolerance of 20 % Push/pull force (active) Active force limit in operating direction. The maximum force depends on the velocity. Holding force (passive) A main feature of piezomotor linear drives is the self-locking capability at rest without current consumption and heat generation.

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Drive properties
Operating voltage Max. voltage range for the analog mode travel range. The voltage is supplied by the PI drive electronics.

Miscellaneous
Operating temperature range Safe operation, no damage to the drive. All technical data specified in the data sheet refer to room temperature (22 C 3 C) Mass Typical tolerance: 5 % Cable length Typical tolerance: 10 mm Recommended controller / driver To reach the specifications and to avoid damage, it is strongly recommended to use PI drive and control electronics only. The drive electronics supplies the operating voltage and supports the motion modes of a PiezoWalk drive.

1-22

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors

PILine Ultrasonic Motors

Piezo Nano Positioning

Selection Guide: PILine Ultrasonic Motors


High Speed Ceramic Linear Motors, Actuators and Suitable Controllers
PILine ultrasonic ceramic motors are based on a novel, patented drive principle and provide extremely high speeds and accelerations in a very comModels P-661, P-664 M-674 P-653 P-653K M-674KCPP M-664KCEP Description Compact PILine piezo linear drives for OEMs RodDrive ultrasonic piezo linear motor pusher for OEMs PILine miniature linear motor / slide: 8 mm length, PCB-mounted Miniature rotary and linear motors High Precision, for bio automation Stackable vertical drive

pact package. They are self-locking at rest, inherently non-magnetic and vacuum compatible. All linear drives and motors are intended for integration into a

customers system and feature no guidance. If off-axis motion cannot be tolerated external guidance is required.

Push Force [N] 2, 5 7 0.15 0.15 7 5

Travel [mm] Unlimited to 100 2 50 50 50

Page 1-28 1-30 1-32 1-34 1-35 1-35

Drivers / Controllers for PILine Ultrasonic Piezo Linear Motors


Models C-184, C-185 C-867 Description Drivers for PILine ultrasonic piezo linear motors High-speed, closed-loop controller/driver for closed-loop PILine piezomotors

Channels 1 1

Interfaces analog USB, RS-232

Page 1-36 4-116

P-653 Miniature linear motor / M-674 RodDrive piezo linear slide motor pusher for OEMs

P-661, P-664 OEM piezo motors

P-653K Miniature rotary and linear motors

M-674KCPP High precision, for bio automation

M-664KCEP Stackable vertical drive

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

C-184, C-185 PILine driver electronics

C-867 High-speed, closed-loop controller/driver

For Translation Stages Driven by integrated PIline Linear Motors, see Section Micropositioning / Linear Stages, p. 4-19 ff

M-661, M-662 Very small & fast, piezo linear motor

M-663 Small, fast; linear motor & linear encoder

M-664 Linear motor & linear encoder, fast

M-682 Low-profile, high speed piezo linear motor

M-682KNMS Non-magnetic translation stage

M-686 Linear motor-driven XY stage

More Piezo Ceramic Linear Motors & Actuators: See PiezoWalk Actuators, p. 1-3 ff More Linear Actuators: See Classical Linear Actuators, p. 1-39 ff Notes on Specifications see p. 1-38

1-24

Piezo Nano Positioning

High-Speed Precision Actuators


PILine Ultrasonic Piezomotors Working Principle
Linear Actuators & Motors

PILine linear piezomotors are based on a novel, patented ultrasonic drive developed by PI. Ultrasonic oscillations of a piezoceramic actuator are transferred to linear motion along a friction bar, which is attached to the moving part of a mechanical setup. At the heart of the system is a monolithic piezoceramic plate, segmented by two electrodes. Depending on the desired direction of motion, the left or right electrode of the piezoceramic plate is excited to produce high-frequency eigenmode oscillations at tens to hundreds of kilohertz. An alumina friction tip (pusher) attached to the plate moves along an inclined linear path at the eigenmode frequency. The pusher is preloaded against the friction bar which is attached to the slider, turntable, etc. Through its oscillations, it provides micro-impulses that drive the moving part forward or backwards. With each oscillatory cycle, the mechanics executes a step of a few nanometers; the macroscopic result is smooth motion with a virtually unlimited travel range. State-of-the-art ultrasonic motors can produce accelerations to 5 g and velocities to 500 mm/s.

Ultrasonic motors cannot provide the unlimited resolution of linear piezo actuators and flexure-guided piezo positioning stages. These motors transfer motion through friction, which is why their repeatability is limited to about 50 nm. Much higher resolution and holding forces can be achieved with PiezoWalk piezomotors / drives (see p. 1-3 ff). PILine Levels of Integration

PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators
State-of-the-art PILine ultrasonic motors are based on a simple construction allowing for the design of low-cost drive units and extremely compact, high-speed micro-positioning stages smaller than a matchbox

Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

PILine ultrasonic drive products are offered in three different levels of integration. The drive electronics and controller can be chosen accordingly.

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

P-661 and P-664 OEM motors


require the greatest amount of care at the customers site. Motor and friction bar the length depends on the desired travel range have to be integrated into a mechanical setup. Operation requires preload of the motor against the friction bar, guiding and, if necessary, the servo-loop.

Index

M-674 RodDrives can replace


classical drive elements like rotary motor / leadscrew assemblies, or magnetic linear drives integrated into a micropositioner or handling device. Integration requires guiding and if necessary the servo-loop.

Linear positioning stages


represent the highest level of manufacturer integration. The piezomotor is integrated completely in a high-quality mechanical setup including the servo-loop with directmetrology linear encoders.

PILine levels of integration: OEM motor, RodDrive, linear positioning stage

1-25

Piezo Nano Positioning

Features and Advantages of PILine Ultrasonic Piezomotors

Compact Size: the directdrive principle allows the design of ultra-compact translation stages. The M-662, for example, provides 20 mm travel in a 28 x 28 x 8 mm package.

of a leadscrew means no lubricant flow or material relaxation to cause submicron creep. There is also no rotational inertia to limit acceleration and deceleration.

Custom high-force ultrasonic piezo motors can provide forces to 50 N

Excellent Power-to-Weight
Ratio: PILine drives are optimized for high performance in a minimum package. No comparable drive can offer the same combination of acceleration, speed and precision.

Low Inertia, High Acceleration, Speed and Resolution: PILine drives achieve velocities to 500 mm/s and accelerations to 5 g. They are also very stiff, a prerequisite for their fast step-and-settle times on the order of a few milliseconds and provide resolution to 10 nm. The lack

Safe: The minimum inertia of


the moving platform together with the slip clutch effect of the drive provide

better protection of precision fixtures / devices than leadscrew-driven stages. Despite the high speeds and accelerations, there is a much lower risk of pinching fingers or other injuries than with conventional drives. This means users may not need interlocks, light curtains or other measures to keep them safe.
Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Custom Solutions / Flexibility for OEMs: PILine drives are available in open-loop and closed-loop translation stages and as OEM components. PI develops and manufactures all piezo ceramic components in-house. This gives us the flexibility to provide custom motors (size, force, environmental conditions) for OEM and research applications.

Settling behavior of a PILine M-663 linear stage, 100 m step. A stable position to within 0.1 m can be reached in only 10 ms

Self-Locking Feature: PILine


drives create a braking force when not energized without the position shift common with conventional mechanical brakes. Other benefits of the self-locking are the elimination of servo dither and steady-state heat dissipation.

Quality, Lifetime, Experience: Based on PIs 4 decades of experience with piezo nanopositioning technology, PILine drives offer exceptional precision and reliability with an MTBF of >20,000 hours. Rotating components such as gears, shafts and moving cables that are prone to failure in conventional motion systems, are not part of the PILine design.

Vacuum Compatibility: Vacuum compatible versions of PILine drives are available.

Negligible EMI: PILine drives do not create magnetic fields nor are they influenced by them, a decisive advantage in many applications.
Principle design of a PILine ultrasonic piezomotor-driven translation stage

1-26

Typical Applications for PILine Ultrasonic Motors


Microscopy/Imaging Fast sample positioning XY-stages Long range scanning Biotechnology, Life Science Microdosing Dispensing Nano/microliter pumps Fast positioning Bio-handling Medical Design, Medical Technology Screening Fast positioning Cell penetration, microdosing Handling Non-magnetic actuators Nanotechnology, Nanofabrication, NanoAutomation Precision positioning of components (linear and rotation) Precision actuation Microgrippers Manipulators Semiconductor Technology Long-range placement and positioning
Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

Variety of PILine ultrasonic piezomotors, translation stages and motion controllers

1-27

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-661 P-664 PILine Piezo Linear Drive


High-Speed, Compact, Ultrasonic Piezo Drives for OEMs
the mechanics drives forward or backwards. With each oscillatory cycle, the mechanics executes a step of a few nanometers; the macroscopic result is smooth motion with a virtually unlimited travel range. High Speed and Acceleration PILine piezomotor drives can provide accelerations of up to 5 g and speeds of up to 500 mm/s, together with high resolution and high holding force. Because the ceramic stator is pressed against the slider, holding forces are generated when the motor ist powered down. The result is very high position stability without the heat dissipation common in conventional linear motors. Accessories for Easy Integration PILine piezomotors require a drive electronics for exciting the ultrasonic oscillations. The drive electronics is available as OEM board, stand-alone device or integrated inside a controller and therefore not included in the delivery. PI offers friction bars with different lengths.

Ordering Information
P-661.P01 PILine Miniature Linear Piezomotor, 2N P-664.P01 PILine Miniature Linear Piezomotor, 4N Accessories: P-661.B01 Friction Bar for P-661 PILine Miniature Linear Piezomotor, 15 mm P-661.B02 Friction Bar for P-661 PILine Miniature Linear Piezomotor, 25 mm P-661.B05 Friction Bar for P-661 PILine Miniature Linear Piezomotor, 55 mm P-664.B01 Friction Bar for P-664 PILine Miniature Linear Piezomotor, 15 mm P-664.B02 Friction Bar for P-664 PILine Miniature Linear Piezomotor, 25 mm P-664.B05 Friction Bar for P-664 PILine Miniature Linear Piezomotor, 55 mm C-184.161 Analog OEM Driver Board for PILine P-661 Motors C-185.161 Analog Stand-Alone Drive Electronics with Power Supply for PILine P-661 Motors C-184.164 Analog OEM Driver Board for PILine P-664 Motors C-185.164 Analog Stand-Alone Drive Electronics with Power Supply for PILine P-664 Motors Controller for closed-loop operation are available as C-867 (see p. 4-116 ff )

PILine P-661 and P-664 OEM piezo linear motors with C-184 drive electronics

Patented Principle Features Very Compact Dimensions and


High Force

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Max. Velocity 500 mm/s Acceleration to 5 g Min. Incremental Motion to 0.05 m Self-Locking to 3 N No Electromagnetic Fields MTBF 20,000 h Integrated Actuators & Positioning Systems Also Available

PILine Linear Motors Smaller, Faster, More Effective Despite their small size, PILine linear motors generate higher driving and holding forces than conventional ultrasonic piezomotors.

Application Examples

Biotechnology R&D Semiconductor testing Mass storage device testing Metrology Micromanipulation Microscopy Photonics packaging Quality assurance testing

PILine motors have a new, patented, ultrasonic drive developed by PI. The core piece of the system is a piezoceramic plate, which is excited to produce high-frequency eigenmode oscillations. A friction tip attached to the plate moves along an inclined linear path at the eigenmode frequency. Through its contact with the friction bar, the moving part of

Long Lifetime PI has over 30 years experience with piezo technology and nanopositioning. PILine drives offer high precision and reliability, with over 20,000 hours

Dimensions of the P-664 in mm

MTBF. This is because PILine piezo linear motor drives have no mechanical components such as shafts and gears which can cause failures in conventional motors.

1-28

Piezo Nano Positioning

Note The products described in this document are in part protected by the following patents: US Pat. No. 6,765,335 German Patent No. 10154526

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators
Dimensions of the P-661 in mm

Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

The powerful and compact M-674 RodDrives include 2 x P-664 motors. The C-185 bench-top drive electronics is shown in the background 0.3 m steps performed by P-661 piezomotor integrated in an M-662 translation stage

Technical Data
Model Motion and positioning Travel range Minimum incremental motion, open-loop Max. velocity Mechanical properties Stiffness when powered down Holding force when powered down Push / pull force Preload on friction bar Drive properties Resonant frequency Motor voltage range Operating voltage drive electronics Electrical power drive electronics Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Body material Mass Cable length Connector Recommended controller/driver Dimensions MTBF -20 to +50 Al (black anodized) 0.01 1.6 Open leads C-184.161 OEM board C-185.161 in box 14 x 35 x 6 >20,000 -20 to +50 Al (black anodized) 0.02 1.6 Open leads C-184.164 OEM board C-185.164 in box (see p. 1-36) 22 x 42 x 7 mm >20,000 h kg m 5 % 10 mm C 210 120 (peak-peak) 42 (RMS) 12 5 155 168 (peak-peak) 60 (RMS) 12 10 V W kHz V typ. 0.7 1.5 2 9 3 3 4 9 N/m N N N 10 % max. max. 10 % No limit* 0.05** 500 No limit* 0.05** 500 mm m mm/s2 typ. P-661.P01 P-664.P01 Units Tolerance

*The travel range of piezo linear motors is virtually unlimited and depends on the length of the friction bar, which is available separately. **The minimum incremental motion is a typical value that can be achieved in the open-loop mode of a piezomotor stage. To reach the specs it is important to follow the mounting guidelines of the OEM-motors.

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Piezo Nano Positioning

M-674 PILine RodDrive Piezo Linear Drive


Integrated Fast Ultrasonic Piezo Drives
Working Principle
The M-674 PILine RodDrive, shown with C-184 OEM and C-185 bench-top driver electronics, provides 7 N pushing force and travel ranges of 50, 100 and 150 mm

Ordering Information
M-674.164 PILine RodDrive, 50 mm, 7 N M-674.264 PILine RodDrive, 100 mm, 7 N M-674.364 PILine RodDrive, 150 mm, 7 N Accessories: C-184.D64 Analog OEM Driver Board for PILine RodDrive M-674 C-185.164 Analog Stand-Alone Drive Electronics with Power Supply for PILine P-664 Motors C-867.D64 Piezomotor Controller with Drive Electronics, 1 Channel, for PILine Systems with M-674 RodDrive

Drive-Component for Integration into Micropositioning


Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Systems Travel Ranges to 150 mm Push/Pull Forces to 7 N Min. Incremental Motion to 0.05 m Velocity to 450 mm/s Self-Locking at Rest

RodDrives employ a patented ultrasonic drive developed by PI. The highly compact, integrated P-664 piezomotors can provide velocities of 450 mm/s, together with high resolution and holding force. The maximum travel is determined by the length of the rod and is basically unlimited. Customized adaptations in terms of operating and holding force are feasible by varying type and number of motors used. Because the integrated ceramic motors are preloaded against the rod, RodDrives resist motion with an intrinsic holding force when at rest. The result is very high position stability without the heat dissipation common with conventional linear motors. Furthermore, there are no gears, leadscrews or other mechanical components to contribute play or backlash. Variety of Drivers / Controllers

M-674 PILine RodDrives represent a level of integration between PILine OEM piezo linear motors such as P-664 (see p. 1-28) and guided micropositioning systems such as the M-682 (see p. 4-32) series stages. RodDrives may replace classical drive elements like rotary motor/leadscrew assemblies, or magnetic linear drives integrated into a micropositioner.
Application Examples

They consist of a rod which is preloaded by piezo linear motors from two sides. Depending on the way of integration, either the rod or the motor block is coupled to the moving platform. Advantages of PILine Micropositioning Systems The ultrasonic piezoceramic drives used in PILine micropositioners have a number of advantages over classical drives:

PILine piezomotors require a drive electronics for exciting the ultrasonic oscillations. The drive electronics is available as OEM board, stand-alone device or integrated inside a closedloop motion controller and therefore not included in the delivery.

Closed-Loop Operation: Optimized for High Velocity and Rapid Step/Settling Together with a position sensor, RodDrives can be operated in closed-loop with the C-867.D64 (see p. 4-116) piezo motor controller. This specialized servo-controller also integrats the motor drive electronics and enables highly constant speeds up to 350 mm/s with very short settling times (tens of milliseconds). RodDrives can also be operated with conventional servo-controllers. In this case, the C-185 (see p. 1-36)

System integration for micropositioning products Automation Handling Micromanipulation Biotechnology Metrology

Higher Accelerations, up to Speeds up to 500 mm/s Small Form Factor Self-Locking When Powered No Shafts, Gears or Other Non-Magnetic and Vacuum
Compatible Drive Principle Rotating Parts
Constancy of closed-loop velocity at 200 mm/s of an integrated M-674 RodDrive

5g

Down

1-30

Piezo Nano Positioning

(to be ordered separately) external drive electronics is required which accepts a 10 V analog signal from the controller. Note The products described in this document are in part protected by the following patents: US-Pat. No. 6,765,335 German Patent No. 10154526

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index
The M-674 integrated into a Micropositioning Stage

Dimensions of the M-674 RodDrive in mm

Technical Data
Model
Motion and positioning Travel range Minimum incremental motion, open-loop Max. velocity Max. acceleration Mechanical properties Stiffness when powered down Holding force when powered down Push / pull force Drive properties Resonant frequency Integrated piezo motor Motor voltage range Operating voltage drive electronics Max. elec. power consumption drive electronics Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Body material Mass Cable length Connector Recommended controller/driver -20 to +50 PEEK-PTFE 0.1 1.5 LEMO connector C-184.D64 OEM drive electronics board C-185.D64 driver ****C-867.D64 Controller for closed-loop operation -20 to +50 PEEK-PTFE 0.12 1.5 LEMO connector C-184.D64 OEM drive electronics board C-185.D64 driver ****C-867.D64 Controller for closed-loop operation -20 to +50 PEEK-PTFE 0.14 1.5 LEMO connector C-184.D64 OEM drive electronics board C-185.D64 driver ****C-867.D64 Controller for closed-loop operation kg m LEMO connector 5 % 10 mm C 155 2 x PILine P-664 (Dual Motor) 190 (peak-peak)*** 67 (RMS)*** 12 15 155 2 x PILine P-664 (Dual Motor) 190 (peak-peak)*** 67 (RMS)*** 12 15 155 2 x PILine P-664 (Dual Motor) 190 (peak-peak)*** 67 (RMS)*** 12 15 V V W kHz, typ. 5** 7 7 5** 7 7 5** 7 7 N/m N N 10 % max. max. 50 0.05* 450 10 100 0.05* 450 10 150 0.05* 450 10 mm m mm/s m/s2 x typ.

M-674.164

M-674.264

M-674.364

Units

Tolerance

*The minimum incremental motion is a typical value that can be achieved in the open-loop mode of a piezomotor stage. To reach the specs it is important to follow the mounting guidelines of the OEM-drives. **Stiffness at 25 C. ***The operating voltage is supplied by the drive electronics. ****MDR 14-connector for closed-loop systems separate required

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Piezo Nano Positioning

P-653 PILine Miniature Linear Motor / Slide


OEM Drive for High Volume Applications
Working Principle P-653 drives employ a new, patented, ultrasonic piezomotor drive developed by PI. The highly compact, integrated piezomotor can attain velocities of up to 200 mm/s together with high position resolution andconsidering its length of only 8 mma high holding force. Because the ceramic stator is pressed against the slider, piezomotor drives resist motion with an intrinsic holding force when the unit is at rest. The result is very high position stability, without the heat dissipation common with conventional linear motors. During operation, the oscillating piezoceramic propels the slider over the length of the motor. There are no gears, leadscrews or other mechanical components to contribute play or backlash. Simple Control The high-frequency, nanometer level oscillations (~500 kHz) needed by the PILine motors are created by driver electronics, which self-adjusts to the resonant frequency of the motor ceramic, meaning that no individual tuning is necessary. The driver electronics can in turn be controlled by short voltage pulses.
Order Information
P-653.01 Miniatur PILine OEM Drive, 2 mm Travel Range, 0.15 N, mounted on PCB board P-653.01D Miniature PILine OEM Drive, 2 mm Travel Range, 0.15 N, Demo Sample Kit with USB Interface Ask about custom designs

The P-653 miniature drive including the drive electronics measures only 11 mm featuring 2 mm travel range. Side view of slider (bottom)

Note The products described in this document are in part protected by the following patents: German Patent No. 102004059429 International Patent No. WO2006/027031A1

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

True Linear Motor Slide / No Rotary Conversion Losses Cost-Effective OEM Drive for High Quantity-Applications Preassembled and Mounted on a PCB Board Very Compact: Piezomotor Drive is Only 8 mm Long Fast Response: Full Stroke in <50 ms Force Generation to 0.15 N Self Locking at Rest Travel Range 2 mm, Velocity up to 200 mm/s

P-653 PILine OEM piezomotor drives are ideal for OEM applications where space is limited and moved masses are small. These tiny linear positioners can be used to replace classical drive elements like miniaturized motor/spindle systems or other linear motors, which P-653 outclasses with its speed of up to 200 mm/s. PILine piezo linear motors offer a number of advantages over classical drives:
Application Examples

High velocities Compact design High push/pull and holding


forces relative to the drive size Integration of the P-653 in an application is simple because the moving slider and the piezo actuator are delivered assembled as a unit and already mounted on a PCB board. Drive electronics is included on the same board and requires a supply voltage of only 5 VDC. Mechanical mounting is thus facilitated as well: All that remains is to affix the payload to the slider. The motors are designed for moving small objects such as optical fibers, optics, micro- or electro-mechanical elements fast and precisely.

Consumer electronics Miniature mechatronics Micromanipulation Micropositioning Toys

Included in the P-653.01D demo sample there is the P-653.01 OEM drive together with additional electronics featuring an USB interface

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Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

P-653.01 dimensions in mm: top view, view from drive side, end view along axis of motion (from left)

Technical Data
Model Motion and positioning Travel range Step size at 0.25 ms ON time Step size at 1.0 ms ON time Max. velocity* Typ. velocity** Mechanical properties Holding force when powered down Max. push / pull force Drive properties Resonant frequency (typ.) Integrated piezo motor Operating voltage (drive electronics) Current consumption incl. drive electronics Control voltage Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Mass Connectors Recommended driver Dimensions Lifetime -40 to 85 C 1 g 5 % Header pin sockets Piezomotor drive electronics included 15 x 11 x 8 mm incl. drive electronics >5,000,000 cycles 515 kHz PILine P-653 5 VDC 0.1 A 5 V TTL 0.3 N 0.15 N 2 mm 5 to 15 m 20 to 120 m 100 to 200 mm/s 50 to 90 mm/s P-653.01

All data refer to 100 % duty cycle. * without load. @ 5 g: 80 to 140 mm/s; @ 10 g: 50 to 100 mm/s ** without load.

1-33

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-653K PILine Miniature Rotary and Linear Piezo Motor Actuators


Compact PCB Mounted Motion Control Solutions for OEMs
Application Examples

Consumer electronics Miniature mechatronics Micromanipulation Micropositioning Medical technology Optomechanics:


Two custom piezo motors based on the P-653 ultrasonic miniature motor show the versatility and adaptability of the basic concept: P-653KMRD on the right is based on the RodDrive principle and provides a virtually unlimited linear travel range. With the P-653KROT three miniature motors move a ring, for example for fast positioning of optical elements

Rotating Filters, etc.

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Cost-Effective OEM Drive for High Quantity-Applications Preassembled and Mounted on a PCB Board Miniature Piezo Motor Drive: 8 mm Length Only! Fast Response: Full Stroke in <50 ms for Single Actuators Force Generation to 0.15 N; Torque to 2 mNm Self Locking at Rest Travel Range 50 mm (Runner), Velocity up to 200 mm/s and 230 rev/min, respectively
The P-653 miniature drive including the drive electronics measures only 11 mm

Technical Data
Model
Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Step size at 0.25 ms ON time Step size at 1.0 ms ON time Max. velocity, without load Typ. velocity, without load Mechanical properties Holding force when powered down Max. push / pull force Max. torque active / passive Drive properties Resonant frequency (typ.) Integrated piezo motor Operating voltage driver electronics Current consumption incl. drive electronics Control voltage Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Mass Connectors Recommended driver Dimensions -40 to +80 C 2 g 5% Miniature 4 pin connector Piezomotor drive electronics included 40 x 10 x 4 mm incl. drive electronics 25 km -40 to +80 C 4.5 g 5% Miniature 4 pin connector Piezomotor drive electronics included 40 mm, 5 mm high incl. drive electronics, clear aperture 14 mm 1.000.000 cycles 515 kHz P-653 PILine 5 VDC 0.1 A 5 V TTL 515 kHz 3 x P-653 PILine 5 VDC 0.3 A 5 V TTL 0.3 N 0.15 N 2 / 4 mNm 50 mm 5 to 15 m 20 to 120 m 100 to 200 mm/s* 50 to 90 mm/s >360 deg 0.2 to 0.5 arcsec 0.6 to 3.5 arcsec 200 to 230 rev/min 120 to 150 rev/min

P-653KMRD
X

P-653KROT
Z

Typ. min. endurance

All data refer to 100% duty cycle. *no load. Differing data at 5g: 80 to 140 mm/s, at 10g: 50 to 100 mm/s

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Piezo Nano Positioning

M-674K High-Precision Z Actuator for Bio-Automation


Ceramic PILine Motor and Linear Encoder for High Speed & Precision
High Speed to 100 mm/sec High Push/Pull Force to 7 N Extremely Slim Design, Matched with Standard
Multiwell Plates Stackable Integrated Linear Encoder for Highest Accuracy Self Locking at Rest Non-Magnetic and Vacuum-Compatible Working Principle
Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators
Model M-674KCPP Compact PILine Positioner Travel 50 mm Push/pull force 7N Velocity 100 mm/s Resolution 0.1 m Dimensions 120 x 40 x 9 mm

Equipped with two ultrasonic piezo-motors, the slim M-674KCPP offers up to 7 N push and pull force. The 9 mm width is matched to standard multiwell plate sizes, ideally suited to automation tasks in biotechnology

Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

M-664K Vertical Drive for Bio-Automation


High-Speed, Compact, Cost-Effective, Stackable PILine Actuator

High Speed to 100 mm/sec Slim Design, Matched with Standard Multiwell Plates Travel range 50 mm Cost-Effective Design Stackable Non-Magnetic and Vacuum-Compatible Working Principle Self Locking at Rest

Micropositioning

Index

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Stack of 8 M-664KCEP linear actuators, shown with well plate. The integrated ceramic piezomotor provides high speeds to 100 mm/sec. The lowprofile design with only 9 mm width allows stacking for multi-channel dispensing in bioautomation tasks

Model M-664KCEP Compact PILine Positioner

Travel 50 mm

Push/pull force 5N

Max. closed-loop velocity 100 mm/s

Resolution 0.5 m

Dimensions 120 x 40 x 9 mm

M-682K Non-Magnetic Translation Stage


Low-Profile, High-Speed with Piezo Ceramic Motor

Integrated Non-Magnetic PILine RodDrive Travel Range 50 mm Integrated Linear Encoders with 0.1 m Resolution Up to 6 N Force Generation Closed-Loop Velocity up to 100 mm/s Low Profile, Small Footprint

Model Custom non-magnetic M-682KNMS linear stage with integrated RodDrive linear motor M-682KNMS PILine Positioner

Travel 50 mm

Load capacity 50 N

Max. push/ pull force 6N

Dimensions 110 x 110 x 20 mm

1-35

Piezo Nano Positioning

C-184 C-185 PILine Drive Electronics


OEM Boards and Stand-Alone Units fot Ultrasonic Piezomotors
sitioners have a number of advantages over classical drives:
Ordering Information
C-184.161 Analog OEM Driver Board for PILine P-661 Motors C-185.161 Analog Stand-Alone Drive Electronics with Power Supply for PILine P-661 Motors C-184.164 Analog OEM Driver Board for PILine P-664 Motors C-185.164 Analog Stand-Alone Drive Electronics with Power Supply for PILine P-664 Motors C-184.D64 Analog OEM Driver Board for PILine RodDrive M-674 C-185.D64 Analog Stand-Alone Drive Electronics with Power Supply for PILine RodDrive M-674

Higher Accelerations,
C-185.D64 single-channel bench-top driver electronics with PILine M-674 RodDrive featuring travel ranges up to 150 mm and 7 N drive force at 450 mm/s

up to 5 g Speeds up to 500 mm/s Small Form Factor Self-Locking When Powered Down No Shafts, Gears or Other Rotating Parts Non-Magnetic and VacuumCompatible Drive Principle

Note

For PILine Ultrasonic OEM Motors and Positioners Accepts Analog Drive Signal from Standard Controller Available as Cost-Effective OEM board and Plug-and-Play

Desktop Unit
Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

The products described in this document are in part protected by the following patents: US Pat. No. 6,765,335 German Patent No. 10154526

The C-184 OEM-board and the C-185 stand-alone unit are single-channel drive electronics for PILine ultrasonic piezomotors and PILine stages. Piezomotor drive electronics convert analog input signals into the high-frequency drive signals necessary to excite the required oscillations in the piezomotor stator which cause the motion. Both the C-184 and C-185 are available in three versions, for use with different motors and translation stages. OEM and Integrated Electronics The philosophy behind the design of PILine ultrasonic drives dictates that they be easily adaptable to customer requirements. This includes making the drive electronics both independent of control signal type and available either as an OEM board or as a standalone unit in its own case.
1-36

While the OEM boards are the most economic solution for large quantities, the standalone units make it possible to plug a system with PILine stages together and put it into operation quickly and easily, for example for system evaluation purposes. Analog Control Both drivers control the motor speed based on an analog signal from 0 to 10 V. With an external position sensor and a servo controller, it is possible to set up a very fast, closedloop system. For optimum closed-loop system performance, the C-867 (see p. 4-116) piezo servocontroller is recommended. Advantages of PILine Micropositioning Systems The ultrasonic piezoceramic drives used in PILine micropoC-184.164 OEM driver board with PILine P-664 OEM motor

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors


104,2 49,1

PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components

0 6

0 11

Guided / Preloaded Actuators


10

Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

8 0

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index
174

Dimensions of single-channel bench-top C-185 in mm

Technical Data
Model Function C-184 Analog drive electronics (OEM board) for PILine C-184.161: P-661 Motors & Positioners C-184.164: P-664 Motors & Positioners C-184.D64: M-674 RodDrive 1 Differential, -10 V up to +10 V, polarity controls direction 12 V, 10 % Model dependent: C-184.161: 5 W C-184.164: 10 W C-184.D64: 15 W Model dependent: C-184.161: 120 VPP / 42 VRMS, 210 kHz C-184.164: 168 VPP / 60 VRMS, 155 kHz C-184.D64: 190 VPP / 67 VRMS, 155 kHz C-185 Analog single-channel driver box for PILine C-185.161: P-661 Motors & Positioners C-185.164: P-664 Motors & Positioners C-185.D64: M-674 RodDrive 1 Differential, -10 V up to +10 V, polarity controls direction 12 VDC external power supply (included) Model dependent: C-185.161: 5 W C-185.164: 10 W C-185.D64: 15 W Model dependent: C-185.161: 120 VPP / 42 VRMS, 210 kHz C-185.164: 168 VPP / 60 VRMS, 155 kHz C-185.D64: 190 VPP / 67 VRMS, 155 kHz

Channels Electrical properties Control in Operating voltage Output power / channel

Output voltage / channel

Interfaces and operation Motor connector I/O ports Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Mass Dimensions +5 to +40 C C-184.161, C-184.164: 15 g C-184.D64: 24 g 65 x 38 mm 174 x 104 x 49 mm (without ground connection, pads and fitting panel) 182 x 104 x 49 mm (with ground connection) +5 to +40 C 690 g Solder pads Solder pads LEMO connector or MDR connector, 14-pin Sub-D connector, 15-pin

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Piezo Nano Positioning

Details on Specifications for PILine Drives


Motion and positioning
Travel range The maximum allowed travel is limited by the length of the friction bar in a PILine drive. The distance between the two limit switches gives the travel range. Minimum incremental motion The typical minimum motion that can be executed for a given input in open-loop operation, which is sometimes referred to as practical or operational resolution. The data table states typical measured values. For repeatable minimum incremental motion, a position feedback sensor and servo loop is required. For repeatable nanometer or subnanometer resolution see the Piezo Flexure Stages / High-Speed scanning Systems (p. 2-3 ff ), PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators (p. 1-3 ff ) and Piezo Actuators & Components (p. 1-61 ff ) Sections. Max. velocity This is the short-term peak value for horizontal mounting, with no load, and not intended for continuous operation. The average velocity and continuous velocity are lower than the peak value and depend on the load conditions and other environmental parameters.

Mechanical properties
Stiffness when powered down Stiffness in motion direction. Typical tolerance: 10 % Push / pull force Active force limit in operating direction. The maximum force depends on the velocity. Holding force when powered down A main feature of piezomotor linear drives is the self-locking capability at rest, without current consumption and heat generation. Piezomotor characteristics cause a decline of the holding-force in long-term offtime. The data refer to the longterm minimum holding force.

Drive properties
Resonant frequency Ultrasonic excitation frequency of the piezo ceramic actuator
Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Operating voltage drive electronics Supply voltage for the drive electronics. It is recommended to operate PILine drives with suitable PI drive electronics only, referred to in the individual data table.

Motor voltage range Required excitation voltage range.

Miscellaneous
Operating temperature range Safe operation, no damage to the drive. All technical data specified in the data sheet refer to room temperature (22 C 3 C). Mass Typical tolerance: 5 % Cable length Typical tolerance: 10 mm Recommended controller/driver To reach the specifications and to avid damage to the drive, it is strongly recommended to use PI driver and control electronics only. Compatible controllers already include the ultrasonic drive electronics

1-38

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors

DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators

Piezo Nano Positioning

Selection Guide: DC Servo & Stepper Actuators


Precision Linear Actuators with Servo and Stepper Motors
All models provide sub-micrometer resolution. Higher precision models are equipped with non-rotating tips. Stepper and closed-loop DC-Servo motors are offered. Direct drives with ball screws provide higher speed, gear-box drives with lead screws provide higher forces and are self-locking. All linear drives and motors are intended for integration into a customers system and feature no guidance. If off-axis motion cannot be tolerated external guidance is required.

Models M-227 M-227KVLA M-228 M-229 M-230 M-230KCLA M-231 M-232 M-235 M-238 M-238KHLA M-168

Description DC-Mike, high resolution, non-rotating tip, piezo tip option Custom vacuum compatible DC-Mike, high resolution, non-rotating tip, piezo tip option Cost-Effective Stepper Mike linear actuator with limit switches Cost-Effective Stepper Mike linear actuator with limit switches DC / Stepper Mike, limit switches, compact, high resolution, non-rotating tip Ultra compact custom stepper mike DC / Stepper Mike, compact, high resolution, limit switches Extra-compact DC / stepper motor-mike, folded drive train, high resolution, limit switches DC / Stepper Mike, high load capacity and lifetime, ballscrew drive, limit switches Heavy duty DC-Mike actuators. Optional linear encoder Custom, ultra-high load linear actuator Stepper Mike, high resolution, direct drive, non-rotating tip, very good repeatability

Travel [mm] 10, 25, 50 10 10 25 10, 25 4 17 17 20, 50 50 75 10, 25, 50

Load Capacity [N] 40 40 20 50 70 400 40 40 120 400 1400 50

Speed (mm/sec) 0.75 0.3 1.5 1.5 to 2 0.009 1.5 1.5 2.6 to 30 30 30 5

*Precision

Page 1-42 1-57 1-44 1-45 1-46 1-57 1-48 1-49 1-50 1-52 1-57 1-55

*Relative to products in this class. Combination of repeatability, resolution and accuracy.

M-227 High-resolution DC Mike, non-rotating tip

M-227KVLA Custom, vacuum compatible DC-Mike actuator

M-228 Low cost, stepper motor

M-229 Low cost , high-load mike with stepper motor

M-230 Non-rotating tip, very precise

M-230KCLA Custom, compact stepper actuator

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

M-231 Compact, high resolution actuator

M-232 Extra-compact, folded drive train

M-235 High-force, ballscrew drive, fast

M-238 Extra high force DC-Mike actuators, optional linear encoder

M-238KHLA Custom, M-168 Stepper Mike, high ultra-high-load linear actuator resolution, non-rotating tip

For suitable motor controllers see Servo & Stepper Motor Controllers in the Micropositioning section, p. 4-109 ff

1-40

Piezo Nano Positioning

Micrometers, PiezoMikes and Stepper Motor Actuators


These compact actuators provide sub-micrometer resolution. The PiezoMike combines a piezo fine drive with a manual micrometer.
Models P-853 P-854 M-168 M-631 M-633 M-619 M-626 M-653 M-655 Description PiezoMike, sub-nanometer resolution Stepper Mike, high resolution, non-rotating tip, very good repeatability Precision micrometer, non-rotating tip, compact, very good repeatability Manual micrometers Differential micrometer 0.1 m resolution, compact Travel [mm] 6, 18 10, 25, 50 10, 25, 50 100, 250, 400 6, 10, 15, 18, 25 Load Capacity [N] 10 50 50 10 to 20 20 to 50 Page 1-54 1-55 1-56 1-56 1-56
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning
P-853 P-854 PiezoMike, sub-nanometer resolution M-168 Stepper Mike, high resolution, non-rotating tip M-631 M-633 Precision micro- M-619 M-626 Manual meter, non-rotating tip micrometers M-653 M-655 Differential micrometer

Index

For suitable motor controllers see Servo & Stepper Motor Controllers in the Micropositioning section, p. 4-109 ff For suitable piezo controllers see Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers in the Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics section, p. 2-99 ff Notes on Specifications see page 1-59 ff

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Piezo Nano Positioning

M-227 DC-Mike High-Resolution Linear Actuator


Non-Rotating Tip, Long Stroke to 50 mm
Ordering Information
M-227.10 High-Resolution DC-Mike Linear Actuator, 10 mm M-227.25 High-Resolution DC-Mike Linear Actuator, 25 mm M-227.50 High-Resolution DC-Mike Linear Actuator, 50 mm M-219.10 Ball Tip
M-227.10 (w/ piezo tip), M-227.25, M-227.50 (w/ ball tip), high-resolution DC-Mike actuators and several tip options

P-855.20 Piezo Actuator for Micrometer Drive

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Travel Ranges 10, 25 and 50 mm Min. Incremental Motion to 0.05 m Non-Rotating Tip Closed-Loop DC-Motors Sub-nm Resolution with Optional PZT Drive MTBF >5,000 h

M-230 (see p. 1-46 ff), M-235 (see p. 1-50 ff ) and M-238.

M-227 are ultra-high-resolution linear actuators providing linear motion up to 50 mm with sub-micron resolution in a compact package. They consist of a micrometer with nonrotating tip, driven by a closedloop DC-motor/gearhead combination with motor-shaftmounted high-resolution encoder. The combination of an extremely low stiction/friction construction and high-resolution encoder allows for a minimum incremental motion of 50 nanometers at speeds up to 1 mm/sec. Non-Rotating Tip Compared to conventional rotating-tip micrometer drives, the non-rotating-tip design offers several advantages: Elimination of torqueinduced positioning errors Elimination of sinusoidal motion errors Elimination of wear at the contact point Elimination of tip-angledependent wobble
1-42

Compact, High-Precision, Cost-Effective M-227 actuators provide a cost-effective solution for industrial and OEM environments. Integrated Line Drivers All actuators include an integral 0.5 m cable with 15-pin sub-D connector and come with a 3 m extension cable. On the DC servo versions, the connector features integrated line drivers for cable lengths up to 10 meters between actuator and controller. High-Resolution Piezo Option All models come with standard flat tips. A variety of other tips are also available, such as a piezoelectric tip featuring 20 m travel with sub-nanometer resolution for dynamic scanning and tracking see p. 1-73 and 1-58. For higher loads and integrated limit switches refer to the

M-219.10 ball tip option

P-855.20 piezo tip option

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index
M-227 DC-Mike, dimensions (in mm). C-815.38 motor cable included: 3 m, sub-D, 15/15 pin (m/f)

Technical Data
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Integrated sensor Sensor resolution Design resolution Min. incremental motion Backlash Unidirectional repeatability Max. velocity Mechanical properties Drive screw Thread pitch Gear ratio Max. push/pull force Max. lateral force Drive properties Motor type Operating voltage Electrical power Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Cable length Connector Recommended controller/driver -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.16 0.1 15-pin sub-D connector C-863 single-axis C-843 PCI-board, for up to 4 axes -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.22 0.1 15-pin sub-D connector C-863 single-axis C-843 PCI-board, for up to 4 axes -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.26 0.1 15-pin sub-D connector C-863 single-axis (see p. 4-114) C-843 PCI-board, for up to 4 axes (see p. 4-120) kg m C DC-motor, gearhead 0 to 12 1.25 DC-motor, gearhead 0 to 12 1.25 DC-motor, gearhead 0 to 12 1.25 V W Leadscrew 0.5 69.12:1 40 0.1 Leadscrew 0.5 69.12:1 40 0.1 Leadscrew 0.5 69.12:1 40 0.1 N N mm 10 Rotary encoder 2048 0.0035 0.05 2 0.1 0.75 25 Rotary encoder 2048 0.0035 0.05 2 0.1 0.75 50 Rotary encoder 2048 0.0035 0.05 2 0.1 0.75 Cts./rev. m m m m mm/s mm M-227.10 X M-227.25 X M-227.50 X Units

*Higher forces on request

1-43

Piezo Nano Positioning

M-228 Stepper-Mike Linear Actuator


Compact & Cost-Effective with Limit Switches
the non-rotating-tip design offers several advantages:
Ordering Information
M-228.10S Stepper-Mike Linear Actuator, 10 mm, Limit Switches Ask about custom designs!

Elimination of torque-in Elimination of sinusoidal


motion errors Elimination of wear at the contact point Elimination of tip-angledependent wobble Limit and Reference Switches For the protection of your equipment, non-contact Hall-effect limit and reference switches are installed. The direction-sensing reference switch supports advanced automation applications with high precision.
Technical Data
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Sensor resolution Design resolution Minimum incremental motion Backlash 10

duced positioning errors

M-228 linear actuator

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Cost-Effective Design 10 mm Travel Range 46 nm Resolution with C-663 Controller Non-Rotating Tip Max. Velocity 1.5 mm/s Non-contact Limit and Reference Switches Compact Design

M-228.10S X

Units

mm Cts./rev. m m m m m mm/s m

0.046* 0.15* 5** 2 10 1.5* 1 Leadscrew 0.5 28.44444:1 384* 20 20 0.1 2-phase stepper motor 24*** Hall-effect -20 to +65 0.23 0.5 Sub-D connector 15-pin

The linear actuators of the M-228 series provide a travel range of 10 mm and are equipped with high-resolution stepper motors with gearbox. Together with the C-663 controller, the M-228 provides a resolution of 46 nm for loads up to 20 N. The cost-effective

design offers many useful features such as a non-rotating tip, limit and reference switches and a mechanical position display. Non-Rotating Tip Compared to conventional rotating-tip micrometer drives,

Unidirectional repeatability Accuracy Max. velocity Origin repeatability Mechanical properties Spindle Spindle pitch Gear ratio Motor resolution Max. load Max. push/pull force Max. lateral force Drive properties Motor type Operating voltage Limit and reference switches Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Cable length Connector Recommended controller/driver

mm/rev. steps/rev. N N N

C kg m

Aluminium anodized, stainless steel

C-663 (single-channel) (see p. 4-112)

Dimensions of the M-228 linear actuator in mm. Decimal places are separated by commas

*with C-663 stepper motor controller **preloaded ***2-phase stepper motor, 24 V chopper voltage, max. 0.25 A/phase, 24 full-steps/rev.

1-44

Piezo Nano Positioning

M-229 Stepper-Mike Linear Actuator


Compact & Cost-Effective with Limit Switches, Force up to 50 N
Limit and Reference Switches For the protection of your equipment, non-contact Halleffect limit and reference switches are installed. The direction-sensing reference switch supports advanced automation applications with high precision.
Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators

Ordering Information
M-229.25S Stepper-Mike Linear Actuator, 25 mm, Limit Switches Ask about custom designs!

Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

M-229 high-load stepper mike with C-663 Mercury Step stepper motor controller

Nanometrology

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Cost-Efficient Design 25 mm Travel Range 46 nm Resolution (with C-663 Controller) 50 N Load Capacity Non-Rotating Tip Max. Velocity 1.5 mm/s Non-Contact Limit and Reference Switches Compact Design

Micropositioning

Index

Technical Data
Model Active axes M-229.25S X 25 0.046* 0.15* 10** 2 1.5* 1 Leadscrew 0.5 28.44444:1 384* 50 50 0.5 2-phase stepper motor 24*** Hall-effect -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel, brass 0.4 kg C-663 single-axis (see p. 4-112) C V steps/rev. N N N mm/rev. mm m m m m mm/s m Units

M-229 series linear actuators provide a travel range of 25 mm (more than M-228) and are equipped with high-resolution stepper motors with gearboxes. This means the M-229 mike actuator driven by a C-663 stepper motor controller can push and pull loads up to 50 N with a position resolution of 46 nm. The cost-effective design offers many useful features such as a non-rotating tip, limit and reference switches and a mechanical position display.

Non-Rotating Tip Compared to conventional rotating-tip micrometer drives, the non-rotating-tip design offers several advantages:

Motion and positioning Travel range Design resolution Min. incremental motion Backlash Unidirectional repeatability Max. velocity Origin repeatability Mechanical properties Drive screw Thread pitch Gear ratio Motor resolution Load capacity Push/pull force Max. lateral force Drive properties Motor type Operating voltage Limit and reference switches Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Recommended controller/driver

Elimination of torqueinduced positioning errors Elimination of sinusoidal motion errors Elimination of wear at the contact point Elimination of tip-angledependent wobble

M-229 dimensions in mm, Sub-D 15-pin connector, cable 0.5 m

*with C-663 Mercury Step controller **with preload ***2-phase stepper motor, 24 V chopper voltage, max. 0.25 A/phase, 24 full steps/rev.

1-45

Piezo Nano Positioning

M-230 Precision Linear Actuator


Non-Rotating Tip, Limit Switches, Stroke to 25 mm
Ordering Information
M-230.10 High-Resolution DC-Mike Linear Actuator, 10 mm, Limit Switches M-230.10S High-Resolution Stepper-Mike Linear Actuator, 10 mm, Limit Switches M-230.25 High-Resolution DC-Mike Linear Actuator, 25 mm, Limit Switches M-230.25S High-Resolution Stepper-Mike Linear Actuator, 25 mm, Limit Switches

M-230.10, M-230.25, high-resolution DC-Mike actuators, 10 and 25 mm travel range

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Travel Range 10 & 25 mm Min. Incremental Motion to 0,05 m Non-Rotating Tip Max. Velocity 2 mm/s Closed-Loop DC Motors and Stepper Motors Non-Contact Limit and Reference Switches Front Mount or Clamp Mount MTBF>20.000 h

switch supports advanced automation applications with high precision. Integrated Line Drivers All actuators include an integral 0.5 m cable with 15-pin sub-D connector and come with a 3 m extension cable. On the DC servo versions, the connector features integrated line drivers for cable lengths up to 10 meters between actuator and controller. High-Load Versions For higher loads and travel ranges refer to the M-235 (see p. 1-50) and M-238 (see p. 1-52). A screw-in ball tip and a flat tip are included.

M-230 are ultra-high-resolution linear actuators providing linear motion up to 25 mm with sub-micron resolution in a compact package. They consist of a micrometer with non-rotating tip driven by a 2-phase stepper motor or a closed-loop DC motor / gearhead combination with motor-shaft-mounted, high-resolution encoder. Non-Rotating Tip Compared to conventional rotating-tip micrometer drives, the non-rotating-tip design offers several advantages:
Application Examples

Elimination of torqueinduced positioning errors

Elimination of sinusoidal
motion errors Elimination of wear at the contact point Elimination of tip-angledependent wobble High Accuracy & Long Life M-230 actuators provide a costeffective solution for heavierduty industrial and OEM environments. They feature extremely low-stiction, low-friction construction, allowing for minimum incremental motion as low as 50 nanometers and speeds up to 2 mm/sec. Limit and Reference Switches For the protection of your equipment, non-contact Halleffect limit and reference switches are installed. The direction-sensing reference

Fiber positioning Metrology Photonics packaging Quality assurance testing Testing equipment

Ball tip (included)

Flat tip (included)

1-46

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics
M-230. Cable length: 500 mm, 15-pin sub-D connector with integrated line drivers (DC motor models). Dimensions in mm

Nanometrology

Technical Data
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Integrated sensor Sensor resolution Design resolution Min. incremental motion Backlash Unidirectional repeatability Max. velocity Reference switch repeatability Mechanical properties Spindle Spindle pitch Gear ratio Motor resolution** Max. push/pull force Max. lateral force Drive properties Motor type Operating voltage Electrical power Limit and reference switches Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Cable length Connector -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.3 0.5 15-pin sub-D connector -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.35 0.5 15-pin sub-D connector C-863 single-axis (p. 4-114) C-843 PCI board, for up to 4 axes (p. 4-120) -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.3 0.5 15-pin sub-D connector C-663 single-axis -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.35 0.5 15-pin sub-D connector C-663 single-axis (p. 4-112) kg m C DC-motor, gearhead 0 to 12 2 Hall-effect DC-motor, gearhead 0 to 12 2 Hall-effect Hall-effect Hall-effect 2-phase stepper motor** 24 2-phase stepper motor** 24 V W 70 30 70 20 Leadscrew 0.4 42.92063:1 Leadscrew 0.4 42.92063:1 Leadscrew 0.4 28.44444:1 384** 45* 30 Leadscrew 0.4 28.44444:1 384** 45* 20 steps/rev. N N mm 10 Rotary encoder 2,048 0.0046 0.05 2 0.1 1.2 1 25 Rotary encoder 2,048 0.0046 0.05 2 0.1 1.2 1 0.037 0.05 2 0.1 2 1 0.037 0.05 2 0.1 2 1 Cts./rev. m m m m mm/s m 10 25 mm M-230.10 X M-230.25 X M-230.10S X M-230.25S X Units

Micropositioning

Index

Recommended controller/driver C-863 single-axis C-843 PCI board, for up to 4 axes

*at velocities of up to 1 mm/s **2-phase stepper motor, 24 V chopper voltage, max. 0.25 A/phase, 24 full steps/rev., motor resolution with C-663 stepper motor controller

1-47

Piezo Nano Positioning

M-231 DC-Mike Precision Linear Actuator


With Limit Switches, Suitable for Fiber Alignment
Ordering Information
M-231.17 High-Resolution DC-Mike Linear Actuator, 17 mm, Limit Switches

M-231.17 high-resolution DC-Mike actuator, 17 mm travel range

Travel Range 17 mm Min. Incremental Motion to 0.1 m Max. Velocity 2.5 mm/s Closed-Loop DC-Motors Non-Contact Limit and Reference Switches Fits M-105 Fiber Aligners MTBF >5.000 h Integrated Line Drivers All actuators include an integral 0.5 m cable with 15-pin sub-D connector and come with a 3 m extension cable. On the DC servo versions, the connector features integrated line drivers for cable lengths up to 10 meters between actuator and controller.

For higher loads and travel ranges, refer to the M-230 (see p. 1-46), M-235 (see p. 1-50) and M-238 (see p. 1-52).

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

The M-231 is an ultra-high-resolution linear actuator providing linear motion up to 17 mm with sub-micron resolution in a compact package. It consists of a leadscrew which is driven by a closed-loop DC-motor/gearhead combination with motorshaft-mounted, high-resolution encoder (2048 counts/rev.). Upgrade for Manual Aligners The M-231 was especially designed to fit existing manual translation stages (e. g. M-105, see p. 4-50 ff ) as a direct replacement for a manual micrometer. Limit and Reference Switches For the protection of your equipment, non-contact Halleffect limit and reference switches are installed. The reference switch supports advanced automation applications with high precision.
Application Examples

M-231 mounted on M-105 XYZ positioning systems

Technical Data
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Integrated sensor Sensor resolution Design resolution Min. incremental motion Backlash Unidirectional repeatability Max. velocity Reference switch repeatability Mechanical properties Spindle Spindle pitch Gear ratio Max. push/pull force Drive properties Motor type Operating voltage Electrical power Limit and reference switches Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Recommended controller/driver -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.17 C-863 single-axis (p. 4-114) C-843 PCI board, for up to 4 axes (p. 4-120) kg C DC-motor, gearhead 0 to 12 2 Hall-effect V W Leadscrew 0.4 28.44444:1 40 N mm 17 Rotary encoder 2,048 0.007 0.1 2 0.2 1.5 1 Cts./rev. m m m m mm/s m mm M-231.17 X Units

Fiber positioning Metrology Photonics packaging Quality assurance testing Testing equipment
M-231, dimensions (in mm). Cable length: 500 mm, 15-pin, sub-D connector with integrated line drivers

1-48

Piezo Nano Positioning

M-232 DC-Mike Precision Linear Actuator


Compact Package, Suitable for Fiber Alignment
Ordering Information
M-232.17 Compact High-Resolution DC-Mike Linear Actuator, 17 mm, Limit Switches Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

M-232.17 high-resolution DC-Mike actuator mounted on M-105 translation stage

Travel Range 17 mm Min. Incremental Motion to 0,1 m Max. Velocity 2,5 mm/s Closed-Loop DC-Motors Non-Contact Limit and Reference Switches Fits M-105 Fiber Aligners MTBF >5.000 h

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

The M-232 is an ultra-high-resolution linear actuator providing linear motion up to 17 mm with sub-micron resolution in a compact package. It features a space-saving design with a leadscrew side-by-side to a closed-loop DC-motor/gearhead combination and a highresolution encoder (2048 counts/rev.). They feature a low-stiction, low-friction construction allowing for minimum incremental motion of 100 nanometers at speeds of up to 2.5 mm/sec. Upgrade for Manual Aligners The M-232 was especially designed to fit existing manual translation stages (e. g. M-105 see p. 4-50 ff ) as a direct replacement for a manual micrometer.
Application Examples

Limit and Reference Switches For the protection of your equipment, non-contact Halleffect limit and reference switches are installed. The reference switch supports advanced automation applications with high precision. Integrated Line Drivers All actuators include an integral 0.5 m cable with 15-pin sub-D connector and come with a 3 m extension cable. On the DC servo versions, the connector features integrated line drivers for cable lengths up to 10 meters between actuator and controller. For higher loads and travel ranges, refer to the M-230 (see p. 1-46), M-235 (see p. 1-50) and M-238 (see p. 1-52).

M-232, dimensions (in mm). Cable length: 500 mm, 15-pin sub-D connector with integrated line drivers

Technical Data
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Integrated sensor Sensor resolution Design resolution Min. incremental motion Backlash Unidirectional repeatability Max. velocity Reference switch repeatability Mechanical properties Spindle Spindle pitch Gear ratio Max. push/pull force Drive properties Motor type Operating voltage Electrical power Limit and reference switches Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Recommended controller/driver -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.17 C-863 single-axis (p. 4-114) C-843 PCI board, for up to 4 axes (p. 4-112) kg C DC-motor, gearhead 0 to 12 2 Hall-effect V W Leadscrew 0.4 28.44444:1 40 N mm 17 Rotary encoder 2,048 0.007 0.1 2 0.2 1.5 1 Cts./rev. m m m m mm/s m mm M-232.17 X Units

Fiber positioning Metrology Photonics packaging Quality assurance testing Testing equipment

1-49

Piezo Nano Positioning

M-235 Heavy-Duty Precision Linear Actuator


High-Dynamics, Stroke to 50 mm, Forces to 120 N
Ballscrews for High Speed and Long Lifetime The recirculating ballscrew is maintenance-free and preloaded to eliminate mechanical play. Its significantly reduced friction, compared to conventional lead screws, allows for higher velocity, lower power consumption and longer service life. Thus, a bidirectional repeatability of 1 m is made possible! Limit and Reference Switches For the protection of your equipment, non-contact Halleffect limit and reference switches are installed. The direction-sensing reference switch supports advanced automation applications with high precision. Integrated Line Drivers All actuators include an integral 0.5 m cable with 15-pin sub-D connector and come with a 3 m extension cable. On the DC servo versions, the connector features integrated line drivers for cable lengths up to 10 meters between actuator and controller (DC-motors only). A screw-in ball tip and a flat tip are included.
Ordering Information
M-235.2DD High-Power Linear Actuator, 20 mm, Ballscrew, Direct-Drive DC Motor M-235.2VD Vacuum Version of M-235.2DD M-235.2DG High-Power Linear Actuator, 20 mm, Ballscrew, DC Motor Gearhead M-235.2VG Vacuum Version of M-235.2DG M-235.22S High-Power Linear Actuator, 20 mm, Ballscrew, Stepper Motor M-235.5DD High-Power Linear Actuator, 50 mm, Ballscrew, Direct-Drive DC Motor M-235.5VD Vacuum Version of M-235.5DD M-235.5DG High-Power Linear Actuator, 50 mm, Ballscrew, DC Motor Gearhead M-235.5VG Vacuum Version of M-235.5DG M-235.52S High-Power Linear Actuator, 50 mm, Ballscrew, Stepper Motor Ask about custom designs!

M-235.2DG (top) and M-235.5DG (bottom) high-resolution DC-Mike, ballscrew

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Travel Range 20 & 50 mm Min. Incremental Motion to 0.1 m High-Speed Direct Drive Option Push/Pull Load 120 N Lateral Force 100 N Recirculating Ballscrew Drives Provide High Speeds & Long Lifetimes Closed-Loop DC Motors and Stepper Motors Non-Contact Limit and Reference Switches MTBF >20.000 h Vacuum-Compatible Versions Available to 10-6 hPa The M-235.5DD version is equipped with a direct drive motor for high-speed positioning applications. The DC-motor models provide a minimum incremental motion of 100 nm only and are equipped with high-resolution rotary encoders for position control. The M-235.x2S versions have a high-power, low-vibration 2-phase stepper motor. Non-Rotating Tip Compared to conventional rotating-tip micrometer drives, the non-rotating-tip design offers several advantages:

The M-235 is an ultra-highresolution linear actuator providing linear motion of up to 50 mm with sub-micron resolution in a compact package. It consists of a preloaded ultralow-friction, heavy-duty ballscrew which is driven by a 2-phase stepper motor or a closed-loop DC motor with motor-shaft-mounted, high-resolution encoder (2048 counts/rev.). Three Different Drives The M-235 is available with three different motor drives:
Application Examples

Fiber positioning Automation Metrology Photonics packaging Quality assurance testing Testing equipment

Elimination of torqueinduced positioning errors

Elimination of sinusoidal
motion errors

Elimination of wear at the


contact point

Elimination of tip-angledependent wobble

M-235.22S high-resolution Stepper-Mike, 20 mm travel range, ballscrew

1-50

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

Ball tip (included)

M-235.22S and M-235.52S dimensions in mm, cable length 500 mm, 15-pin Sub-D connector

M-235.2DD, M-235.2DG, M-235.5DD and M-235.5DG dimensions in mm. Cable length 500 mm, 15-pin Sub-D connector with integrated line drivers

Technical Data
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Integrated sensor Sensor resolution Design resolution Min. incremental motion Unidirectional repeatability Bidirectional repeatability Max. velocity Mechanical properties Gear ratio Motor resolution* Max. push/pull force Max. lateral force Drive properties Motor type Operating voltage Electrical power Limit and reference switches Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Recommended controller/driver -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.55 C-863 single-axis C-843 PCI board, for up to 4 axes -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.5 C-863 single-axis C-843 PCI board, for up to 4 axes -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.65 C-663 single-axis -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.7 C-863 single-axis C-843 PCI board, for up to 4 axes -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.65 C-863 single-axis (p. 4-114) C-843 PCI board, for up to 4 axes (p. 4-120) -20 to +65 Al (anodized), steel 0.8 C-663 single-axis (p. 4-112) kg C DC-motor, gearhead 0 to 12 4 Hall-effect DC-motor 0 to 12 17 Hall-effect 2-phase stepper motor* 24 4.75 Hall-effect DC-motor, gearhead 0 to 12 4 Hall-effect DC-motor 0 to 12 17 Hall-effect 2-phase stepper motor* 24 4.75 Hall-effect V W 120 100 >50 100 29.6:1 6,400* 100** 100 120 100 >50 100 29.6:1 6,400* 100** 100 steps/rev. N N 20 Rotary encoder 2.048 0.016 0.1 0.1 1 2.6 20 Rotary encoder 2.048 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 >30 0.156 0.1 0.2 1 20 20 50 Rotary encoder 2.048 0.016 0.1 0.1 1 2.6 50 Rotary encoder 2.048 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 >30 0.156 0.1 0.2 1 20 Cts./rev. m m m m mm/s 50 mm M-235.2DG X M-235.2DD X M-235.22S X M-235.5DG X M-235.5DD X M-235.52S X Units

*2-phase stepper motor, 24 V chopper voltage, max. 0.8 A/phase, 400 full steps/rev., motor resolution with C-663 stepper motor controller **at up to 10 mm/sec Data for vacuum versions may differ.

1-51

Piezo Nano Positioning

M-238 High-Load, High-Resolution Linear Actuator


Forces to 400 N, Optional Direct Position Measurement
high-efficiency PWM (pulse width modulation) servoamplifier mounted side-byside with the DC-Motor and offers several advantages:
Ordering Information
M-238.5PG Heavy-Duty DC-Mike Actuator, 400 N, 50 mm, ActiveDrive M-238.5PL* Heavy-Duty DC-Mike Actuator, 400 N, 50 mm, ActiveDrive, Direct-Metrology Encoder *Ask for availability in your region

Increased efficiency, by
eliminating power losses between the amplifier and motor Reduced cost of ownership and improved reliability, because no external driver is required Elimination of PWM amplifier noise radiation, by mounting the amplifier and motor together in a single, electrically shielded case Non-Rotating Tip Compared to conventional rotating-tip micrometer drives, the non-rotating-tip design offers several advantages:

M-238.5PL Heavy-Duty Mike actuator (with CD for size comparison)

Ballscrews for High Speed, Precision and Lifetime The precision-ground ballscrew is maintenance-free and preloaded to eliminate mechanical play. Its significantly reduced friction, compared to conventional leadscrews, allows for higher velocity, lower power consumption and longer lifetime. Limit and Reference Switches For the protection of your equipment, non-contact Halleffect limit and reference switches are installed. The direction-sensing reference switch supports advanced automation applications with high precision.

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

High Load Capacity to 400 N Travel Range 50 mm Resolution to 0.1 m Max. Velocity 30 mm/s Preloaded Frictionless Ball Screw Optional 0.1 m Direct-Metrology Linear Encoder for Exceptional Precision MTBF >20,000 h Vacuum-Compatible Versions Available for 10-6 hPa The M-238 is a high-load, highprecision actuator providing linear motion up to 50 mm, a load capacity to 400 N and high velocity to 30 mm/s. It consists of a low-friction, heavy-duty ballscrew, driven by a closedloop, ActiveDrive DC-Motor with gearbox. The M-238 is therefore well suited for high duty-cycle operation in industrial environments. An optional linear encoder provides exceptional accuracy and repeatability.
Application Examples

Elimination of torque Elimination of sinusoidal


induced positioning errors motion errors Elimination of wear at the contact point Elimination of tip-angle dependent wobble The lateral guiding of the tip withstands lateral forces of up to 100 N.

Direct Metrology Linear Encoder to Compensate Mechanical Play The M-238.5PL model is equipped with a non-contact, optical, linear encoder (direct metrology) with an output resolution of 0.1 m. Because the encoder measures the actual position of the non-rotating actuator tip, drive-train errors like backlash and elastic deformations are eliminated. A lower-cost version with a rotary encoder is available as model number M-238.5PG. ActiveDrive DC-Motor DC motor drives offer several advantages, such as high dynamics, high torque at low rotational speed, low heat and low vibration. The ActiveDrive design, developed by PI, features a

Quality assurance testing Testing equipment Precision machining Astronomy Flexible automation Metrology

tips

M-238.5PG M-238.5PL

A 124.4 113.4

B 67.6 90

M-238 dimensions in mm

1-52

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors


M-238.5PL velocity at 30 mm/s is highly constant.

PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

M-238.5PL repeatability is better than 0.3 m.

Index

The settling time for a 30 mm step is less than 1.5 seconds.

Technical Data
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Travel range Integrated sensor Sensor resolution Design resolution Min. incremental motion Backlash Unidirectional repeatability Max. velocity Origin repeatability Mechanical properties Spindle pitch Gear ratio Push / pull force Lateral force Drive properties Motor type Operating voltage Electrical power Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass Cable length Connector Recommended controller/driver -10 to 50 Al (anodized), steel 2.4 3 D-Sub 15 (m) C-863, C-843 -10 to 50 Al (anodized), steel 2.4 3 D-Sub 15 (m) C-863 (p. 4-114), C-843 (p. 4-120) kg m 5 % 10 mm C DC-motor, ActiveDrive 24 (PWM) 80 DC-motor, ActiveDrive 24 (PWM) 80 V W nominal 2 3.71:1 400 100 2 3.71:1 400 100 N N Max. Max. mm/rev. 50 Rotary encoder 4000 cts/rev. 0.13 0.5 3 1 30 1 50 Linear encoder 0.1 m 0.1 0.3 1 0.3 30 1 m m m m mm/s m 20 % typ. typ. typ. typ. mm M-238.5PG X M-238.5PL X Units Tolerance

1-53

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-853 P-854 Piezoelectric Micrometer Drive


Hybrid PiezoMike Provides Sub-Nanometer Resolution
of the micrometer is 1 m. By controlling the piezo voltage, the micrometer tip is automatically moved in and out (up to 25 m) relative to the manually set position. Resolution of the piezoelectric motion is in the sub-nanometer range. The PiezoMike can therefore be used as a remotely controlled fine positioning element.
P-853 (left), P-854 (right)

Ordering Information
P-853.00 PiezoMike, Piezoelectric Micrometer Drive, 6 mm, 25 m P-854.00 PiezoMike, Piezoelectric Micrometer Drive, 18 mm, 25 m Ask about custom designs!

Working Principle A sophisticated wire EDM (electric discharge machining) flexure motion amplifier doubles the displacement of a piezo linear actuator. It also serves as a linear guide to the micrometer drive, which is moved back and forth when the piezo drive voltage is changed. This design is compact and mechanically stable.

PiezoMike Applications The PiezoMike can be mounted like a micrometer drive by clamping around the sleeve. The P-853.00 is equipped with a 6 mm holding flange and can be directly attached to M-311 miniature translation stages (see www.pi.ws). The P-854 can be attached to the M-105 linear positioners (see p. 4-50).

Alternative for Standard Micrometer Drives Manual Travel to 18 mm Piezoelectric High-Resolution Travel to 25 m Sub-Nanometer Resolution Dynamic Operation to 10 Hz linear drives. They can be operated manually, like standard micrometer drives. Sensitivity

P-853/P-854 PiezoMikes are micrometer drives with integrated high-resolution piezo


Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18
Holding-Flange-Standard

Holding-Flange-Standard

P-853 dimensions (in mm)

P-854 dimensions (in mm)

Technical Data
Model Travel range (micrometer drive) Piezo fine travel range (@ 0 to 100 V) Min. incremental motion (piezo drive) Micrometer sensitivity Max. axial push/pull force Micrometer drive Micrometer pitch Stiffness Electrical capacitance (piezo) Electrical connection P-853.00 6 25 <1 1 10 / 5 M-619.10 0.5 1 0.45 P-854.00 18 25 <1 1 20 / 5 M-626.10 0.5 1.5 1.5 mm/rev. N/m F Units mm m 20 % nm m N
M-313.80 XYZ miniature stage with P-853 PiezoMikes and optional fiber holder

LEMO Cable: coaxial FFA.00.250, LEMO Cable: coaxial, FFA.00.250, male. RG 178, male. RG 178, Teflon coated, 1 m Teflon coated, 1 m 0.05 N -S E-660, E-610, E-500 System 0.1 N -S E-660 (p. 2-116), E-610 (p. 2-110), E-500 (p. 2-142) System kg

Mass Body material Recommended piezo driver

1-54

Piezo Nano Positioning

M-168 Stepper-Mike Precision Linear Actuator


Non-Rotating Tip, Strokes to 50 mm
Ordering Information
M-168.12S High-Resolution Stepper-Mike Linear Actuator, 10 mm M-168.22S High-Resolution Stepper-Mike Linear Actuator, 25 mm M-168.52S High-Resolution Stepper-Mike Linear Actuator, 50 mm Ask about custom designs! Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

M-168 Stepper-Mikes providing 10, 25 and 50 mm travel range (from front to back)

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

10, 25 and 50 mm Travel Range Resolution <0.1 m 2-Phase Stepper Motor Manual Positioning Knob Sub-nm-Resolution with Optional PZT Actuator >5,000 h MTBF p. 1-58 for spherical tips and other options). High-Resolution Piezo Option The optional piezo tip provides 20 m travel with sub-nanometer resolution for dynamic scanning and tracking (see p. 1-73).

Micropositioning

Index

M-168 are compact, high-resolution linear actuators providing linear motion up to 50 mm with sub-micron resolution. They consist of a micrometer drive with non-rotating tip driven by a 6400 microstep/rev and 2-phase stepper motor. Non-Rotating Tip Compared to conventional rotating-tip micrometer drives, the non-rotating-tip design offers several advantages:

M-168.12S, M-168.22S and M-168.52S dimensions in mm. Sub-D connector 15-pin, 3 m cable included (C-815.38)

Elimination of torque-indu Elimination of sinusoidal


motion errors Elimination of wear at the contact point Elimination of tip-angledependent wobble M-168 Stepper-Mikes feature an extremely low-stiction, lowfriction construction allowing for high resolution and repeatability. A manual positioning knob provides coarse resolution of 5 m. All models come with standard flat tips (see ced positioning errors

Technical Data
Model Travel range Design resolution Min. incremental motion Unidirectional repeatability Backlash Max. velocity Max. push/pull force Max. lateral force Motor resolution* Drive screw pitch Weight Recommended motor controllers M-168.12S 10 0.025 0.05 0.1 2 5 50 0.02 6400* 0.5 0.4 C-663 single-axis M-168.22S 25 0.025 0.05 0.1 2 5 50 0.02 6400* 0.5 0.45 C-663 single-axis M-168.52S 50 0.025 0.05 0.1 2 5 50 0.02 6400* 0.5 0.5 C-663 single-axis (p. 4-112) Unit mm m m m m mm/s N N (at tip) steps/rev. mm/rev. kg

*2-phase stepper motor, 24 V chopper voltage, max. 0.8 A/phase, 400 full steps/rev., motor resolution with C-663 stepper motor controller

1-55

Piezo Nano Positioning

M-653 M-655 Differential Micrometer Drive


Stroke to 20 mm, Manual
0.1 m Sensitivity 1 m Graduations Travel Range up to 20 mm

Model

Travel range coarse/fine

Spindle pitch coarse/fine 0.4/0.02 mm 0.5/0.05 mm

Shaft 6 mm 12 mm

Tip 3 mm 6,8 mm

Total length at 0 mm 56 mm 112 mm

M-653.00 differential micrometer drive

M-653.00 M-655.00

5/0.2 mm 20/1.0 mm

M-631 M-632 M-633 Micrometer Drive


Non-Rotating Tip, Optional Piezo Drive, Manual

10, 25 and 50 mm Travel Range Pitch 0.5 mm/rev. Low-Friction Construction 1 m Manual Sensitivity Sub-nm Resolution with Optional PZT Actuator

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Model

Travel range

Max. push/ pull force

Tip 12 mm 12 mm 12 mm

Shaft 16 mm 16 mm 16 mm

Total length at 0 mm 76 mm 110.5 mm 170.5 mm

M-631.00 M-633, M-632, M-631 Micrometers (from top) M-632.00 M-633.00

10 mm 25 mm 50 mm

50 N 50 N 50 N

M-619 M-626 Precision Micrometer Drive


Stroke to 25 mm, Manual
1 m Sensitivity 10 m Graduations Model M-626.05 with Lockable Spindle
Model Travel range Shaft M-619.00 M-619.10 M-620.00 M-621.00 M-622.00 M-623.00 M-626.00 & M-626.05 M-626.10 M-624.00 6.5 mm 6.5 mm 10 mm 10 mm 15 mm 15 mm 18 mm 18 mm 25 mm 6 mm 6 mm 6 mm 8 mm 10 mm 12 mm 6 mm 6 mm 12 mm Tip 3.5 mm 3.5 mm 3 mm 5 mm 5.5 mm 5.5 mm 3 mm 3 mm 6.8 mm Total length at 0 mm 37 mm 44.5 mm 44 mm 45 mm 63 mm 69 mm 53 mm 64.5 mm 87 mm

Micrometer drives with up to 25 mm travel

1-56

Piezo Nano Positioning

M-227K Vacuum Compatible Linear Actuator


High-Resolution DC-Mike Linear Actuator

Compact Design Vacuum Compatible up to 10-6 hPa Non-Rotating Tip Closed-Loop DC-Motors
Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators
Model The M-227KVLA Vacuum Compatible linear actuator is equipped with rotary encoder and DC-motor with gearhead M-227KVLA Travel range 10 mm Push/pull force 40 N Design resolution 0.059 m Max. velocity 0.3 mm/s Dimensions

Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..


19 mm Length 146.5 5 mm

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

M-230K Compact Stepper Motor Linear Actuator


High-Resolution Linear Actuator with Folded Drive

Push/Pull Force to 400 N Highly Compact with Folded Drive High-Resolution Stepper Motor Min. Incremental Motion to 15 nm Hall-Effect Limit Switches Custom Tip for Load Mounting

Micropositioning

Index

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Model For fine positioning tasks (e.g. in astronomy applications) the extremely compact M-230KCLA features resolution better than 5 nanometers M-230KCLA

Travel range 4 mm

Design resolution 4.45 nm

Max. velocity 9 m/s

Thread pitch 0.1 mm

Dimensions 107 x 60 x 30 mm + flange length 24.5 2 mm

M-238K Ultra-High-Load Precision Linear Actuator


High-Performance Linear Actuator Pushes Up To 1400 N
High-Resolution Incremental Rotary Encoder + Absolute
Position Measurement with Linear Potentiometer

Push/Pull Force to 1400 N Fast: Velocity to 30 mm/s Auto Locking at Rest with No Power Consumption &
Heat Generation

Brushless DC-Servomotor

Model

Travel range

M-238KHLA High-Load measures and keeps the absolute position without current

Min. incremental Motion 2 m

Design resolution 0.5 m

Motor power 250 W

Dimensions

M-238KHLA

75 mm

64 mm Total length 185 +75 mm

1-57

Piezo Nano Positioning

M-219 Optional Tips


For Micrometers and Actuators
Ordering Information
M-219.00 Spherical Tip, M10 x 0.5 mm M-219.10 Ball Tip, M10 x 0.5 mm M-219.20 Tip with M 5 Threaded Stud, M10 x 0.5 mm M-219.30 Hardened Stainless Steel Tip, M10 x 0.5 mm Ask about custom designs!

M-227 DC-Mikes, M-168 Stepper Mikes and M-631 to M-633 manual micrometer drives are supplied with flat tips. The following optional replacement tips are available (all with M10x 0.5 mm fine threads):

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

P-855.20
Optional tips, dimensions in mm

1-58

Piezo Nano Positioning

Notes on Specifications for Motorized Actuators


Active axes Specifications given in the data sheet are measured in relation to the defined motion axis. A different motor orientation may result in modified data.
Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators

Motion and positioning


Travel range The maximum allowed travel is limited by the length of the drive screw in a spindle/motor combination. Given in the data sheet is the distance between the two limit switches, if present. Integrated sensor Rotary or linear encoder Encoder resolution Rotary encoder: counts per drive-screw revolution Linear encoder: interpolated minimum increment that can be distinguished Design resolution The theoretical minimum movement that can be made, based on the selection of the mechanical drive components (drive screw pitch, gear ratio, angular motor resolution etc.). Design resolution is usually better than the practical position resolution (minimum incremental motion). For linear encoders, the design describes the resolution of the of the position feedback sensor system. Minimum incremental motion The minimum motion that can be repeatably executed for a given input, which is sometimes referred to as practical or operational resolution. Design resolution and practical resolution have to be distinguished. Design resolutions of 1 nm or better can be achieved with many motor, gearbox and leadscrew combinations. In practical applications, however, stiction/friction, windup, and elastic deformation limit operating resolution. Several PI motorized micropositioners are available with additional piezo fine positioners for applications where repeatable nanometer scale resolution and / or fast response are required. The data table states typical measured values. For repeatable nanometer or sub-nanometer resolution see the Piezo Flexure Stages / High-Speed Scanning Systems Backlash Position error that appears upon reversing direction due to error in the drivetrain. See page 4-128 ff for details. The data table states typical measured values. Rotation / linear input, tangent-arm length Angular displacement of tangent-arm rotation stages is determined by the arm length and the linear motion input pushing the arm (see p. 4-82) for information on how to calculate angular displacement from linear input). Unidirectional / bidirectional repeatability Values are typical results (RMS, 1 sigma), see also Glossary Pitch / yaw The maximum angular deviation around Y- (pitch) and (see p. 2-3 ff ) and PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators (see p. 1-3 ff ) Sections.

Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

Z-axis (yaw) over the whole travel range, with X being the direction of motion. Pitch and yaw are usually given as values. The data table states typical measured values. See Definition of Axes and Angles page 4-128 ff. Max. velocity This is the short-term peak value for horizontal mounting, with no load, and not intended for continuous operation. The average velocity and continuous velocity are lower than the peak value and depend on the load conditions and other environmental parameters. Origin repeatability Repeatability of the reference switch (if present)

Mechanical properties
Motor resolution Resolution with micro-stepping specified for PI's stepper motor controllers. Stiffness in motion direction Typical tolerance: 20 % Max. normal load capacity Centered, vertical load (horizontal installation). Max. push / pull force Active and passive force limit in operating direction, at center
1-59

of stage. Some stages may be able to generate higher forces at the cost of reduced lifetime.

Piezo Nano Positioning

Drive properties
Drive type / Operating voltage ActiveDrive: The operating voltage (usually 24 VDC) for the ActiveDrive motors is provided by an external power supply (included in the delivery). DC motors: DC servo motors require a supply voltage of up to 12 VDC. The operating voltage is usually given as differential value where the magnitude determines the velocity, and the sign determines the motion direction. Stepper motors: PI stepper motors are usually driven in chopper mode. Electrical power Motor manufacturers information. Torque Motor manufacturers information.

Miscellaneous
Operating temperature range Safe operation, no damage to the mechanics. All technical data specified in the data sheet refer to room temperature (22 C 3 C). Material Micropositioning stages are typically made of anodized aluminum or stainless steel. Small amounts of other materials may be used (for bearings, preload, coupling, mounting, etc.). For special applications other materials are possible like Invar. Al: Aluminum N-S: Nonmagnetic stainless steel St: Steel I: Invar Mass Typical tolerance: 5 % Cable length Typical tolerance: 10 mm Recommended motor controller Compatible motor controllers are described in the Servo & Stepper Motor Controllers (see p. 4-109 ff ) Section. For further information read Micropositioning Fundamentals Section (see p. 4-127 ff ).

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

1-60

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors

Piezo Actuators & Components

Piezo Nano Positioning

Selection Guide: Piezo Actuators & Components


Great Variety: Flexure Guided, Preloaded, Stacks, Tubes, Benders, Shear Actuators
Piezo Actuators Overview PI piezo actuators are designed to combine ultra-high performance with long lifetime in industrial and scientific applications. PI's piezo ceramic design and manufacturing division, PI CeraModels P-601 P-855.20 P-810 P-830 P-820 P-840, P-841 P-842, P-843 P-844, P-845 P-212, P-216 P-225, P-235 PL022, /033, /055 P-882 P-888 P-871 PL112 PL140 P-876 Description Closed-loop, with flexure guidance Piezo tip for micrometer Only 6 mm diameter, ferromagnetic end pieces Smallest preloaded piezo translator Preloaded, optional ball tip Preloaded, optional ball tip, optional water-proof case Preloaded, long travel ranges, very high forces PICMA Chip. Smallest multilayer piezo actuators, from 2x2x2 mm PICMA multilayer stacks, ceramic encapsulation, extreme lifetime PICMA multilayer bender actuators, co-fired ceramic encapsulation, low operating voltage, with position sensors PICMA multilayer bender actuators, co-fired ceramic encapsulation, low operating voltage, open-loop DuraAct piezoelectric patch transducers: sensor, actuator & electrical charge generation

mic, provides the capability and flexibility to offer highly engineered custom sub-assemblies at a very attractive price. The patented PICMA multilayer long-life piezo actuators with cofired ceramic insulation provide

more than 10 times higher service life than conventional actuators. Integrated position feedback sensors are available for high linearity applications in closed-loop operation. All linear drives are intended for integraDynamics*

tion into a customers system and feature no guidance. If offaxis motion cannot be tolerated external guidance is required.

Push/Pull Force [N] 30 / 10 100 / 5

Travel [m] 110, 300, 400 20 15, 30, 45 15, 30, 45 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 15 to 120, 15 to 180 3

Voltage Range

Sensor Page 1-68 1-73 1-70 1-72 1-74 1-76 1-78 1-80 1-92 1-82 1-84 1-94 1-96 1-86 1-88 1-90 1-100 1-98

-20 to 120 SGS -20 to 120 -20 to 120 -20 to 120 -20 to 120 SGS -20120 0 to 1000 SGS SGS

50 / 1 50 / 10 1000 / 50 800 / 300, 3000 / 700 2000 / 300, 4500 / 500 to 1000 / 5

-20 to 120 -20 to 120 30 30 var. 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 250 SGS Opt. Opt.

to 4000 / 20 5, 9, 15, 30 1/1 1/1 to 775 to 80000 / 300 to 60000 / 250 0,1 / 0,1 10 to 300 160 to 1600 500, 900, 2000 5 to 300 5 to 300 4, 6, 8 1 to 10x10x10

P-007 P-056 PICA Stack piezo actuators, wide variety, high-force capacity. P-010 P-056.xxP P-010, P-016, P-025.xxH PT120 PT140 P-111 P-151 PICA Thru ring actuators combine the advantages of piezo tubes with the high forces of stack actuators PT-Tube piezo tube actuators, minimum tolerances PICA Shear shear-effect actuator: Compact, X, XY, XYZ, e. g. for scanning-microscopy, optional clear aperture

*Relative to products in this class Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

P-601 Closed-loop, flexure guided, long travel

P-855.20 Piezo tip for micrometer

P-810 P-830 Small (6 mm diam.) actuators

P-820 Smallest preloaded piezo actuators

P-840 P-841 Preloaded P-842 P-842 Preloaded, opt. actuators with optional ball tips water-proof case

P-212, P-216, P-225, P-235 High PL022, PL033, PL055 Multilayer P-882 P-888 Multilayer force, preloaded, long travel miniature chip actuators stacks, extreme lifetime

P-871, PL122-PL144 PICMA multilayer bender actuators

P-876 Piezoelectric patch transducers

P-007 P-056 Stack piezo actuators. Version xxP for even higher dynamics

Options and Accessories see p. 1-102 ff More Piezo Actuators and Piezo Motors: See p. 1-3 ff & 1-23 ff
P-010.xxH, P-016.xxH, P-025.xxH PT120 PT-Tube piezo tube PICA Thru ring actuators actuators P-111 P-151 Shear-effect actuator: Up to 3 axes, fast

Please follow the mounting guidelines on p. 1-67 Notes on Specifications see p. 1-106 ff

1-62

Piezo Nano Positioning

Piezoelectric Actuators and Components


Advantages of PI Piezoelectric Actuators:

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Sub-Nanometer resolution Large force generation (up to 50,000 N and more) Microsecond-range response No backlash, stiction or friction Immune to magnetic fields Extremely low steady-state power consumption No wear and tear Vacuum and clean-room compatibility Operation at cryogenic temperatures possible

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

PICMA piezoelectric actuators

Index

Piezoelectric translators are solid-state ceramic actuators which convert electrical energy directly into linear motion (mechanical energy) with virtually unlimited resolution.

Variety of piezoceramic stacks

Piezo ceramic components: rings, plates, tubes

1-63

Piezo Nano Positioning

Piezoelectric Actuators and Components

Quality and Selection PI offers a comprehensive assortment of high-resolution piezoelectric actuators and drives for industrial and scientific applications. In addition to the hundreds of models pre-

sented in this catalog, PI can also deliver custom designs. All manufacturing steps from the PZT powder to the finished product are controlled by PI. PIs proprietary PICMA technology with ceramic encapsu-

lation stands for high reliability and longer lifetime. Closedloop piezo actuators and the corresponding control electronics are offered for higher linearity.

High-Force Piezo Systems The long-established and successful high-force / high-voltage piezo system product line has been improved and completely reworked. All high-voltage piezo actuators now make exclusive use of the modern PICA Power piezo ceramics. For high dynamics applications, the integrated preload and low electric power requirements of the packaged PICA Power actuators is a special advantage.

Piezo-Electric All-Rounder DuraAct Patch Tranducers The laminated patch transducers are suitable both for actuator and sensor tasks in various fields such as adaptronics. Even in high-dynamics applications, the rugged design ensures reliability, high resistance to damage and a lifetime well over 109 cycles.
High-dynamics actuators Adaptive systems Vibration and noise cancel-

Applied directly to a substrate, or used as part of the structure itself, DuraAct patch tranducers can detect and produce vibrations or contour deformations at the source, inside the structure

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

lation
Deformation control and

stabilization
Structural health monitoring Energy harvesting

1-64

Piezo Nano Positioning

PICMA Piezo ActuatorsExtreme Lifetime, for Industrial Reliability Requirements


Full-Ceramic Encapsulation & Patented Design
PI has 4 decades of experience with piezo ceramic actuators in motion control applications in industry and research. Currently PI employs more than 100 people fully dedicated to piezo ceramic research, development and production. Extensive knowhow and the most modern equipment make for the unique flexibility and worldwide leadership in piezo matters. PI piezo actuators not only show an optimal combination of travel and stiffness, but are also designed for maximum lifetime under actual operating conditions in industrial environments. Maximum lifetime means highest possible reliability. PIs awardwinning, patented PICMA actuators are based upon the newest technology which reduces the failure rate by a factor 10 compared to conventionally designed multilayer actuators.
PICMA award-winning multilayer piezo actuators feature full-ceramic insulation

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

Long Term Tests Prove DC Reliability PIs monolithic ceramic-encapsulated design provides better humidity protection than conventional polymer-film insulation. Diffusion of water molecules into the insulation layer is greatly reduced by the use of co-fired, outer ceramic encapsulation (fig. 2). Humidity is the main influence on the longterm reliability in low-dynamics or quasi-static operation modes, where the piezo actuator is supplied with a DC voltage to maintain a position for a long time. Comparative tests with both PICMA and conventional multilayer piezo actuators have proven the positive effects of the ceramic encapsulation. While polymer-coated piezos typically only survive 30 days of continuous operation - PICMA actuators are still working after more than 4 years!

PICMA piezo actuators (lower curve) compared with polymer-insulated multilayer piezo actuators. PICMA actuators are insensitive to high humidity in this test. In conventional actuators, the leakage current begins to rise after only a few hours an indication of degradation of the insulation and reduced lifetime.

Results of an accelerated DC-lifetimetest of PICMA actuators compared to conventional actuators (100 V DC, room temperature, 90 % R.H.). The expected MTTF (Mean Time To Failure) for PICMA is 80 years (700 000 hrs of continuous operation). All of the polymer-insulated samples have failed after 1,600 hrs (MTTF 805 hrs = 1 month)

1-65

Piezo Nano Positioning

PICMA Piezo Actuators


Continuous Dynamic Operation Here, the well-known lifetimelimiting factors of conventional designs are humidity, crack formation inside the ceramic leading to rising leakage currents and delamination of electrodes under extreme dynamic conditions. PI reduces the cracking probability by a special patented design where segmented slots take care of excessive tensional stresses. Furthermore, the special electrode design ensures excellent, stable, electric contact even after billions of cycles. PICMA multilayer piezo actuators show no significant decrease in displacement even after many billions of cycles. Long-Term Test under Cryogenic Conditions To suit an application requiring 10 years minimum lifetime under cryogenic conditions, accelerated lifetime tests with PICMA piezo actuators have been successfully performed. Inserted in a cryogenic bath of liquid nitrogen (75 K), the piezo is placed in a vacuum chamber (2 10-3 mbar) and subjected to dynamic operation at 90 % of

AC tests were performed for 4.0 x 109 cycles at 8 samples PICMA 5x5x18 using a 116 Hz-sine wave excitation (1.0 x 107 cycles per day) at a unipolar operating voltage of 100 V, 15 MPa preload. Control measurements were taken every 109 cycles. There was no significant decrease in displacement.

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

the maximum voltage range (>105 V) with an operating frequency up to 1000 Hz. After one month of continuous operation there were no degradations in piezo performance to be measured, neither mechanic concerning the displacement, nor electrical concerning electrical capacitance or resonant frequency. (Dr. Bosotti et al., University of Milano, Italy, 2005) Large Operating Temperature Range , Optimum UHV Compatibility - Minimum Outgassing Another advantage of fully ceramic-encapsulation PICMA

actuators is the extended operating temperature range, up to 150 C, a huge improvement over the 80 C limit common for other, polymer-insulated, monolithic actuators. The heat generation in dynamic operation is proportional to the operating frequency. Thus, a higher operating temperature allows for higher operating frequencies and duty cycles. Additionally, the lack of polymer insulation and the high Curie temperature make for optimal ultra-high-vacuum compatibility (no outgassing / high bakeout temperatures, up to 150 C).

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Piezo Nano Positioning

Mounting and Handling Guidelines


Adherence to the following guidelines will help you obtain maximum performance and lifetime from your piezo actuators: Do not use metal tools for actuator handling. Do not scratch the coating on the side surfaces. The following precautions are recommended during handling of piezoelectric actuators: I. Piezoelectric stack actuators without axial preload are sensitive to pulling forces. A preload of up to 50% of the blocking force is generally recommended. II. Piezoelectric stack actuators may be stressed in the axial direction only. The applied force must be centered very well. Tilting and shearing forces, which can also be induced by parallelism errors of the endplates, have to be avoided because they will damage the actuator. This can be ensured by the use of ball tips, flexible tips, adequate guiding mechanisms etc. An exception to this requirement is made for the PICAShear actuators, because they operate in the shear direction. III. Piezoelectric stack actuators can be mounted by gluing them between even metal or ceramic surfaces by a cold or hot curing epoxy, respectively. Ground surfaces are preferred. Please, do not exceed the specified working temperature range of the actuator during curing. IV. The environment of all actuators should be as dry as possible. PICMA actuators are guarded against humidity by their ceramic coating. Other actuators must be protected by other measures (hermetic sealing, dry air flow, etc). The combination of longterm high electric DC fields and high relative humidity values should be avoided with all piezoelectric actuators. V. It is important to shortcircuit the piezoelectric stack actuators during any handling operation. Temperature changes and load changes will induce charges on the stack electrodes which might result in high electric fields if the leads are not shorted: Should the stack become charged, rapid dischargingespecially without a preloadmight damage the stack. Use a resistor for discharging. VI. Prevent any contamination of the piezo ceramic surfaces with conductive or corrosive substances. Isopropanol is recommended for cleaning. Avoid acetone and excessive ultrasonic cleaning at higher temperatures.
Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators
No pulling force without preload

Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index
No lateral force or torque

Ball tips or flexures to decouple lateral forces or bending forces

Ball tips or flexures to decouple bending forces

Bolting between plates is not recommended

1-67

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-601 PiezoMove Z-Actuator


Flexure-Guided OEM Piezo Actuator with Long Stroke to 400 m
OEM Actuator with Integrated Guidance With their highly precise, frictionless flexure guidance, a very high stiffness and excellent straightness of motion are achieved. Together with their small dimensions and the costeffective design, the P-601 lever amplified actuators are especially suited for OEM applications. Versions with strain-gauge sensors (SGS) are equipped with a full bridge circuit that is insensitive to thermal drift. Versions without sensors are also available for open-loop applications such as in high-speed switches and pumps. In addition to the standard steel models, special invar and non-magnetic versions are available on request. Ceramic Insulated Piezo Actuators Provide Long Lifetime Highest possible reliability is assured by the use of awardwinning PICMA multilayer piezo actuators. PICMA actuators are the only actuators on the market with ceramic-only insulation, which makes them resistant to ambient humidity and leakage-current failures. They are thus far superior to conventional actuators in reliability and lifetime.
Ordering Information
P-601.1S PiezoMove OEM Flexure-Guided, Lever-Amplified Actuator, 100 m, SGS-Sensor P-601.3S PiezoMove OEM Flexure-Guided, Lever-Amplified Actuator, 250 m, SGS-Sensor P-601.4S PiezoMove OEM Flexure-Guided, Lever-Amplified Actuator, 400 m, SGS-Sensor P-601.1SL PiezoMove OEM Flexure-Guided, Lever-Amplified Actuator, 100 m, SGS-Sensor, LEMO Connector P-601.3SL PiezoMove OEM Flexure-Guided, Lever-Amplified Actuator, 250 m, SGS-Sensor, LEMO Connector P-601.4SL PiezoMove OEM Flexure-Guided, Lever-Amplified Actuator, 400 m, SGS-Sensor, LEMO Connector P-601.10 PiezoMove OEM Flexure-Guided, Lever-Amplified Actuator, 100 m, Open-Loop P-601.30 PiezoMove OEM Flexure-Guided, Lever-Amplified Actuator, 250 m, Open-Loop P-601.40 PiezoMove OEM Flexure-Guided, Lever-Amplified Actuator, 400 m, Open-Loop

PiezoMove Lever-amplified piezo actuators of the P-601 series

Flexure Guidance for Frictionless, Ultra-Straight Motion Travel Ranges to 400 m Resolution to 0.2 nm High Dynamics and Stiffness Custom Designs with Longer Travel or Faster Response and
Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Non-Magnetic Versions Feasible

Outstanding Lifetime Due to PICMA Piezo Actuators Choice of Closed-Loop and Open-Loop Models Ideal OEM Actuator for Precision Motion Control in Optics,
Medical, Biotech and Microfluidics Applications The flexure-guided, lever-amplified PiezoMove P-601 actuators provide large vertical travel ranges up to 400 m, fast response and high positioning accuracy in a very small package. With settling times of only a few milliseconds and a resolution in the sub-nanometer range they are well suited for both static and dynamic applications. P-601 PiezoMove lever-amplified actuators cover the range between direct-driven preloaded piezo translators, such as the P-840 series (see p. 1-74) and single-axis nanopositioning stages, like the P-611 series (see p. 2-20). Compared to direct-driven piezo translators, lever-amplified actuators offer larger travel ranges and much higher lateral stiffness and guiding precision. Compared to single-axis nanopositioning stages, they offer significantly smaller sizes. PiezoMove lever-amplified actuators feature a resolution to 0.2 nm and a repeatability to 8 nm.

Application Example

Nanopositioning Imaging High-speed switching Patch clamp Micro-dispensing Semiconductor testing Adaptronics / Automation Photonics / integrated optics Biotechnology

1-68

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning
P-601 dimensions in mm

Index

Technical Data
Model Active axes Motion and positioning Integrated sensor Open-loop travel, -20 to +120 V Closed-loop travel Open-loop resolution Closed-loop resolution Linearity, closed-loop Repeatability Runout X, Y Mechanical properties Stiffness in motion direction Unloaded resonant frequency Resonant frequency @ 30 g Push/pull force capacity in motion direction Lateral force Drive properties Ceramic type Electrical capacitance Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Material Mass without cables Cable length Sensor / voltage connection -20 to 80 Stainless steel 0.05 S-version: 0.3 SL-version: 1.5 S-version: open leads SL-version: LEMO -20 to 80 Stainless steel 0.08 -20 to 80 Stainless steel 0.11 -20 to 80 Stainless steel as P-601.xS 0.3 Open leads (no sensor) kg m 5 % 10 mm C PICMA P-885 1.5 PICMA P-885 3.1 1.6 PICMA P-885 4.6 1.4 as P-601.xS as P-601.xS as P-601.xS F 20 % A/(Hz m) 20 % 0.8 750 620 30/10 30 0.38 440 350 20/10 30 0.28 350 290 15/10 30 as P-601.xS as P-601.xS as P-601.xS as P-601.xS as P-601.xS N/m Hz Hz N N 20 % 20 % 20 % Max. Max. SGS 100 100 0.2 2 0.1 8 20 / 10 SGS 250 250 0.3 6 0.3 10 20 / 10 SGS 400 400 0.4 12 0.3 30 20 / 10 as P-601.xS as P-601.xS as P-601.xS m m nm nm % nm rad min. (+20 %/-0 %) calibrated typ. typ. typ. typ. typ. P-601.1S P-601.1SL Z P-601.3S P-601.3SL Z P-601.4S P-601.4SL Z P-601.x0 Open-loop versions Z Units Tolerance

Dynamic operating current coefficient 1.9

S-version: 0.3 S-version: 0.3 SL-version: 1.5 SL-version: 1.5 S-version: open leads SL-version: LEMO S-version: open leads SL-version: LEMO

Recommended controller / amplifier E-610 controller / amplifier (p. 2-110), E-625 bench-top controller (p. 2-114)

1-69

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-810 P-830 Piezo Actuators


For Light and Medium Loads

P-810 & P- 830 piezo actuators Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Outstanding Lifetime Due to PICMA Piezo Ceramics Travel Range to 60 m Pushing Forces to 1000 N Pulling Forces to 5 N Sub-Millisecond Response Sub-Nanometer Resolution

the market with ceramic-only insulation, which makes them resistant to ambient humidity and leakage-current failures. They are thus far superior to conventional actuators in reliability and lifetime. Mounting

The P-810 and P-830 series translators are high-resolution linear actuators for static and dynamic applications. They provide sub-millisecond response and sub-nanometer resolution.

Design These actuators consist of a highly reliable monolithic multilayer piezoceramic stack protected by a stainless steel case. PI offers a variety of preloaded translators for applications involving higher tensile loads (see the Selection Guide on p. 1-62). Ceramic Insulated Piezo Actuators Provide Long Lifetime Highest possible reliability is assured by the use of awardwinning PICMA multilayer piezo actuators. PICMA actuators are the only actuators on

Attachment is realized via the ferromagnetic end surfaces, with epoxy or magnets. Read details in Mounting and Handling Guidelines (p. 1-67). For extensions, adapter cables and connectors, see Accessories (p. 1-104 ff ). Piezo Drivers, Controllers & Amplifiers High-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both digital and analog, are described in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers section (see p. 2-99 ff ).

Application Examples

Static and dynamic precision positioning Fiber positioning Laser tuning Patch-Clamp Nanotechnology

1-70

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning PTFE PTFE Index

P-810 dimensions in mm. Two 0.1 m long teflon insulated pigtails. Length L: see table. Max. torque at top piece: 0.08 Nm.

P-830 dimensions in mm. Two 0.1 m long teflon insulated pigtails. Length L: see table. Max. torque at top piece: 0.2 Nm.

Technical Data and Product Order Numbers


Order number Travel range for 0 to 100 V [m] 20 % 15 30 45 15 30 45 60 *Resolution [nm] **Static large-signal stiffness [N/m] 20 % 14 7 4 57 27 19 15 Push- / pull force capacity [N] 50 / 1 50 / 1 50 / 1 1000 / 5 1000 / 5 1000 / 5 1000 / 5 Electrical capacitance [F] 20 % 0.3 0.7 1.0 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 Dynamic operating current coefficient [A / (Hz m)] 3.0 3.0 3.0 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 Resonant frequency (unloaded) [kHz] 20 % 22 15 12 23 14 10 8.5 Mass [g] 5 % Length L [mm] 0.3

P-810.10 P-810.20 P-810.30 P-830.10 P-830.20 P-830.30 P-830.40

0.15 0.3 0.45 0.15 0.3 0.45 0.6

4 6 8 10 16 21 27

20 38 56 22 40 58 76

*The resolution of piezo actuators is not limited by stiction or friction. Value given is noise equivalent motion with E-503 amplifier p. 2-144 **Dynamic small-signal stiffness is ~ 30 % higher. Operating temperature range: -20 to 120 C. Case: non-magnetic steel; end pieces: stainless steel. Recommended preload for dynamic operation: 1020 MPa. Recommended amplifiers / controllers One channel: E-831 amplifier (p. 2-164), E-610 amplifier / controller (p. 2-110) Multi-channel: E-663 amplifier (p. 2-136)

1-71

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-820 Preloaded Piezo Actuators


For Light and Medium Loads
conventional actuators in reliability and lifetime. Mounting Mounting is at the foot, with push/pull forces of less than 3 N, the actuator can be held by clamping the case. The optional ball tip (P-820.95) is intended to decouple torque and off-center forces from the piezo ceramic. The magnetic adapter P-176.30 is to be glued onto the top piece in order to provide magnetic coupling. Read details in Mounting and Handling Guidelines (p. 1-67). Factory Installed Options P-820.95 Ball Tip Accessories P-176 Magnetic Adapter (see p. 1-103) For extensions, adapter cables and connectors, see Accessories in the piezo electronics chapter (see p. 1-168 ff ). Piezo Drivers, Controllers & Amplifiers High-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both digital and analog, are desP-820 dimensions in mm. Length L: see table

Ordering Information
P-820.10 Preloaded Piezo Actuator, 15 m Travel range P-820.20 Preloaded Piezo Actuator, 30 m Travel range P-820.30 Preloaded Piezo Actuator, 45 m Travel range

cribed in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers (see p. 2-99 ff ) section.

P-820.10 and P-820.30 piezo actuators

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Outstanding Lifetime Due to PICMA Piezo Actuators Travel Range to 45 m Pushing Forces to 50 N Pulling Forces to 10 N Sub-Millisecond Response Sub-Nanometer Resolution Optional Ball Tip winning PICMA multilayer piezo actuators. PICMA actuators are the only actuators on the market with ceramic-only insulation, which makes them resistant to ambient humidity and leakage-current failures. They are thus far superior to
Technical Data
Model Displacement at 0 to 100 V *Resolution **Static large-signal stiffness Push/pull force capacity Max. torque limit (on tip) Electrical capacitance

The P-820 series piezo translators are high resolution linear actuators for static and dynamic applications. They provide sub-millisecond response and sub-nanometer resolution. Design These actuators consist of a friction-free, preloaded monolithic piezo ceramic stack integrated in a stainless steel housing. Ceramic Insulated Piezo Actuators Provide Long Lifetime Highest possible reliability is assured by the use of awardApplication Examples

P-820.10 15 0.15 13 50 / 10 0.08 0.3 3.0 22 -20 to +80 VL 8 N-S 26

P-820.20 30 0.3 7 50 / 10 0.08 0.7 3.0 15 -20 to +80 VL 11 N-S 44

P-820.30 45 0.45 4 50 / 10 0.08 1.0 3.0 12 -20 to +80 VL 14 N-S 62

Units m 20 % nm N/m m 20 % N Nm F m 20 % A / (Hz m) kHz m m 20 % C g 5 % mm 0.3

Dynamic operating current coefficient (DOCC) Unloaded resonant frequency fo Operating temperature Voltage connection Mass Material: case, end pieces Length L

Static and dynamic precision positioning Fiber positioning Laser tuning Nanotechnology

*The resolution of piezo actuators is not limited by stiction or friction. Value given is noise equivalent motion with E-503 amplifier (p. 2-146) **Dynamic small-signal stiffness is ~ 30 % higher Recommended amplifiers / controllers One channel: E-610 controller / amplifier (p. 2-110) Modular system E-500 (p. 2-142) with amplifier module E-503 (multi-channel) (p. 2-146) Multi-channel: E-663 amplifier (p. 2-136)

1-72

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-855 Miniature Piezo Actuator


Micrometer-Mountable Open-Loop Piezo Translator
Ordering Information
P-855.20 Piezo Actuator for Micrometer Drive Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics
P-855.20 piezo translator

Nanometrology


Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Displacement 20 m Mounts Inside Micrometer Tip Sub-msec Response Sub-nm Resolution

Micropositioning

Index

P-855 piezo translators are high-resolution linear actuators specially designed for integration in micrometer tips. They fit the M-227 DC-Mike motorized actuators (see p. 1-42), the M-168 Stepper Mike (see p. 1-55) motorized actuators and the M-631 to M-633 manual micrometers (see p. 1-56). The piezo translators consist of a monolithic PICMA piezo ceramic integrated in a stainless steel housing. P-855 actuators provide submillisecond response and subnanometer resolution.

Superior Lifetime with Ceramic-Encapsulated Piezos Highest possible reliability is assured by the use of awardwinning PICMA multilayer piezo actuators. PICMA actuators are the only ceramicencapsulated PZT actuators on the market, which makes them resistant to ambient humidity and leakage-current failures. They are thus far superior to conventional actuators in reliability and lifetime. Accessories Extension cables, adapters & connectors: see in Accessories in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers (see p. 2-168 ff) section. Notes

P-855 dimensions in mm, cable length 1 m

Technical Data
Model Open-loop travel @ -20 to 120 V *Open-loop resolution **Static large-signal stiffness Push / pull force capacity Operating voltage range Piezo ceramic type Electrical capacitance Unloaded resonant frequency Operating temperature range Voltage connection Mass Recommended amplifier P-855.20 20 m 0.2 nm 48 N/m 100 / 5 N -20 to 120 V PICMA 1.5 F 18 kHz -40 bis +80 C VL 28 g 5 % E-610 (p. 2-110) E-500 System (p. 2-142) 20 % 20 % 20 % Tolerance 20 %

Application Examples

Laser tuning Static and dynamic positioning of small parts Fiber positioning

See the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers (see p. 2-99 ff) section for our comprehensive line of low-noise modular and OEM control electronics for computer and manual control. Read details in Mounting and Handling Guidelines (p. 1-67).

Dynamic operating current coefficient (DOCC) 12.5 A/(Hz m)

*Resolution of piezo actuators is not limited by friction or stiction. Noise equivalent motion with E-505 amplifier **Dynamic small-signal stiffness ~50 % higher

1-73

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-840 P-841 Preloaded Piezo Actuators


Optional with Integrated Position Sensor
Optimum UHV Compatibility Minimum Outgassing The lack of polymer insulation and the high Curie temperature make for optimal ultra-highvacuum compatibility (no outgassing / high bakeout temperatures, up to 150 C). Mounting Mounting is at the foot, with push/pull forces of less than 5 N, the actuator can be held by clamping the case. The optional ball tip (P-840.95) is intended to decouple torque and off-center forces from the piezo ceramic. The magnetic adapter P-176.20 is to be glued onto the top piece in order to provide magnetic coupling. Read details in Mounting and Handling Guidelines (p. 1-67). High Accuracy in Closed-Loop Operation The standard model P-840 is designed for open-loop positioning. Version P-841 with integrated high-resolution strain gauge position sensors provides high precision for closed-loop operation (further details see p. 2-199). Piezo Drivers, Controllers & Amplifiers High-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both
Ordering Information
P-840.10 Preloaded Piezo Actuator, 15 m Travel range P-840.20 Preloaded Piezo Actuator, 30 m Travel range P-840.30 Preloaded Piezo Actuator, 45 m Travel range P-840.40 Preloaded Piezo Actuator, 60 m Travel range P-840.60 Preloaded Piezo Actuator, 90 m Travel range P-841.10 Preloaded Piezo Actuator with SGS-Sensor, 15 m Travel range P-841.20 Preloaded Piezo Actuator with SGS-Sensor, 30 m Travel range P-841.30 Preloaded Piezo Actuator with SGS-Sensor, 45 m Travel range P-841.40 Preloaded Piezo Actuator with SGS-Sensor, 60 m Travel range P-841.60 Preloaded Piezo Actuator with SGS-Sensor, 90 m Travel range

P-840, P-841 piezo translators (DIP switch for size comparison)

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Outstanding Lifetime Due to PICMA Piezo Ceramic Stacks Travel Range to 90 m Compact Case Pushing Forces to 1000 N Pulling Forces to 50 N Sub-Millisecond Response Sub-Nanometer Resolution Option: Ball Tip, Vacuum Version

The P-840 and P-841 series translators are high-resolution linear actuators for static and dynamic applications. They provide sub-millisecond response and sub-nanometer resolution.

Design These translators are equipped with highly reliable multilayer piezo ceramic stacks protected by a non-magnetic stainless steel case with internal spring preload. The preload makes them ideal for dynamic applications and for tensile loads as well. Ceramic Insulated Piezo Actuators Provide Long Lifetime Highest possible reliability is assured by the use of awardwinning PICMA multilayer piezo actuators. PICMA actuators are the only actuators on the market with ceramic-only insulation, which makes them resistant to ambient humidity and leakage-current failures. They are thus far superior to conventional actuators in reliability and lifetime.

Application Examples

digital and analog, are described in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers (see p. 2-99) section.

Static and dynamic Precision positioning Disc-drive-testing Adaptronics Smart structures Active vibration control Switches Laser tuning Patch-Clamp Nanotechnology

P-840, P-841 dimensions in mm. Length L: See table

1-74

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Response of a P-841.10 to a 3 nm peak-topeak square wave control input signal, measured with servo-control bandwidth set to 240 Hz and 2 msec setting time.

Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Technical Data
Model Open-loop travel @ 0 to 100 V Closed-loop travel Integrated feedback sensor* Closed-loop / open-loop resolution** Static large-signal stiffness*** Pushing forces to 1000 N Pulling forces to 50 N Max. torque limit (on tip) Electrical capacitance Dynamic operating current coefficient (DOCC) Unloaded resonant frequency fo Operating temperature Voltage connection Sensor connection Mass without cables Material: case, end pieces Length L P-841.10 P-840.10 15 15 / SGS / 0.3 / 0.15 57 1000 50 0.35 1.5 12.5 18 -20 to +80 LEMO LEMO 20 N-S 32 P-841.20 P-840.20 30 30 / SGS / 0.6 / 0.3 27 1000 50 0.35 3.0 12.5 14 -20 to +80 LEMO LEMO 28 N-S 50 P-841.30 P-840.30 45 45 / SGS / 0.9 / 0.45 19 1000 50 0.35 4.5 12.5 10 -20 to +80 LEMO LEMO 46 N-S 68 P-841.40 P-840.40 60 60 / SGS / 1.2 / 0.6 15 1000 50 0.35 6.0 12.5 8.5 -20 to +80 LEMO LEMO 54 N-S 86 P-841.60 P-840.60 90 90 / SGS / 1.8 / 0.9 10 1000 50 0.35 9.0 12.5 6 -20 to +80 LEMO LEMO 62 N-S 122 mm 0.3 g 5 % nm N/m 20 % N N Nm F 20 % A / (Hz m) kHz 20 % C Units m 20 % m Index

*Closed-loop models can attain linearity up to 0.15 % and are shipped with performance reports. **Resolution of piezo actuators is not limited by stiction or friction. Value given is noise equivalent motion with E-503 amplifier. (p. 2-146) ***Dynamic small-signal stiffness is ~ 30 % higher. Recommended amplifiers / controllers Single-channel: E-610 servo-controller / amplifier (p. 2-110), E-625 servo-controller, bench-top (p. 2-114), E-621 controller module (p. 2-160) Single channel: modular piezo controller system E-500 (p. 2-142) with amplifier module E-505 (high-power) (p. 2-147) and E-509 controller (p. 2-152) (optional) Multi-channel: modular piezo controller system E-500 (p. 2-142) with amplifier module E-503 (three channels) (p. 2-146) or E-505 (1 per axis, high-power) (p. 2-147) and E-509 controller (p. 2-152) (optional)

1-75

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-842 P-845 Preloaded Piezo Actuators


For High Loads and Force Generation, Optional with Integrated Position Sensors
The P-842 / P-843 and P-844 / P-845 series piezo translators are high-resolution linear actuators for static and dynamic applications. They provide submillisecond response and subnanometer resolution. Design These translators are equipped with PICMA multilayer piezo ceramic stacks protected by a non-magnetic stainless steel case with internal spring preload. The preload makes them ideal for dynamic applications (such as precision machining, active damping etc.) and for tensile loads as well. High Accuracy in Closed-Loop Operation P-842 and P-844 are designed for open-loop positioning or use with external feedback. Versions P-843 and P-845 are equipped with integrated highresolution SGS-position sensors for high precision in closed-loop operation (for furApplication Examples

Static and dynamic precision positioning Disc-drive-testing Optics Metrology / interferometry Smart structures / adaptronics Precision mechanics / machining Active vibration control Switches Laser tuning

P-844 piezo actuators (battery for size comparison)

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Outstanding Lifetime Due to PICMA Piezo Ceramic Stacks Travel Range to 90 m Pushing Forces to 3000 N Pulling Forces to 700 N Sub-Millisecond Response Sub-Nanometer Resolution Options: Vacuum Version, Water-Resistant Case

ther notes see the nanopositioning tutorial, see p. 2-199). Ceramic Insulated Piezo Actuators Provide Long Lifetime Highest possible reliability is assured by the use of awardwinning PICMA multilayer piezo actuators. PICMA actuators are the only actuators on

Technical Data and Product Order Numbers


Model Open-loop travel for 0 to 100 V [m] 20 % 15 30 45 60 90 15 30 45 60 90 15 30 45 60 90 15 30 45 60 90 Closed-loop travel [m]* 15 30 45 60 90 15 30 45 60 90 Integrated feedback sensor** SGS SGS SGS SGS SGS SGS SGS SGS SGS SGS Closed-loop / Open-loop reslolution [nm]*** - / 0.15 - / 0.3 - / 0.45 - / 0.6 - / 0.9 0.3 / 0.15 0.6 / 0.3 0.9 / 0.45 1.2 / 0.6 1.8 / 0.9 - / 0.15 - / 0.3 - / 0.45 - / 0.6 - / 0.9 0.3 / 0.15 0.6 / 0.3 0.9 / 0.45 1.2 / 0.6 1.8 / 0.9 Static large-signal stiffness [N/m] 20 % 57 27 19 15 10 57 27 19 15 10 225 107 75 57 38 225 107 75 57 38 Push/pull force capacity [N] 800 / 300 800 / 300 800 / 300 800 / 300 800 / 300 800 / 300 800 / 300 800 / 300 800 / 300 800 / 300 3000 / 700 3000 / 700 3000 / 700 3000 / 700 3000 / 700 3000 / 700 3000 / 700 3000 / 700 3000 / 700 3000 / 700 Electrical capacitance [F] 20 % 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 9.0 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 9.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 36.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 36.0

P-842.10 P-842.20 P-842.30 P-842.40 P-842.60 P-843.10 P-843.20 P-843.30 P-843.40 P-843.60 P-844.10 P-844.20 P-844.30 P-844.40 P-844.60 P-845.10 P-845.20 P-845.30 P-845.40 P-845.60

1-76

Piezo Nano Positioning

the market with ceramic-only insulation, which makes them resistant to ambient humidity and leakage-current failures. They are thus far superior to conventional actuators in reliability and lifetime. Optimum UHV Compatibility Minimum Outgassing The lack of polymer insulation and the high Curie temperature make for optimal ultra-highvacuum compatibility (no outgassing / high bakeout temperatures, up to 150 C). Mounting Mounting is at the foot, with push/pull forces of less than 100 N, the actuator can be held by clamping the case. The flexible tips P-176.50 / P-176.60 can be applied for protection of the ceramics from shearing forces (see p. 1-103 ff ) Read details in Mounting and Handling Guidelines (p. 1-67).

Options P-703.20 High vacuum options (see p. 1-102 ff ) Accessories P-176.50 Flexible tip for P-842 / P-843 (see p. 1-103 ff ) P-176.60 Flexible tip for P-844 / P-845 (see p. 1-103 ff ) For extensions, adapter cables and connectors, see Accessories in the Piezo Actuators & Components section (p. 1-104 ff ). Piezo Drivers, Controllers & Amplifiers High-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both digital and analog, are described in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers section.

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology
P-844, P-845 dimensions in mm. Length L: see table. Max. torque at top piece: 1 Nm

Micropositioning

Index

Dynamic operating current coefficient [A / (Hz m)] 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 50 50 50 500 50 50 50 50 50 50

Resonant frequency (unloaded) [kHz] 20 % 18 14 10 8.5 6 18 14 10 8.5 6 16 12 9 7.5 5.5 16 12 9 7.5 5.5

Mass without cable [g] 5 % 31 42 53 64 86 31 42 53 64 86 84 108 132 156 204 84 108 132 156 204

Length L [mm]

P-842, P-843 dimensions in mm. Length L: see table. Max. torque at top piece: 0.35 Nm

37 55 73 91 127 37 55 73 91 127 47 65 83 0101 137 47 65 83 101 137


Voltage connection: LEMO FFA.00.250. coaxial cable, RG 178, PTFE. Sensor connector: LEMO FFA.0S.304 connector; 1 m coaxial cable with PUR-insulation. Temperature range: -40 to 80 C; Case / end pieces: non-magnetic steel. *Closed-loop models can attain linearity up to 0.15 % and are shipped with performance reports. **Resolution of piezo actuators is not limited by stiction or friction. Noise equivalent motion with E-503 amplifier (see p. 2-146). ***Dynamic small-signal stiffness is ~ 30 % higher. Recommended amplifiers / controllers Single-channel: E-610 servo-controller / amplifier (p. 2-110), E-625 servo-controller, bench-top( p. 2-114), E-621 controller module (p. 2-160) Single channel: modular piezo controller system E-500 (p. 2-142) with amplifier module E-505 (high-power) (p. 2-147) and E-509 controller (p. 2-152) (optional) Multi-channel: modular piezo controller system E-500 (p. 2-142) with amplifier module E-503 (three channels) (p. 2-146) or E-505 (1 per axis, high-power, see p. 2-147) and E-509 controller (p. 2-152) (optional)

1-77

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-212, P-216 PICA Power Piezo Stack Actuators


Preloaded Piezo Actuators (HVPZT) w/ Sensor Option
Ordering Information
2 Preloaded Piezo Actuator, 1000 V, 2000 N 6 Preloaded Piezo Actuator, 1000 V, 4500 N 0 w/o Sensor S w/SGS Position Sensor P-21 T modified for Low Temperature V modified for High Temperature/Vacuum 1 Travel Range 15 m 2 Travel Range 30 m 4 Travel Range 60 m 8 Travel Range 120 m 9 Travel Range 180 m (P-216 only)
From left: P-212.1S and .8S, P-216.9S, .4S and .1S piezo actuators (CD for size comparison) Please read Options and Accessories (page 1-102 ff ) for further information. Extensions cables, adapters & connectors: see in Accessories in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers (see p. 2-168 ff ) section.

Option: P-177.50 Dynamic applications (with E-481): temperature sensor and protective air for PICATM HVPZT

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Travel Range to 180 m Pushing Forces to 4500 N Pulling Forces to 500 N Sub-millisecond Response Sub-nanometer Resolution Options: Vacuum, High- and Low-Temperature

not come at the price of reliability. All materials used are specifically matched for robustness and lifetime. Endurance tests on PICA actuators prove consistent performance, even after billions (1,000,000,000) of cycles. Open- and Closed-Loop Models for Optimum Dynamics and Linearity

electrics in Positioning (see p. 2-169 ff ). Mechanical Mounting Mounting is at the foot, with push/pull forces of less than 5 N, the actuator can be held by clamping the case. The optional ball tip is intended to decouple torque and off-center forces from the translator. Read details in Mounting and Handling Guidelines (p. 1-67). High Flexibility with PI Amplifiers, Drivers & Controllers PI offers a wide range of control electronics for piezo actuators from low-power drivers to the high-performance amplifier / controller E-481. For closed-loop operation PI offers a wide variety of analog and digital controllers. The E-500 modular system can be easily upgraded from an amplifier to a servo controller, including different interface / display modules. High-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both digital and analog, see selection guide in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers section (see p. 2-97 ff ).

The P-212 and P-216 series are high-resolution linear piezo actuators (translators) for static and dynamic applications. They provide sub-millisecond
Application Examples

response and sub-nanometer resolution. These actuators have the friction-free, preloaded PICA Power actuators inside. The preload makes them ideal for dynamic applications like precision machining or active damping. High Displacement with UltraHigh Reliability PICA Power actuators are optimized for high-temperature working conditions and highduty-cycle dynamic applications. All PICA piezo ceramics are specifically designed for high-duty-cycle applications. With PIs extensive applications knowledge, gained over several decades, performance does

The standard models are ideal for open loop positioning applications. In this mode the actuator displacement is roughly proportional to the applied voltage. Open-loop operation is ideal for applications where fast response and very high resolution with maximum bandwidth are essential. Here, commanding and reading the target position in absolute values is either not important or carried out by external position sensors (see p. 2-104). For highest positioning accuracy and repeatability, select the factory installed closed-loop option with integrated ultrahigh-resolution strain gauge position sensors and operate with PI servo-control electronics. For more information, read the tutorial Piezo-

Optics Metrology / interferometry Adaptronics Precision engineering / micromechanics Adaptive mechanics Active vibration damping Switches Laser tuning Force generation / materials testing Nanotechnology

1-78

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators

0.05 A

A0 -0.05 M 9 SW D

PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators

L 0.5

5.5 0.5

Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

M4 5

Option Sensor

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

9.5 5

11

Micropositioning

A SW C

M8 7 B 0.1

Piezo

Index

P-212 and P-216, dimensions in mm. End pieces and case of stainless steel. Sensor connection: LEMO FFA.0S.304; 1 m coaxial cable with PUR insulation. Input voltage connection: LEMO FGG.0B.701.CJA.1173, PUR cable, 2-conductor, shielded

Technical Data
P-212.10 Operating voltage Motion and positioning Closed-loop travel* Closed-loop resolution*/** Open-open resolution** Linearity* Mechanical properties Static large-signal stiffness*** 90 Unloaded resonant frequency Push/pull force capacity Shear force limit Torque limit (on tip) Drive properties Electrical capacitance Dynamic operating current coefficient Miscellaneous Mass (with cable) 110 120 150 210 170 200 250 370 480 g 5 % 47 5 90 5 180 5 370 5 130 13 250 13 500 13 1000 13 1500 13 nF 20 % A/(Hz m) 20 % 17 15 0.5 60 12 10 0.5 34 7 10 0.5 18 4.5 10 0.5 210 17 60 1 140 12 36 1 80 7 23 1 50 4.5 23 1 32 3 23 1 N/m kHz N N Nm 20 % 20 % Max. 15 0.3 0.15 0.2 30 0.6 0.3 0.2 60 1.2 0.6 0.2 120 2.4 1.2 0.2 15 0.3 0.15 0.2 30 0.6 0.3 0.2 60 1.2 0.6 0.2 120 2.4 1.2 0.2 180 3.6 1.8 0.2 m nm nm % typ. typ. typ. 0 to1000 P-212.20 0 to1000 P-212.40 P-212.80 P-216.10 P-216.20 P-216.40 P-216.80 P-216.90 Unit V Tolerance 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000

2000 / 300 2000 / 300 2000 / 300 2000 / 300 4500 / 500 4500 / 500 4500 / 500 4500 / 500 4500 / 500

* Requires SGS sensor. SGS versions are shipped with performance reports ** Measured with an Interferometer. The resolution of piezo actuators is not limited by stiction or friction *** Dynamic small-signal stiffness is ~50 % higher Piezo ceramic type: PICATM Power Operating temperature range: -40 to +80 C Recommended controller/driver see p. 2-100 ff For maximum lifetime, voltages in excess of 750 V should be applied only for short durations See Notes (Technical Data) for further information (p. 1-106 ff )

1-79

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-225, P-235 PICA Power Piezo Stack Actuators


Preloaded High-Load Piezo Actuators (HVPZT) w/ Sensor Option
Ordering Information
2 Preloaded High-Load Piezo Actuator, 1000 V, 12500 N 3 Preloaded High-Load Piezo Actuator, 1000 V, 30000 N 0 w/o Sensor S w/SGS Position Sensor P-2 5. T modified for Low Temperature V modified for High Temperature/Vacuum 1 Travel Range 15 m Option: 2 Travel Range 30 m 4 Travel Range 60 m 8 Travel Range 120 m 9 Travel Range 180 m (P-235 only)
Please read Options and Accessories (page 1-102 ff ) for further information. Extensions cables, adapters & connectors: Accessories in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers (see p. 2-168 ff ) section.

P-177.50 Dynamic applications (with E-481): temperature sensor and protective air for PICATM HVPZT P-706.00 Water-resistant case

High-load piezo actuators P-235.1S, .4S and .9S, P-225.8S and .1S (from left) with CD for size comparison

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Extremely High Stiffness Pushing Forces to 30,000 N Pulling Forces to 3500 N Travel Ranges to 180 m Options: Versions for Vacuum, High- and Low-Temperatures and with Water-Resistant Case

al decades, performance does not come at the price of reliability. All materials used are specifically matched for robustness and lifetime. Endurance tests on PICATM actuators prove consistent performance, even after billions (1,000,000,000) of cycles. Open- and Closed-Loop Models for Optimum Dynamics and Linearity

the tutorial Piezoelectrics in Positioning (see p. 2-169 ff ). High Flexibility with PI Amplifiers, Drivers & Controllers PI offers a wide range of control electronics for piezo actuators from economical, lowpower piezo drivers to the E-481 high-performance amplifier / controller providing 2000 W of dynamic power. For closed-loop operation a wide variety of analog and digital controllers is available. The E-500 modular system can be easily upgraded from an amplifier to a servo controller, including different interface / display modules. Read details in Mounting and Handling Guidelines (p. 1-67). High-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both digital and analog, see selection guide in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers section (see p. 2-99 ff ).

P-225 and P-235 are preloaded, high-load piezo actuators (translators) for static and dynamic applications. They provide submillisecond re-sponse and subnanometer resolution. These ultra-high-force linear

actuators consist of PICATM Power piezoelectric ceramicstacks encapsulated in a stainless steel case with stainless steel end pieces and a frictionless internal spring preload. The high load capacity and preload makes them ideal for machining applications and active vibration cancellation. High Displacement with UltraHigh Reliability PICATM Power actuators are optimized for high-temperature working conditions and highduty-cycle dynamic applications. All PICATM piezo ceramics are specifically designed for highdutycycle applications. With PIs extensive applications knowledge, gained over sever-

The standard models are ideal for open loop positioning applications. In this mode the actuator displacement is roughly proportional to the applied voltage. Open-loop operation is ideal for applications where the fastest response and the highest bandwidth are essential. Here, commanding and reading the target position in absolute values is either not important or carried out by an external feedback loop. For highest positioning accuracy and repeatability, select the factory installed closed-loop option with integrated ultrahigh- resolution strain gauge position sensors and operate with PI servo-control electronics. For more information, read

Aplication Examples

Precision engineering / micromechanics Adaptive mechanics Active vibration damping Adaptronics Static and dynamic precision positioning Force generation / materials testing

1-80

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

P-225 and P-235, dimensions in mm. End pieces and case of stainless steel. Sensor connection: LEMO FFA.0S.304; 1 m coaxial cable with PUR insulation. Voltage connection: LEMO FGG.0B.701.CJA.1173, 1 m cable with PUR insultaion, 2-conductor, shielded

Technical Data
Model Operating voltage Motion and positioning Closed-loop travel* Closed-loop resolution*/** Open-loop resolution** Linearity* Mechanical properies Static large-signal stiffness*** Unloaded resonant frequency Push/pull force capacity Shear force limit Torque limit (on tip) Drive properties El. capacitance Dynamic operating current coefficient Miscellaneous Mass (with cable) 410 470 610 900 580 690 940 1400 1900 g 5 %
*Requires SGS sensor. SGS versions are shipped with performance reports **Measured with an interferometer. The resolution of piezo actuators is not limited by stiction or friction ***Dynamic small-signal stiffness is ~50 % higher Piezo ceramic type: PICATM Power Operating temperature range: -40 to +80 C Recommended controller/driver see p. 2-100 ff For maximum lifetime, voltages in excess of 750 V should be applied only for short durations See Notes (Technical Data) for further information (see p. 1-106 ff )

P-225.10

P-225.20

P-225.40

P-225.80

P-235.10

P-235.20

P-235.40

P-235.80

P-235.90

Unit V m nm nm % N/m kHz N N Nm nF

Tolerance

0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 0 to 1000 15 0.3 0.15 0.2 480 14 12500 / 2000 255 1,5 320 33 30 0.6 0.3 0.2 330 10 12500 / 2000 152 1,5 630 33 60 1.2 0.6 0.2 200 7 12500 / 2000 84 1,5 1300 33 120 2.4 1.2 0.2 110 4 12500 / 2000 73 1,5 2600 33 15 0.3 0.15 0.2 860 14 30000 / 3500 707 2 550 65 30 0.6 0.3 0.2 600 10 30000 / 3500 420 2 1100 65 60 1.2 0.6 0.2 380 7 30000 / 3500 232 2 2400 65 120 2.4 1.2 0.2 210 3,9 30000 / 3500 147 2 5100 65 180 3.6 1.8 0.2 150 2,8 30000 / 3500 147 2 7800 65

typ. typ. typ. 20 20 % Max.

20 %

A/(Hz m) 20 %

1-81

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-882 P-888 PICMA Multilayer Piezo Stack Actuators


Ceramic-Insulated High-Power Actuators
mer-film insulation. Diffusion of water molecules into the insulation layer is greatly reduced by the use of cofired, outer ceramic encapsulation. Due to their high resonant frequency the actuators are suitable for highly dynamic applications with small loads; depending on the load an external preload for dynamic applications is recommended. The high Curie temperature of 320 C gives PICMA actuators a usable temperature range extending up to 150 C, far beyond 80 C as is common for conventional multilayer actuators. With conventional multilayer actuators, heat generation - which is proportional to operating frequency - either limits the operating frequency or duty cycle in dynamic operation, or makes ungainly cooling provisions necessary. At the low end, operation down to a few Kelvin is possible (with reduction in performance specifications). Optimum UHV Compatibility Minimum Outgassing The lack of polymer insulation and the high Curie temperature make for optimal ultra-highvacuum compatibility (high bakeout temperatures, up to 150 C). Ideal for Closed-Loop Operation The ceramic surface of the actuators is extremely well suited for use with resistive or optical fiber strain gauge sensors. Such sensors can be easily applied to the actuator surface and exhibit significantly higher stability and linearity than with conventional polymer-insulated actuators. Piezo Drivers, Controllers & High-Voltage Amplifiers High-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both digital and analog, are described in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers" section. Read more on PICMA reliability on page 2-12 ff.

PICMA piezo actuators are available with cross-sections of 2 x 3, 3 x 3, 5 x 5, 7 x 7 and 10 x 10 mm2

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Superior Lifetime Even Under Extreme Conditions Very Large Operating Temperature Range High Humidity Resistance Excellent Temperature Stability High Stiffness Peak Current up to 20 A UHV Compatible to 10-9 hPa Sub-Millisecond Response / Sub-Nanometer Resolution Ideal for Dynamic Operation

PICMA (PI Ceramic Monolithic Multilayer Actuator) piezo stack actuators are characterized by their high performance and reliability, even in extremely harsh environments. They are superior to conventional multilayer actuators in
Application Examples

industrial applications and high-endurance situations, where they show substantially longer lifetimes both in static and dynamic operation. New Production Process, Optimized Piezo Ceramics PICMA piezo actuators are made from a ceramic material in which the piezoceramic properties such as stiffness, capacitance, displacement, temperature stability and lifetime are optimally combined. Thus the actuators accomplish sub-nanometer resolution in positioning and sub-millisecond response! Increased Lifetime Through Humidity Resistance The monolithic ceramic-encapsulated design provides better humidity protection than poly-

Precision mechanics / -machining High-speed switching Active and adaptive Optics Active vibration damping Pneumatic & hydraulic valves Metrology / Interferometry Life science, Biotechnology Nanotechnology

PICMA actuator with optional 0.1 m PTFE insulated wire leads and optional rounded top piece for decoupling lateral forces

PICMA actuators, dimensions in mm

1-82

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..
PICMA piezo actuators (bottom curve) compared with conventional multilayer actuators with polymer insulation (top curve). PICMA actuators are not affected by the high-humidity test conditions. Conventional piezo actuators exhibit increased leakage current after only a few hours. Leakage current is an indicator quality and expected lifetime. Test conditions: U = 100 VDC, T = 25 C, Relative Humidity = 70 % The displacement of PICMA actuators exhibits very low temperature dependence. This, in combination with their low heat generation, makes PICMA actuators optimal for dynamic operation

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Technical Data / Product Order Numbers


Order number* P-882.10 P-882.30 P-882.50 P-883.10 P-883.30 P-883.50 P-885.10 P-885.30 P-885.50 P-885.90 P-887.30 P-887.50 P-887.90 P-888.30 P-888.50 P-888.90 Dimensions AxBxL [mm] 2x3x9 2 x 3 x 13.5 2 x 3 x 18 3x3x9 3 x 3 x 13.5 3 x 3 x 18 5x5x9 5 x 5 x 13.5 5 x 5 x 18 5 x 5 x 36 7 x 7 x 13.5 7 x 7 x 18 7 x 7 x 36 10 x 10 x 13.5 10 x 10 x 18 10 x 10 x 36 Nominal displacement [m @ 100 V] 6.5 20 % 11 20 % 15 10 % 6.5 20 % 11 20 % 15 10 % 6.5 20 % 11 20 % 15 10 % 32 10 % 11 20 % 15 10 % 32 10 % 11 20 % 15 10 % 32 10 % Max. displacement [m @ 120 V] 8 20 % 13 20 % 18 10 % 8 20 % 13 20 % 18 10 % 8 20 % 13 20 % 18 10 % 38 10 % 13 20 % 18 10 % 38 10 % 13 20 % 18 10 % 38 10 % Blocking force [N @ 120 V] 190 210 210 290 310 310 800 870 900 950 1700 1750 1850 3500 3600 3800 Stiffness [N/m] 24 16 12 36 24 18 100 67 50 25 130 100 50 267 200 100 Electrical capacitance [F] 20 % 0.15 0.22 0.31 0.21 0.35 0.48 0.6 1.1 1.5 3.1 2.2 3.1 6.4 4.3 6.0 13.0 Resonant frequency [kHz] 20 % 135 90 70 135 90 70 135 90 70 40 90 70 40 90 70 40

Index

Standard piezo ceramic type: 252 *For optional PTFE insulated wires, pigtail length 100 mm, change order number extension to .x1 (e. g. P-882.11). Recommended preload for dynamic operation: 15 MPa Maximum preload for constant force: 30 MPa Resonant frequency at 1 Vpp, unloaded, free at both sides. The value is halved for unilateral clamping Capacitance at 1 Vpp, 1 kHz Operating voltage: -20 to +120 V Operating temperature range: -40 to +150 C Standard Mechanical Interfaces: Ceramics Standard Electrical Interfaces: Solderable pads Available Options: strain gauge sensors, special mechanical interfaces, etc. Other specifications on request.

1-83

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-871 PICMA Piezo Bender Actuators


Low-Voltage Multilayer Piezo Bender Actuators with Position Sensor
racy, stability and repeatability than conventional open-loop actuators. The special bender design allows the direct application of a strain gauge sensor to the surface without the need for a polymer insulation layer in between. The advantages are faster response, reduced phase lag and precise position control with non-linearity of <0.5 %. The settling time for a small-signal step (up to 1 % nominal travel) to an accuracy of better than 1 % is between 10 ms (P-871.112) and 30 ms (P-871.140). Ceramic Insulated Piezo Actuators Provide Long Lifetime Highest possible reliability is assured by the use of awardwinning PICMA multilayer piezo actuators. PICMA actuators are the only actuators on the market with ceramic-only insulation, which makes them resistant to ambient humidity and leakage-current failures. They are thus far superior to conventional actuators in reliability and lifetime. Optimum UHV Compatibility Minimum Outgassing The lack of polymer insulation and the high Curie temperature make for optimal ultra-highOrdering Information
P-871.112 PICMA Multilayer Piezo Bender Actuator, 160 m, 9.6 mm Width, SGS-Sensor P-871.122 PICMA Multilayer Piezo Bender Actuator, 400 m, 9.6 mm Width, SGS-Sensor P-871.127 PICMA Multilayer Piezo Bender Actuator, 720 m, 9.6 mm Width, SGS-Sensor P-871.128 PICMA Multilayer Piezo Bender Actuator, 720 m, 6.3 mm Width, SGS-Sensor P-871.140 PICMA Multilayer Piezo Bender Actuator, 1600 m, 11 mm Width, SGS-Sensor Ask about custom designs

P-871.140, P-871.128, P-871.122 and P-871.112 closed-loop bender actuators (from left to right)

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Closed-Loop Operation for Superior Accuracy Nanometer-Resolution Displacement to 1.6 mm Ceramic Encapsulation for Extended Lifetime Ideal for Scanning Applications Vacuum-Compatible Versions Low Operating Voltage Mounting Hardware Included Special OEM- and Bench-Top Amplifiers Available up to 1.6 mm, while still providing fast response times in the millisecond range. Design These multilayer piezoelectric components are manufactured from ceramic layers of only about 50 m thickness. They feature internal silver-palladium electrodes and ceramic insulation applied in a cofiring process. Due to the thin layers the operating voltage is significantly lower than for classical parallel bimorph bender elements. For ease of installation, the units come complete with the mounting hardware, cables and connectors. Closed-Loop Position Control for Higher Accuracy P-871s are ideal devices for scanning, positioning and beam deflection applications and provide much better accu-

vacuum compatibility (no outgassing / high bakeout temperatures, up to 150 C). Amplifiers, Drivers & Controllers PI offers a wide range of standard amplifiers and controllers for piezo actuators. The E-651.1S and E-651.2S desktop controllers and the OEM board E-614.2BS (see p. 2-121) are specifically designed to operate P-871 bender actuators.

P-871 transducers are unique closed-loop piezo benders based on the open-loop PL 122 to PL 140 PICMA -series multilayer actuators p. 1-94. Equipped with high-resolution position feedback sensors they provide better linearity, accuracy and repeatability than other piezo benders on the market. P-871 bender actuators achieve longer positioning ranges than typical piezo stack actuators,
Application Examples

Wire bonders Pneumatic valves Fiber optic positioning & switches (Laser)- Beam steering Micropositioning Acceleration sensors Nanotechnology

E-651 2-channel and 1-channel controllers with P-871 bender actuators

1-84

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

P-871 dimensions in mm, cable length >1 m

Technical Data
Model Closed-loop travel Integrated feedback sensor Closed-loop linearity Static large-signal stiffness Blocking force Electrical capacitance Unloaded resonant frequency Resonant frequency @ 6.5 g load P-871.112* 80 SGS 0.5 0.02 2.0 2 x 1.1 2540 480 P-871.122 200 SGS 0.5 0.01 1.1 2 x 2.4 1010 220 P-871.127 360 SGS 0.5 0.003 1.0 2 x 3.4 560 145 P-871.128* 360 SGS 0.5 0.002 0.5 2 x 1.2 340 100 P-871.140 800 SGS 0.5 0.0007 0.5 2 x 4.0 195 60 % N/m N 20 % F 20 % Hz 20 % Hz 20 % Units m

Operating voltage: 0 to 60 V (30 V) Recommended driver / controller: E-651 bench top / E-614 PCI card (p. 2-123) Connector: 1 LEMO connector for both sensor and voltage supply Operating temperature range: -20 to +85 C; ** to +150 C Resonant frequency at 1 Vpp, capacitance at 1 Vpp, 1 kHz All specifications depend on the real clamping conditions and on the applied mechanical load. Other specifications on request.

1-85

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-007 P-056 PICA Stack Actuator


Piezo actuator for highly dynamic applications
Flexibility / Short Leadtimes All manufacturing processes at PI Ceramic are set up for flexibility. Should our standard actuators not fit your application, let us provide you with a custom design. Our engineers will work with you to find the optimum solution at a very attractive price, even for small quantities. Some of our custom capabilities are listed below: Custom Materials Custom Voltage Ranges Custom Geometries (Circular, Rectangular, Triangular, Layer Thickness ...) Custom Load / Force Ranges Custom Flat or Spherical Endplates (Alumina, Glass, Sapphire, ...) Extra-Tight Length Tolerances Integrated Piezoelectric Sensor Discs Special High / Low Temperature Versions Vacuum Compatible Versions Because all piezoelectric materials used in PICA actuators are manufactured at PI Ceramic, leadtimes are short and quality is outstanding. All standard and custom actuators are delivered with performance test sheets. Piezo Drivers, Controllers & High-Voltage Amplifiers High-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both
PICA-Stack dimensions, see technical data table for further information

Variety of standard and custom PICA Stack piezo actuators

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

High Load Capacity to 100 kN High Force Generation to 80 kN Large Cross Sections to 56 mm Diameter A selection of Variety of Shapes Extreme Reliability >109 Cycles Sub-Millisecond Response, Sub-Nanometer Resolution Vacuum-Compatible Versions

Custom PICA-Stack actuator with 350 m displacement

PICA Stack piezo ceramic actuators are offered in a large variety of standard shapes and sizes with additional custom designs to suit any application. Ultra-High Reliability, High Displacement, Low Power Requirements PICA piezo actuators are specifically designed for highduty-cycle applications. With our extensive applications
Application Examples

knowledge, gained over several decades, we know how to build performance that does not come at the price of reliability. All materials used are specifically matched for robustness and lifetime. Endurance tests on PICA actuators prove consistent performance, even after billions (1,000,000,000 ) of cycles. The combination of high displacement and low electrical capacitance provides for excellent dynamic behavior with re duced driving power requirements.

Nanopositioning High-load positioning Precision mechanics / machining Semiconductor technology / test systems Laser tuning Switches Smart structures (Adaptronics)
Standard actuators are covered with heat-shrink tube, shown here is the model P-025.40

digital and analog, are descri bed in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers (see p. 2-99 ff ) section. PICA Stack piezo actuators are delivered with metal endcaps for improved robustness and reliability. For preloaded versions with steel casings (see p. 1-78, p. 1-80).

1-86

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators
Custom PICA-Stack actuators with rectangular cross-sections.

Unpackaged Stack Actuators


Custom PICA-Stack actuator, each layer wired individually.

Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Technical Data / Product Order Numbers


Order number P-007.00 P-007.10 P-007.20 P-007.40 P-010.00 P-010.10 P-010.20 P-010.40 P-010.80 P-016.10 P-016.20 P-016.40 P-016.80 P-016.90 P-025.10 P-025.20 P-025.40 P-025.80 P-025.90 P-025.150 P-025.200 P-035.10 P-035.20 P-035.40 P-035.80 P-035.90 P-045.20 P-045.40 P-045.80 P-045.90 P-050.20 P-050.40 P-050.80 P-050.90 P-056.20 P-056.40 P-056.80 P-056.90 Displacement [m] -10/+20% 5 15 30 60 5 15 30 60 120 15 30 60 120 180 15 30 60 120 180 250 300 15 30 60 120 180 30 60 120 180 30 60 120 180 30 60 120 180 Diameter D [mm] 7 7 7 7 10 10 10 10 10 16 16 16 16 16 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 35 35 35 35 35 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 56 56 56 56 Length L [mm] 0.5 8 17 29 54 8 17 30 56 107 17 29 54 101 150 18 30 53 101 149 204 244 20 32 57 104 153 33 58 105 154 33 58 105 154 33 58 105 154 Blocking force [N] 650 850 1000 1150 1400 1800 2100 2200 2400 4600 5500 6000 6500 6500 11000 13000 15000 16000 16000 16000 16000 20000 24000 28000 30000 31000 39000 44000 49000 50000 48000 55000 60000 61000 60000 66000 76000 78000 Stiffness [N/m] 130 59 35 19 270 120 71 38 20 320 190 100 54 36 740 440 250 130 89 65 54 1300 810 460 250 170 1300 740 410 280 1600 910 500 340 2000 1100 630 430 Capacitance [nF] 20% 11 33 64 130 21 64 130 260 510 180 340 680 1300 2000 400 820 1700 3400 5100 7100 8500 700 1600 3300 6700 10000 2800 5700 11000 17000 3400 7000 14000 22000 4300 8900 18000 27000 Resonant frequency [kHz] 126 59 36 20 126 59 35 20 10 59 36 20 11 7 56 35 21 11 7 5 5 51 33 19 11 7 32 19 10 7 32 19 10 7 32 19 10 7
Standard piezo ceramic type: PIC 151 Recommended preload for dynamic operation: 15 MPa Maximum preload for constant force: 30 MPa Resonant frequency at 1 Vpp, unloaded, free at both sides. The value is halved for unilateral clamping Capacitance at 1 Vpp, 1 kHz blocking force at 1000 V Operating voltage: 0 to 1000 V Operating temperature range: -20 to +85 C Standard mechanical interfaces: steel plates, 0.5 to 2 mm thick (depends on model) Standard electrical interfaces: two PTFE-insulated wires, pigtail length 100 mm Available options: integrated piezo force sensor or strain gauge sensors, non magnetic, vacuum compatible, etc. Other specifications on request.

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

1-87

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-010.xxP P-056.xxP PICA Power Actuator


Piezo Stack Actuators for High-Level Dynamic Applications
Flexibility / Short Leadtimes All manufacturing processes at PI Ceramic are set up for flexibility. Should our standard actuators not fit your application, let us provide you with a custom design. Our engineers will work with you to find the optimum solution at a very attractive price, even for small quantities. Some of our custom capabilities are listed below: Custom Materials Custom Voltage Ranges Custom Geometries (Circular, Rectangular, Triangular, Layer Thickness ...) Custom Load / Force Ranges Custom Flat or Spherical Endplates (Alumina, Glass, Sapphire, ...) Extra-Tight Length Tolerances Integrated Piezoelectric Sensor Discs Special High / Low Temperature Versions Vacuum Compatible Versions Because all piezoelectric materials used in PICA actuators are manufactured at PI Ceramic, leadtimes are short and quality is outstanding. All standard and custom actuators are delivered with performance test sheets. Piezo Drivers, Controllers & High-Voltage Amplifiers PI offers a wide range of piezo control electronics, from lowpower drivers to the ultra-highperformance E-481 power amplifier delivering 2000 W of dynamic power. For closedloop positioning applications, a variety of analog and digital controllers is also available. The modular E-500 system can be upgraded from an amplifier to a servo-controller and offers a variety of computer interfaces. Of course, PI also designs custom amplifiers and controllers (see p. 2-98 ff ).

Variety of PICATM Power piezo stack actuators from 5 m to 180 m travel range

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Operating Temperature to 150 C High Load Capacity to 80 kN High Force Generation to 70 kN Large Cross Sections to 56 mm Diameter Extreme Reliability >109 Cycles Sub-Millisecond Response, Sub-Nanometer Resolution UHV Versions to 10-9 hPa Non-Magnetic Versions Temperature Sensor PT1000 Applied

PICA Power piezoceramic stack actuators are offered in a large variety of standard shapes and sizes, with additional custom designs to suit any application. Based on the PIC 255 material, PICA Stack
Application Examples

Power actuators are optimized for high-temperature working conditions and high-duty-cycle dynamic applications. High Displacement with Ultra-High Reliability PICA Power actuators are optimized for high-temperature working conditions and high-duty-cycle dynamic applications. All PICA piezo ceramics are specifically designed for highduty-cycle applications. With PIs extensive applications knowledge, gained over several decades, performance does not come at the price of reliability. All materials used are specifically matched for robustness and lifetime. Endurance tests on PICA actuators prove consistent performance, even after billions (1,000,000,000) of cycles.

Nanopositioning Active vibration damping High-load positioning Precision mechanics / -machining Semiconductor technology / test systems Laser tuning Switches Smart structures (Adaptronics) Nanotechnology

OEM-PICA Power piezo actuators are available with cross sections to 56 mm

1-88

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology
Custom preloaded PICA Power piezo actuator with forced-air cooling

Micropositioning

Index

PICA Power dimensions in mm, see technical data table for further information

Technical Data / Product Order Numbers


Order number P-010.00P P-010.10P P-010.20P P-010.40P P-010.80P P-016.10P P-016.20P P-016.40P P-016.80P P-016.90P P-025.10P P-025.20P P-025.40P P-025.80P P-025.90P P-035.10P P-035.20P P-035.40P P-035.80P P-035.90P P-045.20P P-045.40P P-045.80P P-045.90P P-056.20P P-056.40P P-056.80P P-056.90P Displacement [m] -10/+20% 5 15 30 60 120 15 30 60 120 180 15 30 60 120 180 15 30 60 120 180 30 60 120 180 30 60 120 180 Diameter D [mm] 10 10 10 10 10 16 16 16 16 16 25 25 25 25 25 35 35 35 35 35 45 45 45 45 56 56 56 56 Length L [mm] 0.5 9 18 31 58 111 18 31 58 111 163 20 33 60 113 165 21 34 61 114 166 36 63 116 169 36 63 116 169 Blocking force [N] 1200 1800 2100 2200 2300 4500 5400 5600 5900 6000 9900 12000 13000 14000 14000 18000 23000 26000 28000 29000 36000 41000 44000 45000 54000 66000 68000 70000 Stiffness [N/m] 240 120 68 37 19 300 180 94 49 33 660 400 220 120 80 1200 760 430 230 160 1200 680 370 250 1800 1100 570 390 Capacitance [nF] 20% 17 46 90 180 370 130 250 510 1000 1600 320 630 1300 2600 4000 530 1200 2500 5200 7800 2100 4300 8800 13000 3300 6700 14000 21000 Resonant frequency [kHz] 129 64 37 20 10 64 37 20 10 7 58 35 19 10 7 55 34 19 10 7 32 18 10 7 32 18 10 7
Standard piezo ceramic type: PIC 255 Recommended preload for dynamic operation: 15 MPa Maximum preload for constant force: 30 MPa Resonant frequency at 1 Vpp, unloaded. The value is halved for unilateral clamping Capacitance at 1 Vpp, 1 kHz blocking force at 1000 V Operating voltage: 0 to 1000 V Operating temperature range: -20 to +150 C Standard mechanical interfaces: steel plates, 0.5 to 2 mm thick (depends on model) Standard electrical interfaces: two PTFE-insulated wires, pigtail length 100 mm Available options: integrated piezo sensor or strain gauge sensors, non magnetic, vacuum compatible, etc. Other specifications on request.

1-89

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-010.xxH P-025.xxH PICA Thru Actuator


High-Load Piezo Stack Actuators with Aperture
duced driving power requirements. Flexibility / Short Leadtimes All manufacturing processes at PI Ceramic are set up for flexibility. Should our standard actuators not fit your application, let us provide you with a custom design. Our engineers will work with you to find the optimum solution at a very attractive price, even for small quantities. Some of our custom capabilities are listed below: Custom Materials Custom Voltage Ranges Custom Geometries (Circular, Rectangular, Triangular, Layer Thickness ...) Custom Load / Force Ranges Custom Flat or Spherical Endplates (Alumina, Glass, Sapphire, ...) Extra-Tight Length Tolerances Integrated Piezoelectric Sensor Discs Special High / Low Temperature Versions Vacuum Compatible Versions Because all piezoelectric materials used in PICA actuators are manufactured at PI Ceramic, leadtimes are short and quality is outstanding. All standard and custom actuators are delivered with performance test sheets. Piezo Drivers, Controllers & High-Voltage Amplifiers High-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both digital and analog, are described in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers section.

PICATM Thru piezo stack actuators with clear aperture

Clear Aperture for Transmitted-Light Applications for


Mechanical Preloading Extreme Reliability >109 Cycles Large Cross Sections to 56 mm Diameter Variety of Shapes Sub-Millisecond Response, Sub-Nanometer Resolution Vacuum-Compatible Versions

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

PICA Thru actuators are hollow piezo stack actuators, offered in a large variety of standard shapes and sizes with additional custom designs to meet all customer requirements. They combine the advantage of a clear aperture with the strength and force generation of stack actuators. These tubular devices are highresolution linear actuators for static and dynamic applications. The clear aperture faciliApplication Examples

tates transmitted-light applications. Furthermore the electrical consumption is reduced due to the decreased electrical capacitance.

Ultra-High Reliability, High Displacement, Low Power Requirements PICA piezo actuators are specifically designed for highduty-cycle applications. With our extensive applications knowledge, gained over several decades, we know how to build performance that does not come at the price of reliability. All materials used are specifically matched for robustness and lifetime. Endurance tests on PICA actuators prove consistent performance, even after billions (1,000,000,000) of cycles. The combination of high displacement and low electrical capacitance provides for excellent dynamic behavior with re-

PICA Thru dimensions in mm, see technical data table for further information

Optics Image stabilization Laser tuning Laser treatment Precision mechanics / -machining Confocal microscopy Nanopositioning

Customized PICA Thru actuator discs

1-90

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors


Standard actuators are delivered with black heat shrink tube (shown here is the model P-010.20H)

PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

Custom PICA Thru piezo actuator with 56 mm outside diameter, 8 mm inner diameter, 250 m displacement. Pen for size comparison

Technical Data / Product Order Numbers


Order numbers P-010.00H P-010.05H P-010.10H P-010.15H P-010.20H P-010.30H P-010.40H P-016.00H P-016.05H P-016.10H P-016.15H P-016.20H P-016.30H P-016.40H P-025.10H P-025.20H P-025.40H P-025.50H Displacement Diameter [m] -10/+20 % OD [mm] 5 10 15 20 30 40 60 5 10 15 20 30 40 60 15 30 60 80 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 25 25 25 25 Diameter Length L ID [mm] [mm] 0.5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 16 16 16 16 7 12 15 21 27 40 54 7 12 15 21 27 40 52 16 27 51 66 Blocking force [N] 1200 1300 1700 1500 1800 1600 1800 2900 3400 4100 3800 4500 4000 4700 7400 8700 9000 9600 Stiffness [N/m] 230 130 110 76 59 40 29 580 340 270 190 150 100 78 490 290 150 120 Capacitance [nF] 20 % 15 29 40 59 82 120 180 42 83 120 170 230 340 490 220 430 920 1200 Resonant frequency [kHz] 144 84 67 48 39 28 21 144 84 67 48 39 28 21 63 39 22 17
Piezo ceramic type PIC 151 Recommended preload for dynamic operation: 15 MPa Maximum preload for constant force: 30 MPa Resonant frequency at 1 Vpp, unloaded, free at both sides. The value is halved for unilateral clamping Capacitance at 1 Vpp, 1 kHz Blocking force at 1000 V Operating voltage range: 0 to 1000 V Operating temperature range: -20 to +85 C Standard mechanical interface (top & bottom): ceramic, 0.52 mm thick (depends on model) Standard electrical interface: two PTFE-insulated wires, pigtail length 100 mm Available options: integrated force piezo sensor or strain gauge sensors, non-magnetic, vacuum compatible, etc. Ask about custom designs and further specifications.

1-91

Piezo Nano Positioning

PL022 PL033 PL055 PICMA Chip Actuators


Miniature Multilayer Piezo Stack Actuators
conventional multilayer actuators. With conventional multilayer actuators, heat generation which is proportional to operating frequency either limits the operating frequency or duty cycle in dynamic operation, or makes ungainly cooling provisions necessary. At the low end, operation down to a few Kelvin is possible (with reduction in performance specifications).
PICMA chip miniature piezo actuators are the smallest ceramic encapsulated multilayer piezo actuators available, paper clip for size comparison

Optimum UHV Compatibility Minimum Outgassing The lack of polymer insulation and the high Curie temperature make for optimal ultra-highvacuum compatibility (high bakeout temperatures, up to 150 C). Piezo Drivers, Controllers & High-Voltage Amplifiers High-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both digital and analog, are described in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers section.
PICMA chip miniature piezo actuator, dimensions in mm. See technical data table for A, B, TH. Lateral tolerances for PL055 0.15 mm

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Superior Lifetime Even Under Extreme Conditions Ultra-Compact: from 2 x 2 x 2 mm Ideal for Dynamic Operation Sub-Millisecond Response Sub-Nanometer Resolution Vacuum Compatible to 109 hPa High Humidity Resistance erties such as stiffness, capacitance, displacement, temperature stability and lifetime are optimally combined. Thus the actuators accomplish subnanometer resolution in positioning and sub-millisecond response! Increased Lifetime Through Humidity Resistance The monolithic ceramic-encapsulated design provides better humidity protection than polymer-film insulation. Diffusion of water molecules into the insulation layer is greatly reduced by the use of cofired, outer ceramic encapsulation. Due to their high resonant frequency the actuators are suitable for highly dynamic applications with small loads; depending on the load an external preload for dynamic applications is recommended. The high Curie temperature of 320 C gives PICMA actuators a usable temperature range extending up to 150 C, far beyond 80 C as is common for

Smallest Dimensions High Performance PICMA Chip actuators sized from 2 x 2 x 2 mm are the smallest monolithic multilayer piezo stack actuators available. Providing sub-nanometer resolution and sub-millisecond response, they are ideally suited to high-level dynamic applications. New Production Process, Optimized Piezo Ceramics PICMA actuators are made from a ceramic material in which the piezoceramic propApplication Examples

Technical Data / Product Order Numbers


Order number* Dimensions Nominal A x B x TH displacement in mm [m @ 100 V] 20 % 2x2x2 3x3x2 5x5x2 2.2 2.2 2.2 Blocking force [N] >120 >300 >500 Electrical Resonant capacitance frequency [nF] 20 % [kHz] 25 50 250 >300 >300 >300

PL022.30 PL033.30 PL055.30

Static and dynamic precision positioning Laser tuning Micro-dispensing Metrology / Interferometry Life science, Biotechnology Photonics

* For optional PTFE insulated wire leads change order number extension to .x1 (e. g. PL022.31) Resonant frequency at 1 Vpp, unloaded, free at both sides. The value is halved for unilateral clamping Capacitance at 1 Vpp, 1 kHz Operating voltage: -20 to +100 V Operating temperature range: 150 C Standard electrical interfaces: Solderable pads Other specifications on request. Recommended preload for dynamic operation: 15 MPa Maximum preload for constant force: 30 MPa

1-92

Piezo Nano Positioning

Piezoelectric Actuators & Components from PI Ceramic Leading in Piezo Technology


PI Ceramica PI Subsidiary is a long-standing, worldclass supplier of high-performance piezoelectric actuator and transducer components and subassemblies. The award-winning PICMA actuator technology is a result of PI Ceramics research and development, and innovative drive solutions such as PILine ultrasonic ceramic motors and NEXLINE highforce ceramic motors are based on piezoelectric actuators from PIC. PI Ceramic provides a wide range of standard piezoelectric actuator components and develops and produces all piezo ceramic drive systems employed in PIs precision positioning systems. Apart from the standard types a multitude of applicationspecific and custom-engineered modifications can be delivered.
Piezoceramic Materials & Components
Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..
Piezoceramic rings, plates, tubes

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

Variety of materials: lead zirconate titanate (PZT); barium titanate Variety of shapes: discs (rod, block, custom design) rings, tubes

For more information on piezoceramic materials and components, see the PI Ceramic catalogs and Website (www.piceramic.de).

shear elements (plates, rings)

Custom electrodes (material, shape) Patch transducers, piezo composite materials

1-93

Piezo Nano Positioning

PL112 PL140 PICMA Bender Actuators


Multilayer Piezo Bender Actuators with High Travel and Low Operating Voltage
Bender actuators with optional wire leads (order number extension .x1); micro processor for size comparison

Increased Lifetime Through Humidity Resistance The monolithic ceramic-encapsulated design provides better humidity protection than polymer-film insulation. Diffusion of water molecules into the insulation layer is greatly reduced by the use of cofired, outer ceramic encapsulation. Due to their high resonant frequency the actuators are suitable for highly dynamic applications with small loads; depending on the load an external preload for dynamic applications is recommended. The high Curie temperature of 320 C gives PICMA actuators a usable temperature range extending up to 150 C, far beyond 80 C as is common for conventional multilayer actuators. With conventional multilayer actuators, heat generation which is proportional to operating frequency either limits the operating frequency or duty cycle in dynamic operation, or makes ungainly cooling provisions necessary. At the low end, operation down to a few Kelvin is possible (with reduction in performance specifications).

Optimum UHV Compatibility Minimum Outgassing The lack of polymer insulation and the high Curie temperature make for optimal ultra-highvacuum compatibility (high bakeout temperatures, up to 150 C). Closed-Loop Version For closed-loop positioning the versions P-871 with integrated strain gauge sensors are available (see p. 1-84). Drivers and Controllers PI offers a wide selection of low noise amplifiers and controllers for piezo actuators (see section Piezo Electronics). Customized piezo electronics are developed on request. The E-650.00 and E-650.0E piezo amplifiers ( see p. 2-122) are especially designed for operating the PICMA bender actuators.

Ceramic Encapsulation for Better Protection and Longer


Lifetime Positioning Range up to 2 mm Fast Response (10 msec) Nanometer-Range Resolution Low Operating Voltage Vacuum-Compatible Versions to 10-9 hPa Available with Integrated Position Sensor Special OEM- and Bench-Top Amplifiers Available

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

PICMA multilayer bender piezo actuators provide a deflection of up to 2 mm, forces up to 2 N and response times in the millisecond range. These multilayer piezoelectric components are manufactured from ceramic layers of only about 50 m thickness. They feature internal silver-palladium electrodes and ceramic insulation applied in a cofiring process. The benders have two
Application Examples

outer active areas and one central electrode network dividing the actuator in two segments of equal capacitance, similar to a classical parallel bimorph. Advantages PICMA Bender piezo actuators offer several advantages over classic bimorph components manufactured by gluing together two ceramic plates (0.1 to 1 mm thick): faster response time and higher stiffness. The main advantage, however, is the drastically reduced (by a factor of 3 to 10) operating voltage of only 60 V. The reduced voltage allows smaller drive electronics and new applications, such as in medical equipment. Additionally, these devices offer improved humidity resistance due to the ceramic encapsulation.

Wire bonding Pneumatic valves Fiber optic switches (Laser)-Beam steering Micropositioning Acceleration sensors

Bender actuators with strain gauge positioning sensors are available with product number P-871

1-94

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators
Recommended clamping: non-conducting material with rounded clamping end face for protection of ceramics (not included). See table for dimensions

Unpackaged stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

Differential control of PICMA bender actuators Pin Assignments: 1: -30 V [or GND] 2: -30 V to +30 V [or 0 to 60 V] 3: +30 V [or +60 V] Dimensions in mm

Technical Data / Product Order Numbers


Order number* PL112.10** PL122.10 PL127.10 PL128.10** PL140.10 Operating voltage [V] 0 - 60 (30) 0 - 60 (30) 0 - 60 (30) 0 - 60 (30) 0 - 60 (30) Nominal displacement [m] 20 % 80 250 450 450 1000 Free length [mm] 12 22 27 28 40 Dimensions LxWxT [mm] 17.8 x 9.6 x 0.65 25.0 x 9.6 x 0.65 31.0 x 9.6 x 0.65 35.5 x 6.3 x 0.75 45.0 x 11.0 x 0.60 Blocking force [N] 2.0 1.1 1.0 0.5 0.5 Electrical capacitance [F] 20 % 2 x 1.1 2 x 2.4 2 x 3.4 2 x 1.2 2 x 4.0 Resonant frequency [Hz] 20 % >1000 660 380 360 160

*For optional PTFE insulated wire leads change order number extension to .x 1 (e. g. PL112.11) Operating temperature range: -20 to +85 C; **to +150 C Resonant frequency at 1 Vpp, capacitance at 1 Vpp, 1 kHz All parameters depend on actual clamping conditions and applied load. Ask about custom designs and further specifications.

1-95

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-876 DuraAct
Piezoelectric Patch Transducers
a rugged design with the mechanical stability of a structural material. Energy Harvesting: Self-Sustaining Systems in a Small Package One possible application of DuraAct patch transducers is in the field of energy harvesting. Transformation of mechanical vibrations of up to some kilohertz into the corresponding potential difference can yield electrical power in the milliwatt range. This power can supply miniature electronic devices like diodes, sensors or even radio transmitters for remote data control. DuraAct transducers can be offered in highly customized versions:
Ordering Information
P-876.A11 DuraAct Patch Transducer, 61 x 35 x 0.4 mm P-876.A12 DuraAct Patch Transducer, 61 x 35 x 0.5 mm P-876.A15 DuraAct Patch Transducer, 61 x 35 x 0.8 mm Ask for custom designs!

Flexible choice of

dimensions
Flexible choice of thickness

P-876.A12 and .A15 actuators. Golf ball for size comparison

and bending properties


Flexible choice of piezo-

Actuator, Sensor or Energy Source Highly Formable Ceramics Can be Applied to Curved Surfaces Customized Solutions on Request Cost-Effective
Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

ceramic materials and operating temperature Various electrical connection designs Combining sensor and actuator functions (multiple ceramic layers)

P-876 DuraAct patch transducers offer the functionality of piezoceramic materials as sensors and actuators as well as for electrical charge generation and storage. Used as bender actuators, they allow high deflections of up to 0.8 mm with high force and high precision. Other possible operation modes of DuraAct transducers are as high-dynamics sensors (e.g. for structural health monitoring) or for energy harvesting.

Integration into Adaptive Systems With their compact design, DuraAct transducers can be applied to structure areas where deformations are to be generated or detected. For this purpose the transducers can be affixed to the surfaces of structures or integrated as structural elements themselves. Whole areas can be monitored effectively by applying an array of several modules to a surface. DuraAct patch transducers are ideally suited for active and adaptive systems. Embedded in a servo-control loop, they can reduce vibrations and control structures in the nanometer range. Robust and Cost-Effective Design for Industrial Applications The laminated design with piezoceramic plate and polymers provide a mechanically preloaded and electrically insulated device for easy handling. P-876 patch transducers feature
Dimensions of the P-876 in mm

Application Examples

High-dynamics actuators Adaptive systems Vibration and noise cancellation Deformation control and stabilization Damage monitoring Energy harvesting

Lateral contraction of a DuraAct patch transducer when voltage is applied

1-96

Piezo Nano Positioning

Linear Actuators & Motors PiezoWalk Motors / Actuators PILine Ultrasonic Motors DC-Servo & Stepper Actuators Piezo Actuators & Components
Guided / Preloaded Actuators Unpackaged stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics
Deflection of a bending transducer as a function of the substrate thickness for different materials. A bending transducer consists of a substrate with a P-876 actuator (here: P-876.A15) glued to one side. A contraction of the actuator effects a deflection W

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

Design principle of the transducer

Technical Data
Model Operating voltage Motion and positioning Lateral contraction, open-loop Mechanical properties Blocking force Length Width Thickness Bending radius Drive properties Piezo ceramic type Electrical capacitance Miscellaneous Operating temperature range Mass Voltage connection Recommended controller/driver -20 to +150 (180) C 2.1 g Solder pads E-413.D2 E-835 -20 to +150 (180) C 3.5 g Solder pads E-413.D2 (p. 2-120) E-835 -20 to +150 (180) C 7.2 g Solder pads E-508 (p. 2-150) E-835 (p. 2-166) 5 % PIC 252 Layer thickness: 100 m 150 nF PIC 255 Layer thickness: 200 m 90 nF PIC 255 Layer thickness: 500 m 45 nF 20 % 90 N 61 mm 35 mm 0.4 mm 12 mm 265 N 61 mm 35 mm 0.5 mm 20 mm 775 N 61 mm 35 mm 0.8 mm 70 mm 0.5 mm 0.5 mm 0.05 mm max. 400 m/m 1.6 m/m/V 650 m/m 1.3 m/m/V 800 m/m 0.64 m/m/V min. P-876.A11 -50 to +200 V P-876.A12 -100 to +400 V P-876.A15 -250 to +1000 V Tolerances

1-97

Piezo Nano Positioning

P-111 P-151 PICA Shear Actuators


Compact Multi-Axis Actuators Based on the Piezo Shear Effect
ment and low electrical capacitance provides for excellent dynamic behavior with reduced driving power requirements. Short Leadtime for Standard & Custom Designs All manufacturing processes at PI Ceramic are set up for maximum flexibility. Should our standard actuators not fit your application, let us provide you with a custom design. Our engineers will work with you to find the optimum solution at a very attractive price, even for small quantities. Some of our custom capabilities are listed below: Custom Materials Custom Voltage Range / Custom Displacement Clear Aperture Custom Load / Force Ranges Custom Flat or Spherical Endplates (Metal, Ceramics, Glass, Sapphire, ...) / Optical Surface Quality

PICATM Shear actuators are available in cross-sections from 3 x 3 mm to 16 x 16 mm


Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Compact Single- and Multi-Axis Actuators X-, XY-, XZ- and XYZ-Versions High Resonant Frequencies Extreme Reliability >109 Cycles Picometer-Resolution / Sub-Millisecond Response UHV Versions to 10-9 hPa Non-Magnetic and Clear Aperture Versions

The unique PICA Shear piezo actuator series are exclusively available from PI. These devices are extremely compact and feature sub-nanometer resolution and ultra-fast response. They come in a variety of geometries providing displacements to 10 m. Possible applications for these devices are e.g. scanning microscopy, or in motor drives.

High Stiffness and High Displacement PICA Shear actuators exhibit high stiffness, both parallel and perpendicular to the motion direction. Based on the piezoelectric shear effect, the PICA Shear X and XY actuators show almost twice the displacement amplitudes of conventional piezo actuators at the same electric field. Consequently they can be made smaller and have higher resonant frequencies. This results in reduced power requirements for a given induced displacement in dynamic X- and Y-axis operation. High Reliability under High Duty Cycles, Low Power Requirements PICA Shear actuators are specifically designed for highduty-cycle applications. All materials used are specifically matched for robustness and lifetime. Endurance tests proved consistent performance, even after billions (1,000,000,000) of cycles. The combination of high displace-

PICA Shear dimensions, see technical data table for A, B, L

Application Examples

Nanopositioning Precision mechanics / -machining Active vibration damping Semiconductor technology / test systems Laser tuning Atomic force microscopy Switches Scanning applications Linear motors Nanotechnology

Axis and lead assignment for PICA Shear actuators

The standard actuator P-151.10 is delivered with a 10 cm lead

1-98

Piezo Nano Positioning

Extra-Tight Length

Tolerances
Combination with

Piezoelectric Shear Sensors (no Pyroelectric Effect) Low-Temperature Designs, Down to Liquid-He Vacuum Compatible and Non-Magnetic Versions Because all piezoelectric materials used in these actuators

are manufactured at PI Ceramic, leadtimes are short and quality is outstanding. All standard and custom actuators are delivered with performance test sheets. Amplifiers and Controllers The E-413.OE bipolar piezo driver is recommended for operating these actuators.

Other high-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both digital and analog, are described in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers section.

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Technical Data / Product Order Numbers


Order number P-111.01 P-111.03 P-111.05 P-121.01 P-121.03 P-121.05 P-141.03 P-141.05 P-141.10 P-151.03 P-151.05 P-151.10 P-112.01 P-112.03 P-122.01 P-122.03 P-122.05 P-142.03 P-142.05 P-142.10 P-152.03 P-152.05 P-152.10 P-123.01 P-123.03 P-143.01 P-143.03 P-143.05 P-153.03 P-153.05 P-153.10 P-153.10H P-151.03H P-151.05H P-151.10H Active axes X X X X X X X X X X X X XY XY XY XY XY XY XY XY XY XY XY XYZ XYZ XYZ XYZ XYZ XYZ XYZ XYZ XYZ X X X Displacement Cross section [m] -10/+20% A x B / ID for -250 to 250 V [mm] 1* 3* 5 1* 3* 5 3* 5 10 3* 5 10 1 x 1* 3 x 3* 1 x 1* 3 x 3* 5x5 3 x 3* 5x5 10 x 10 3 x 3* 5x5 10 x 10 1 x 1 x 1* 3 x 3 x 3* 1 x 1 x 1* 3 x 3 x 3* 5x5x5 3 x 3 x 3* 5x5x5 10 x 10 x 10 10 x 10 x 10 3* 5 10 3x3 3x3 3x3 5x5 5x5 5x5 10 x 10 10 x 10 10 x 10 16 x 16 16 x 16 16 x 16 3x3 3x3 5x5 5x5 5x5 10 x 10 10 x 10 10 x 10 16 x 16 16 x 16 16 x 16 5x5 5x5 10 x 10 10 x 10 10 x 10 16 x 16 16 x 16 16 x 16 16 x 16 / 10 16 x 16 / 10 16 x 16 / 10 16 x 16 / 10 Length L [mm] 0.3 3.5 5.5 7.5 3.5 5.5 7.5 5.5 7.5 12 5.5 7.5 12 5 9.5 5 9.5 14 9.5 14 23 9.5 14 23 7.5 15.5 7.5 15.5 23 15.5 23 40 40 5.5 7.5 12 Max. shear load [N] 20 20 20 50 50 40 200 200 200 300 300 300 20 10 50 40 30 200 100 50 300 300 100 40 10 200 100 50 300 100 60 20 200 200 200 Axial Stiffness [N/m] 70 45 30 190 120 90 490 360 230 1300 920 580 50 25 140 70 50 280 190 120 730 490 300 90 45 360 170 120 450 300 170 120 870 640 460 Capacitance [nF] 20% 0.5 1.5 2.5 1.4 4.2 7 17 28 50 43 71 130 0.5 / 0.5 1.5 / 1.5 1.4 / 1.4 4.2 / 4.2 7/7 17 / 17 28 / 28 50 / 50 43 / 43 71 / 71 130 / 130 1.4 / 1.4 / 2.9 4.2 / 4.2 / 7.3 5.6 / 5.6 / 11 17 / 17 / 29 28 / 28 / 47 43 / 43 / 73 71 / 71 / 120 130 / 130 / 230 89 / 89 / 160 30 49 89 Resonant frequency [kHz] 330 210 155 330 210 155 210 155 100 210 155 100 230 120 230 120 85 120 85 50 120 85 50 155 75 155 75 50 75 50 30 30 210 155 100

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

Standard piezo ceramic type: 255 * Tolerances 30 % Unloaded (longitudinal) resonant frequency measured at 1 Vpp, capacitance at 1 Vpp, 1 kHz, unloaded, free at both sides Capacitance at 1 Vpp, 1 kHz Operating voltage: -250 V to +250 V Operating temperature range: -20 to +85 C Standard mechanical interfaces: Ceramics PTFE-insulated wires, pigtail length 100 mm Available options: integrated piezo force sensors, non magnetic, vacuum compatible, free aperture etc. Other specifications on request.

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PT120 PT140 PT Piezo Tube Actuators


Piezoceramic Tube Actuators with Small Tolerances and Various Options
Short Leadtime Because all piezoelectric materials used in PT tube actuators are manufactured at PI Ceramic, leadtimes are short and quality is outstanding. Dimensions max. L: 50 mm max. OD: 80 mm min. d: 0.30 mm Electrodes Fired silver-plated inside and outside as standard; thin film electrodes (e. g. copper-nickel or gold) as outer electrodes optional. Options Equations The axial contraction and radial displacement of piezo tubes can be calculated as follows: (Equation 1) Piezo Drivers, Controllers & High-Voltage Amplifiers High-resolution amplifiers and servo-control electronics, both digital and analog, are described in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers section.

U L d31 L d
where: d31 = strain coefficient (displacement normal to polarization direction) [m/V] L = length of ceramic tube [m] U = operating voltage [V] d = wall thickness [m] (Equation 2) d d33 U where: d = change in wall thickness [m] d33 = strain coefficient (field and displacement in polarization direction) [m/V] U = operating voltage [V] Typical values for d31 and d33 are -200 pm/V and 500 pm/V, respectively.

A selection of PT piezoceramic tubes

Standard & Custom Sizes Optional Quartered Electrodes for XYZ-Positioning &
Scanning
Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Single or double wrapped, circumferential bands or quartered outer electrodes. Polarization Inner electrode positive potential Tube actuators are not designed to withstand large forces (see PICA Thru actuators p. 1-90), but their high resonant frequencies make them especially suitable for dynamic operation with light loads. Application examples are micro pumps, scanning microscopy, ink-jet printing, ultrasonic and sonar applications.

Sub-Nanometer Resolution Ideal for OEM-Applications


PT-series piezoceramic tubes are used in a wide range of applications from microdispensing to scanning microscopy. These monolithic components contract laterally (radially) and longitudinally when a voltage is applied between their inner and outer electrodes. Multi-electrode tubes are available to provide XYZ motion for use in manipulation and scanning microscopy applications. PI also provides ultra-high linearity, closed-loop scanning stages for SPM and nanomanipulation. Precision and Flexibility PT piezo tubes are manufactured to the tightest tolerances. We can provide tubes with diameters as small as 0.8 mm and tolerances as tight as 0.05 mm. All manufacturing processes at PI Ceramic are set up for maximum flexibility. Should our standard actuators not fit your application, let us provide you with a custom design. Our engineers will work with you to find the optimum solution at a very attractive price, even for small quantities. Some of our custom capabilities are listed below: Custom Materials Custom Voltage Ranges / Displacement Custom Geometries Extra-Tight Tolerances Applied Sensors Special High / Low Temperature Versions

Application Examples

Micropositioning Scanning microscopy (AFM, STM, etc.) Fiber stretching / modulation Micropumps Micromanipulation Ultrasonic and sonar applications

XY scanning tubes with quartered outer electrodes; see table for specifications

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The radial contraction is the superposition of the increase in wall thickness and the tangential contraction; it can be estimated by the following equation: (Equation 3)

position of radial and axial contraction. Such tubes are applied as XY scanner in scanning-probe microscopes such as atomic force microscopes. The scanning range can be evaluated as follows: (Equation 4) 2 2 d31 L2 U x

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U ___ __ r d31 _ r d
where: r = radius of piezo tube d31 = strain coefficient (displacement normal to polarization direction) [m/V] U = operating voltage [V] d = wall thickness [m] For a given division of the outer electrode of a piezo tube into four 90 sections the differential control (U) of opposing electrodes results in bending of one of the ends, due to super-

ID d

where: x = scanning range in X and Y (for symmetrical electrodes) [m] d31 = strain coefficient (displacement normal to polarization direction) [m/V] U = operating voltage [V] L = length [m] ID = inner diameter [m] d = wall thickness [m]

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

PT Tube dimensions, in mm (see table for further information)

Technical Data / Product Order Numbers


Order number PT120.00 PT130.00 PT130.90 PT130.94* PT130.10 PT130.14* PT130.20 PT130.24* PT130.30 PT130.40 PT140.70 Dimensions [mm] L x OD x ID** 20 x 2.2 x 1.0 30 x 3.2 x 2.2 30 x 3.2 x 2.2 30 x 3.2 x 2.2 30 x 6.35 x 5.35 30 x 6.35 x 5.35 30 x 10.0 x 9.0 30 x 10.0 x 9.0 30 x 10.0 x 8.0 30 x 20.0 x 18.0 40 x 40.0 x 38.0 Max. operating voltage [V] 500 500 500 200 500 200 500 200 1000 1000 1000 Electrical capacitance [nF] 20% 3 10 12 4 x 2.4 18 4 x 3.8 36 4 x 8.5 18 35 70 Axial contraction [m] @ max. V 5 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 15 Radial contraction [m] @ max. voltage 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.8 1.8 3 3 3 6 12 XY deflection [m] @ 200 V 35 16 10 -

*Quartered electrodes for XY deflection **OD (outer diameter), ID (inner diameter) 0.05 mm. PT120 / PT130.00: ID 0.1 mm Other specifications on request.

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Piezo Nano Positioning

Options and Accessories


Factory Installed Options
Notes The following options must be installed in the piezo translators during the manufacturing process. They must be ordered with the piezo actuator and cannot be added later. If necessary contact your local PI office for details on how to order modified translators. This option includes factory calibration of any PI servo-controller (see Piezo Drivers & Nanopositioning Controllers section) delivered along with the sensor-equipped piezo translator. P-177.50 Dynamic applications (with E-481): temperature sensor and protective air for PICA HVPZT The option for dynamic applications is recommended fort he operation with the E-481 HVPZT Piezo Amplifier / Controller with energy recovery. Protective air and integrated temperature sensor prevent damage to the piezo ceramic by overtemperature. P-706.00 Water-Resistant Case The water-resistant case is recommended if PZTs are used in applications where spray of coolants, oil, water, etc. might damage the piezo ceramics. It consists of a specially sealed steel case with integrated flexure zones. Please call for dimensions and further details. The following translators are available with water-resistant cases: P-844.xx, P-845.xx, P-225.xx, P-235.xx. P-176.30 Magnetic Adapter To attach P-820 translators to various positioning units the P-176.30 magnetic adapters are available. The P-176.30 can be glued on the top piece of the P-820. Cables and Cable Adapters A variety of cables, extension cables and adapters are available. See Accessories page 2-168 ff. in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers section for further details.

Strain Gauge Position Sensor for HVPZT Stack Actuators For positioning requiring high repeatability and accuracy, the strain gauge position sensor is available. See page 2-187 ff. and page 2-199 ff., for more information on position sensors and closed-loop operation of piezos. Piezos with strain gauge sensors are equipped with a 1 m PUR cable with FFA.0S.304.CLAC32 LEMO connector in addition to the voltage cable.

Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Vacuum Options
All PI piezo translators can be safely used in a vacuum outside the range from 100 to 0.1 hPa (100 to 0.1 torr). See the tutorial Piezoelectrics in Positioning section, page 2-205 for discussion. For applications that require reduced outgassing, the P703.10 and P-703.20 high-vacuum options are available. P-703.10 High Vacuum (for non-preloaded PZTs) The translators are delivered as bare ceramic stacks without a case. The PZTs can be baked up to 150 C. The electrical connection is via two 50 cm long Teflon leads without connector. The nominal displacement of the PZT is reduced by about 20% (due to

the stiff insulation materials). P-703.10 includes high-temperature range if ordered with HVPZTs. P-703.20 High Vacuum (for preloaded PZTs) The piezo ceramics are enclosed in a stainless steel case with vent holes. The PZTs can be baked to 150 C. The electrical connection is via two 50 cm Teflon leads without connector. The nominal displacement of the PZT is reduced by about 20% (due to the stiff insulation materials).

Extended Temperature Range


Standard HVPZTs work in the temperature range from -40 C to 80 C (-40 F to +176 F). For applications requiring an extended temperature range the following options are available: High-Temperature Range and High Vacuum (only for HVPZTs) -40 C to +150 C / -40 F to +302 F / 233 K to 423 K The piezo ceramics are enclosed in a stainless steel case with vent holes. Special electrical insulation materials are used. The nominal displacement of the PZT is reduced by about 20% (due to the stiff insulation materials). The electrical connection is via two 1,5 m Kapton leads with LEMO connector.

Low-Temperature Range -273 C to +80 C / -459 F to +176 F / 0 K to 353 K Generally all PZT ceramics function down to zero kelvin. However, piezo translators are constructed of a combination of materials (ceramics, metal, insulating materials...) which makes the situation more complex. To qualify the piezoelectric translators for cryogenic temperatures, special insulation material and adhesives must be used. The low-temperature translators are delivered as bare ceramic stacks without case and mechanical preload. The electrical connection is via two 50 cm Teflon leads without connectors.

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Guided / Preloaded Actuators
P-176.30 magnetic adapter P-176.10 magnetic adapter P-176.60 flexible tip

Unpackaged Stack Actuators Patches /Benders/Tubes /Shear..

Accessories
Accessories can be installed after manufacture. P-176.Bxx Ball Tips To avoid bending moments and shear forces on the PZT ceramics, a ball tip is available that can be screwed into the top piece of the individual translators. P-176.B12 Ball tip for P-212 P-176.B16 Ball tip for P-216 P-176.B25 Ball tip for P-225 and P-235 P-176.Fxx Flat Tips Flat Tips are available and can be screwed into the top piece of the individual translators. P-176.F12 Flat tip for P-212 P-176.F16 Flat tip for P-216 P-176.F25 Flat tip for P-225 P-176.F35 Flat tip for P-235 P-176.10/20 Magnetic Adapter To attach P-840/1 and P-212 translators to various positioning units the P-176.10/20 magnetic adapters are available. The P-176.20 can be screwed into the top piece of the P-840/1. The P-176.10 can be screwed into the top piece of the P-212. P-176.50/60 Flexible Tip PZT ceramic stacks cannot withstand bending forces. The P-176.50/60 flexible tips are available for applications where it is not possible to avoid

those forces. They can be screwed into the standard top pieces of the P-842/3 and P-844/5 translators. See drawing.

Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

P-176.50, P-176.60 flexible tips (dimensions in mm)

Technical Data
Model Thread [mm] L [mm] Tilting angle [deg] Axial stiffness [N/m] Bending stiffness [Nm/rad] P-176.50 M5/M5 8 20 0.5 100 22 P-176.60 M8/M8 12 30 0.5 200 40

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Piezo Nano Positioning

Accessories (cont.)
Cables, Connectors & Adapters for PICA HVPZT Piezo Translators and Nanopositioning Systems
Notes Unless stated otherwise, PIs preloaded PICA HVPZT piezo translators and nanopositioners are equipped with LEMO connectors and 1 m PVC cables. The voltage connector is an FGG.0B.701.CJL.1173. With integrated P-177.10 strain gauge, an additional sensor cable is installed. The length of the sensor cable is 1 m, the material PUR and the connector a LEMO FFA.0S.304.CLAC32 as shown on the P-892 cable.
P-202 PICA HVPZT cable

P-202.xx PICA HVPZT Cable LEMO plug / solderable end Plug: FGG.0B.701.CJL.1173 (fits PICA HVPZT amplifiers, e.g. E-508.00)
Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. All data are superseded by any new release. The newest release for data sheets is available for download at www.pi.ws. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

This cable can be soldered to PZTs with pigtails P-202.06 P-202.10 P-202.12 P-202.13 P-202.15 0.6 m 1m 2m 3m 5m

Cable with PUR insulation, 2-conductor, shielded

P-203 extension cable for PICA HVPZTs

P-203.xx PICA HVPZT Extension Cable Plug: FGG.0B.701.CJL.1173 Socket: PHG.0B.701.CJL.1173 Cable: PUR-insulation, 2-conductor, shielded P-203.01 1m P-203.02 2m P-203.03 3m P-203.05 5m P-203.10 10 m P-203.15 15 m
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Piezo Nano Positioning

Sensor Extension Cables


P-892.xx Sensor Extension Cable For strain gauge sensors or LVDTs. Plug (right): FFA.0S.304.CLAC32 Socket (left): PCA.0S.304.CLLC32 Cable: 4 wires; 0.20 mm; #32 AWG (American) #35 SWG (British) PVC-Isolation P-892.01 P-892.02 P-892.03 P-892.05 P-892.10 1 2 3 5 10 m m m m m
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Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

P-892.xx Sensor extension cables for LVDTs and strain gauges

Nanometrology

D-892 Sensor Extension Cable Set For capacitive sensors. Set of two. Plug (e.g., far left) FFA.00.250.CTLC20 Socket (e.g., far right) PCA.00.250.CTAC22 Cable: LSM 75 (Teflon) D-892.01 1m D-892.02 2m D-892.03 3m

Micropositioning

Index

D-892.xx capacitve sensor extension cables

1-105

Piezo Nano Positioning

Notes on Specifications for Piezo Actuators and Components


Operating voltage For PICMA ceramic equipped piezo actuators: 0 to 100 V typ. Max. recommended operating voltage range is -20 to +120 V (extremes for short durations only). For PICA ceramic equipped piezo actuators: 0 to 1000 V typ. Voltages in excess of +750 V should not be applied for long durations. Operation in the range of -200 to +750 V is recommended for maximum lifetime and displacement. For shear and bender type piezo actuators, bipolar voltage is applied, ranging from 30 V up to 250 V typ.

Motion and Positioning


Performance specifications are valid for room temperature (22 3 C) and closed-loop systems are calibrated at this temperature (specifications for different operating temperatures on request). Recalibration is recommended for operation at a significantly higher or lower temperature. Custom designs for ultra-low or ultra-high temperatures on request. Integrated feedback sensor Absolute measuring capacitive and SGS sensors are used to provide position information to the controller. For details see the tutorial Piezoelectrics in Positioning Section (see p. 2-187 ff ). Open-loop travel for PICMA Ceramic Equipped Piezo Stages and Actuators Minimum open-loop travel at 0 to 100 V operating voltage. Open-loop travel for PICA Ceramic Equipped Piezo Actuators Minimum open-loop travel of high-voltage piezo actuators at 0 to +1000 V operating voltage. Closed-loop travel for PICMA Ceramic Equipped Piezo Stages and Actuators Travel provided in closed-loop operation. PI piezo amplifiers have an output voltage range of -20 to +120 V or -30 to +135 V to provide enough margin for the servo-controller to compensate for load changes, etc. Open-loop / closed-loop resolution Resolution of piezo actuators is basically infinitesimal because it is not limited by stiction or friction. Instead of resolution, the noise-equivalent motion is specified. Values are typical results (RMS, 1 ), measured with E-503/E-508 amplifier module in E-500/501 chassis.

Mechanical Properties
Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

Static large-signal stiffness Typical tolerance 20 %. Static large-signal stiffness of the stage in operating direction at room temperature. Small-signal stiffness and dynamic stiffness may differ because of effects caused by the active nature of piezoelectric material, compound effects, etc. For details see the tutorial Piezoelectrics in Positioning Sec tion (see p. 2-189 ff ) Unloaded resonant frequency Typical tolerance 20 %. Lowest resonant frequency in operat-

ing direction (does not specify the maximum operating frequency). For details see the tutorial Piezoelectrics in Positioning Section (see p. 2-192 ff ) Push/pull force capacity (in operating direction) Specifies the maximum forces that can be applied to the system along the active axis. Limited by the piezo ceramic material and the flexure design. If larger forces are applied, damage to the piezo ceramic, the flexures or the sensor can

occur. The force limit must also be considered in dynamic applications. Example: the dynamic forces generated by sinusoidal operation at 500 Hz, 20 m peak-topeak, 1 kg moved mass, are approximately 100 N. For details see the tutorial Piezoelectrics in Positioning Section (see p. 2-192 ff ) Shear force limit Maximum lateral force orthogonal to the operating direction. Limited by the piezo ceramics.

Torque limit (on tip) Maximum torque that can be applied before damage occurs. Limited by the piezo ceramics.

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Drive Properties
Electrical capacitance Typical tolerance 20%. The piezo capacitance values indicated in the technical data tables are typical small-signal values (measured at 1 V, 1000 Hz, 20 C, no load). Largesignal values at room temperature are 30 to 50 % higher. The capacitance of piezo ceramics changes with amplitude, temperature, and load, up to 200 % of the unloaded, small-signal capacitance at room temperature. For detailed information on power requirements, refer to the amplifier frequencyresponse graphs in the Piezo Drivers / Servo Controllers (p. 2-99 ff ) Section of this catalog. Dynamic Operating Current Coefficient (DOCC) Typical tolerance 20 %. Ave rage electrical current (supplied by the amplifier) required to drive a piezo actuator per unit frequency and unit displacement (sine-wave operation). For example to find out if a selected amplifier can drive a given piezo stage at 50 Hz with 30 m amplitude, multiply DOC coefficient by 50 x 30 and check if the result is smaller or equal to the output current of the selected amplifier. For details see the tutorial Piezoelectrics in Positioning Section (p. 2-195 ff ).
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Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics

Nanometrology

Micropositioning

Index

Miscellaneous
Operating temperature range The temperature range indicates where the piezo actuator may be operated without damage. Nevertheless, recalibration or zero-point-adjustment may be required if the system is operated at different temperatures. Performance specifications are valid for room temperature range. Material Housings are usually made of stainless steel. Small amounts of other materials may be used internally (for spring preload, piezo coupling, mounting, thermal compensation, etc.). Al: Aluminum N-S: Non-magnetic stainless steel S: Ferromagnetic stainless steel I: Invar T: Titanium See also Options and Accessories (p. 1-102 ff ).

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Headquarters
GERMANY Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG Auf der Rmerstr. 1 76228 Karlsruhe/Palmbach Tel: +49 (721) 4846-0 Fax: +49 (721) 4846-100 info@pi.ws www.pi.ws PI Ceramic GmbH Lindenstr. 07589 Lederhose Tel: +49 (36604) 882-0 Fax: +49 (36604) 882-25 info@piceramic.de www.piceramic.de

Subsidiaries
USA (East) & CANADA PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert St. Auburn, MA 01501 Tel: +1 (508) 832 3456 Fax: +1 (508) 832 0506 info@pi-usa.us www.pi-usa.us JAPAN PI Japan Co., Ltd. Akebono-cho 2-38-5 Tachikawa-shi Tokyo 190 Tel: +81 (42) 526 7300 Fax: +81 (42) 526 7301 info@pi-japan.jp www.pi-japan.jp PI Japan Co., Ltd. Hanahara Dai-ni-Building, #703 4-11-27 Nishinakajima, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka-shi Osaka 532 Tel: +81 (6) 6304 5605 Fax: +81 (6) 6304 5606 info@pi-japan.jp www.pi-japan.jp UK & IRELAND PI (Physik Instrumente) Ltd. Lambda House Batford Mill Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 5BZ Tel: +44 (1582) 711 650 Fax: +44 (1582) 712 084 uk@pi.ws www.physikinstrumente.co.uk ITALY Physik Instrumente (PI) S.r.l. Via G. Marconi, 28 20091 Bresso (MI) Tel: +39 (02) 665 011 01 Fax: +39 (02) 665 014 56 info@pionline.it www.pionline.it
Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG 2008. Subject to change without notice. Cat120E Inspirations2009 08/10.18

USA (West) & MEXICO PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 5420 Trabuco Rd., Suite 100 Irvine, CA 92620 Tel: +1 (949) 679 9191 Fax: +1 (949) 679 9292 info@pi-usa.us www.pi-usa.us

CHINA Physik Instrumente (PI Shanghai) Co., Ltd. Building No. 7-301 Longdong Avenue 3000 201203 Shanghai, China Tel: +86 (21) 687 900 08 Fax: +86 (21) 687 900 98 info@pi-china.cn www.pi-china.cn FRANCE PI France S.A.S. 32 rue Delizy 93694 Pantin Cedex Tel: +33 (1) 57 14 07 10 Fax: +33 (1) 41 71 18 98 info@pifrance.fr www.pifrance.fr