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UFPPC (www.ufppc.org) Digging Deeper: August 30, 2004, 7:00 p.m.

James Mann, Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush’s War Cabinet (New York:
Viking, 2004).

Introduction. George W. Bush’s Ch. 4: Anti-Détente. In Ford


reliance on advisers; in foreign policy, administration, Cheney, and Wolfowitz
“the Vulcans,” named after statue in work against Kissinger’s policies (56-78).
Condoleezza Rice’s hometown of
Birmingham, AL (ix-x). Continuity of Ch. 5: Persian Gulf. Wolfowitz-Ross
Republican establishment (x-xi). Vulcans Limited Contingency Study on Persian
“at variance” with predecessors (xii-xiii). Gulf, in Carter administration (79-83).
Embodiment of a generation like “Wise U.S. Mideast policy based on support of
Men” and “Best and Brightest” (xiii-xiv). Shah of Iran (83-87). Iranian revolution &
They bridge cold war and post-cold war its effect on U.S. strategy (88-94).
(xiv-xv). Purpose of book: “to examine
the beliefs and worldview of the Vulcans . Ch. 6: Reagan team forms. Cheney in
. . by tracing the histories of six of its Congress (95-97). Wolfowitz leaves
leading members . . . to try to Pentagon for Johns Hopkins (97-99).
understand how and why America came Powell Wins White House fellowship &
to deal with the rest of the world in the becomes “a Washington professional”
ways that it did during the George W. (99-101). Rumsfeld CEO of G.D. Searle
Bush administra-tion” (xv). Other (102-03). VP choice in 1980 almost
Vulcans: Scooter Libby, Stephen Hadley, Rumsfeld (103-05). Armitage hired by
Douglas Feith, Paula Dobriansky (xv-xvi). Weinberger as Asia expert (105-09).
Common traits (xvi-xvii). George W. Bush Wolfowitz joins Reagan foreign policy
omitted (xvii-xix). team (109-10). Republicans abandon
Kissingerian realism (110-11).
Ch. 1: Donald Rumsfeld’s rise.
Rumsfeld to 1969 (1-10). Rumsfeld hires Ch. 7: First Reagan administration.
Dick Cheney at Office of Economic Wolfowitz runs State’s policy planning
Opportunity in 1969 (10-12). Rumsfeld in staff: Fukuyama, Khalilzad, etc. (112-16).
Nixon White House (12-20). Powell and Reagan (117-20). Powell and
Armitage (120-23). Rumsfeld’s mission
Ch. 2: Paul Wolfowitz. 1960s student to Saddam Hussein (123-26).
conservativism (21-22). Wolfowitz’s
youth (23-26). At Univ. of Chicago: Ch. 8: Dictatorships and
Strauss; Wohlstetter (26-31). Works in democracies. As 2nd-level staffers,
Washington in 1969 with Richard Perle at Wolfowitz (State) and Armitage (Defense)
Acheson’s & Nitze’s Committee to sort out interagency conflicts (127-29).
Maintain a Prudent Defense Policy (31- Promotion of democracy (129-31). The
34). Wohlstetter recommends Wolfowitz Philippines (131-37).
to Fred Iklé at U.S. Arms Control &
Disarmament Agency, 1974-75 (34-36). Ch. 9: “Continuity of government.”
Rumsfeld and Cheney team leaders in
Ch. 3: Richard Armitage and Colin secret “extralegal and
Powell. Armitage at Annapolis (37). extraconstitutional” program to set up
Armitage & Powell in Vietnam (37-55). three teams able to “proclaim a new
American ‘president’” and assume
command of U.S. in the event of nuclear
attack (138-45). Condoleezza Rice (146- Clinton’s 1992 election (218-20).
49). Powell’s uneasy service in Clinton
administration; Somalia (220-23).
Ch. 10: Iran-Contra & campaign Armitage (223-25). Rice (225-27).
against “declinists.” Iran-Contra (151- Wolfowitz (227-28). Cheney (228-29).
55). Powell brings efficiency to NSC Powell (229-30). Dole’s 1996 campaign
(155-59). Debate over Paul Kennedy’s brings Rumsfeld (campaign manager)
“declinist” book, The Rise and Fall of the and Wolfowitz (foreign policy adviser)
Great Powers (1987) (160-64). together (230-31). Dole foreign policy
hawkish (232-33).
Ch. 11: Early Bush I. Rumsfeld weighs
1988 presidential campaign (165-67). Ch. 15: Scouting new threats.
New Bush team more hawkish than Argument to overthrow Saddam
Reagan’s (168-71). Rice on NSC staff unilaterally derives from Paul Wolfowitz,
(171-72). Wolfowitz: Pentagon policy whose ideas congealed in 1997 (235-27).
reviews (172-73). Ross Perot’s vendetta Martin Anderson forms Congressional
against Armitage (173-76). Cheney Policy Advisory Board, beginning early
supports Powell, who becomes Chairman 1998 (238-39). Congressional
of the Joint Chiefs (176-78). commission toughens warning of ballistic
missile danger (240-42). China policy
Ch. 12: Panama; Gulf War. With (242-44). Rice criticizes Clinton’s Russia
invasion of Panama, Powell becomes policy (244-46). Attending to “new
symbol of newly assertive military (179- threats” (246-47).
82). Saddam Hussein seizes Kuwait
(182-84). Powell argues for containment Ch. 16: The 2000 Bush campaign.
of Iraq, not war (184-86). Cheney- Bush cultivates Hoover Institution
Wolfowitz-Libby develop alternative war scholars, Apr.-Jul. 1998, meets Rice (248-
plan, “Operation Scorpion”; rejected 49). Rice visits Kennebunkport, Aug.
(186-89). No top figures advocated 1998 (249-51). Wolfowitz (251-52).
overthrowing Hussein (189-92). Decision Foreign policy team of eight calls itself
not to prevent suppression of Shia and “the Vulcans” (251-52). Role of Cheney
Kurd uprisings (192-94). “New world & Rumsfeld (252-53). Powell stands
order” proves ephemeral (194-95). apart (253-54). Bush’s perceived
Legacy of ten-sions between Powell and ignorance and inexperience (255).
Cheney & Wolfowitz (195-97). Bush’s misleading promise of a “humble
nation” approach (256-57). Neglect of
Ch. 13: Post-cold war strategy. terrorism and Iraq; neoconservatives
Wolfowitz’s assistant Zalmay Khalilzad preferred McCain to Bush (258-29).
writes 1992 Defense Planning Guidance
(DPG) (198-200; also 209-15). Cheney, Ch. 17: Staffing Bush II. Uncertainty
Wolfowitz resist “peace dividend” (200- about Dept. of Defense (261-63). Dec.
03). Rice’s bureaucratic skills (204-06). 16, 2000: Powell speaks all too well at
Network of bases key to U.S. power, but press conference with Bush (264-66).
no one base is essential: Armitage’s Rumsfeld’s selection for Defense (instead
failed negotiations on Philippine bases of CIA) (267-70). Wolfowitz and Armitage
(206-08). Libby redrafts DPG, changing (270-72). Effect of appointments was to
tone (211-13). Enduring impact of DPG make Cheney “the dominant influence”
(213-15). (273-76).

Ch. 14: The Vulcans out of office. Ch. 18: Pre-9/11 Bush II foreign
Powell & national office (216-18). policy. Powell’s 3/6/01 news conference
on Korea repudiated by Bush (277-79). Ch. 21: Run-up to war on Iraq. Early
“We don’t do engagement” (279-81). 2002 policy option review (322-24). Perle
April 2001 China crisis (281-83). China and James Woolsey push for war (334-
and American business (283-84). Taiwan 36). Scowcroft writes against war (336-
policy (284-86). Unilateralism (286-88). 40). Powell’s moderation overridden by
Bush-Putin (288). Rumsfeld (288-91). Cheney’s 8/26/02 speech (340-42). Bush
Wolfowitz’s 6/2/01 West Point address decides to go to U.N. (342-44).
(291). Missed signals (292-93). Temporizing after N. Korea’s confession
of a nuclear weapons program (344-47).
Ch. 19: Phase 1 of war on terrorism. Security Council resolution
Cheney dominant figure on 9/11 (294- misinterpreted as “loss” for hard-liners
97). Armitage expels Chinese journalists (347-48). As decision hardens, Powell
for “laughing” (297-98). Armitage tells toughens tone; French warnings rejected
Pakistan’s Ahmad: “History starts today” (348-51). Bush’s 2/26/03 AEI speech a
(298-300). Powell-Wolfowitz tensions triumph for neocons (351-53). Powell’s
(300-03). No new multilateralism after U.N. speech (353-54). Rumsfeld’s
9/11 (303-06). Rumsfeld becomes media excessive candor (354-55). Vulcan-
star (306-07). Victory in Afghanistan friendly account of last days before war
(308-09). No military phase 2 in war on (356-58).
terrorism (309-10).
Conclusion. Errors of opponents and
Ch. 20: New policies. Eagerness for proponents of war (359-62). Ways in
new ideas (311-14). Rice as “interface which Iraq war exemplifies “Vulcans’
between the president and his political views of the world” (362-63). Iraq war’s
advisers, on the one hand, and his effect on each of the six Vulcans (364-
foreign policy team, on the other” (315- 70). Vulcans as representative
16). “Axis of evil” speech (317-21). Americans (370-72).
Cheney’s Iraq-centric approach to
Mideast policy prevails; Arafat Acknowledgments. Book written
abandoned (322-27). West Point during two years at the Center for
“preemptive action” speech, 6/1/02 (327- Strategic & International Studies (373).
28). National Security Strategy, Sept. More than 100 interviews (374).
2002 (328-31).