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BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Housing Report
Himani Gaur, 13, V Year, B.Arch

Site
Key Plan
Terrace Gardens Balcony Service Core

Detail Area

The construction system used for housing is pre-fabricated systems. The special feature of design is terrace gardens. The design consists of terrace gardens with every unit and with the common spaces connecting the circulation.

PRECAST CONCRETE

PROPERTIES OF PREFAB STRUCTURES


LIGHT-WEIGHT: Oven dry density of siporex is 400 to 650kg/m ideal for low bearing soils ,seismic zones and for adding storeys to existing buildings. FIRE RESISTANT AND INCOMBUSTIBLE: Offers twice the fire protection of concrete. Ideal for fire walls and for fire protection of structural steel siporex roof slabs, wall panels, load bearing blocks. HIGH STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIO: For Siporex 18 to 22 against 16 for concrete of M150 grade. WATER PENETRATION: Siporex structure being of closed cells , there is less capillary action and high surface activity allows for fast evaporation of moisture . COST EFFECTIVE: Most cost effective when used to construct disaster resistant buildings as its faster and wastage of materials is less PROBLEMS WITH PREFAB CONSTRUCTION Panels commonly develop hairline shrinkage cracks, particularly at the perimeter edges and at corners of punched openings, despite controlled curing procedures. These cracks create avenues for water to bypass shallow joint sealants, even when they have good adhesion to the panels. REMEDIAL OPTIONS Cracks through the panel can be epoxy-injected to prevent water penetration, provided the crack arose from overstress during improper handling and overstresses will not reoccur, such as with thermal bowing conditions

SLAB AND BEAM CONNECTION

BEAM CONNECTON

COLUMN CONNECTION

FLOOR DETAIL

ROOF/FLOOR (IS 4326 : 1993) The unit is a reinforced concrete component having a nominal width of 300 to 600 mm and thickness of 130 to 150 mm having two circular hollows 90 mm diameter, throughout the length of the unit The minimum flange/web thickness of the unit shall be 20 mm. Length of unit varies according to room dimensions, but the maximum length shall be restricted to 4.2 m from stiffness considerations

WALL SYSTEMS
These wall systems typically contain large prefabricated wall panels that are attached to the structure at a few discrete points to resist gravity and wind loads. There are horizontal and vertical joints between the panels. Strip windows, i.e., a continuous horizontal band of windows, are common with this system. Typically, a steel stud wall behind the panel supports the interior finishes, or metal furring, is attached to the interior face of the panel to receive interior finishes. Precast concrete panel systems can be barrier walls or cavity walls, including pressureequalized designs. Barrier wall construction results from sequencing the wall erection such that the panels enclose the structural frame quickly and in advance of interior wall construction. Consequently, access to the exterior face of the interior walls cannot be achieved for installation of a waterproofing layer or air barrier. Installation of the waterproofing layer, particularly the seal around panel attachment anchors, and the continuous through-wall flashings with associated seams and transitions typically requires access from the exterior and coordination with panel erection so that these operations can be completed as each panel is erected. Prefabrication and mounting of the flashing before erection can help reduce coordination problems. All of these factors increase the cost of the project and can reduce overall floor space.

Plan section showing vertical joinery in precast concrete panels. Note that panel geometry shields vertical joint from weather. Water that penetrates outer seal does not have a direct path to the interior.

WALL SYSTEM
Consequently, the majority of precast panel wall systems are designed as barrier walls. Architectural precast concrete wall panels can develop full-depth cracks, commonly at the re-entrant corners in the panels. Cracking is more common in sandwich panelsi.e., those with insulation placed within the panel during casting,than in solid concrete panels, due to greater thermal gradients across the panel depth. Proper quality control in manufacturing and handling during erection can reduce full depth cracks in the field of these panels. Using panels with simple geometries, i.e., rectangular without punched openings, and simple anchorage arrangements that avoid restraint of thermally-induced bowing further reduces the likelihood of cracking. Accordingly, solid precast concrete panels can provide a fairly effective, but not always perfect, barrier against water penetration. Unlike some other wall systems that rely on light-gauge steel framing and gypsum sheathing for attachment, precast concrete panel systems rely on relatively thick steel angles and similar substantial materials for structural support and the system can tolerate some water entry without rapid structural deterioration. Exterior building walls generally consist of an exterior veneer or cladding that provides the weathering surface of the building, a backup that provides structural support for the veneer, and an interior finish applied to the backup.

Vertical section showing horizontal joinery in precast concrete panels. Note ship-lap geometry and recessed sealant to shield the joint from the weather.

BARRIER WALL CONSTRUCTION

Barrier wall construction systems uses the exterior surfacing as the sole waterproofing system. A typical masonry veneer wall consists of nominal 4 in. (10 cm) thick brick veneer with a 2 in. (5 cm) wide air space (cavity) that separates it from the backup wall. Wire ties embedded in the veneer bridge the cavity and are attached to a backup wall to stabilize the veneer against wind loads. A layer of felt waterproofing covers the backup wall, i.e., concrete masonry units or gypsum sheathing board/steel stud wall. Mastics have been used to waterproof concrete masonry unit backup walls, but these mastics can crack as the backup moves in response to changes in thermal, moisture, and loading condition Elements within wall openings, such as windows, must be watertight and cannot leak from frame corners or face joints. Windows typically contain joints between the horizontal and vertical framing members that are sealed with gaskets or liquid-applied sealants. For reasons discussed above, corner seals that are constructed with liquidapplied sealants are not likely to be watertight. In addition, handling and installation of the window frame can disturb or break these seals. For these and other reasons, it is prudent to install a flashing, such as a sheet metal pan, along the bottom of the window to collect leakage through the window glazing or frame joints and direct it back to the outside.

Schematic cross-section of window sill flashing. The flashing collects water that penetrates the window, such as at corners, and drains it back to the exterior through weep holes. Window frame also has drainage ability.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR TERRACE GARDENS

Plants should be located to minimize unnecessary physical contact with people, but access to all plants for maintenance purposes should be provided. 5 . Plants should be selected that will survive under the expected levels of light but will not outgrow their space in a short time . (Note that in most cases, plants in interior spaces grow very slowly if at all after they are installed .) All constructed elements, such as built-in planters and watering and drainage systems, should be coordinated with the overall design of the building . 1. Light in typical building interiors is seldom of sufficient intensity to sustain most plants without skylights or supplemental electrical lighting . 2 . Continuous illumination is not a suitable substitute for low light intensity, as plants require periods of light and dark (photoperiods) . The average photoperiod for plants is 12-16 hours of light, and 8-12 hours of darkness . 3 . Natural light is ideal for plant growth, however tinted or reflective glass will alter its spectral energy and intensity . Glazing or artificial light sources should provide radiant energy from the blue and red ends of the spectrum. 4 . Windows and clerestories are only about one-third as efficient in admitting light, as skylights . In the northern hemisphere, the effective area for plant growth in south facing windows is equal in depth to the height of the window 5 . A mix of east and west-facing skylights typically provide the best balance of light for

LIGHTING REQUIREMENT STRATEGY

TREE PITS AND BUILT IN PLANTERS Tree pits and built-in planters for interior plantings have some Features that distinguish them from exterior plantings. The need for a tree pit (with sides and a bottom) should be determined after investigation of existing conditions of the soil, Underground springs, and draining ability

TERRACE GARDENS

TERRACE GARDENS