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and a modied dynamic stall model

Raul Urbina

a,

*

, Michael L. Peterson

a

, Richard W. Kimball

b

, Geoffrey S. deBree

a

, Matthew P. Cameron

a

a

University of Maine, Mechanical Engineering Department, 5711 Boardman Hall, Orono, ME 04469, USA

b

Maine Maritime Academy, Marine Systems Engineering, Castine, ME 04420, USA

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 15 November 2011

Accepted 6 August 2012

Available online xxx

Keywords:

Tidal energy

Cross ow turbine

Free vortex method

Dynamic stall

Model tidal turbine test

a b s t r a c t

This work details the implementation of a modied Beddoes Leishman model into a Free Vortex Method

(FVM) to predict the performance of Darrieus turbines. The model uses Shengs consideration of the

reduced pitch rate inuence on the dynamic loads over the foil and revised Kirchhoff ow equations to

calculate lift and drag at extended ranges of angles of attack. A simple consideration of the Reynolds

number cyclic variation on the blades characteristic of the Darrieus turbines is also implemented.

Comparison with published and experimental data at a range of chord to radius ratio shows good

agreement.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Although the marine hydrokinetic power industry is still in its

developmental stages, tidal energy is regarded a promising new

renewable energy resource for communities in coastal areas [1].

Current tidal-turbines designs can be classied as either cross ow

or axial ow turbines shown in Fig. 1 [2]. The Darrieus turbine,

a type of cross ow turbine, can be designed at high solidity ratios

to operate at lower tip speed ratios that have the potential to reduce

environmental impact on marine fauna. Numerous analysis and

design tools for Darrieus turbines have been developed, using

Navier-Stokes equation methods and potential-ow methods

(Fig. 2) [3]. In particular, potential-ow methods such as lifting line

VM and BEM are preferred methods used in conjunction with

optimizers [4,5,6] because of their low computational cost.

However, numerical methods need to consider phenomena that

appear due to the unsteady ow conditions, such as dynamic stall

[7,8,9]. The dynamic stall phenomenon has a signicant impact on

the loading on the blades and, consequently, on the power output

of the turbine [10]. The FVM model used in this work incorporates

a dynamic stall model based on the Beddoes Leishman model [11]

with unsteady representation suitable for low Mach numbers [12]

to nd the blade forces at a wide range of attack angles [10]. In

order to extend the angle of attack range for the formulations, these

were modied using the asymptotic values for the limit cases.

2. Theory

The most signicant challenge in performance prediction at

operating ow conditions is the effect of dynamic stall [3]. The

dynamic stall model uses semi-empirical formulas related to the

reduced pitch rate, and delayed angle of attack to represent the lift

and drag at a large range of angles of attack and Reynolds numbers

(Fig. 3). The resulting forces predictions are then used in the FVM

model to nd the velocity eld around the turbine.

The dynamic stall model uses Sheng et al. [12] extended B-L

model for lowMach numbers ows. The modied B-L formulations

are given by

C

N

C

Na

a a

0

_

1

f

00

_

2

_

2

(1)

and

C

f

C

hC

Na

a a

0

2

_

f

0

_

E

0

_

(2)

with nomenclature shown in the Appendix.

The separation point function, f, is approximated by a piecewise

exponential function:

* Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: raul.urbina@umit.maine.edu (R. Urbina), michael.peterson@

maine.edu (M.L. Peterson), richard.kimball@mma.edu (R.W. Kimball),

geoffrey.debree@umit.maine.edu (G.S. deBree), matthew.cameron@

umit.maine.edu (M.P. Cameron).

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Renewable Energy

j ournal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ renene

0960-1481/$ e see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.08.011

Renewable Energy 50 (2013) 662e669

f a 1 0:4e

_

a a

1

S

1

_

; a a

1

(3)

f a 0:02 0:58e

_

a

1

a

S

2

_

; a>a

1

(4)

where S

1

, S

2

and a

1

are obtained by tting experimental data.

By comparing the asymptotic values of this relationship with

Hoerners observations [13], new expressions are derived for the

normal and tangential coefcients:

C

N

2psina a

0

_

1

f

_

2

_

2

(5)

C

c

2p h sin

2

a a

0

_

f

_

E

0

_

1

f

_

_

2

_

(6)

The analytical solution for the normal coefcient using asymp-

totic values (function 5) is shown in Fig. 4.

The drag coefcient can be calculated from

C

D

C

N

sina C

C

cosa C

D0

(7)

where C

D0

can be calculated using the frictional drag of two at

plates in a turbulent ow [14]. The lift (Fig. 5) can be found using

geometrical transformations.

Cross ow turbines undergo a cyclic variation of the Reynolds

number due to the rotation of the blade in the ow[15]. As a simple

approximation to correct the onset of stall in the airfoil for different

Reynolds numbers, a polynomial t of experimental data was

produced to calculate the static stall angle.

Two major effects are considered in the dynamic stall model,

a modied angle at which the foil is expected to stall and the delay

on the angle of attack. The modied angle at which the foil stalls, or

breakpoint of separation, at low Mach numbers is related to the

reduced pitch rate [12]. The reduced pitch rate is calculated from,

r

_ ac

2V

(8)

The change of the breakpoint of separation is approximated

from experimental data in [16]. A piecewise exponential function

improves on the linear approximation in Sheng et al. [16]. The

change in the separation breakpoint is then:

Da

1

r a

1

_

e

S3r

1

_

; r < 0 (9)

Da

1

r a

1max

_

1 e

S4r

_

; r>0 (10)

A second consideration in the dynamic stall model is that the

separation point is normally delayed under dynamic conditions

[12]. The change in the effective angle of attack is:

Fig. 1. A schematic drawing which shows the conguration of cross ow and axial ow turbines.

Fig. 2. Schematic showing the classication of analytical methods used for cross ow turbines.

R. Urbina et al. / Renewable Energy 50 (2013) 662e669 663

Da

s Das

_

1 e

s

Ta

_

(11)

A new delayed separation point which replaces Equations (3)

and (4) is then:

f

a 1 0:4e

_

a

a

1

Da

1

S

1

_

; a

a

1

(12)

and

f

a 0:02 0:58e

_

a

1

Da

1

a

S

2

_

; a

>a

1

(13)

Fig. 6 shows an example of the normal coefcient calculated for

a NACA 0012 prole [17] as a function of angle of attack at a range of

different pitch rates.

The angle of attack a, relative velocity U

R

, induced velocities and

shed vortex strengths, G

S

, shown in Fig. 7 were obtained using the

method described by Strickland et al. [7].

FVM models can calculate the velocity eld using shed vortices

that represent the wakes produced by the blade. For this model,

a Lamb-Oseen vortex type is used to calculate induced velocity of

the shed vortices [18]

V

P

!

h

!

G

!

2ph

2

_

1 e

h

2

4yt

_

(14)

To calculate the induced velocities due to the vortices in the

vicinity of the blade element control points, the vortex re-

distribution to cell corners method is used.

The analytical power coefcient, torque and blade forces were

obtained using the method described by Strickland et al. [7]. To

accommodate the blockage effect of the tow tank found on the

experiments, a method of images was used in the analytical model

for the simulation of the free surface and tunnel oor [19].

Fig. 3. The owchart of the analytical model is shown for each time step in the program.

Fig. 4. The normal force prediction of the modied ow equation is shown as

a function of the angle of attack.

Fig. 5. The lift force prediction of the analytical lift curve is shown as a function of the

angle of attack.

R. Urbina et al. / Renewable Energy 50 (2013) 662e669 664

To analyze the movement of the blade, the upstream zone is

dened as when the blade goes across the ow at the front of the

turbine from a rotational position (q

B

) of 0

e180

. A downstream

zone is dened when the blade passes across the ow from

a rotational position of 180

e360

(Fig. 8).

3. Results and discussion

Results of two published experimental data and experimental

data taken at the tow tank at UMaine were used to evaluate the

model predictions at a broad chord to radius (c/R) ratio range. The

rst set of data was developed by Strickland and is reported for

a turbine with two NACA 0012 blades with a c/R of 0.15, and an

inow velocity of 0.091 m/s [7]. At this chord to radius ratio

(c/R 0.15), the contribution of owcurvature effects is reported to

be small [20]. A second set of data was acquired using a turbine

with three NACA 63

3

-018 blades with a c/R of 0.375, an aspect ratio

of 3.55, and an inow velocity of 1 m/s [21]. In addition to previous

published experiments, a third set of data was obtained for a Dar-

rieus turbine with higher chord to radius ratio and blades with

higher aspect ratio. The data was acquired using a turbine with two

NACA 63

3

-018 blades with a c/R of 0.461, an aspect ratio of 10, and

an inow velocity of 0.6 m/s. The diameter of the experimental

turbine is 0.325m, with the blades having an ideal chord length of

0.0762 m (Fig. 9). The trailing edge was trimmed to facilitate

manufacture giving a nal 0.0694 mchord length. The length of the

blades is 0.762 m [22].

The comparison of the analytical results against those of

Strickland et al (Fig. 10) showed good agreement with the non

dimensional normal forces. Reasonable predictions of the non

dimensional tangential forces (Fig. 11) were obtained at the

upstream zone, but downstream zone predictions were inferior. A

possible explanation could be that the tangential coefcient may

need a better approximation for lower inow velocities that are

normally encountered in the downstream. The tangential coef-

cient is the likely issue since predictions for the normal force were

reasonable. Alternatively, the model may overpredict the shed

vorticity at the upstream zone, lowering the angle of attack calcu-

lations and tangential force at the downstream zone. Additionally,

Figs. 10 and 11 showthat there was not a signicant contribution of

the blockage effect for the conguration for Strickland et al. [7].

The comparison of the predictions of the model against the

experimental results of Shiono et al. [21] for higher solidity (0.179)

showed agreement of where the maximum power coefcient can

be found with respect to the tip speed ratio, as well as the tip speed

ratios where there is an increase and decrease of power coefcient

(Fig. 12). The power coefcients were higher than the experimental

results in some regions due to the relatively low aspect ratio of the

blades. The low aspect ratio can increase the induced drag and

reduce the lift of the blades, thus decreasing the tangential force

generated [17].

To further validate the analytical model, the power coefcient (as

a function of l) and the nondimensional torque (as a function of q)

were compared to experiments. Fig. 13 shows a comparison of the

experimental and analytical data when the blockage effect is

Fig. 6. The modied B-L lift curves are calculated for reduced frequencies k 0.062,

0.125 and 0.2150.

Fig. 7. The velocity components of the relative velocity are combined in the model as

shown.

Fig. 8. The upstream and downstream zones with respect to the turbine are shown.

Fig. 9. The model cross ow turbine is mounted on the tow tank carriage for testing.

R. Urbina et al. / Renewable Energy 50 (2013) 662e669 665

Fig. 10. The nondimensional normal force from reference [5] is compared to the results of the FVM model.

Fig. 11. The nondimensional tangential force from reference [5] is compared to the results of the FVM model.

Fig. 12. The power coefcient from reference [6] is compared to the model results for a solidity of 0.179.

R. Urbina et al. / Renewable Energy 50 (2013) 662e669 666

considered as well as the results without considering blockage. The

dynamic stall model has a signicant effect on the tip speed ratio

range at which the turbine operates. It is also apparent that at lower

tip speed ratios, 1.25 to 1.75, the blockage effect does not have a large

contribution to the analytical results. The analytical results for tip

speed ratios above 1.75 for this chord to radius ratios deviate due to

the shortcomings in howthe blade is modeled in lifting line FVM. At

higher tip speed ratios, there is a larger effect of the blades on how

Fig. 14. The unsteady nondimensional torque data from UMaine tow tank tests is compared for the model with and without blockage and dynamic stall at tip speed ratio of 1.5.

Fig. 13. The power coefcient is compared for the model for 2 blades with a chord to radius of 0.46.

Fig. 15. The unsteady nondimensional torque data from UMaine tow tank tests is compared for the model with and without blockage and dynamic stall at tip speed ratio of 1.8.

R. Urbina et al. / Renewable Energy 50 (2013) 662e669 667

the wake develops. Considering the analytical results, it may be

inferred that the free surface may be acting as a free ow.

To assess the model, the nondimensional torque was compared

to new tow tank experiments (Figs. 14, 15 and 16). The model gives

a good estimate of the positive torque and power coefcient at

l 1.5, l 1.8 and l 2.0, where the turbine generates the most

power at operating conditions. The inclusion of the blockage effect

improves the model since delayed stall is found from calculations.

This validates the assumption that the dynamic stall model needs

to consider the reduced pitch rate, since it has an inuence on the

angle of attack at which the blade stalls. A portion of the remaining

discrepancy in the results possibly comes from a lower estimation

of the torque in the downstream zone, as compared to Strickland

[7]. Additionally, it can be seen that in the region of rotational

position from0 to 45

values due to the ow curvature effect since the turbine has a high

chord to radius ratio [20]. Migliore et al. developed a owcurvature

correction, which may yield better results for the tangential forces

[15]. However, this correction is expected to have little impact on

the power coefcient estimation because of the compensation on

the effect on the sum of the tangential forces on the blades over

a revolution [23].

4. Conclusion

The lifting line FVM model with dynamic stall correction

provides a reasonable power coefcient and blade forces estimates

for cross ow turbines. The results are reasonable for a larger range

of solidities and Reynolds number ratios than possible with tradi-

tional FVM models. Unlike look up tables, this method can be used

when experimental data is not available for post stall angles of

attack.

The blade forces calculations show good agreement with

experiments at a large range of chord to radius ratios. The experi-

ments show that dynamic stall is important for cases of relatively

high stall regimes. The tangential forces and torque estimates at the

downstream zone showed inferior agreement with experiments

[7]. An improved model should focus on calculations of the

tangential force, particularly in the post stall region and for low

Reynolds numbers. Additionally, inclusion of second order effects

such as the boundary layer effects and countertorque may help

provide better predictions.

The lifting line model provides limited information on the lift

and drag in curvilinear ows for different blade proles. Future

analytical models should consider the impact of ow curvature on

the torque calculations at very low Reynolds numbers [15]. Addi-

tional work may also be needed to dene onset criteria for dynamic

stall, and to include considerations of the unsteady contributions

on the lift and drag coefcient calculations.

While the model is well suited for use in optimization schemes,

it is also a useful tool for broad design parameters for the turbine. A

basis for detailed optimization of the turbine using tools is provided

to guide high computational cost approaches such as Navier-Stokes

and lifting surface FVM methods.

Acknowledgment

This project was funded by Ocean Renewable Power Company

and the Maine Tidal Power Initiative, U.S. Department of Energy

grant EE-000298.

Appendix

Nomenclature

C

N

Normal force coefcient

C

T

Tangential force coefcient

C

c

Chordwise force coefcient

C

D

Drag Coefcient

C

L

Lift Coefcient

C

Na

Normal coefcient slope at zero degrees

a Angle of attack AOA or incidence

a

0

Angle of attack or incidence at zero normal force or mean

AOA

f Separation location in terms of chord

f

0

,f

00

Delayed separation location of f

h Recovery factor

E

0

Cavity factor

a

1

Breakpoint of separation

S

1

Exponential constant for separation point before stall

S

2

Exponential constant for separation point after stall

C

D0

Drag Coefcient at zero normal force

r Reduced pitch rate (r _ ac/2V)

_ a Angle of attack change in time

c Chord length

V Free stream velocity (m/s)

D A step change in forcing or in time

S

3

Exponential constant for reduce pitch rate before stall

S

4

Exponential constant for reduce pitch rate after stall

Fig. 16. The unsteady nondimensional torque data from UMaine tow tank tests is compared for the model with and without blockage and dynamic stall at tip speed ratio of 2.0.

R. Urbina et al. / Renewable Energy 50 (2013) 662e669 668

a

1max

Maximum value for breakpoint of separation

T

a

Delay constant for angle of attack due to dynamic effect

q Turbine rotational position

q

B

Blade rotational position

s Nondimensional time (s 2Vt/c)

k Reduced frequency (k uc/2V)

V

P

Induced velocity due to vortex

h Distance from vortex core to evaluation point

G Vorticity

n Fluid viscosity

t time

T

e

Nondimensional single element torque

R Turbine radius

s Solidity (s Nc/2pR)

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