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International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics


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Integration of linear and some model non-linear equations of motion of incompressible uids
Q1

Andrei D. Polyanin a,n, Alexei I. Zhurov a,b,nn


a b

Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119526 Moscow, Russia Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XY, UK

a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 21 August 2012 Received in revised form 27 August 2012 Accepted 28 August 2012 Keywords: Integrable equations Non-linear equations Exact solutions General solutions NavierStokes equations Non-Newtonian uids Maxwell uids Oldroyd uids Viscoelastic uids Hydrodynamic systems Three-dimensional equations

abstract
We suggest a new exact method that allows one to construct solutions to a wide class of linear and some model non-linear hydrodynamic-type systems. The method is based on splitting a system into a few simpler equations; two different representations of solutions (non-symmetric and symmetric) are given. We derive formulas that connect solutions to linear three-dimensional stationary and nonstationary systems (corresponding to different models of incompressible uids in the absence of mass forces) with solutions to two independent equations, one of which being the Laplace equation and the other following from the equation of motion for any velocity component at zero pressure. To illustrate the potentials of the method, we consider the Stokes equations, describing slow ows of viscous incompressible uids, as well as linearized equations corresponding to Maxwells and some other viscoelastic models. We also suggest and analyze a differential-difference uid model with a constant relaxation time. We give examples of integrable non-linear hydrodynamic-type systems. The results obtained can be suitable for the integration of linear hydrodynamic equations and for testing numerical methods designed to solve non-linear equations of continuum mechanics. & 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

1. Introduction The NavierStokes equations are the fundamental partial differentials equations that describe the ow of viscous incompressible uids. More complex models such as viscoelastic and other nonNewtonian uids are also fairly common in hydrodynamics. Exact solutions to the NavierStokes and other hydrodynamic equations favor a better understanding of the qualitative features of steady-state and non-steady-state ows (stability, non-uniqueness, blow-up modes, etc.). They make it possible to assess the application area of simplied hydrodynamic models (inviscid uids, creeping ows, boundary layers, etc.) and are indispensable for testing the relevant numerical, asymptotic, and approximate analytical methods; it is signicant that even the solutions that may not have a clear physical interpretation can be used for testing.

A number of exact solutions to the NavierStokes equations and Stokes equations (linearized NavierStokes equations), characterizing the motion of viscous incompressible uids, can be found, for example, in [111]; most comprehensive surveys of exact solutions to the NavierStokes equations are given in [8,9,11]. For different models of viscoelastic and other nonNewtonian uids as well as some exact solutions to the associated equations, see [1220]. Various problems describing ows of Maxwell and Oldroyd uids as well as other viscoelastic models have been addressed in many studies (e.g., see [2138]). There are only a relatively small number of known non-linear partial differential equations and systems that are integrable (e.g., see [11,3947]). Remark 1. In the present paper, the term integrable equation or integrable system of equations applies to non-linear partial differential equations (system of equations) that allow solutions in closed form (with denite or indenite integrals) or in terms of solutions to linear differential or linear integral equations (system equations). For linear systems of coupled equations, splitting a system into a few simpler subsystems or, ideally, reducing it to several independent equations is considered a great achievement.

Principal corresponding author. Corresponding author at: Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Q2 Academy of Sciences, 119526 Moscow, Russia. E-mail addresses: polyanin@ipmnet.ru (A.D. Polyanin), zhurovai@cardiff.ac.uk (A.I. Zhurov).
nn

0020-7462/$ - see front matter & 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2012.08.004

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Please cite this article as: A.D. Polyanin, A.I. Zhurov, Integration of linear and some model non-linear equations of motion of incompressible uids, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2012.08.004

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Apart from purely theoretical interest, model integrable nonlinear hydrodynamic systems have an important practical applicationthey can be used to test numerical methods designed to solve non-linear equations arising in hydrodynamic problems. The present paper studies a wide class of linear and non-linear hydrodynamic systems of coupled equations whose solution is reducible to solving a few simpler linear subsystems and/or a few linear independent partial differential equations. We consider models of viscous and some viscoelastic uids that often arise in applications.

The formula for pressure (5) contains an arbitrary function of time p0 t , which must be replaced with a constant p0 in steadystate problems. System (6) and (7) consists of three linear equations, two of which are independent, and is considerably simpler than the original non-linear system of four coupled Eqs. (1)(3). Eq. (7) is a special case of Eq. (11) with x 0 and can be reduced to the Laplace equation (see Remark 4). Remark 3. As follows from the form of solutions (4) and (5) and Eqs. (6) and (7), if initial and boundary conditions are prescribed for the velocity components u, v, and w, no conditions are required for pressure p as it is automatically determined by formula (5). 2.3. A symmetric way of representing solutions Any solution to system (1)(3) can also be represented as u jx x, v jy Z, w jz z, 8 9

2. Classes of equations concerned. Description of the method 2.1. Classes of hydrodynamic-type equations concerned We consider hydrodynamic-type systems of equations of the form Lu Px f 1 , Lv Py f 2 , 1 2 Lw Pz f 3 , ux vy wz 0,

p Ljyt , x, y, z, u, v, w, ut , ux , . . . p0 t ,

with the functions x xx, y, z, t , Z Zx, y, z, t , and z zx, y, z, t satisfying three similar independent Lx f 1 , LZ f 2 , Lz f 3 10

where L is a linear differential operator with respect to x, y, z, and t whose coefcients can be functions of t, f k f k x, y, z, t are given functions, and P is a function that has the form

and the pseudopotential j jx, y, z, t obeying the Poisson equation

P p yt , x, y, z, u, v, w, ut , ux , uy , uz , vt , vx , vy , vz , wt , wx , wy , wz , utt , . . .:
3 The unknown quantities in system (1)(3) are u, v, w, and p, with y being an arbitrary function of its arguments. Linear systems of the form (1) and (2) with y  0 are often used to describe slow ows of incompressible uids, with u, v, and w being the uid velocity components and p the pressure referred to the uid density. The form of L is determined by the specic model of the uid (e.g., see [147]). Remark 2. The linear operator L in equations (1) can be not only differential but also integral or integro-differential with the integration performed with respect to time t. Furthermore, it can be a difference or difference-differential operator with respect to time and, simultaneously, a differential operator with respect to the spatial coordinates (see Sections 3.3 and 4). 2.2. A non-symmetric way of representing solutions Any solution to system (1)(3) can be represented as (see the Appendix for a proof): u jx , v jy Z, w jz z, 4 5

Dj xx Zy zz :

11

Remark 4. In the three-dimensional case, Eq. (11) admits the following particular solution [49]: Z 1 Z 1 Z 1 x Z z 9 x z x x1 , y y1 , z z1 1 y q jp dx1 dy1 dz1 : 4p 1 1 1 2 xx1 yy1 2 zz1 2 ^ in (11), one arrives at the Laplace equaSubstituting j jp j ^. ^ 0 for j tion Dj Remark 5. In [48], the NavierStokes equations with f 1 f 2 f 3 0 were treated using the Helmholtz decomposition, which formally looks the same as (8). However, with the Helmholtz decomposition, the function j is severely constrained so as to satisfy Dj 0 (we obtain a different equation for j, (11)). In [48], the resulting determining system contains ve equations for ve unknown functions (j, x, Z, z, and p) and is not simpler than the original system. With our symmetric representation, there are only four equations, (10) and (11), three of which are independent, with pressure p determined explicitly by formula (9). Moreover, with the non-symmetric representation (4), we have only three determining equations, (6) and (7), two of which are independent, with pressure given by (5). With our approach, the resulting system of determining equations is considerably simpler than the original system in both cases. 2.4. Representation of solutions to system (1)(3) with f 1 f 2 f 3 0 in terms of solutions to two independent equations Suppose C1 and C2 are two arbitrary solutions to the equation LC 0: Then the functions
1 1 2 2 x a1 C y a3 Cz b1 Cy b3 Cz , 1 1 2 2 Z a2 C z a1 Cx b2 Cz b1 Cx ,

p Ljyt , x, y, z, u, v, w, ut , ux , . . . F x, y, z, t p0 t , where F F x, y, z, t Z
0 x

f 1 x1 , y, z, t dx1 ,

with the functions Z Zx, y, z, t and z zx, y, z, t satisfying two similar independent equations LZ f 2 F y , , Lz f 3 F z 6

and the pseudopotential j jx, y, z, t obeying the Poisson equation

12

Dj Zy zz ,
where D is the Laplace operator.

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Please cite this article as: A.D. Polyanin, A.I. Zhurov, Integration of linear and some model non-linear equations of motion of incompressible uids, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2012.08.004

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1 1 2 2 z a3 C x a2 Cy b3 Cx b2 Cy ,

13

2 2 where ai and bi are arbitrary constants such that a2 1 a2 a3 a 0 2 2 2 and b1 b2 b3 a 0, satisfy equations (10) with all fk 0 and make the right-hand side of (11) zero, thus resulting in the Laplace equation

(5), and (15) with Eqs. (6) and (7) or formulas (8), (9), and (15) with Eqs. (10) and (11). If there are no mass forces (f 1 f 2 f 3 0), solutions are given by formulas (8), (9), (13) and (15) with equations (12) and (14). In this case, Eqs. (10) and (12) are usual heat equations, whose solutions can be obtained with the formulas given in [49,50]. 3.2. Maxwell viscoelastic uid Slow motions of an incompressible Maxwell viscoelastic uid [7,1216,2124] are described by linear equations (1) and (2) with P p and a hyperbolic operator Lu  tutt ut nDu, 16

Dj 0:

14

Formulas (8), (9), and (13) provide a representation of solutions to the original system of four coupled Eqs. (1)(3) with f 1 f 2 f 3 0 in terms of solutions to two independent Eqs. (12) and (14). Remark 6. Formulas (13), where C1 and C2 are arbitrary twice continuously differentiable functions, provide the general solution to the equation

xx Zy zz 0:
The C1 and C2 can be treated as stream functions, which allow one to reduce the original non-linear equations of motion of an incompressible uid (with the velocity components denoted x, Z, and z) to two independent equations [11, p. 1248]. In the special case of a1 a2 a3 b2 b3 0 and b1 1 in (13), we have a usual representation of the uid velocity components for twodimensional ows with z 0 in terms of one stream function. Formulas (13) contain an excess number of arbitrary constants (some of them can be set to 1, 0, or 1). This gives us some freedom in representing the results. For example, by setting a1 a2 b1 b3 0, a3 1, and b2 1 in (13), we obtain a simple representation of the velocity components x, Z, and z in terms of two stream functions:
1 2 1 2 x C Z C z C z , z , x Cy :

where t is the relaxation time. Similar equations arise from some other models of uids [1820]. If there are non-conservative mass forces (f k c0), solutions to system (1), (2), and (16) are described by formulas (4), (5), and (16) with Eqs. (6) and (7) or formulas (8), (9), and (16) with Eqs. (10) and (11). In the absence of mass forces (f 1 f 2 f 3 0), solutions to the system are also given by formulas (8), (9), (13) and (16) with Eqs. (12) and (14). In this case, Eqs. (10) and (12) are telegraph equations, whose solutions can be obtained using the formulas presented in [50]. Remark 7. Solutions to linearized systems corresponding to Oldroyds models and their generalizations (e.g., see [12,14,17,2531] and Table 1) can be obtained in a similar manner. 3.3. Viscoelastic uid with an arbitrary rheologic equation of state In general, a linearized rheologic equation of state governing slow motion of any isotropic viscoelastic incompressible uid can be written as Msij pdij K eij , 17
1 2 ui =xj uj =xi

3. Linear models of viscous and viscoelastic incompressible uids Now consider a few specic examples of Eqs. (1)(3) with

y  0 for different models of motion of viscous and viscoelastic


incompressible uids. The linear systems of equations discussed below will be treated using the results presented in the preceding section. 3.1. Viscous uid. The Stokes equations The Stokes [13], which describe slow motions of a viscous incompressible uid, are a special case of Eqs. (1) and (2) with P p and a parabolic operator Lu  ut nDu, 15

where sij are the stress tensor components, eij are the strain rate tensor components with ui being the velocity components, M and K are linear operators in t, and dij is the Kronecker delta. Usually, M and K are differential operators, but they can also be integral, integro-differential, or differentialdifference operators. Table 1 lists examples of specic linear operators that determine the equation of state (17) and are used in some models of incompressible viscoelastic uids. Remark 8. A fractional derivative of order q, 0 o q o 1, is dened as [51] Z 1 d t f s ds q f t t  , G1q dt 0 tsq where Gz is the gamma function. The quantity s9t t in the last row and rst column of the table is evaluated at t t (with a shift in time).

where n is the kinematic viscosity. If there are non-conservative mass forces (at least one f k c0), solutions to system (1), (2), and (15) are given by formulas (4),

Table 1 Linear operators used to model incompressible viscoelastic uids. Operator M s Operator K e 2ne 2ne bet 2ne bet 2ne betr Rt 2ne a 0 elts e9t s ds Rt 2ne 0 F t se9t s ds 2ne Rheologic model Maxwell Oldroyd Burgers Fractional derivatives of orders q and r Integro-differential Oldroyd Integro-differential with difference kernel Difference-differential References [7,1216] [12,17] [34,35] [36,37] [28,31] [29,31] Eq. (19)

s tst s ast s a1 st a2 stt q s ast s s s9t t

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Please cite this article as: A.D. Polyanin, A.I. Zhurov, Integration of linear and some model non-linear equations of motion of incompressible uids, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2012.08.004

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Slow ows of viscoelastic incompressible uids with a rheologic equation of state of the form (17) are governed by Eqs. (1) and (2) where the operator L is expressed in terms of M and K as follows: Lu @ 1 1 Mu DK u Mut K Du: @t 2 2 18

If there are non-conservative mass forces (f k c0), solutions to system (1), (2), and (18) are described by formulas (4), (5), and (18) with equations (6) and (7) or formulas (8), (9), and (18) with Eqs. (10) and (11). In the absence of mass forces (f 1 f 2 f 3 0), solutions to the system are also given by formulas (8), (9), (13), and (18) with Eqs. (12) and (14).

where the rst term of the operator (23) is evaluated at t t, while the second term is evaluated, as usual, at t (with no shift). Solutions to Eqs. (1), (2), and (23) are given by formulas (4), (5), and (23) with Eqs. (6) and (7) or formulas (8), (9), (13), and (23) with Eqs. (10) and (11). In this case, Eqs. (6) and (10) are delay partial differential equations, which can be solved using the Laplace transform with respect to time. Remark 10. Eq. (19) was used in [18] to derive hyperbolic NavierStokes type equations by Taylor series expansions in small t. However, the differential-difference system (1), (2), (23) as well as the more complex non-linear system (30), considered below, was not studied (and not written out) in that paper. 5. Model integrable non-linear hydrodynamic systems There are a relatively small number of known integrable nonlinear partial differential equations and systems of equations (e.g., see [11,3947]). Apart from purely theoretical interest, model integrable non-linear hydrodynamic systems have an important practical applicationthese can be used to test numerical methods for solving non-linear hydrodynamic equations. In particular, to test numerical methods for the NavierStokes equations ut u ru rp nDu f , div u 0,
2 1 2 9u9

4. A differential-difference model and the equations of motion of viscoelastic uids 4.1. A differential-difference model of viscoelastic uids Consider in more detail a differential-difference model of a viscoelastic uid with the rheologic equation (see the last row and rst column of the table)

sij 9t t pdij 2neij ,

19

where the left-hand side is evaluated at t t (shifted time), with t being the relaxation time, while the right-hand side is evaluated, as usual, at t (no shift). It is noteworthy that at t 0, Eq. (19) leads to the Stokes operator (15). Model (19) contains only one additional rheologic parameter (as compared with the Newtonian uid model), the relaxation time t. It can be shown that the most common models of viscoelastic uids, the Maxwell and Oldroyd models, can be derived from the differential-difference model. To this end, we assume t to be a small parameter. Indeed, by expanding (19) in a Taylor series in powers of t and retaining two leading terms, one arrives at the linear Maxwell model (see the rst row in Table 1 and operator (16)). Now let us make a time shift by a small amount b in (19) to obtain

24
1 2 2 2 2 u v w

where u u, v, w, one can set y in (3) and (15) to obtain the following model integrable non-linear system: ut 1 2r 9u9 rp nDu f , div u 0:
2

25

sij 9t t b pdij 2neij t b :

20

Solutions to the non-linear system (25) are given by formulas (4), (5), and (15) with Eqs. (6) and (7), where one should set 2 2 2 y 1 2 u v w . If there are no mass forces (f  0), solutions to the system are also given by formulas (8), (9), (13), and (15) with Eqs. (12) and (14) and the same y. Systems (24) and (25) differ in the form of the quadratic nonlinearity. These systems have a number of common properties, which will be shown below. At f 0, both systems admit the same potential solution u r j, p jt 1 29r j9 p0 t ,
2

Assuming t and b to be of the same order of smallness, expanding (20) in a Taylor series at the point t, and retaining two leading terms, we get

26

sij t bsij t p bpt dij 2neij 2nbeij t :

21

Having redened the pressure as p p ept , one can see that Eq. (21) reduces to the Oldroyd model (see the second row in Table 1 with a t b and b 2nb. Remark 9. The rheologic model (15) is an analogue of the heat (diffusion) differential-difference model [52,53] q9t t lrT , 22

with the potential j satisfying the Laplace equation (14) and p0 t being an arbitrary function. The expression for pressure in (26) coincides with the CauchyLagrange integral for an ideal inviscid uid [1,4]. With the identity u ru 1 2r 9u9 u x,
2

27

where q is the heat ux, T the temperature, l the thermal conductivity, r the gradient operator, and t the relaxation time. Model (22) is used to derive the CattaneoVernotte hyperbolic heat equation (e.g., see [5256]) by Taylor series expansions in small t. 4.2. Equations of motion of viscoelastic uids In the differential-difference model (19), slow motions are governed by Eqs. (1) and (2) with P p and Lu  ut 9t t nDu, 23

where x r u is the vorticity (equal to twice the local angular velocity of rotation of the uid), it can be shown that the model system (25) is obtained from system (24) by discarding the term u x on the left-hand side of (27). System (25) correctly describes Beltrami ows [8], for which u x 0. Formulas (4), (5), (15) with Eqs. (6) and (7) enable one to determine the uid velocity distribution for generalized Beltrami ows [8] as well, for which r u x 0, since u x rU in this case. The non-linear system (25) describes exactly the velocity eld for unidirectional ows (shear ows, ows through tubes), too, and becomes the linear Stokes system (1), (2), and (15) with P p for slow ows. Solutions to the NavierStokes equations (24) become unstable at large Reynolds numbers (large velocities). Physically, this corresponds to the transition from laminar to turbulent ows,

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Please cite this article as: A.D. Polyanin, A.I. Zhurov, Integration of linear and some model non-linear equations of motion of incompressible uids, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2012.08.004

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characterized by chaotic uctuations of the uid velocity. Solutions to the model system (25) are described by linear equations for the velocity components, which remain stable at large Reynolds numbers. This suggests that the instability of solutions to the NavierStokes equations at large Reynolds numbers is due to the eddy component u x on the right-hand side of (27). The paper [19] dealt with the hyperbolic NavierStokes equations

well-posed formulations of problems are completely determined by lower-order linear equations.

7. Conclusion To summarize, we have suggested a new exact method that allows one to construct solutions to a wide class of linear and some non-linear hydrodynamic-type systems of coupled equations. The method is based on splitting the system into a few simpler equations. We have specied two solution representations, nonsymmetric (4)(7) and symmetric (8)(11), which involve different numbers of unknowns. We have derived formulas (8), (9), and (13) that express solutions to linear three-dimensional systems of coupled equations (corresponding to different models of incompressible uids in the absence of mass forces) via solutions to two independent equations (12) and (14), one of them being the Laplace equation and the other a consequence of the equation of motion for any velocity component at zero pressure. To illustrate the capabilities of the method, we have considered the Stokes equations, describing slow ows of viscous incompressible uids, as well as linearized equations corresponding to Maxwells, Oldroyds, and some other viscoelastic models of uids. We have suggested and analyzed a new differential-difference uid model with a constant relaxation time. We have given examples of integrable non-linear hydrodynamic systems that admit solution in terms of solutions to linear partial differential equations. We have presented formulas that allow us to express the general solution to some non-linear three-dimensional hydrodynamic-type systems of coupled equations via solutions to two linear independent equations. We have indicated examples of constructing exotic, higherorder systems, linear and non-linear, for which well-posed formulations of problems are completely determined by lower-order linear equations. The results obtained can be suitable for the integration of linear hydrodynamic equations and for testing numerical methods designed to solve non-linear equations of continuum mechanics.

tutt ut u ru rp nDu f ,
div u 0, 28 where t is the relaxation time. 2 1 2 2 2 As previously, by setting y 1 2 9u9 2 u v w in (3) and (6), we arrive at the model integrable non-linear system
2 tutt ut 1 2r9u9 r p nDu f ,

div u 0:

29

At f 0, systems (28) and (29) admit the same potential solution u rj, p tjtt jt 1 29r j9 p0 t ,
2

with the potential j satisfying the Laplace equation (14) and p0 t being an arbitrary function. The model system (29) correctly describes Beltrami ows (and also generalized Beltrami ows) as well as unidirectional ows; it reduces to the linear hyperbolic Stokes system (1), (2), and (16) in the case of slow ows. Solutions to the non-linear system (29) are given by formulas (4), (5), (16) with Eqs. (6) and (7), where one should set 2 2 2 y 1 2 u v w . If there are no mass forces (f  0), solutions of the system are also described by formulas (8), (9), (13), and (16) with Eqs. (12) and (14) with the same y. The differential-difference analogue of the NavierStokes equations that corresponds to the operator (23) is written as ut u rut t rp nDu f , div u 0, 30 Note that time t on the left-hand side of the rst equation in (30) has been replaced with t t. At t 0, Eqs. (30) become the NavierStokes equations (24). By assuming t to be small and expanding the rst equation in (30) into a Taylor series about t 0 followed by retaining two leading terms, one arrives at the hyperbolic equations studied in [18]. Arguing in the same way as previously, one can obtain an integrable non-linear differential-difference system, ut 1 2r 9u9 t t r p nDu f , div u 0, 31 which admits a number of solutions coinciding with solutions to the original system (30). In particular, if f 0, both systems admit the same potential solution   2 p0 t , u rj, p jt 1 29r j9
tt 2

Appendix A A.1. Special case of systems (1)(3) with f 1  0 First, we consider hydrodynamic-type systems (1) and (2) with f 1  0, Lu Px , Lv Py f 2 , Lw Pz f 3 , A:1 A:2

ux vy wz 0,

with the function P having the form (3). Solutions to system (A.1) and (A.2) will be sought in the form u jx , v jy Z, w jz z: A:3

with the potential j satisfying the Laplace equation (14).

6. Exotic systems of high-order equations The well-posed formulations of initial-boundary value problems for system (1)(3) at yc0 and y  0 coincide, provided that initial and boundary conditions are prescribed for the velocity components u, v, and w. Consequently, by taking in (3) the function y to be dependent on the second- or higher-order (arbitrary-order) derivatives of the unknowns, one can obtain examples of exotic, higher-order systems (1)(3), for which

The functions j jx, y, z, t , Z Zx, y, z, t , and z zx, y, z, t as well as P are to be determined in the course of the analysis. In view of (A.3), the rst equation in (A.1) can be represented as @ Lj P 0: @x Integrating (A.4) with respect to x yields A:4

P Lj cy, z, t,

A:5

where c cy, z, t is an arbitrary function. Substituting (A.3) and (A.5) into the second and third equations in (A.1), one obtains two

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Please cite this article as: A.D. Polyanin, A.I. Zhurov, Integration of linear and some model non-linear equations of motion of incompressible uids, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2012.08.004

A.D. Polyanin, A.I. Zhurov / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics ] (]]]]) ]]] ]]]

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independent equations for Z Zx, y, z, t and z zx, y, z, t : LZ f 2 cy , Lz f 3 cz : A:6

From (A.2) one nds, using (A.3), an equation for the pseudopotential j:

Dj Zy zz :

A:7

It has thus been shown that any solution to system (A.1) and (A.2) can be represented by formulas (A.3) and (A.5), where the functions Z and z satisfy two independent non-homogeneous equations (A.6) and the pseudopotential j satises the Poisson equation (A.7). Formula (A.5) and Eqs. (A.6) involve an arbitrary function with three arguments, c cy, z, t . It can be shown that the function c can be made zero by redening j, Z, and z. Indeed, let us transform expressions (A.3) and (A.5) and Eqs. (A.6) and (A.7) using the changes of variables

j j j0 , Z Z Z0 , z z z0
with the function j0 j0 y, z, t satisfying the equation Lj0 c and the functions Z0 Z0 y, z, t and z0 z0 y, z, t expressed as

Z0 j0 y , z0 j0 z :
As a result, we obtain formulas (A.3) and (A.5) and Eqs. (A.6) and (A.7) with c 0 and j, Z, and z substituted by j , Z , and z , respectively. The above proves the following proposition: the general solution to Eqs. (A.1) and (A.2) can be represented in the form u jx , v jy Z, w jz z,

P Lj

with the functions Z Zx, y, z, t and z zx, y, z, t being arbitrary solutions to two independent LZ f 2 Lz f 3

and the pseudopotential j being an arbitrary solution to the Poisson equation (A.7). A.2. General case Systems of Eqs. (1) and (2) with arbitrary f1 can be reduced, with the change of variable Z x P P F x, y, z, t, F x, y, z, t f 1 x1 , y, z, t dx1 ,
0

to a simpler system of the form (A.1) and (A.2), where f2 and f3 must be substituted by f 2 F y and f 3 F z , respectively. For a given specic form (A.5) of P, which is dened up to an additive term p0 t , the aforesaid provides a solution represented by formulas (4) and (5) and Eqs. (6) and (7). References
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Please cite this article as: A.D. Polyanin, A.I. Zhurov, Integration of linear and some model non-linear equations of motion of incompressible uids, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2012.08.004

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Please cite this article as: A.D. Polyanin, A.I. Zhurov, Integration of linear and some model non-linear equations of motion of incompressible uids, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2012.08.004