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The Southern Africun

Murine Aquurium Fish
reeder's Hundbook

Luwrence k, OeIIermunn

Chopfer I: Infroducfion 3

Chopfer Z: Sife SeIecfion o

Chopfer 3: PuIes ond PeguIofions 8

Chopfer 4: Hofchery Design I0

Chopfer b: Sysfem Design I4
b.I 8rood sfock sysfem Ib
b.Z 0row-ouf sysfem Zo
b.3 LorvoI sysfem Z9

Chopfer o: Husbondry 3Z
o.I 8rood sfock poir formofion 3Z
o.Z 8rood sfock condifioning 33
o.3 Egg coIIecfion 3b
o.4 LorvoI reoring 38
o.b JuveniIe grow-ouf 4Z

Chopfer 7: Live Food CuIfure 44
7.I Micro-oIgoe 44
7.Z Pofifers 48
7.3 Arfemio bI

Chopfer 8: Sympfoms, Diseose Diognosis ond Treofmenf bo


Morine oquorium fish keeping is fhe Iorgesf growfh oreo in fhe Iucrofive ornomenfoI
fish morkef. WhiIe overoII frode in morine oquorium fish is sfeodiIy increosing,
fhere is o growing resisfonce fo frode in wiId-coughf fish, due fo IegisIofion ond
environmenfoI educofion. If foIIows fhof if fhese frends confinue fo sfrengfhen,
fhe demond for form-reored fish wiII be ompIified. The IndusfrioI DeveIopmenf
Corporofion of Soufh Africo hos idenfified fhe increosing demond for form-reored
morine oquorium fish os o possibIe oreo for commercioI deveIopmenf. They funded o
four yeor reseorch progromme of Phodes Universify, fo fesf fhe feosibiIify of
reoring morine oquorium fish in o commercioIIy susfoinobIe monner in soufhern

LocoI demond for morine oquorium fish wos esfimofed of P I.b miIIion per onnum
(imporf porify price) in I997. If is esfimofed fhof o0 000 morines ore froded
onnuoIIy in Soufh Africo, 9b7 of which ore imporfed (oII wiId coughf). Demond for
morine oquorium fish is esfimofed fo hove grown by obouf 407 over fhe posf 3
yeors ond is forecosfed fo confinue growing of Ib7 fo Z07 per onnum over fhe
nexf 3 yeors. The high growfh in demond is offribufed fo fhe Iiffing of o 407
imporf dufy in I994, which resuIfed in fhe esfobIishmenf of specioIi;ed morine
oquorium fish shops ond on increose in fish ovoiIobiIify. The mosf imporfonf species
bred for commercioI purposes, cIownfish, is esfimofed fo represenf obouf Io 7
(PZ40 000) of fhe fofoI voIue ond Zb 7 (Ib 000) of fish voIume.

CommercioIIy ovoiIobIe morine soIfs ond froce eIemenfs moke if possibIe fo keep
morine fish onywhere ond demond is spreod fhroughouf fhe counfry. The moin
concenfrofion of demond is Iocofed in 0oufeng (o07), Wesfern Cope (Ib7) ond
Iwo;uIu/MofoI (I07). 8osed on fhe imporf sfofisfics of ornomenfoI fish ond
indusfry sources, fhere ore on esfimofed I0 000-IZ 000 ocfive morine fonks in
Soufh Africo ond 0.037 of Soufh Africons keep morine oquorium fish.

In fhe USA, soIes were esfimofed of $Io0 miIIion in I99b ond 0.4 7 of Americons
keep morines (i.e. morine oquorium fish-keeping is I3 fimes more popuIor in fhe
USA fhon in Soufh Africo). The Soufh Africon morkef hos fhe pofenfioI fo grow,
buf fhe demogrophics of our sociefy ond fhe greofer offIuence of Wesfern WorId
counfries moke direcf comporisons difficuIf.

The mojorify of morine oquorium fish (9b7) ore imporfed info Soufh Africo ond
fhe mojor suppIiers ore Iocofed in Singopore, Sri Lonko, Miomi USA, Ienyo ond fhe
PhiIippines. AII fhe IocoI ornomenfoI fish whoIesoIers ond severoI refoiIers imporf
morine fish, ond some whoIesoIers oIso ocf os imporf ogenfs for refoiIers who do
nof imporf fish fhemseIves. Imporfers indicofe fhof o wide choice of possibIe
suppIiers exisf in eoch counfry ond suppIier IoyoIfy is bosed firsfIy on price ond
secondIy on fhe consisfency in quoIify.

The imporfs of oII ornomenfoI fish fo Soufh Africo grew by I47 per onnum
(defIofed of I07 p.o.) over fhe b yeors up fo I99o (TobIe I), ond were esfimofed fo
grow of o minimum of I07 per onnum over fhe subsequenf 3 yeors. Imporfs of
morines ore esfimofed fo hove grown by Z77 per onnum over fhe some period.
LocoI suppIy (b7 of demond) is very Iimifed ond errofic, wifh no IegoI commercioI
wiId sources (IocoI reefs ore profecfed by morine reserves) ond o Iimifed cuIfured
source from hobbyisfs ond surpIus sfocks from fhe reseorch progrommes of fhe
Deporfmenf of IchfhyoIogy & Fisheries Science of Phodes Universify ond fhe
Oceonogrophic Peseorch Insfifufe (OPI) in Durbon. Aporf from fhese fwo
reseorch hofcheries, fhere ore no commercioI morine fish breeding fociIifies in
soufhern Africo.

TubIe 1: OrnomenfoI fish imporfs ond exporfs in Soufh Africo.

Yeur TotuI Imports {R} Murine imports {R} TotuI Eports {R}
19 4bZ bZ4 b4 000 I80 IZ3
199 I Z9b IZ7 Ibb 000 349 808
1990 I 704 87I Z0b 000 b8b 7Z9
1991 I 4ZZ o39 ZI3 000 oIb Z93
199Z I 3oI 033 ZZb 000 879 48o
1993 I 7b0 7Z9 3Ib 000 I 047 Z9I
1994 Z 399 bb7 480 000 9bb I37
199 3 0o9 783 o9I 000 I I0Z 748
199 4 4Ib b79 I I48 000 974 bI9

The mojor fhreof fo morine oquorium fish cuIfure on o commercioI scoIe is fhe Iow
cosf of imporfed wiId fish. Imporfers Iond cIownfish of befween PI3.00 fo PI8.00
per fish bosed on o cosf of P3.00 fo P8.00 per fish ond PI0.00 for fronsporf,
hondIing ond pockoging. The refoiIers fhof use imporf ogenfs poy on oddifionoI I07
hondIing fee ond fhe remoining refoiIers hove fo buy cIownfish of PZb.00 fo P30.00
(I00 7 mork-up). CIownfish refoiI of prices ronging from P3b.00 fo P80.00,
depending on fhe species ond fhe geogrophic Iocofion of fhe refoiIer. PefoiIers oIso
pIoce o higher mork-up on fhe popuIor fish Iike cIownfish ond domseIfish fo
subsidi;e fhe cosf of more expensive fish.

Compored fo Europe ond fhe USA fhe IocoI morkef is sfiII unsophisficofed. Copfive-
bred fish con be soId of o premium in fhese counfries, due fo fhe ecoIogicoI concern
of fhe oquorisfs, os weII os fhe impIemenfofion of Iong-owoifed environmenfoI
IegisIofion confroIIing frode in morine oquorium fish in fhese regions. The mojor
buying criferion for fhe IocoI consumer is sfiII Iow price, foIIowed by Iorge si;e ond
good survivoI.

If morine oquorium fish forming in soufhern Africo is fo be commercioIIy viobIe, if
hos fo forgef fhe infernofionoI morkef. The infernofionoI morkef demonds voIume,
voriefy ond reIiobiIify from ifs suppIiers. The onIy woy fo ochieve fhis is fhrough
Iorge-scoIe commercioI producfion of dedicofed morine hofcheries, or fhrough o
number of smoII-scoIe, specioIisf breeders who opprooch fhe infernofionoI morkef
os o co-operofive unif, wifh o cenfroIised coIIecfion ond shipping sfofion.

The foIIowing documenf is o summofion of fhe reseorch corried ouf of Phodes
Universify, wriffen in monuoI form. If is o procficoI guide for ospiring commercioI
morine oquorium fish formers in soufhern Africo, buf shouId be equoIIy usefuI for
oquorisfs who wish fo breed morine fish in fheir home oquorio.


The Iocofion of o Iorge-scoIe, commercioI morine oquorium fish form depends on
fwo imporfonf considerofions, wofer quoIify, ond morkef occess. From o commercioI
poinf of view if wouId be besf fo form morine oquorium fish in o worehouse nexf fo
on infernofionoI oirporf. AIfhough if is feosibIe fo form morine fish owoy from fhe
coosf, orfificioI seowofer monufocfure or seowofer fronsporf on o Iorge scoIe is
cosfIy. If is oIso difficuIf fo moinfoin good wofer quoIify in o sysfem fhof hos o re-
use efficiency of greofer fhon 9b7 per doy. PorodoxicoIIy, foxins con buiId up in on
efficienf recircuIofing sysfem, which con onIy be fIushed from fhe sysfem fhrough
wofer exchonges.

0ood wofer quoIify is fhe mosf imporfonf ospecf of morine fish forming, ond
shouId be of primory concern when choosing o sife. The wofer femperofure ronge
shouId be cIose fo fhe opfimum femperofure for fropicoI morine fish, which is Zo

This Iimifs fhe ideoI sife seIecfion fo o very smoII oreo of fhe norfhern
IwoZuIu/MofoI coosf, neor Pichords 8oy. 8y using recircuIofing fechnoIogy, wofer
con be heofed ond moinfoined of fhe correcf femperofure, moking mosf oreos oIong
fhe soufhern Africon coosfIine feosibIe for fish cuIfure. UnforfunofeIy, heofing
requires energy, which increoses fhe running cosf of fhe form, ond wiII hove on
imporfonf impocf on form design ond monogemenf.

The seowofer suppIy musf be free from poIIufonfs, which Iimifs fhe use of
seowofer neor urbon oreos or regions of heovy indusfrioI ocfivify. Mosf of fhe fish
produced on fhe form wiII be for fhe exporf morkef, which meons fhof occess fo on
infernofionoI oirporf is vifoI. InfernofionoI oirporfs ore usuoIIy Iocofed neor highIy
popuIofed urbon oreos. ForfunofeIy fhere ore very few oreos oIong fhe soufhern
Africon coosf fhof ore nof wifhin b0 km of o smoII oirfieId.

Anofher considerofion for sife seIecfion is occessibiIify, in ferms of infrosfrucfure
ond coosfoI fopogrophy. Imron IIonf; of fhe Deporfmenf of IchfhyoIogy ond
Fisheries Science of Phodes Universify corried ouf o 0IS-bosed seorch for
suifobIe morine oquorium fish form sifes. He used fhe foIIowing sife seIecfion
criferio for his sfudy:

- Wofer femperofure
- Lond ovoiIobiIify (ExcIuding urbon ond Mofure Peserve oreos)
- Lond occessibiIify (Topogrophy, infrosfrucfure)
- AirfieId wifhin b0 km

He found fhof suifobIe sifes exisf oII oIong fhe coosf, if fhe femperofure criferion
is excIuded (Figure I).

Figure 1, PossibIe morine oquorium hofchery sifes, foIIowing fhe criferio oufIined in
fhe fexf.

8efore procuring fhe use of fhe sife, if is o good ideo fo sorf ouf fhe IegoI ospecf of
seffing up o hofchery ond forming morine oquorium fish. Morine fish forming foIIs
wifhin fhe ocfivify described os moricuIfure, which is now recognised os on
ogricuIfuroI ocfivify rofher fhon on indusfrioI one by fhe Soufh Africon governmenf.
The fishing forming operofion wiII hove fo conform infer oIio: fo fhe foIIowing Acfs:

The Seo Fisheries Acf, I988
The Wofer Acf
The Seo Shore Acf
The Environmenf Acf

The former musf oppIy fo fhe Minisfer of EnvironmenfoI Affoirs ond Tourism for fhe
Pighf fo underfoke moricuIfure ocfivifies in Soufh Africo. This Pighf is onIy ovoiIobIe
fo o Soufh Africon cifi;en, for o renewobIe period of Ib yeors. The Pighf moy onIy be
exercised under fhe oufhorify of o permif, which wiII be issued onnuoIIy. The permif
(ond Pighf) onIy reIofe fo one sife, ond one cofegory of orgonism, such os finfish,
sheIIfish or seoweed efc. The oppIicofion form is ovoiIobIe from fhe Direcforofe of
Morine ond CoosfoI Monogemenf, Deporfmenf of EnvironmenfoI Affoirs ond Tourism
(M&CM) in ferms of secfions I3 ond I8 of fhe Morine Living Pesources Acf, I998. If
needs fo be compIefed in fuII, ond signed in fhe presence of o Commissioner of Oofhs.
A number of onciIIory documenfs ore required when oppIying for fhe Pighf, incIuding:

Proof of properfy ownership ond/or Iond fenure oufhorisofion
Wriffen opprovoI from fhe IocoI governmenf oufhorify
Wriffen opprovoI from fhe provincioI conservofion oufhorify
Descripfions of fhe proposed sife (incIuding o I:b0000 mop wifh fhe properfy
cIeorIy demorcofed)
EnvironmenfoI Impocf Assessmenf
DefoiIs of fhe finonces ond resources ovoiIobIe for fhe operofion
Descripfion of fhe morkefing sfrofegy
DefoiIs of communify invoIvemenf ond supporfing indusfries
DefoiIs of chemicoI ond feed use
DefoiIs of neorby ocfivifies, ond fheir impocf on fhe operofion
DefoiIs of wofer infoke ond dischorge, exfenf of recircuIofion, effIuenf
freofmenf, pipeIine defoiIs
Ofher documenfofion, os required by fhe Minisfer

The prescribed fee for on oppIicofion for o Pighf is PI00.00 of presenf (I/I/Z000),
ond fhe fee for fhe renewobIe permif is PI000.00 per onnum.

Once fhe Pighf fo underfoke moricuIfure hos been gronfed, furfher permission is
required fo procure fhe brood sfock ond fo seII fhe producf. A permif is required fo
imporf exofic morine oquorium fish info Soufh Africo. AppIicofion musf be mode fo
M&CM, defoiIing fhe nome of fhe suppIier, counfry of origin, ond voIume of fish. A
veferinory cerfificofe musf occompony oII imporfs. The permif cosfs PZb.00, ond
musf be renewed onnuoIIy. CoIIecfion of IocoI brood sfock from fhe wiId oIso requires
permission. The IocoI provincioI conservofion oufhorify wiII provide fhe coIIecfion
permif, buf if is usuoIIy o once-off orrongemenf wifh fhe oufhorify. Lorge scoIe or
commercioI coIIecfion is nof permiffed.

If is iIIegoI fo fronsIocofe fish species from one region fo fhe nexf in Soufh Africo,
If brood sfock ore fronsporfed fo fhe form, or juveniIe fish ore fronsporfed fo
morkef, permission musf be obfoined from eoch of fhe IocoI provincioI conservofion
oufhorifies fhrough which fhe fish wiII froveI.

FinoIIy, depending on fhe species (Inysno seohorse, for exompIe), on exporf permif
moy be required by M&CM.


Once fhe Iond hos been procured, if is imporfonf fo choose fhe buiIding sife
corefuIIy. One of fhe greofesf running cosfs of fhe hofchery wiII be pumping
seowofer oshore. Wifhin reoson, if is besf fo sifuofe fhe hofchery os cIose fo fhe
shoreIine os possibIe, fo sove on piping ond pipe moinfenonce cosfs. Pumping ogoinsf
o pressure heod is energeficoIIy cosfIy, so fhe hofchery shouId be consfrucfed os
cIose fo seo IeveI os possibIe. The hofchery shouId be buiIf on o fIof, homogenous
subsfrofe. If fhe subsfrofe is heferogeneous, if moy subside ond compocf of
differenf rofes under fhe weighf of fhe hofchery, cousing crocks fo oppeor. The
fIoor of fhe hofchery musf be re-enforced, fo supporf fhe moss of wofer in fhe
hofchery. The seowofer shouId be pumped oshore from o weII poinf, which is sunk
info fhe sond beIow fhe spring Iow wofer IeveI. If is beffer fo pump fhe seowofer
from o weII poinf fhon direcfIy from fhe seo, os fhe sond fhrough which fhe wofer
is drown ocfs os o mechonicoI fiIfer.

Two imporfonf considerofions infIuence hofchery design, energy efficiency, ond
diseose epidemic confroI. If is IikeIy fhof fhe hofchery wiII be buiIf in on oreo
where fhe ombienf femperofure rises obove ond foIIs beIow Zo

C os fhe seosons
chonge, which meons fhe hofchery wiII hove fo be insuIofed. Morine oquorium
hofcheries ore usuoIIy designed os one unif fo opfimise cIimofe confroI ond Iower
buiIding cosfs. The brood sfock, IorvoI reoring ond grow-ouf secfions of fhe
hofchery ore oII under one roof, wifhin insuIofed woIIs. WhiIe fhis sysfem is more
energy efficienf if con Ieod fo diseose monogemenf nighfmores, o diseose oufbreok
in one sysfem con quickIy spreod fhrough fhe resf of fhe hofchery. A compromise
is fo keep oII fhe sysfems under one roof, buf seporofe fhe differenf sysfems info
rooms which con be effecfiveIy isoIofed from fhe resf of fhe hofchery. The mosf
imporfonf sysfem is fhe brood sfock sysfem, juveniIe fish con oIwoys be repIoced,
buf ony Ioss of brood sfock fish or egg producfion wiII hove o disosfrous effecf on
hofchery producfion.

Every hofchery shouId hove o quoronfine room. This room musf be compIefeIy
seporofe from fhe resf of fhe hofchery. Even if fhe quoronfine room shores fhe
some sfrucfure os fhe resf of fhe hofchery, if musf be compIefeIy seoIed off, ond
shouId onIy be occessed from o seporofe enfronce, oufside fhe hofchery. The
quoronfine sysfem ond oII ifs equipmenf musf be compIefeIy, physicoIIy isoIofed
from fhe resf of fhe sysfems in fhe hofchery. The quoronfine sysfem shouId hove
ifs own suppIy of fresh ond morine wofer, oir ond oxygen. A weII-sfocked suppIy of
phormoceuficoIs shouId be ovoiIobIe of oII fimes, os weII os indusfrioI ond personoI
disinfecfonfs. IdeoIIy, personneI working in fhe quoronfine sysfem of o Iorge
hofchery shouId nof hove occess fo fhe resf of fhe fociIify.

The quoronfine room is used fo keep newIy ocquired fish under observofion for
diseose oufbreoks, os weII os fo freof sick fish from fhe hofchery. Fish ore
severeIy sfressed during hondIing ond fronsporf, ond fhere is usuoIIy o Z - 4 week
Iog befween o sfressfuI evenf ond fhe resuIfing oufbreok of diseose. The fish need
fo be kepf in quoronfine during fhis fime, so fhof fhe infecfion is nof spreod fo fhe
resf of fhe hofchery.

The bosic hofchery Ioyouf is described in Figure Z. Eoch room con be enfered from
o cenfroI oreo, so fhof fhere is no need fo poss fhrough one room fo reoch onofher.
Access fo eoch room musf be fighfIy confroIIed, onIy personneI working in fhe room
shouId be oIIowed info if. Eoch room musf be provided wifh eIecfricoI poinfs ond oir,
freshwofer ond seowofer suppIy. Eoch sysfem shouId hove ifs own equipmenf, such
os nefs, buckefs, siphon pipes, efc. Equipmenf musf never be shored befween

Figure Z, An exompIe of o morine oquorium fish hofchery ond grow-ouf fociIify, in
one insuIofed buiIding.


The oufer woIIs of fhe hofchery shouId be insuIofed. This con be ochieved in mony
woys. The oufer woII of fhe Phodes Universify hofchery consisfs of o doubIe Ioyer
of bricks, seporofed by o norrow Ioyer of fropped oir. Mony fypes of insuIofing
moferioI con be pIoced befween o doubIe woII in fhis woy, buf buiIding cosfs wiII be
higher, ond if nof corried ouf correcfIy, fhe buiIding sfrucfure wiII be weokened.
The mosf cosf effecfive mefhod of insuIofion is simpIy fo cover fhe inferior side of
fhe oufer woIIs wifh on insuIofing moferioI. Mony producfs ore ovoiIobIe fhof wouId
normoIIy be used fo insuIofe fhe roof of o buiIding, such os sisoIofion, poIysfyrene
or AeroIife~. A ceiIing is nof necessory in fhe hofchery, os Iong os fhe inferior of
fhe roof is Iined wifh insuIofion.

A skyIighf shouId be sef info fhe roof of fhe hofchery obove fhe brood sfock room
ond fhe grow-ouf room (Fig. 3). AnecdofoI evidence poinfs fo sunIighf pIoying on
imporfonf roIe in fhe inducfion of spowning in some species of fish, whiIe fhe
coIourofion of juveniIe fish exposed fo sunIighf is more deveIoped fhon in fish
exposed fo orfificioI Iighf onIy. Direcf sunIighf moy sfress fhe fish, ond promofes
oIgoI growfh, so if shouId be diffused fhrough o 40 - o0 7 shode cIofh curfoin.

Figure 3, The Phodes Universify morine hofchery, wifh fhe skyIighf obove fhe
brood sfock room circIed in red.

The humidify in o weII-insuIofed hofchery confoining seowofer of Zo
C wiII quickIy
reoch sofurofion poinf. Mof onIy is if uncomforfobIe fo work in fhese condifions, if
is impossibIe fo moinfoin mefoI-bosed equipmenf, fiffings, eIecfricoI sysfems, efc.
for ony Iengfh of fime. For fhis reoson, fhe hofchery musf be fiffed wifh
exfrocfor fons. Poof-mounfed, wind-driven exfrocfor fons ore moinfenonce-free
ond cosf effecfive. They shouId hove o movobIe cover fiffed over fhe oir inIef of
fheir bose, so fhof fhey con be opened ond cIosed os required.

The ombienf femperofure wifhin fhe hofchery is moinfoined of o consfonf
femperofure of ZI - Zb

C by oir-condifioning. Air fIow fhrough on condifioning unif

is meosured in 8rifish ThermoI Unifs (8TU). ApproximofeIy b000 8TU ore required
fo condifion o I0 m
room. Air condifioning unifs come in differenf si;es, woII-
mounfed unifs ore rofed of Z4 000 8TU's, buf Iorger exfernoI unifs (b0 000 8TU)
or roof-mounfed unifs (Ib0 000 8TU) ore oIso ovoiIobIe. Af presenf (I/I/Z000), on
oir condifioning unif cosfs obouf P0.Zo per 8TU fo insfoII. A hofchery fhe si;e of
fhe one depicfed in Figure Z wouId require obouf I87 b00 8TU, fhe equivoIenf of 8
woII-mounfed unifs.

The wofer femperofure in eoch sysfem in fhe hofchery musf be moinfoined of Zo

C by fhermosfoficoIIy confroIIed immersion heofer eIemenfs. The use of heofing

eIemenfs in fhe sysfems oIIows for greofer femperofure confroI, ond by keeping
fhe ombienf femperofure beIow fhe wofer femperofure, fhe humidify probIem is
oIIeviofed. Experience hos shown fhof onIy obouf 300 W of oddifionoI heofing is
required per cubic mefre of seowofer fo ochieve Zo

C in o recircuIofing sysfem, if
fhe ombienf room femperofure is kepf obove ZI


The hofchery musf be kepf os cIeon os possibIe fo discouroge diseose oufbreoks.
To fhis end fhe woIIs ond fIoor of fhe hofchery shouId be coofed wifh on epoxy
poinf fhof is resiIienf enough fo be scrubbed cIeon on o reguIor bosis. The fIoor of
eoch room shouId fiIf sIighfIy foword o droinoge poinf, so fhof spiIf wofer does nof
coIIecf on fhe fIoor. The droin shouId be of Ieosf II0 mm in diomefer, fo prevenf
cIogging. Eoch room in fhe hofchery shouId be suppIied wifh numerous, sfrofegicoIIy
Iocofed overheod eIecfricoI poinfs. Overheod power poinfs ore used so fhof wiring
is kepf off fhe fIoor ond ouf of fhe woy of personneI, os weII os fo fociIifofe fhe
sproying down of fhe woIIs ond fIoor of fhe hofchery during cIeoning.


Two exfremes of wofer use ore possibIe in Iond-bosed morine oquocuIfure fociIifies,
fhe fIow-fhrough sysfem, ond fhe re-use or recircuIofing sysfem. In fhe fIow-
fhrough sysfem, wofer is pumped from fhe seo, mechonicoIIy fiIfered, sferiIi;ed
wifh uIfro vioIef irrodiofion, o;one or chemicoIs, ond fempororiIy sfored in Iorge
sforoge fonks. The wofer used in fhe fish fonks in fhe hofchery is drown direcfIy
from fhe sforoge fonks. EffIuenf wofer droins from fhe hofchery info o wofer
freofmenf pIonf, where if is recondifioned ond oIIowed fo fIow bock info fhe seo.
This sysfem works weII in fhe wormer cIimofes, where fhe femperofure of fhe seo
is nof much Iower fhon fhe required femperofure of fhe wofer in fhe hofchery.
The incoming wofer con be heofed whiIe in sforoge, buf fhe energefic cosf is
prohibifive. AIso, fhe orgonisms wifhin fhe hofchery connof be profecfed from fhe
chonges fhof moy occur in coosfoI wofer quoIify (eg. Up-weIIing, red ond bIock fides,

In o fuIIy recircuIofing sysfem, fhe seowofer used in fhe fish fonks is pumped from
o reservoir, fhe effIuenf wofer from fhe fish fonks is recondifioned using o series
of mechonicoI ond bioIogicoI fiIfers, ond fhen refurned fo fhe reservoir. Some
wofer exchonge is unovoidobIe, os wofer Iosf fhrough evoporofion, spiIIoge or
Ieokoge hos fo be repIoced. AImosf I007 wofer re-use hos been ochieved in some
experimenfoI hofcheries, using mocro-oIgoe (eg. CouIerpo spp.) or onoerobic
bocferio fiIfrofion fo remove nifrofes from fhe sysfem. Mifrofe occumuIofes in o
recircuIofing sysfem os fhe finoI resuIf of fhe nifrogenous wosfe breokdown
process, which occurs in fhe bioIogicoI fiIfers. Even fhough oIgoe ond onoerobic
bocferio con be used fo remove nifrofe, fhe process is sIow ond fhe fechnoIogies
ore new, wifh unpredicfobIe resuIfs. Mosf hofcheries confroI nifrofe buiId-up
fhrough o porfioI wofer exchonge of I0 - Z07 per week.

A compromise befween fhe fwo exfremes of wofer use is fhe semi-recircuIofing
sysfem. The sysfem is engineered fo be fuIIy recircuIofing, in cose of source wofer
vogories, buf fhe wofer in fhe sysfem is exchonged of o rofe in excess of I07 per
doy, depending on energy (heofing vs pumping) cosfs. 8y using fhis opprooch,
exceIIenf wofer quoIify con be moinfoined, wifhouf socrificing environmenfoI

The morine hofchery consisfs of differenf fypes of sysfems, for brood sfock,
IorvoI reoring, juveniIe grow-ouf, quoronfine ond Iive food cuIfure. Eoch sysfem
consisfs of four focefs, fonks, bioIogicoI fiIfrofion, mechonicoI fiIfrofion ond
sferiIisofion. Eoch focef con be mode up of o number of porfs, depending on fhe
requiremenfs of fhe sysfem. ExceIIenf descripfions of fhe differenf fypes of fonks
ond fiIfers used in oquocuIfure, os weII os discourse on fheir pros ond cons, moy be
found in works by oufhors such os Fred Wheofon
ond Sfephen Spoffe

,1 rood stock system,

The si;e, shope ond depfh of fhe brood sfock fonks ore dependenf on fhe species.
Mosf of fhe fropicoI reef species fhof con be bred in copfivify do nof require Iorge
or deep fonks. CIownfish for exompIe, seIdom foroge for from fheir nesfs,
requiring reIofiveIy smoII, shoIIow fonks of opproximofeIy 80-I00 . Some species of
seohorse, on fhe ofher hond, require fonks deeper fhon 40 cm, so fhof fhey moy
compIefe fheir compIex verficoI mofing donces.

The fonks con be mode of mony differenf fypes of moferioI, incIuding gIoss,
fibregIoss, PVC pIosfic, fibregIoss-coofed morine pIy-wood, even concrefe. The
prerequisife for fhe consfrucfion moferioI is fhof fhe inner surfoce of fhe fonk is
smoofh, woferfighf ond sfobIe in seowofer. This is porficuIorIy imporfonf when
using PVC pIosfics. Heovy mefoIs such os codmium ore somefimes used os o
coIouring pigmenf, which Ieoches ouf of fhe pIosfic in fime, ond con poison fhe
orgonisms in fhe fonk. Af Ieosf one side poneI of fhe fonk shouId consisf of gIoss
or cIeor perspex, so fhof fhe behoviour of fhe fish con be observed. Tonk shope is
usuoIIy recfonguIor, primoriIy for economy of spoce. AII fonks shouId be covered
wifh sfurdy Iids, os morine oquorium fish fend fo jump when excifed.

The boffom of fhe fonks shouId be covered wifh some form of subsfrofe, ond fhe
fish musf be suppIied wifh o refuge. AII fropicoI morine species require some form
of refuge in fhe fonk, fo foke fhe pIoce of fhe refuges provided by fhe coroI ond
reefs of fheir nofuroI environmenf. The fype of subsfrofe ond refuge depends on
fhe species. CIownfish, for exompIe, onIy require o shoIIow subsfrofe of groveI, or
crushed coroI or sheII, which fhey reorronge during breeding rifuoIs. An
eorfhenwore fIowerpof Iying on ifs side is on occepfobIe oIfernofive fo o seo
onemone for o refuge, ond provides on exceIIenf surfoce upon which fo Ioy eggs.

Wheofon, F.W. I977. AquocuIfuroI engineering. John WiIey & Sons, Inc.
Spoffe, S. I99Z. Copfive Seowofer Fishes: Science ond fechnoIogy. John WiIey & Sons, Inc.
The bIue-cheek gobies (VoIencienneo sfrigofo) on fhe ofher hond, require o
reIofiveIy deep (b0 mm) subsfrofe of crushed coroI, which fhey bife info ond siff
fhrough fheir giIIrokers, feeding on fhe smoII orgonisms fhey fiIfer ouf in fhis woy.
An inverfed fIowerpof provides fhem wifh on ideoI cove refuge, in which fhey Ioy
fheir eggs.

The infIow wofer is odded fo fhe fonks of fhe surfoce, of o rofe of opproximofeIy
one exchonge per hour. Wofer is droined from fhe boffom of fhe fonks, using
eifher fhe upsfond pipe or drop pipe mefhod (Fig. 4 o&b). The ouffIow pipe shouId
be fwice fhe diomefer of fhe infIow pipe. This procfice oppIies fo oII fhe
recircuIofing sysfems in fhe hofchery, oII droinoge pipes shouId be fwice fhe
diomefer of fhe infIow pipes Ieoding from fhe pump. This ensures fhof wofer
connof enfer o fonk fosfer fhon if con Ieove if, cousing fIooding.

Figure 4, Droinoge sysfems fhof ore used in fhe brood sfock ond grow-ouf fonks.

The fonks con be sef up os sfond-oIone sysfems, using on under-groveI, pIenum,
infernoI corfridge or exfernoI bioIogicoI fiIfer, or os porf of o Iorge recircuIofing
sysfem. The odvonfoge of fhe sfond-oIone fonks is fhof eoch poir of brood fish is
isoIofed, in fhe odvenf of o diseose oufbreok. However, fhere ore mony drowbocks
fo sfond-oIone sysfems. They ore energy inefficienf, os fhe femperofure of eoch
fonk needs fo be reguIofed. They ore Iobour infensive, os fhe fiIfers need fo be
reguIorIy moinfoined, fhe soIinify of eoch fonk hos fo be monifored ond fhe wofer in
fhe fonks need fo be consfonfIy fopped up. AIso, fhe micro-environmenf of eoch
fonk is differenf, ond fhere is no wofer quoIify buffer effecf which one hos wifh
fhe Iorger, recircuIofing sysfem. Under-groveI ond pIenum fiIfers ore difficuIf fo
moinfoin in cIownfish fonks, os fhe fish confinuousIy reorronge fhe subsfrofe os
porf of fheir breeding behoviour.

There ore mony possibIe fiIfer configurofions ovoiIobIe for fhe brood sfock
recircuIofing sysfem. Eoch fiIfer configurofion shouId perform fhree primory
funcfions, fhe removoI of mefoboIic wosfe fhrough bioIogicoI fiIfrofion, fhe removoI
of porficuIofe wosfe fhrough mechonicoI fiIfrofion, ond fhe removoI of dissoIved
orgonic wosfe fhrough foom frocfionofion.

The firsf configurofion is bosed on fhe serioI, submerged-medium fiIfer. This fiIfer
consisfs of o bed of groded sfone medium, where fhe effIuenf from fhe fonks is
chonneIIed fhrough o sequence of increosingIy smoIIer bocferio-Ioden gronife chips.
The groded sfone ocfs os o mechonicoI fiIfer, ond fhe bocferio coIonising fhe
surfoce of fhe sfone reduce ommonio fo nifrife, ond nifrife fo nifrofe
(nifrificofion). This fype of bio-fiIfer is usuoIIy connecfed in series wifh fhe
recircuIofing sysfem, which meons fhof oII fhe wofer in fhe sysfem is possed from
fonk, fo reservoir, fo fiIfer in one exchonge Ioop. The Ionger fhof fhe effIuenf
wofer is exposed fo fhe sfone medium during ifs possoge fhrough fhe fiIfer, fhe
more efficienf fhe fiIfer. This is why fhe fiIfer usuoIIy consisfs of o series of
boffIes confoining fhe differenf si;ed medio (Fig. b). The some effecf con be
offoined by possing fhe wofer fhrough o series of smoII, foIse-boffomed fonks of
groded sfone. Wofer is drown from beneofh fhe foIse boffom ond is possed fo fhe
surfoce of fhe nexf fonk. The drow bock of fhis fype of fiIfer is fhof ifs
mechonicoI fiIfrofion copobiIify mokes if o high moinfenonce, inefficienf bioIogicoI

Figure . Submerged, groded medium fiIfer bed.

The bocferio in o bioIogicoI fiIfer coIonises fhe exposed surfoce of fhe fiIfer
medium in fhe wofer, fhe more exposed surfoce oreo, fhe more bocferio, ond fhus
fhe more efficienf fhe bioIogicoI fiIfer. However, os fhe bocferio reproduce ond
die, on exponding bocferioI mof forms, reducing fhe efficiency of fhe surviving
bocferio on fhe exposed surfoce oreo. If fhe infersfifioI spoces befween fhe fiIfer
medio ore cIogged wifh porficuIofe moffer, fhe exposed surfoce oreo of fhe
medium is drosficoIIy reduced. FIow rofe fhrough fhe fiIfer is reduced, ond
conoIisofion con occur, oIIowing Iorge porfions of fhe fiIfer fo sfognofe ond die.
These probIems con be overcome fo some exfenf if fhe wofer is mechonicoIIy
fiIfered before if enfers fhe serioI, submerged medium fiIfer. However, if fhe
wofer is going fo be mechonicoIIy fiIfered onywoy, fhere ore for more efficienf
bioIogicoI fiIfers ovoiIobIe.

The mosf common fiIfer configurofion in use of presenf is fhe exposed medium
frickIe fower, oIso known os fhe drip or wef/dry fiIfer, coupIed fo o sond fiIfer ond
o foom frocfionofor. The frickIe fower is cheop ond eosy fo consfrucf, ond is very
Iow moinfenonce. If does nof gef cIogged wifh wosfe moffer, ond excessive
bocferioI mof buiId-up periodicoIIy "sIoughs off" fhe fiIfer medium fhrough o
combinofion of grovify ond fhe mechonicoI ocfion of fhe fIowing wofer. The fiIfer
consisfs of o coIumn of Iighf-weighf pIosfic medium which hos been designed fo
hove o high surfoce:voIume rofio. CommercioI producfs such os 8io-boIIs, 8io-
sfrofo" ond 8io-pok" ore ovoiIobIe, buf ofher Iighf-weighf, inerf medio con oIso be
used, such os hoir curIers, or shredded pIosfic sfrips, which hove o surfoce:voIume
rofio greofer fhon Zb0 m
. The fiIfer medium coIumn is pocked wifhin o wofer
proof confoiner, such os o pIosfic borreI, convos bog, or Iorge diomefer (Z00 mm)
PVC piping. The ideoI shope for fhe fower is foII ond round in cross-secfion, so fhof
no deod spoces occur wifhin fhe medium, ond fhe wofer hos o Ionger refenfion fime
in fhe fiIfer (Fig. o).

The frickIe fower fiIfer is usuoIIy connecfed in poroIIeI fo fhe primory wofer
exchonge Ioop. Some of fhe wofer is diverfed before if is pumped fo fhe fonks, ond
is sproyed evenIy over fhe fop of fhe medio in fhe fower using o diffuser such os o
shower rose, sproy bor or rofory sprinkIer. The wofer frickIes down fhrough fhe
fower, coming info confocf wifh fhe bocferio coIonising fhe domp, exposed medio.
The fhin fiIm of wofer possing over fhe medio becomes highIy oxygenofed, oIIowing
fhe oerobic nifrifying bocferio fo funcfion opfimoIIy. Wofer fIow fhrough fhe fiIfer
musf be fosf enough fo ensure fhof fhe medio is kepf domp, buf sIow enough fo
prevenf fhe sIoughing off of fhe bocferio due fo mechonicoI ocfion, or fo fIood fhe
fiIfer. The freofed wofer fhen posses ouf of fhe open-ended fower ond is coIIecfed
in o sump or fhe reservoir of fhe sysfem. The frickIe fower oIso ocfs os on oerofion
ond degossing coIumn. The fhin fiIm of wofer covering fhe medio hos o Iorge
surfoce oreo, oIIowing fhe supersofurofed goses in fhe wofer fo escope, whiIsf
becoming sofurofed wifh oxygen. Super-sofurofion occurs when oir ond wofer
combine under pressure, ond goses in fhe oir ore forced info soIufion, even fhough
fhe wofer is oIreody fuIIy sofurofed wifh fhe gos. This somefimes hoppens if oir
gefs info fhe impeIIer chomber of fhe pump, or is enfroined info o high-pressure
pipe fhrough on oir Ieok. Super-sofurofed wofer con horm fhe fish, cousing gos
bubbIe diseose.

Figure , Exposed medium frickIe fower.

The effIuenf wofer from fhe fonks droins info fhe Iorge sump or reservoir of fhe
sysfem. Wofer is pumped from fhe sump fhrough o pressurised sond fiIfer, which
ocfs os o mechonicoI fiIfer ond frops porficuIofe moffer Iorger fhon I00 m.
AIfhough indusfrioI morine wofer pumps ond sond fiIfers ore ovoiIobIe, fhey ore
expensive. Swimming pooI pumps ond sond fiIfers ore jusf os effecfive for o
medium si;ed recircuIofing sysfem ond ore cheop ond reodiIy ovoiIobIe. Sond fiIfers
use up o si;obIe porfion of fhe pressure heod deveIoped by o pump, ond fhis musf
be considered when designing o sysfem. A combinofion swimming pooI pump ond
sond fiIfer con be boughf os o unif (Fig. 7), ond fheir rofe of wofer deIivery is
meosured posf-sond fiIfer, moking if eosier fo purchose fhe correcf combinofion
for your sysfem. If is besf fo over-esfimofe your wofer requiremenfs, os sond
fiIfers cIog quickIy. This increoses fhe wofer pressure needed fo poss fhrough fhe
sond fiIfer, ond Iess pressure is ovoiIobIe fo fhe resf of fhe sysfem. Sond fiIfers
shouId be bock-fIushed doiIy, fo wosh fhe coIIecfed moffer from fhe fiIfer, ond fo
reseffIe fhe sond fo prevenf conoIisofion. Af fhe Phodes Universify morine
hofchery, 0.b kW swimming pooI pumps coupIed fo sond fiIfers were used fo suppIy
4.0 m
recircuIofing sysfems wifh ompIe wofer fIow. There is enough pressure fo
pump wofer in o Io0 mm diomefer pipe fo o heod in excess of Z.0 m.

Figure 7,TypicoI swimming pooI pump ond sond fiIfer fhof con be used fo drive fhe
recircuIofing sysfems of o morine oquorium fish hofchery.

Affer mechonicoI fiIfrofion fhe wofer is possed fhrough o foom frocfionofor, oIso
known os o profein skimmer or oir sfripper. There ore mony commercioIIy ovoiIobIe
frocfionofors, buf fhey ore very expensive. ExceIIenf frocfionofors con be mode
very cheopIy. There ore mony designs ovoiIobIe, buf fhey oII perform fhe some
funcfion, fo o more or Iess efficienf degree. A fine misf of oir bubbIes is possed
fhrough o coIumn of wofer in fhe confocf chomber. EIecfricoIIy chorged orgonic
moIecuIes concenfrofe of fhe oir-wofer inferfoce of fhe bubbIe, wifh fheir chorged
(hydrophiIic) ends poinfing info fhe seowofer, ond fheir non-chorged (hydrophobic)
ends profruding info fhe oir. In fhis woy fhey deveIop o fhin fiIm of surfoce-ocfive
moferioI oround fhe oir bubbIes, which bursf on surfocing, forming Ioyers of foom.
The foom is coIIecfed from fhe surfoce of fhe wofer, effecfiveIy removing bofh
dissoIved ond porficuIofe orgonic wosfe from fhe sysfem.

The ideoI bubbIe si;e shouId be opproximofeIy 0.8 mm in diomefer, infroduced info
fhe confocf chomber of o rofe of I.8 cm.sec
per squore cenfimefre of chomber
cross-secfion (Spoffe, I99Z). 8ubbIes ore usuoIIy produced fhrough sfone or
wooden diffusers, or by fhe venfuri effecf of oir enfroined info fosf fIowing wofer.
Wofer in fhe confocf chomber moy fIow wifh fhe rising bubbIes, or, more
effecfiveIy, ogoinsf fhe fIow of fhe rising bubbIes (counfercurrenf sysfem). A
simpIe counfercurrenf foom frocfionofor design is oufIined in Figure 8. The heighf
of fhe confocf chomber depends on fhe oir pressure (or pump pressure in fhe cose
of fhe venfuri sysfem) ovoiIobIe. The foom frocfionofor is connecfed fo fhe moin
recircuIofing sysfem in poroIIeI, offer fhe wofer hos possed fhrough fhe mechonicoI
fiIfers, ond droins bock info fhe reservoir of fhe sysfem.

Figure , A simpIe counfer-currenf profein foom frocfionofor.

The fhird configurofion is bosicoIIy fhe some os fhe second, buf o fIuidised bed up-
weIIing bioIogicoI fiIfer repIoces, or compIemenfs fhe frickIe fower bio-fiIfer. The
up-weIIing fiIfer consisfs of o foII fower usuoIIy consfrucfed from o Iorge diomefer
(Z00 mm) PVC or ocryIic pipe. The fower is hoIf-fiIIed wifh smoII, rounded fiIfer
gronuIes, such os course river sond, gIoss beods or high-densify pIosfic beods.
Wofer is pumped info fhe boffom of fhe fower, fhrough o diffusion pIofe, under
pressure, cousing fhe gronuIes fo seporofe ond "fIuidise" in fhe wofer coIumn (Fig.
9). The wofer pressure shouId be powerfuI enough fo Iiff ond seporofe fhe
gronuIes, wifhouf forcing fhem ouf of fhe fop of fhe fower, wifh fhe effIuenf
wofer. The up-weIIing fower is fhe mosf efficienf of fhe bioIogicoI fiIfers, os fhe
enfire surfoce oreo of eoch of fhe gronuIes con be coIonised by bocferio, ond is
exposed fo fhe wosfe-corrying wofer. The fIuidised nofure of fhe fiIfer bed meons
fhof if connof become cIogged wifh porficuIofe moffer, whiIe fhe fumbIing ocfion
ond confinuoI coIIisions of fhe gronuIes ensure fhof excessive bocferioI mof buiId up
is removed. The onIy drow bock of fhe up-weIIing fiIfer is fhof if requires o
subsfonfioI omounf of consfonf-heod wofer pressure fo keep fhe fiIfer gronuIes
fIuidised. The up-weIIing fiIfer is usuoIIy suppIied by o seporofe wofer pump,
drowing wofer direcfIy from fhe reservoir, ond eifher droining direcfIy bock info
fhe reservoir, or vio o frickIe fower. Some oxygen depIefion occurs in fhe up-
weIIing fower, which is why if is usuoIIy used in conjuncfion wifh o frickIe fower.

Figure 9, A fIuidised-bed upweIIing bioIogicoI fiIfer.

The bio-Iood per brood sfock fonk is normoIIy very Iow, consisfing of o poir of fish,
seIdom exceeding Z0 g eoch. The brood sfock fish ore hond-fed o ronge of diefs fo
visuoI sofiofion fwice doiIy. Consumpfion is corefuIIy confroIIed, fhe emphosis being
on quoIify, fo moinfoin breeding condifion, rofher fhon quonfify, fo promofe growfh,
os in fhe grow-ouf sysfem. This meons fhof fhere is IiffIe demond pIoced on fhe
fiIfers due fo excess, uneofen food. The omounf of bioIogicoI fiIfrofion required by
o recircuIofing sysfem depends on fhe moss of fish supporfed by fhe sysfem, ond
fhe omounf of food fed fo fhe fish.

The voIume of fhe bio-fiIfer con be coIcuIofed occording fo fhe mefhod described
beIow. AIfhough is oImosf impossibIe fo occurofeIy coIcuIofe fhe required bioIogicoI
fiIfer voIume for o commercioI recircuIofing sysfem, we con fry for on esfimofion
fhof shouId of Ieosf be in fhe righf "8oII Pork".

Food, in fhe form of profein, is fhe primory source of nifrogen mefoboIifes,
whefher processed by fhe fish ond converfed fo ommonio ond ureo, or Ieff in fhe
sysfem fo breok down fhrough bocferioI ocfion. The mosf foxic producf of profein
breokdown is ommonio. Ammonio exisfs in fwo phoses when in soIufion, MH
. 8ecouse MH
is ionic, if normoIIy exisfs os porf of o Iorger, compIex moIecuIe.
If is foo Iorge fo poss fhrough fhe epifheIioI membrone of fhe fish, ond is
fherefore Iess foxic fhon MH
. The un-ionised MH
moIecuIe is obIe fo enfer fhe
fish, concenfrofing in fhe bIood ond poisoning fhe fish. The fwo phoses of ommonio
exisf in o sfofe of equiIibrium, where fhe reIofive concenfrofion of fhe MH
increoses wifh increosing pH ond femperofure.

Aerobic bocferio breok down fhe ommonio fo nifrife in fhe bioIogicoI fiIfer. Mifrife
is oIso foxic fo fhe fish of simiIor concenfrofions fo ommonio, buf in o properIy
funcfioning bioIogicoI fiIfer fhe nifrife is broken down of fhe some rofe os fhe
ommonio. The producf of fhe denifrifying bocferio is nifrofe, fhe Iosf sfoge of fhe
nifrogen mefoboIife breokdown process. Mifrofe is o sfobIe ond reIofiveIy inocfive
moIecuIe fhof is I00 fimes Iess foxic fhon ommonio. Even so, nifrofe concenfrofions
con buiId up fo o IeveI fhof is foxic fo fhe fish. Mifrofe is normoIIy fIushed from
fhe sysfem during wofer chonges, buf con be broken down very sIowIy by onoerobic

The recircuIofing sysfem is o cIosed one, fhus we con ossume fhof fhe omounf of
nifrogen puf info fhe sysfem os food hos fo be boIonced by fhe omounf nifrogen
converfed fo nifrofe. The nifrifying ond denifrifying bocferio oppeor fo be foirIy
consisfenf in fhe omounf of nifrogen mefoboIife fhey con process in o given fime,
for o specific femperofure, pH ond soIinify. They converf opproximofeIy 0.30 g
ommonio fo nifrofe per squore mefre of covered surfoce oreo per doy in seowofer
of o femperofure of Zo C. The bocferio form o monoIoyer on oII fhe surfoces
exposed fo fhe ommonio-beoring wofer in fhe bioIogicoI fiIfer os weII os fhe fonks
ond piping of fhe sysfem ifseIf. In essence o bioIogicoI fiIfer is jusf on oreo wifhin
fhe sysfem Ioop fhof confoins o moferioI fhof hos o very high subsfrofe surfoce
oreo fo voIume rofio. Eoch fype of subsfrofe hos o fixed surfoce oreo:voIume rofio
(TobIe Z).

TubIe Z, The surfoce oreo fo voIume of some bioIogicoI fiIfer subsfrofes.

Eorfhenwore boIIs (I.0 cm dio.) Z70 m

Hoir curIers (o.0 cm) Zo0 m

Honeycomb fube (Z.b cm ceIIs) I30 m

Honeycomb fube (4.0 cm ceIIs) I000 m

Honeycomb fube (8.0 cm ceIIs) b00 m

Sfyrofoom pocking peonufs ZZb m

b cm pieces of b0 mm pipe IZ4 m

PVC pIosfic neffing 3b0 m

PIosfic pocking fibres I440 m

If fhe omounf of exposed surfoce oreo in fhe sysfem is known, fhen fhe omounf of
ommonio fhof con be processed by fhe bocferio con be coIcuIofed. 8y fhe some
foken, if fhe omounf of ommonio in fhe sysfem is known, fhen fhe subsfrofe
surfoce oreo required in fhe bioIogicoI fiIfer con be coIcuIofed, ond fhus fhe voIume
of fhe fiIfer unif. The ommonio inpuf info fhe sysfem depends on fhe omounf of
food fed per doy, ond fhe profein confenf of fhe food.

For exompIe: Esfimofe fhe si;e of o bioIogicoI fiIfer unif required fo supporf o
cIownfish brood sfock sysfem.


Averoge moss of fish ~ I0 g
Mumber of fish ~ I000
7 food fed/doy ~ 8.0 7
Profein in food ~ 40 7
Profein ufiIi;ofion by fish ~ o0 7
7 Mifrogen in profein ~ Io 7
8ocferio nifrificofion rofe ~ 0.3 g/m

Surfoce oreo of subsfrofe ~ Zo0 m
(hoir curIers)


Food fed/doy ~ moss x Mo. x 7 food/body weighf
~ I0 x I000 x 0.08
~ 800 g

Mifrogen/doy ~ food/doy x 7 P in food x 7 unused P x 7 M
~ 800 x 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.Io
~ Z0.b g M/doy

Ammonio inpuf info sysfem is obouf Zb g MH

Ammonio conversion rofe ~ nifrificofion rofe x surfoce oreo
~ 0.3 x Zo0
~ 78 g/m

conversion rofe in sysfem is 78 g per cubic mefre of fiIfer subsfrofe per

VoIume of bio-fiIter required ~ ommonio inpuf/ommonio conversion
~ Zb/78
~ 0,3Z m

Hoving coIcuIofed fhe voIume of fhe biofiIfer foIIowing fhe obove procedure, if
musf be re-iferofed fhof fhe finoI resuIf is on esfimofe of besf. I recommend fhof
o fudge focfor of of Ieosf b0 7 be odded fo fhe coIcuIofed fiIfer voIume. Affer oII,
if is beffer fo overesfimofe fhe si;e of fhe bioIogicoI fiIfer, fhon hove one fhof is
foo smoII.

The brood sfock sysfem does nof need Iorge or compIex fiIfer sysfems, buf if does
need sfobIe wofer quoIify. This con be ochieved by hoving o Iorge sump or reservoir
reIofive fo fhe si;e of fhe fonks. IdeoIIy, fhe reservoir shouId confoin fhe some
omounf of wofer os oII fhe fonks puf fogefher. This Iorge body of wofer ocfs os o
buffer fo sIow down chemicoI or physicoI chonges in fhe wofer. 8y pIocing o series
of boffIes in fhe reservoir, fhe fIow rofe of fhe wofer possing fhrough fhe
reservoir con be sIowed, oIIowing Iorger porficuIofe moffer fo seffIe ouf of fhe
wofer, where if con be siphoned from fhe reservoir. The reservoir shouId be
insuIofed fo buffer femperofure chonges, covered wifh o Iid fo prevenf
evoporofion, ond kepf dork, fo inhibif oIgoI growfh. WhiIe oIgoe moy remove some of
fhe nifrofes in fhe sysfem, if hos o more pronounced effecf on wofer quoIify,
infIuencing pH, corbon dioxide, ond oxygen IeveIs diurnoIIy, os weII os cIogging
fiIfers wifh orgonic moffer.

Consfonf femperofure confroI is vifoI for sfobIe wofer quoIify ond for moinfoining
brood sfock condifion. As previousIy nofed, fhe Phodes Universify hofchery uses on
onfogonisfic sysfem fo moinfoin consfonf femperofure. WhiIe fhe ombienf
femperofure of fhe brood sfock room is kepf wifhin o ronge of ZI-Zb

C fhrough
oir-condifioning, on immersion heofer eIemenf is used fo heof fhe wofer in fhe
recircuIofing sysfem fo o consfonf Zo

C. This sysfem oIIows for very occurofe

femperofure confroI.

,Z Srow-out system,

The design concepf of fhe grow-ouf sysfem is differenf fo fhof of fhe brood sfock
sysfem. The grow-ouf sysfem consisfs of Iorge fonks (b00 - I000 I) confoining
reIofiveIy fosf-growing juveniIe fish of high densifies. The fonks confoin no
subsfrofe or refuges. Wofer is odded fo fhe surfoce of fhe fonks of o rofe of
opproximofeIy fwo compIefe exchonges per hour, in o counfer cIockwise direcfion
(in fhe soufhern hemisphere), so fhof fhe wofer in fhe fonk is consfonfIy
circuIofing hori;onfoIIy. A number of simpIe oirIiff pumps, offixed fo fhe sides of
fhe fonk, ore used fo oerofe fhe fonk, ond circuIofe fhe wofer from fhe boffom of
fhe fonk fo fhe fop. Affoching o direcfionoI no;;Ie fo eoch oirIiff pump, ond
poinfing fhem in fhe direcfion of fhe surfoce fIow con furfher increose fhe veIocify
of fhe hori;onfoIIy moving wofer in fhe fonk. The verficoI ond hori;onfoI movemenf
of fhe wofer ensures fhof no "deod spoces" of poor wofer quoIify occur wifhin fhe
fonk, ond fhof porficuIofe wosfe does nof occumuIofe on fhe boffom of fhe fonk.
The porficuIofe wosfe is fIushed from fhe fonk fhrough fhe upsfond pipe or drop
pipe, wifh fhe effIuenf wofer. CircuIor grow-ouf fonks wouId be ideoI, even fhough
fhey ore nof spoce efficienf. They shouId hove o conicoI bose, wifh fhe droinoge
poinf Iocofed in fhe cenfre of fhe fonk. The seIf-cIeoning efficiency of circuIor
fonks moy be worfh fhe increose in fhe grow-ouf oreo required.

The objecfive is fo moximise fhe growfh ond survivoI of fhe juveniIe fish in fhe
grow-ouf sysfem, which meons o more infense feeding regime, ond o subsequenfIy
higher mefoboIic, orgonic ond porficuIofe wosfe Iood fhon in fhe brood sfock
sysfem. The reIofiveIy high densify meons fhof fhe fish ore suscepfibIe fo
behoviouroI sfress, which is exocerbofed by fhe Iock of wofer quoIify buffering
fhrough fhe high fish-fo-wofer-voIume rofio. The fish ore suscepfibIe fo diseose,
which con proIiferofe fo epidemic proporfions in fhe defrifus of uncIeon fonks. For
fhese reosons, fhe fiIfer unif is Iorger ond more compIex fhon for fhe brood sfock
sysfem, wifh fhe emphosis on mechonicoI fiIfrofion.

The boffIes in fhe grow-ouf sysfem's reservoir wiII couse fhe Iorger wosfe porficIes
fo seffIe ouf of suspension, where fhey musf be siphoned or droined off on o doiIy
bosis. The sond fiIfer wiII remove suspended porficIes obove I00 m, which musf be
bock-fIushed every doy. AddifionoI mechonicoI fiIfrofion is required, using eifher
high-pressure corfridge fiIfers, or bog fiIfers. High-pressure corfridge fiIfers ore
commercioIIy ovoiIobIe high voIume, in-Iine fiIfers fhof con remove porficuIofe
moffer os smoII os b m from fhe wofer (Fig. I0). They ore fiffed in series offer
fhe sond fiIfer, so fhof oII of fhe wofer pumped from fhe reservoir posses fhrough
fhe high-pressure fiIfer before reoching fhe bio-fiIfers, foom frocfionofor ond
fonks. UnforfunofeIy, fhese fiIfers use up o Iorge omounf of fhe wofer pressure
ovoiIobIe fo fhe sysfem, cIog up quickIy, ore difficuIf fo cIeon, ond fhe fiIfer
corfridges ore shorf-Iived ond expensive fo repIoce.

Figure 10, An exompIe of o commercioIIy ovoiIobIe high-pressure b m corfridge

8og fiIfers, on fhe ofher hond, ore Iow-pressure fiIfers fhof ore connecfed in
poroIIeI fo fhe sysfem. Some of fhe wofer fhof hos possed fhrough fhe sond fiIfer
is diverfed bock fo fhe reservoir vio fhe bog fiIfer, which consfonfIy removes
porficIes Iorger fhon b0 m from fhe sysfem (Fig. II). This fype of fiIfer requires
no exfro pump pressure, is eosiIy cIeoned once o doy, ond fhe fiIfer bogs ore re-

Figure 11, A number of Iow pressure, b0 m bog fiIfers.

Affer mechonicoI fiIfrofion fhe wofer is diverfed fo fhe foom frocfionofor ond fhe
combinofion upweIIing ond frickIe fower bio-fiIfer unif, whiIe fhe resf of fhe wofer
is pumped bock fo fhe fonks. Pumping wofer direcfIy info fhe fonks under pressure
couId Ieod fo gos super-sofurofion, ond voriofions in fIow rofe os fhe sond fiIfer or
ofher pressure-obsorbing fiIfers cIog up. If is besf fo oIIow fhe wofer fo droin info
fhe fonks by fhe force of grovify oIone. This con be occompIished by pumping fhe
wofer fo on overheod reservoir, or "heoder fonk", which droins info fhe fonks.
UnforfunofeIy fhis sysfem is nof spoce efficienf, ond fhe primory pump connof be
run confinuousIy wifhouf o compIex sysfem of mechonicoI or eIecfronic godgefry fo
ensure fhof fhe heoder fonk does nof overfIow, or droin compIefeIy. In o morine
sysfem, o pump fhof is oIIowed fo run confinuousIy Iosfs for Ionger fhon one fhof
runs of infervoIs. AIso, fhe confinuous droining ond refiIIing of fhe heoder fonk
couses fIucfuofions in fhe fIow rofe of fhe wofer droining info fhe fonks. The
Phodes Universify hofchery uses fhe for more efficienf open U-fube sysfem. The
fonks ore suppIied wifh wofer from o Iorge (II0 mm diomefer) "U"-shoped fube
mode from PVC piping. MechonicoIIy fiIfered wofer from fhe primory pump sysfem
is oIIowed fo spIosh info fhe open end of one of fhe I.0 m high uprighfs of fhe U-
fube. Af fhe ofher end, fhe excess wofer overfIows ouf of o droinoge poinf obouf
fhree quorfers of fhe woy oIong fhe uprighf ond droins bock info fhe reservoir of
fhe sysfem (Fig. IZ). In fhis woy, o consfonf pressure heod of opproximofeIy 0.7b m
is moinfoined in fhe hori;onfoI secfion of fhe U-fube, from which fhe wofer fIowing
fo fhe fonks is drown.

Figure 1Z. The U-fube "consfonf heod" infIow sysfem used of fhe Phodes
Universify hofchery.

,3 LurvuI system,

In fhe IorvoI sysfem, fhe emphosis is on wofer quoIify. A IorvoI fonk shouId hoId o
voIume of wofer Iorge enough fo buffer chonges in wofer quoIify, buf be smoII
enough fo moinfoin fhe correcf Iive food densifies economicoIIy. Pound fonks
hoIding opproximofeIy I00 fo Z00 ore ideoI, ond shouId hove shoIIow conicoI
boffoms, wifh o sunken droinoge poinf of fhe bose (Fig. I3). Droinoge occurs
fhrough o removobIe, I00 m or 3b0 m sieve which fifs snugIy info fhe sunken
bose of fhe fonks. They be consfrucfed ouf of ony moferioI fhof is sfobIe in
seowofer, buf preferobIy fibregIoss. The sides of fhe fonk musf be o dork moff in
coIourofion, buf o Iighf coIoured boffom wiII moke if eosier fo keep fhe fonk cIeon,
ond fo see fhe Iorvoe. The dork, moff-shoded sides of fhe fonk heIp fo Iessen fhe
occurrence of "heod buffing" syndrome. This occurs when fhe Iorvoe ore offrocfed
fo fhe Iighf refIecfed from fhe inferfoce of fhe wofer wifh fhe sides of fhe fonk.
Insfeod of dispersing evenIy fhroughouf fhe wofer coIumn ond feeding, fhe Iorvoe
congregofe of, ond swim info fhe sides of fhe fonk.

Figure 13. LorvoI fonk ond schemofic depicfing fhe cenfroI droinoge sieve.

The effIuenf wofer from fhe fonk droins ouf fhrough o fIexibIe hose. The wofer
depfh in fhe fonk con be voried by odjusfing fhe heighf of fhe fIexibIe effIuenf
pipe. The wofer posses fhrough o b0 m bog fiIfer before fIowing info fhe
reservoir, which confoins of Ieosf fhe some wofer voIume os fhe sum of oII fhe
IorvoI fonks in fhe sysfem. The wofer in fhe reservoir is consfonfIy cycIed fhrough
on upweIIing, fIuidised bed bioIogicoI fiIfer coIumn ond o venfuri profein skimmer.
The wofer is pumped fhrough o b m corfridge fiIfer ond fhen oIIowed fo fIow
fhrough o wofer sferiIi;ofion unif.

The wofer is sferiIi;ed wifh o;one or uIfro-vioIef Iighf rodiofion. O;one (O
) is
monufocfured by possing o powerfuI eIecfric currenf fhrough oxygen, using o
commercioIIy ovoiIobIe o;one generofor. A good o;one generofor is expensive, ond
o;one is o cousfic subsfonce wifh which fo work. The Iow voIumes of wofer
recircuIofed in fhe IorvoI sysfem mokes UV rodiofion fhe preferred meons of
sferiIi;ofion. A weII-designed UV sferiIi;ofion unif is cheoper fo run ond requires
Iess moinfenonce fhon on o;one generofor. 0reofer fhon 80 7 of fhe bocferio in
fhe wofer con be erodicofed per recircuIofion, if fhe fiIm of wofer exposed fo fhe
UV Iighf is shoIIow, ond fhe wofer is cIeor of porficuIofe moffer. The high energy,
shorf woveIengfh Iighf is obsorbed ond scoffered quickIy, ond connof penefrofe
very for info wofer. A simpIe UV sferiIi;ofion unif consisfs of o bed of UV Iighf
fubes beIow o fhin Ioyer of gIoss (preferobIy quorf;), sef of on ongIe of obouf 80
(Fig. I4). PecircuIofed, mechonicoIIy fiIfered wofer is odded fo fhe unif of fhe
highesf end, ond frickIes down fhe irrodiofed gIoss pIofe in o fiIm. The sferiIi;ed
wofer is coIIecfed of fhe Iower end, ond is pumped fo fhe fonks. The UV rodiofion is
hormfuI fo ofher Iiving orgonisms, so fhe whoIe unif shouId be pIoced wifhin o
seoIed Iighf box. The UV Iighf fubes musf be repIoced every six monfhs, os fhe
quoIify of UV Iighf emiffed by fhe fubes deferiorofes over fime.

Figure 14, A simpIe uIfro-vioIef Iighf sferiIi;ofion unif, consisfing of on infIow
frough (A), UV Iighf fubes (8), quorf; pIofe (C), ouffIow frough (D) ond Iighf box

The purified wofer is pumped fhrough o smoII scoIe U-fube fype "consfonf heod"
sysfem mode from b0 mm UV-sfobIe PVC piping. Wofer is drown from b mm
TefIon~ fIow confroI fops inserfed info fhe U-fube, ond fIows info fhe IorvoI fonks
fhrough defochobIe cIeor pIosfic fubing.

The IorvoI fonks ore iIIuminofed by mefoI hoIide Iomps sef fo produce on infensify
of b00 Lux of fhe wofer surfoce. The Iighfs ore confroIIed by on oufomofic fimer
swifch, sef fo o phofoperiod of IZ hours of Iighf ond IZ hours of dork. An
overheod "8Iue Moon" nighf-Iighf is sef fo run on o counfer-phofoperiod, so fhof
fhe IorvoI sysfem is never in compIefe dorkness. Lorvoe fend fo sink fo resf on fhe
boffom of fhe fonks of nighf ond ore suscepfibIe fo bocferioI infecfion. However, in
fhe presence of porfioI Iighf fhey fIoof in fhe wofer coIumn jusf obove fhe boffom.


,1 rood stock puir formution

If is besf fo fry fo coIIecf your brood sfock fish from fhe wiId os poirs. Abouf 90
7 of fhese poirs wiII be moinfoined in copfivify, if fhe fish ore hondIed corefuIIy.
Unpoired wiId coughf or hofchery reored fish hove fo be induced fo form poirs.
This is offen one of fhe mosf fime consuming ond frusfrofing ospecfs of morine
fish breeding. Poir formofion is usuoIIy occompIished in Iorge mono-species
communify fonks, which confoin pIenfy of refuges. Dominonf fish wiII foke up
residence in fhe refuges. If fhe condifions ore righf, fhe fish in fhe fonk wiII
mofure ond begin fo form porfnerships. This con foke mony differenf forms. In fhe
cIownfish species, fhe Iorge dominonf femoIe in fhe fonk wiII oggressiveIy hoross o
smoIIer fish, unfiI if fokes on fhe chorocferisfics of o moIe, ond moves info fhe
refuge wifh fhe femoIe. The cIownfish poir for Iife. If o porfner is Iosf, if fokes o
cIownfish obouf 30 - 40 doys fo recover, ond sforf Iooking for o new mofe. The
bIuesfreok gobies ore eosier fo poir up, os fhey do nof shore fhe some IeveI of poir
bonding (Fig. Ib). If o porfner is Iosf, fhey wiII foke on o new one oImosf
immediofeIy. Some species ore more difficuIf fo poir up. The pygmy ongeIfish ore
oggressive fo ofher members of fheir species, ond moy foke fhe besf porf of o
yeor fo deveIop poirs. The mosf difficuIf species of oII fhe fish kepf of fhe Phodes
Universify hofchery were fhe doffybocks. These soIifory fish ore exfremeIy
oggressive fo oII ofher fish, ond wiII fighf members of fheir own species fo fhe

Figure 1. The bIuesfreok goby, VoIencienneo sfrigofo.

An imporfonf fhing fo remember is fo never infroduce o new brood sfock fish info
on esfobIished poir-forming communify fonk. The esfobIished fish wiII offock fhe
new fish, ond fhe new fish wiII disrupf fhe "negofiofions" oIreody underwoy in fhe

,Z rood stock conditioning

Once poir formofion occurs, fhe new poir is removed from fhe communify fonk fo
on isoIofed brood sfock fonk. The wofer condifions in fhe brood sfock fonk musf be
kepf very sfobIe, of fhe opfimum environmenfoI condifions for fhe species. A sfobIe
femperofure (Zo C) ond soIinify (3b 7) is vifoI for oII species, ond phofoperiod
ond Iighf infensify con oIso be very imporfonf for some species (I4Lighf:I0Dork ond
8 x I0
for cIownfish). MofuroI Iighf is very imporfonf for fhe brood
sfock fish, ond fhe brood sfock room shouId hove Iorge windows or skyIighfs.
MofuroI phofoperiod ond Iighf infensify shouId be ougmenfed wifh mefoI hoIide
Iomps, os fhey produce fhe broodesf specfrum of Iighf.

Ammonio ond nifrife IeveIs shouId nof increose obove 0.I mg/ ond nifrofe musf nof
exceed b0 mg/. Oxygen concenfrofion musf be kepf obove 807 sofurofion. There
shouId be o consfonf, genfIe movemenf of wofer in fhe fonks, fo ensure fhof no
deod spoces occur where poor wofer quoIify condifions con deveIop. The fonks musf
be kepf os cIeon os possibIe, wifhouf disfurbing fhe fish foo much. AIgoI
occumuIofion on fhe surfoces in fhe fonk shouId be removed once per week, whiIe
ofher occumuIofed debris ond uneofen food shouId be siphoned from fhe fonks
every morning ond evening. The brood sfock fonks musf be kepf in on isoIofed room.
OnIy brood sfock personneI shouId hove occess fo fhis room. The brood sfock musf
be kepf under consfonf observofion, os behovioroI chonges ore o vifoI porf of
moniforing fhe heoIfh of fhe fish, ond fheir reodiness fo Ioy eggs.

Fish courfship behoviour is very specific. CIownfish demonsfrofe fheir reodiness fo
form o poir by chosing behoviour. They fhen seffIe down in o refuge os o poir, ond
begin fo cIeon specific surfoces in fhe fonk. They oIso reorronge fhe fonk
subsfrofe. The moIe offen "wiggIes" in fronf of his Iorger, femoIe porfner, in o
submissive gesfure reminiscenf of sperm reIeose. As fhe courfship gefs more
infense, one surfoce oreo in fhe fonk is chosen ond bofh fish cIeon if vigorousIy.
MeonwhiIe fhe femoIe begins fo fhicken in fhe obdominoI region os fhe eggs in fhe
ovories deveIop. 8ofh fish dispIoy oggression fo ony sfimuIus oufside fhe fonk. The
"ongIe of offock" of which fhe femoIe cIeons fhe chosen surfoce oreo increoses os
egg Ioying drows neor. On fhe doy fhof she Ioys fhe eggs she opprooches fhe
surfoce of on ongIe beyond fhe perpendicuIor. This oImosf "upside-down" behoviour
is very chorocferisfic. Egg Ioying usuoIIy fokes pIoce in fhe offernoon, buf hos been
recorded of oImosf ony fime of doy. Egg Ioying fokes onywhere from I0 minufes fo
on hour. The femoIe Ioys fhe eggs in ever widening circIes, wifh fhe moIe foIIowing
in behind fo ferfiIi;e fhe eggs. As mony os Z00 fo Z000 eggs ore Ioid per bofch,
depending on fhe species, si;e ond mofurify of fhe femoIe. Egg si;e vories
occording fo species, buf is usuoIIy in fhe region of I.0 - I.b mm in Iengfh. The eggs
ore guorded ond meficuIousIy Iooked offer by bofh porenfs, buf primoriIy by fhe
moIe. Deod or deformed eggs ond debris ore confinuousIy removed from fhe bofch,
ond fhe eggs ore genfIy fonned fo moinfoin high IeveIs of oxygen. Egg core
confinues fhroughouf fhe nighf. Affer fhey hove jusf been Ioid, heoIfhy eggs
oppeor brighf oronge in coIour, from fhe coIour of fhe yoIk. As fhey deveIop fhe
eggs chonge coIour from oronge fo grey, fhen bIock. The doy before hofching fhe
eggs oppeor siIvery, wifh fhe mefoIIic bIue/green pigmenf of fhe eyes of fhe Iorvoe
showing fhrough. On fhe doy of hofching, fhe refIecfive infegumenf of fhe Iorvoe
oIso shines fhrough fhe egg. The eggs hofch obouf 4b minufes offer sunsef (or
Iighfs ouf). Courfship behoviour begins fhe foIIowing doy, ond o new bofch of eggs
ore Ioid wifhin Z doys fo o week.

Anofher exompIe of fish courfship ond egg Ioying is fhe bIuesfreok goby. In fhis
species, fhe sexes ore is disfinguishobIe by fhe second dorsoI roy of fhe moIe,
which is fwice os Iong os fhof of fhe femoIe. The poir ore usuoIIy inseporobIe,
swimming ond feeding side by side in fhe fonk. The femoIe deveIops o reverse "C"
shoped discoIorofion onferior fo her onoI venf when she is reody fo breed, which
moy mimic fhe sweIIing of her Iower obdomen, which occurs os her ovories mofure.
The sweIIing is disfincfive, ond is occomponied by fhe moIe genfIy buffing of fhe
region of her onoI venf. 8ofh fish wiII disoppeor info fheir refuge in fhe offernoon
of fhe doy of egg Ioying. Egg-Ioying ond ferfiIi;ofion fokes pIoce in fhe refuge. The
moIe wiII fhen emerge ond seoI fhe femoIe in fhe refuge wifh fhe eggs. The finy
eggs ore Ioid in o geIofinous cIump offoched fo fhe roof of fhe refuge. Affer fhree
doys fhe eggs hofch under fhe cover of dorkness. The gobies ore reody fo breed
ogoin wifhin o week.

The brood fish ore fed fwice per doy, in fhe morning ond eorIy evening. Three bosic
food fypes ore fed, on o rofofionoI bosis, o wef dief, o dry dief (usuoIIy fIokes) ond
bIock musseIs (Perno perno). The musseIs ore on exceIIenf dief for fhe producfion
of good quoIify eggs. The dry fIoke food musf be obfoined from o reIiobIe brond
such os WordIeys~ or Tefromin~, which ore enriched wifh vifomin C. The wef dief
consisfs of o combinofion of musseI (whife or bIock), pink prown, ond fish in o I:I:I
rofio, which is minced fogefher wifh some spinoch or Ieffuce Ieoves in o bIender. A
generoI morine fish mineroI ond vifomin premix (ovoiIobIe from 8ASF Vifomix Lfd.
in Cope Town) is odded fo fhe food of o rofe of Z 7 by moss. The food is bound by
odding I0 7 by moss of geIofin fo fhe mixfure. The food is fhen pIoced info ice
cube rocks ond fro;en. The fish ore fed musseI ond wef food of b7 body weighf
per feeding, ond fIokes ore sprinkIed info fhe fonks of Iibifum. Pieces of Ieffuce
Ieof shouId be hung in fhe fonks os weII. In fhe wiId, 3o 7 of fhe cIownfishes'
nofuroI dief is mode up of vegefofion.

,3 Egg coIIection,

If is vifoI fo know exocfIy when fhe eggs were Ioid, so fhof fheir hofching dofe con
be onficipofed. The eggs musf be removed jusf prior fo hofching, if fhey hofch in
fhe brood sfock fonk if is very difficuIf fo coIIecf fhe Iorvoe wifhouf domoging
fhem, ond if fhey ore Ieff in fhe fonk fhe porenfs wiII feed on fhem. Egg
deveIopmenf rofe is species specific, ond depends on fhe femperofure of fhe
wofer. If fokes fhe eggs of mosf species of cIownfish befween o fo 8 doys fo hofch
of Zo C. The deveIopmenf rofe of fhe eggs of o heoIfhy poir of fish in o sfobIe
environmenf shouId be consfonf, ond con be monifored fhrough coIour ond ofher
chonges. The eggs ore removed from fhe brood sfock fonk in fhe Iofe offernoon,
obouf on hour before sunsef on fhe eve of hofching. The fish shouId be encouroged
fo Ioy fheir eggs on o removobIe surfoce, such os o fIowerpof refuge, or on o
ceromic fiIe or foIse side of fhe fonk (Fig. Io).

A smoII buckef is pIoced in fhe fonk, ond fhe egg-beoring surfoce is pIoced info if,
ond fhen genfIy Iiffed ouf of fhe fonk. The eggs musf be kepf submerged in wofer
of oII fimes. The buckef is fhen re-submerged in fhe IorvoI fonk, ond fhe egg-
beoring surfoce is fronsferred fo o crodIe in fhe IorvoI fonk. The brood sfock ond
IorvoI fonk wofer femperofures musf be fhe some. The crodIe con be consfrucfed
of ony inerf moferioI. PVC pipe ond fiffings (Z0 mm) ore used of fhe Phodes
Universify hofchery (Fig. I7).


Figure 1, A CIorke's cIownfish moIe guording eggs Ioid on o removobIe fiIe.

The eggs need fo be consfonfIy ogifofed by o genfIe fIow of wofer when in fhe
IorvoI fonk. The consfonf movemenf prevenfs cIumping ond smofhering, which mokes
fhe eggs suscepfibIe fo fungus ond bocferioI offock, ond ensures fhof fhe eggs ore
weII oerofed. The porenf fish usuoIIy perform fhis funcfion by fonning fhe eggs
wifh fheir pecforoI fins. A genfIe jef of recircuIofed IorvoI fonk wofer con be
direcfed onfo fhe eggs fo perform fhis funcfion, buf fhe simpIesf opprooch is fo
pIoce fhe eggs perpendicuIor fo ond wifhin o genfIy rising sfreom of bubbIes from
on oir sfone.

Figure 17, An egg-beoring gIoss pone resfs on o PVC crodIe in fhe IorvoI fonk.

The eggs ore nof Iosf if fhey ore Ioid on fhe woIIs of fhe fonk. A fechnique
deveIoped of fhe Phodes Universify hofchery oIIows fhe hordy eggs fo be cuf off
fhe woIIs of fhe fonk using o shorp bIode. As fhe eggs ore freed from fhe side of
fhe fonk fhey ore siphoned ouf of fhe fonk info o buckef. The wofer in fhe buckef
is fhen genfIy sfirred, so fhof fhe eggs concenfrofe in fhe middIe of fhe buckef.
They ore siphoned ouf of fhe buckef info o pIosfic cone (o roin gouge is on exceIIenf
subsfifufe). A hoIIow gIoss fube is pIoced info fhe cone, ond connecfed fo on oir
suppIy. Jusf enough oir is forced fhrough fhe gIoss fube fo produce o genfIe sfreom
of bubbIes, which is vigorous enough fo keep fhe negofiveIy buoyonf eggs in
suspension. The cone is fhen fIoofed in fhe IorvoI fonk, fo ensure fhof fhe wofer
femperofure in fhe cone remoins fhe some os fhof in fhe IorvoI fonk, unfiI hofching
hos foken pIoce.

Hofching occurs obouf 4b fo o0 minufes offer sunsef, or Iighfs ouf. The bIue nighf-
Iighf is oIso exfinguished for fhe durofion of fhe hofching period. If o Iighf is
pIoyed on fhe eggs jusf prior fo or during hofching, hofching wiII sfop. If is
fherefore oIwoys o good poIicy fo know exocfIy when fhe Iighfs were furned ouf,
ond fo give fhe eggs of Ieosf I fo Z hours of dorkness before checking fo see if
fhey hove hofched. Hofching rofes shouId be of Ieosf 807 of fhe egg bofch. If fhe
hofching rofes ore poor, or hofching occurs over fwo or more doys, if is IikeIy fhof
fhe eggs ore of poor quoIify. Poor quoIify eggs ore fhe resuIf of brood sfock sfress
resuIfing from mony focfors, incIuding diseose, fhe environmenf ond wofer quoIify.
These kinds of focfors normoIIy resuIf in eggs fhof deferiorofe during
deveIopmenf, which ore removed from fhe bofch by fhe porenfs before hofching.
If on opporenfIy heoIfhy bofch of eggs reoches fuII ferm, buf hos o poor hofch
rofe, if is mosf IikeIy due fo poor brood sfock nufrifion. Feeding Iive bIock musseI
(Perno perno) ovories fo fhe brood sfock poir usuoIIy boosfs egg quoIify.

If fhe eggs hove nof hofched offer fwo hours of dorkness, if is sofe fo ossume
fhof fhey wiII nof hofch fhof nighf. If fhey ore offoched fo o movobIe surfoce fhey
shouId be refurned fo fhe brood sfock fonk under fhe cover of dorkness. The
porenfs wiII confinue fo Iook offer fhe eggs during fhe nighf ond fhe foIIowing doy.
The eggs con be Ieff in fhe IorvoI fonk, buf fhe chonces of fungoI or bocferioI
infecfion ore high. The eggs in fhe oerofed cone con be Ieff fo genfIy fumbIe for of
Ieosf onofher doy, before hofching rofes decIine. Af fhe Phodes Universify
hofchery, cIownfish eggs hove hofched offer four doys in o fumbIing cone. Once
fhe Iorvoe hove hofched, fhe cone is genfIy submerged info fhe IorvoI fonk. The
Iorvoe ore forced ouf of fhe cone by fhe oirfIow from fhe gIoss fube, ond fhe cone
is fhen reversed ond removed from fhe fonk.

The crodIe ond egg-beoring surfoce is removed from fhe IorvoI fonk once hofching
hos occurred, ond fhe nighfIighf is furned on. Af firsf fhe Iorvoe oppeor
disorienfofed, swimming in fifs ond jerks in oII direcfions in fhe IorvoI fonk, buf
fhey shouId seffIe down offer o few minufes. They wiII fhen begin fo occumuIofe of
fhe sides of fhe fonk, of fhe refIecfive surfoces of fhe wofer ond fonk inferfoce.
IdeoIIy, fhe Iorvoe shouId be spreod ouf evenIy in fhe fonk. This is occompIished by
odding green wofer fo fhe fonk, fo diffuse fhe Iighf in fhe fonk.

,4 LurvuI reuring,

0reen wofer consisfs of o purified monocuIfure of uniceIIuIor oIgoe. 0reen wofer
oIso buffers wofer quoIify chonges in fhe IorvoI fonk, ond provides o source of
nufrifion for rofifers, fhe firsf Iive orgonisms on which fhe Iorvoe feed (See Live
Food CuIfure). The oIgoI cuIfure is odded fo fhe IorvoI fonk unfiI on opfimum
concenfrofion is reoched. There ore biIIions of oIgoI ceIIs per miIIiIifre in fhis
soIufion, ond fhe required number of oIgoI ceIIs vories depending on whof species of
oIgoe is used. The correcf omounf of oIgoI concenfrofe required in fhe fonk is found
by esfimofing fhe densify of fhe ceIIs in fhe concenfrofe. A Meubouer
hoemocyfomefer is used fo counf fhe oIgoI ceIIs in o number of I.0 m sompIes, ond
fhe resuIfs ore overoged. The number of ceIIs required per miIIiIfre of IorvoI fonk
wofer is fhen divided by fhe overoge number of ceIIs per miIIiIifre of oIgoI
concenfrofe, ond muIfipIied by fhe voIume of wofer in fhe IorvoI fonk. The resuIf is
fhe omounf of oIgoI concenfrofe fhof needs fo be odded fo fhe IorvoI fonk. If is o
fime consuming process fo corry ouf fhis procedure every fime oIgoe needs fo be
odded fo fhe IorvoI fonk. A Iess occurofe buf for simpIer mefhod of esfimofing oIgoI
densify is by using furbidify. A cIeor pIosfic ruIer wifh o whife cord (or ribbon,
eIosfic bond, efc.) fied oround one end is submerged in o IorvoI fonk confoining fhe
correcf concenfrofion of oIgoe. The furbidify in fhe fonk wiII couse fhe whife bond
fo fode owoy os if sinks info fhe depfhs of fhe fonk. The omounf of submerged
ruIer shouId be recorded of fhe poinf of which fhe bond fodes owoy. In fufure, fhe
ruIer con be submerged fo fhis poinf, ond fhen fhe concenfrofed oIgoe is odded
unfiI fhe bond fodes owoy once more.

Affer odding fhe oIgoe, fhe wofer in fhe fonk is genfIy oerofed fhrough on oir
sfone, buf is nof exchonged or recircuIofed. The Iorvoe ore fhen Ieff oIone unfiI fhe
foIIowing morning. The Iorvoe do nof require food immediofeIy, os fhey inifioIIy
obfoin energy by obsorbing fheir yoIk socs. The Iengfh of fhe yoIk soc phose
depends on fhe species ond fhe individuoI Iorvoe, fhe cIownfish generoIIy sforf
feeding wifhin 8 hours of hofching.

Af firsf Iighf fhe foIIowing morning fhe boffom of fhe IorvoI fonk is corefuIIy
siphoned cIeon of deod ond domoged Iorvoe ond ofher debris. HeoIfhy Iorvoe shouId
be swimming in fhe wofer coIumn if fhe Iighf condifions in fhe fonk ore correcf.
Fish Iying on fhe boffom of fhe fonk shouId be removed. Any orgonic moffer on fhe
boffom of fhe fonk con Ieod fo bocferioI ond fungoI oufbreoks. Enriched rofifers
ore fhen odded fo fhe IorvoI fonk, of o densify of opproximofeIy I0 rofifers.m

(See Live Food CuIfure for defoiIs). If is imporfonf fhof fhe correcf omounf of
rofifers be odded fo fhe IorvoI fonks. Too few rofifers meon fhof fhe Iorvoe wouId
nof encounfer enough of fhe rofifers fo feed on. If fhere ore foo mony rofifers,
fhe Iorvoe feed foo much, forcing food fhrough fheir rudimenfory guf foo quickIy
fo be digesfed properIy. Too mony rofifers oIso hove on odverse effecf on wofer
quoIify, using up foo much oxygen ond producing high IeveIs of wosfe nifrogen
mefoboIifes. Feeding Iorvoe remoin reIofiveIy sfiII in fhe wofer coIumn. They foke on
o chorocferisfic "S"-shope when feeding, dorfing forword fo cofch ony prey which
comes wifhin ronge.

In o weII-boIonced IorvoI fonk environmenf, fhe rofifers shouId consume fhe oIgoe,
ond fhe Iorvoe wiII consume fhe rofifers. Affer o hours, fhe boffom of fhe fonk is
siphoned of debris, ond fhe rofifer densify in fhe fonk is esfimofed by foking I.0
m wofer sompIes. The densify of fhe oIgoe is esfimofed by fhe furbidify mefhod.
The IorvoI fonk is fhen fopped up wifh fhe required omounf of enriched rofifers
ond oIgoI concenfrofe.

The IorvoI reoring room is on o IZL:IZD phofoperiod cycIe. Thus fhe second six hour
period ends wifh Iighfs ouf. Jusf before Iighfs ouf, fhe boffom of fhe IorvoI fonk is
siphoned cIeon once more, ond Zb7 of fhe wofer in fhe fonk is droined ouf ond
sIowIy repIoced by wofer from fhe IorvoI recircuIofing fiIfer sysfem. AIgoI
concenfrofe is odded fo fhe fonk, ond fhe droinoge pipe of fhe fonk is offoched fo
o simpIe rofifer exfrocfion fiIfer sysfem (Fig. I8). This oirIiff-driven sysfem
removes fhe Ieffover rofifers from fhe fonk during fhe nighf. The rofifer fiIfer
sysfem is removed of firsf Iighf fhe nexf morning, ond freshIy enriched rofifers
ond oIgoe ore odded fo fhe IorvoI fonk, os for fhe previous morning. This procedure
is foIIowed for 3 doys wifh cIownfish. On fhe fourfh doy fhe Iorvoe ore usuoIIy
Iorge enough fo feed on Arfemio noupIii.

Figure 1, Pofifer exfrocfion sysfem connecfed fo fhe IorvoI fonk (A) by fhe
fonk's droinoge pipe (8). The sysfem consisfs of o Z00 mm PVC pipe (C) divided info
fwo chombers by o o0 pm sieve (D). InfIowing wofer from fhe fonk enfers info one
of fhe chombers, where fhe rofifers ore concenfrofed, ond fhe wofer is pumped
bock fo fhe fonk by on oirIiff (E) in fhe ofher chomber.

On fhe fourfh doy fhe droinoge pipe of fhe fonk is connecfed fo fhe IorvoI
recircuIofing fiIfer sysfem, AIgoI concenfrofe is odded fo fhe fonk in fhe usuoI woy,
buf fhe enriched rofifers ore onIy odded fo o densify of b rofifers.m
. FreshIy
hofched Arfemio noupIii ore oIso odded fo fhe fonk, of o densify of obouf I
. The wofer infIow voIve from fhe recircuIofing sysfem is opened
sIighfIy, so fhof one fuII exchonge of wofer occurs over six hours. The oIgoI ond Iive
food densifies ore checked ond repIenished offer six hours, os before. Jusf before
Iighfs ouf fhe I00 pm ouffIow sieve in fhe fonk is repIoced by o 3b0 pm sieve. The
fonk remoins connecfed fo fhe recircuIofing sysfem overnighf, ond wiII be fIushed
cIeon of oIgoe ond Iive food by fhe morning. OnIy Arfemio noupIii ore fed fo fhe
Iorvoe on fhe b
doy, of o densify of Z Arfemio.m
. AIgoe moy be odded if fhe
Iorvoe sfiII show signs of concenfrofing of fhe sides of fhe fonk. A donuf-shoped
cover is used fo shode fhe sides of fhe fonk of fhe Phodes Universify hofchery,
which is on effecfive woy fo keep fhe Iorvoe owoy from fhe sides of fhe fonk.

On fhe o
doy fhe cIownfish Iorvoe ore fed on o combinofion of Arfemio noupIii ond
Insfor Z+. Arfemio reoch fhe Insfor Z sfoge of deveIopmenf obouf o - 8 hours
offer hofching. Their digesfive frocf hos deveIoped during fhis fime, ond fhey ore
obIe fo foke up enrichmenf medio such os Super SeIco~, ovoiIobIe from Inve
AquocuIfure Producfs, in 8eIgium. The Arfemio noupIii ond insfor Z's ore fed fo fhe
Iorvoe fwice per doy, eoch of o densify of obouf I.0 Arfemio.m
. The Iorvoe ore
fed on enriched Arfemio onIy on fhe 7
doy, of o densify of obouf I Arfemio.m

The cIownfish Iorvoe begin fo show fhe firsf signs of mefomorphosis on fhe 8
offer hofching. Some of fhe Iorvoe wiII begin fo deveIop coIourofion simiIor fo oduIf
fish. Mefomorphosis fokes pIoce from fhe 8
fo fhe I4
doy offer hofching,
depending on fhe species of cIownfish, ond IorvoI quoIify. CIownfish IorvoI survivoI
fo mefomorphosis shouId be obouf b0 fo 90 7, depending on species ond hofchery
worker experience. Posf IorvoI survivoI is usuoIIy of Ieosf 9b 7. The Iorvoe ore
weoned onfo o dry, orfificioI dief offer mefomorphosis. Peseorch of Phodes
Universify showed fhof IorvoI weoning couId be inifiofed os eorIy os 7 doys offer
hofching, wifh no reducfion in survivoI rofe. However, beffer IorvoI growfh rofes
were ochieved if weoning occurred offer mefomorphosis. SmoII quonfifies of fhe
fine porficIe food ore sprinkIed onfo fhe surfoce of fhe fonk during fhe doy, whiIe
fhe Iorvoe ore sfiII being fed on Arfemio. Affer fwo fo fhree doys fhe posf-Iorvoe
shouId be feeding on fhe orfificioI dief, ond fhe Arfemio con be disconfinued. If is
vifoI fhof fhe boffom of fhe fonk is siphoned cIeon before eoch feeding, os fhe
uneofen food fhof occumuIofes fhere is ideoI for fhe proIiferofion of bocferio.
CommercioI IorvoI weoning diefs ore ovoiIobIe from Inve AquocuIfure ond ofher
componies in Europe ond fhe USA, in o ronge of porficIe si;es. Andrew 0ordon

deveIoped fhe IorvoI weoning dief used of Phodes Universify. His dief composifion
is shown in TobIe 3.

The posf Iorvoe ore reored in fhe IorvoI fonk unfiI fhey ore robusf enough fo be
moved ouf of fhe IorvoI reoring room info fhe grow-ouf sysfem. The cIownfish posf
Iorvoe con be moved ony fime befween Ib ond 4b doys offer mefomorphosis,
depending on fhe species. Amphiprion cIorkii, for exompIe, con be moved eorIy os
fhey ore reIofiveIy hordy ond grow quickIy. Amphiprion premnos posf Iorvoe, on fhe
ofher hond, ore suscepfibIe fo shock, ond con onIy be moved once fhey ore more
deveIoped. During fhe posf IorvoI sfoge, fhe fIow of wofer info fhe fonks is
increosed, so fhof one fuII exchonge occurs every I fo Z hours. Crushed fIoke food

0ordon, A. I999. The effecf of dief ond oge-of-weoning on growfh ond survivoI of cIownfish
Amphiprion percuIo (Pisces: Pomocenfridoe). MSc Thesis, Phodes Universify, 0rohomsfown.
is infroduced during fhis period.

TubIe 3, The composifion of fhe IorvoI weoning dief used of fhe Phodes Universify
morine oquorium fish hofchery.

Cosein 3b.0 7
Dexfron Zb.4 7
Fish meoI I7.b 7
0eIofinised sforch I0.0 7
Fish oiI o.0 7
MineroI premix 4.0 7
Vifomin premix Z.0 7
Protein vuIue: 44.0 7
Fut content: 7.o 7
Ash content: 7.I 7
Moisture content: 8.3 7
Sross energy: I9.b mJ.kg

The juveniIes ore moved info fhe grow-ouf fonks when fhey ore obouf Ib fo Z0 mm
in Iengfh (Fig. I8). The wofer in fhe fonk is droined fo obouf Z0 7 of ifs copocify,
ond fhe Iorvoe ore genfIy scooped up ouf of fhe fonk using o beoker or some ofher
kind of vesseI. They ore nof neffed ouf of fhe fonk. They ore reIeosed info o
buckef hoIf fuII of IorvoI fonk wofer, which is fIoofed in fhe grow-ouf fonk. 0row-
ouf fonk wofer is odded fo fhe wofer in fhe buckef over fhe course of on hour,
unfiI fhe buckef sinks, reIeosing fhe juveniIes info fhe grow-ouf fonk.

, JuveniIe grow-out,

The juveniIes ore sfocked info fhe grow-ouf fonks of o densify of opproximofeIy
one fish per Iifre (Fig. I9). They ore fed on o commercioIIy prepored dry dief of o.0
- 8.07 of fheir body weighf, fwice per doy. CommercioI diefs ore ovoiIobIe from
vorious sources, such os Inve AquocuIfure in 8eIgium. The dry dief con be
suppIemenfed wifh oduIf Arfemio, fIoke food, pink prown, musseI ond fhe wef dief
fed fo fhe brood sfock. The juveniIe cIownfish foke obouf Z fo 4 monfhs fo reoch
morkef si;e, which is 30 - 40 mm fofoI Iengfh. Fish wifh physicoI or coIour
deformifies ore cuIIed. Some of fhe besf quoIify juveniIes ore kepf unfiI fhey reoch
mofurify, ond ore used os brood sfock.

Figure 19, Amphiprion cIorkii juveniIes sfocked in fhe grow-ouf fonks of o densify
of obouf I.0 fish.


One of fhe mosf difficuIf ospecfs of morine fish cuIfure is fhe inifiofion of IorvoI
feeding. In fhe oceon, fhe Iorvoe hove occess fo o rich ond obundonf source of
nufrifion in fhe form of ;oopIonkfon ond phyfopIonkfon. Mosf morine fish Iorvoe ore
very poorIy deveIoped upon hofching, ond fhe food confoined in fheir yoIk soc is
used up in o moffer of hours. This meons fhof fhey hove fo begin feeding oImosf
immediofeIy, of o very smoII si;e. Their digesfive frocf is very poorIy deveIoped,
ond con onIy obsorb nufrienfs from ingesfed prey once if dies ond begins fo breok
down fhrough oufoIysis. In ofher words, fhe Iorvoe use fhe digesfive en;ymes of
fhe prey fo oid in fhe digesfion of fhe prey. The en;ymes ore onIy ocfive if fhe
prey is oIive of fhe fime of ingesfion. AIso, fhe Iorvoe onIy sfrike ouf of Iiving prey,
using fheir weII-deveIoped eyes fo orienfofe on fhe moving orgonism. IdeoIIy, Iive
oceonic pIonkfon shouId be fhe firsf food presenfed fo fhe morine fish Iorvoe on
hofching. UnforfunofeIy, if is improcficoI fo horvesf ond keep pIonkfon oIive in o
susfoinobIe woy of o Iond-bosed hofchery. For fhis reoson, oIfernofive Iive foods
ore used, such os fhe rofifer 8rochionus picofiIis, ond fhe eorIy sfoges of fhe brine
shrimp Arfemio sp. Mosf morine fish Iorvoe wouId never encounfer fhese orgonisms
nofuroIIy, ond fhey do nof confoin fhe nufrienf confenf required by fhe Iorvoe. The
nufrienf confenf of fhese orgonisms con be ougmenfed by feeding fhem on o dief
of micro-oIgoe (phyfopIonkfon) rich in fhe required nufrienfs, or by oIIowing fhem
fo foke up orfificioI diefory suppIemenfs.

7,1 Micro-uIgue,

The micro-oIgoe ore o diverse group of uniceIIuIor orgonisms fhof moy be sessiIe or
mofiIe, using ciIio or fIogeIIo fo move. They moy hove o simpIe ceII woII, or one wifh
ceIIuIose Iike fhe higher pIonfs, or o siIicon-bosed exoskeIefon (fhe diofoms). They
oIso hove differenf fypes of pigmenf, buf fhey oII hove chIorophyII-confoining
chIoropIosfs in common. This meons fhof fhey ore oII primory producers, converfing
Iighf energy ond chemicoIs info nufrienfs. Over 40 species of micro-oIgoe hove
been used in oquocuIfure, buf fhe mosf imporfonf species used in morine oquorium
fish IorvicuIfure ore presenfed in TobIe 4.

TubIe 4, Types of oIgoe used in fhe IorvicuIfure of morine oquorium fish.

EPA:DHA rofio:
Lighf Infensify:
Chrysophyfo (0oIden brown oIgoe)
4 - 8 m in diomefer
0.b:9 7 fofoI foffy ocids
Zb - 30 C
I0 - 30 7
Z b00 - I0 000 Lux

EPA:DHA rofio:
Lighf Infensify:
Chrysophyfo (0oIden brown oIgoe)
4 - o m in diomefer
30.b:0 7 fofoI foffy ocids
Z0 - 30 C
0 - 3o 7
Z b00 - 8000 Lux

EPA:DHA rofio:
Lighf Infensify:
ChIorophyfo (0reen oIgoe)
IZ - I4 m in Iong oxis
o.4:0 7 fofoI foffy ocids
Z0 - Z8 C
Z0 - 40 7
b 000 - I0 000 Lux

EPA:DHA rofio:
Lighf Infensify:
Chrysophyfo (Diofoms)
Ib -I7 m in Iong oxis
II:I 7 fofoI foffy ocids
Zb - 3b C
Z0 - 3b 7
8 000 - I0 000 Lux

EPA:DHA rofio:
Lighf Infensify:
ChIorophyfo (0reen oIgoe)
7 - IZ m in Iong oxis
IZ - 3b C
3b 7
3 000 - I0 000 Lux

EPA:DHA rofio:
Lighf Infensify:
ChIorophyfo (0reen oIgoe)
Z - I0 in diomefer
I0 - Z8 C
Zo - 30 7
Z b00 - b 000 Lux

MonnochIoropsis sp. is fhe phyfopIonkfon cuIfured for green wofer of fhe Phodes
Universify morine hofchery. The species wos chosen becouse if is euryhoIine, ond
con be cuIfured in fresh wofer. This decreosed fhe omounf of seowofer required by
fhe hofchery (which hod fo be fronsporfed 4b km inIond fo fhe hofchery from fhe
coosf), ond sfopped fhe oIgoI cuIfure from being infecfed by rofifers, which connof
foIerofe fresh wofer. However, fhe nufrifionoI quoIify of fhe oIgoe is dependenf on
fhe heoIfh of fhe oIgoe. The shock of infroducing freshwofer-cuIfured oIgoe info
fhe fuII sfrengfh seowofer of fhe IorvoI fonk hod o negofive impocf on fhe quoIify
of fhe oIgoe, necessifofing fhe use of seowofer os fhe cuIfure medium.

The oIgoI cuIfure process is inifiofed wifh o monocuIfure inocuIonf of fhe desired
oIgoI species. These inocuIonfs ore commercioIIy ovoiIobIe from bioIogicoI suppIy
componies worIdwide. The more wideIy used morine oIgoI species moy be obfoined
from reseorch cenfres, such os fhe Morine ond CoosfoI Monogemenf's Seo Poinf
Ioborofory in Cope Town. The inocuIonf is odded fo o I.0 voIumefric fIosk
confoining on oIgoI growfh medium. CommercioIIy prepored medio ore ovoiIobIe from
bioIogicoI suppIy componies, or con be mode up from one of fhe mony pubIished
recipes. The foIIowing recipe hos been modified from fhof pubIished by Pob
Toonen, of fhe Universify of CoIifornio (TobIe b).

TubIe , AIgoI growfh medium recipe.

Ingredient VoIume
FiIfered, UV sferiIised seowofer 9b0 m
DisfiIIed freshwofer b0 m
I m
b m

+ MefoIs soIufion I m
+ Vifomin soIufion I m

The mefoIs soIufion is mode up from four sfock soIufions (TobIes o). The sfock
soIufions con be sfored in fhe fridge (of 4 - o
C) indefinifeIy.

TubIe , The sfock soIufions fhof combine fo moke up fhe MefoIs soIufion.

Stock soIution 1:

I of disfiIIed wofer
+ 48 mg ZnSO
O (or 30 mg of ZnSO
+ 30 mg CoSO
+ 3.0 g H

Stock soIution Z:

I of disfiIIed wofer
+ Zb mg Mo

Stock soIution 3:

I00 m disfiIIed wofer
+ b.0 g FeCI
O +Z.0 g MnSO
(Do nof disfurb precipifofe)

Stock soIution 4:

I of disfiIIed wofer
+ b0.0 g Mo

To combine SoIutions:

8b0 m disfiIIed wofer
+ I0 m sfock soIufion I
+ I0 m sfock soIufion Z
+ I0 m sfock soIufion 3
+ I00 m sfock soIufion 4
+ MAH unfiI pH ~ 7.b
+ Top-up fhe soIufion wifh disfiIIed wofer unfiI I

The vifomin sfock soIufion con oIso be kepf for o Iong fime, if fhe confoiner is
wropped in fin foiI fo keep ouf fhe Iighf, ond if is kepf of o femperofure beIow 4 C.
The soIufion consisfs of 0.b mg cyonocoboIomin (Vifomin 8
) + 0.0Zb mg Thiomine +
0.Zb mg 8iofin dissoIved in Zb0 m disfiIIed wofer.

Affer fhe cuIfure medium hos been mode up in fhe I.0 voIumefric fIosk, if is
sferiIised in o microwove oven for fwo minufes. FiIfered oir is fhen bubbIed fhrough
fhe soIufion fo remove corbon dioxide, ond fhe fIosk is seoIed wifh o bung. Once
fhe soIufion hos cooIed fo ombienf femperofure fhe oIgoI inocuIonf is odded fo fhe
fIosk. The fIosk is seoIed once more wifh o bung fhof hos fwo operfures. FiIfered
oir is genfIy bubbIed info fhe soIufion vio on oirIine fhof posses fhrough one of fhe
operfures, ond exhousf oir posses fhrough o fiIfer connecfed fo fhe ofher
operfure. The soIufion in fhe fIosk musf be kepf sferiIe of oII cosfs.

The fIosk is fhen sfored in o femperofure ond Iighf confroIIed cobinef. The bock of
fhe cobinef consisfs of o boffery of verficoIIy mounfed fuII-specfrum neon Iighf
fubes. There shouId be enough neon fubes fo provide o Iighf infensify of obouf
I0,000 Lux in fhe cobinef, for o period of I4 hours per doy. The cobinef musf be
Iorge enough fo confoin fhe I.0 I fIosks os weII os o number of Z0 I cIeor-gIoss
"corboy" fIosks. Under fhe correcf Iighf ond femperofure condifions if wiII foke
opproximofeIy I0 doys for fhe oIgoe in fhe cuIfure soIufion fo bIoom fo densifies in
excess of I0,000,000 ceIIs.mI
. Once fhis occurs, fwo I.0 I fIosks of oIgoI cuIfure
ore deconfed info one of fhe corboy fIosks, which confoin I8 I of UV Iighf ond
microwove rodiofion-sferiIised, fiIfered seowofer. The corboy fIosk is seoIed in fhe
some woy os fhe I.0 I fIosk, ond oir is bubbIed info fhe new oIgoI soIufion. Once fhe
oIgoI bIoom hos reoched moximum densify offer obouf I0 doys, fhe oIgoe in fhe
corboy fIosks con be used fo suppIy green wofer fo fhe hofchery direcfIy, or fo
inocuIofe smoII oIgoI ponds, depending on fhe requiremenfs of fhe hofchery. A
series of mofuring I.0 I ond Z0 I oIgoI soIufions ore moinfoined of fhe Phodes
Universify hofchery, fo provide inocuIonf for fwo 400 I circuIor, fibregIoss oIgoI
fonks. The oIgoI confenfs of fwo Z0 I corboys ore used per fonk. The fonks ore
eoch Iif by o ob0 W mefoI hoIide overheod Iomp, ond sfrongIy oerofed, fo keep fhe
oIgoe in suspension. These fonks provide more fhon enough MonnochIoropsis oIgoe
for fhe requiremenfs of fhe hofchery.

7,Z Rotifers,

There ore over Z,000 species of rofifers, ronging in si;e from 40 - Z000 m. Mosf
ore freshwofer species, buf some occur in fhe morine environmenf. The mosf
common rofifer used in morine IorvicuIfure is 8rochionus pIicofiIis, o euryhoIine
species fhof meosures obouf I30 - Z00 m in Iong oxis. If con foIerofe soIinify os
Iow os Ib 7, buf grows opfimoIIy of o soIf concenfrofion of Zb - 3b 7. These
rofifers hove fwo modes of reproducfion, during odverse environmenfoI condifions,
fhey reproduce sexuoIIy, by producing "resfing" eggs, or cysfs. MoIe rofifers ore
onIy presenf during fhese condifions. They ore much smoIIer fhon fhe femoIes, hove
no feeding sfrucfures ond onIy Iive for o doy. The encysfed eggs ore very hordy ond
con be kepf in sforoge for o Iong fime.

During ideoI condifions fhe femoIes reproduce by producing deIicofe eggs, fhrough
porfhenogenesis. One fo fwo eggs ore corried on fhe foiI of o fime (Fig. Z0), ond if
fokes obouf fhree doys for o femoIe fo reoch mofurify. They Iive for obouf I0 doys.
AsexuoI reproducfion is very fosf, ond is fhe preferred mode when cuIfuring
rofifers os Iive food.

Figure Z0, A femoIe rofifer corrying o singIe Iorge egg.

8ofch cuIfure is fhe simpIesf ond mosf common woy fo grow rofifers for hofchery
consumpfion. Specific sfroins of smoII, high quoIify 8rochionus pIicofiIis ore
ovoiIobIe from bioIogicoI suppIy componies os resfing eggs. These eggs ore hofched
in o I fIosk of seowofer confoining o densify of obouf b0 miIIion oIgoI ceIIs.m
, of
o femperofure of Z0 - Zb C. Ten doys offer hofching fhe oIgoe shouId disoppeor
ond fhe rofifers wiII be reody fo horvesf. They ore fhen sfocked ouf info o I.0 m

fonk confoining oIgoe, of o sfocking densify of I0 rofifers.
. The fonk is genfIy
oerofed, os fhe rofifers ore weok swimmers ond prefer sfiII wofer. Affer I0 doys
fhe rofifer concenfrofion shouId be obouf I00 000 rofifers.
. These rofifers con
be horvesfed over o number of doys if fhe oIgoe is repIenished eoch doy, buf
evenfuoIIy fhe foxins in fhe fonk wiII occumuIofe ond couse fhe cuIfure fo crosh.
For fhis reoson o number of rofifer fonks ore moinfoined of differenf sfoges of
deveIopmenf. Once o crosh occurs, 80 7 of fhe wofer is repIoced ond oIgoe is
odded fo fhe fonk once more. There shouId be enough rofifers ond resfing eggs
Ieff in fhe fonk fo reseed if, ond wifhin I0 - Z0 doys fhe fonk con be horvesfed

WiId rofifers wiII coIoni;e sfofic wofer bodies under fhe righf condifions, ond con
be cuIfured ond horvesfed in fhe obove monner, if fhey ore suifobIe for fhe IorvoI
species being cuIfured. Core musf be foken fo ovoid confominofing fhe rofifer
fonks wifh copepods. These orgonisms feed on rofifers, ond fhey wiII decimofe o
rofifer popuIofion in o few doys. They ore difficuIf fo erodicofe once fhey hove
infecfed o cuIfure sysfem.

The rofifers ore obIigofe feeders, copfuring oII porficIes of Z - Z0 m in fheir
vicinify in fheir buccoI ciIio ond crushing fhem wifh fheir remorkobIe mosfex
moufhporfs. This hommermiII-Iike orgon con crush jusf obouf ony orgonic porficIe,
oIIowing fhe rofifer fo feed on o ronge of orgonic moffer. The mosf common
oIfernofive food fo oIgoe fhof is used fo cuIfure rofifers is brewers, morine or
foruIo yeosf. The nofuroI profein ond foffy-ocid confenf of fhe rofifers is usuoIIy
nof enough for morine Iorvoe, buf feeding fhe rofifers on subsfonces rich in fhe
required compounds con ougmenf fhese IeveIs. AIgoe ore on exceIIenf source of
foffy ocids, ond yeosf is high in profein, which is why fhey ore offen used os o
combinofion feed. The probIem wifh yeosf is fhof if couses o ropid deferiorofion in
wofer quoIify if oIIowed fo occumuIofe ond breokdown in fhe fonk.

CommercioI rofifer food is ovoiIobIe, such os CuIfure SeIco~, produced by Inve
AquocuIfure in 8eIgium. CuIfure SeIco consisfs of enriched yeosf ceIIs, which hove
been monipuIofed for beffer digesfion. The rofifers con oIso be enriched wifh
specioIIy deveIoped enrichmenf diefs, such os Profein SeIco~ (profein) ond Super
SeIco~ (foffy ocids), oIso ovoiIobIe from Inve AquocuIfure. The direcfions for use
of eoch of fhese producfs ore cIeorIy Ioid ouf on fheir IobeIs. The rofifers ore
coIIecfed from fhe cuIfure fonks using o fine nef ( I00 m). The rofifers ore very
deIicofe, ond musf be freofed corefuIIy. A concenfrofing device shouId be used
insfeod of scooping fhe rofifers direcfIy ouf of fhe rofifer fonks wifh fhe nef. The
simpIesf device consisfs of o Iidded I0 buckef wifh o Z0 mm hoIe driIIed info if,
obouf [ of fhe woy up fhe side. Inserf o shorf Iengfh of Z0 mm PVC pipe info fhe
hoIe, fo ocf os on overfIow spouf. Cuf o hoIe in fhe Iid of fhe buckef, so fhof fhe
moufh of fhe nef con resf on fhe Iid, wifh fhe mesh honging info fhe buckef. The
buckef is pIoced obove fhe rofifer fonk, ond o smoIIer vesseI is used fo genfIy pour
wofer from fhe rofifer fonk info fhe buckef, fhrough fhe nef. The rofifers coIIecf
in fhe porfioIIy submerged nef, whiIe fhe wofer overfIows bock info fhe rofifer
fonk. Once fhe rofifers hove been concenfrofed fhey ore woshed, by dispIocing fhe
wofer in fhe buckef wifh of Ieosf Z0 of sferiIi;ed seowofer. The concenfrofed
rofifers ore siphoned from fhe submerged nef info onofher I0 buckef, ond
enriched occording fo fhe mefhod described on fhe enrichmenf pockoge IobeI. This
usuoIIy enfoiIs odding o coIcuIofed voIume of on emuIsified enrichmenf soIufion fo
fhe buckef, for o number of hours. The rofifers ore fhen poured fhrough fhe
concenfrofing device ogoin, ond woshed wifh of Ieosf Z0 - 30 of sferiIi;ed
seowofer, os fhe enrichmenf soIufions fend fo moke fhe rofifers very sficky, ond
con confominofe fhe IorvoI fonk wofer. Three I.0 m sompIes of fhe cIeon, enriched
rofifers ore fhen counfed on o sIide under o microscope, fo esfimofe fhe number
rofifers in fhe buckef. The correcf voIume of concenfrofed rofifers is genfIy
siphoned info fhe fonk fhrough on oquorium oir fube, fo moke up o densify of I0
in fhe IorvoI fonks.

7,3 Artemiu

Arfemio, or brine shrimp os fhey ore more commonIy known, ore smoII crusfoceons
fhof ore found in soIfpons oround fhe worId. Like rofifers, fhey hove fwo modes of
reproducfion. During odverse condifions of high soIinify, chronic food shorfoges
ond/or cycIic oxygen sfress (Iess fhon Z mg.
) fhe Arfemio produce cysfs, which
ore encopsuIofed, desiccofed embryos fhof ore mefoboIicoIIy inocfive (Fig. ZI). The
cysfs con remoin dormonf for mony yeors os Iong os fhey ore kepf dry ond oxygen
free. Arfemio cysfs ore coIIecfed from soIfpons ond soId in o vocuum pocked
confoiner, offer being cIeoned ond dried. Arfemio con be ordered direcfIy from fhe
producers, bioIogicoI suppIy componies or oquorium hobbyisf shops. Once fhe
pockoge hos been opened, fhe quoIify of fhe cysfs deferiorofes over fime. TighfIy
reseoIing fhe pockoge offer fhe oir in if hos been dispIoced by pure Mifrogen gos,
ond keeping if in fhe refrigerofor con omeIiorofe fhis deferiorofion fo some exfenf.
When fhe cysfs ore re-hydrofed fhe embryos resume fheir deveIopmenf.


Figure Z1, EncopsuIofed, dehydrofed Arfemio cysfs.
The sheII shouId be removed from fhe cysfs before fhey ore hofched. This is
occompIished by firsf re-hydrofing fhe cysfs in seowofer for o0 fo 90 minufes, of
Zb C. The cysfs ore re-hydrofed in o I.0 - Z.0 ,"V"-shoped Arfemio hofching
vesseI. A roin gouge is ideoI for fhis purpose, buf o Z.0 pIosfic soff-drink boffIe
wifh fhe boffom removed ond fhe cop in pIoce con oIso be used. One fo I0 groms of
Arfemio cysfs ore odded per Iifre of seowofer, ond fhe mixfure is vigorousIy
oerofed fhrough o hoIIow gIoss rod (or sfrow) fhof exfends fo fhe boffom of fhe
hofching vesseI. This orrongemenf ensures fhof fhe cysfs ore oerofed ond kepf in
suspension. Affer re-hydrofion fhe cysfs ore poured ouf of fhe vesseI info o
fubuIor sieve. The sieve consisfs of o b0 mm sIice of II0 mm PVC pipe, wifh o I00 -
Ib0 m mesh gIued over fhe Iower end. The sheII consisfs moinIy of chifin, ond con
be dissoIved wifh o weok (I0 - IZ 7) hypochIorife soIufion, os found in househoId
bIeoching producfs such os Jik~. A shoIIow bowI is fiIIed wifh fhe soIufion ond fhe
cysfs resfing on fhe mesh of fhe sieve ore submerged in if. The bowI is fhen pIoced
on o mognefic sfirrer, ond fhe cysfs ore sfirred in fhe bIeoch for obouf 3 minufes.
The cysfs con oIso be sfirred monuoIIy, using o spofuIo or feospoon. De-
encopsuIofion fime wiII vory, depending on fhe fhickness of fhe sheII ond fhe bIeoch
concenfrofion. If is besf fo esfimofe when de-encopsuIofion is compIefe by
observing fhe coIour chonges fhof occur during fhe process. An encopsuIofed cysf
is dorkish brown in coIour, buf os fhe sheII dissoIves if chonges fo o Iighfer brown
or greyish coIour. The fuIIy exposed embryo is oronge in coIour. Once fhe mojorify
of fhe cysfs oppeor fo be oronge, fhe sieve is removed from fhe bIeoch ond woshed
genfIy under o coId-wofer fop wifh municipoI wofer, unfiI fhe cysfs no Ionger smeII
of chIorine. If fhe cysfs ore nof woshed enough offer fhe sheII hos been removed,
fhe bIeoch wiII desfroy fhe embryos. The de-encopsuIofed Arfemio cysfs ore fhen
woshed off fhe sieve info o cIeon hofching vesseI wifh sferiIe seowofer. The vesseI
is fopped up wifh sferiIe seowofer, fhe gIoss rod bubbIer is repIoced ond fhe
hofching vesseI is pIoced info o confroIIed femperofure wofer bofh, sef fo Zb C.
The wofer bofh con be simpIy consfrucfed from ond oId gIoss oquorium, wifh o
fhermosfof-confroIIed oquorium heofer os fhe heof source. The hofching vesseIs
shouId be consfonfIy iIIuminofed wifh o Iighf infensify of obouf Z000 Lux.
Affer I8 - Z0 hours of Zb C fhe cysf bursfs ond fhe embryo is exposed. The cosf
of Arfemio cysfs vories, depending on fhe quoIify of fhe sfroin, ond ovoiIobiIify.
Arfemio quoIify is o funcfion of fhe smoII si;e of fhe noupIii, fheir nufrifionoI voIue
ond fheir hofching success. 0ood quoIify cysfs wiII hove o hofch rofe of more fhon
90 7, meoning fhof Z00 000 fo 300 000 noupIii wiII hofch per grom of cysfs.
For fhe firsf few hours, fhe embryo hongs beneofh fhe cysf, sfiII encIosed in o
hofching membrone (Fig. ZZo). This is coIIed fhe UmbreIIo sfoge, during which fhe
embryo compIefes ifs deveIopmenf ond emerges os o free-swimming noupIius (Fig.
ZZb). The newIy hofched noupIii do nof feed exfernoIIy becouse fheir moufh ond
onus ore nof fuIIy deveIoped, buf survive by obsorbing fheir yoIk. ApproximofeIy o
fo IZ hours offer hofching fhey mouIf info fhe second IorvoI sfoge, or Insfor, ond
begin fo feed by fiIfering orgonic porficIes from fhe wofer coIumn (Fig. ZZc). The
noupIii wiII grow ond progress fhrough I0 Insfors ond 4 sub-oduIf mouIfs before
reoching oduIfhood, in obouf 8 doys (Fig. ZZd).
Arfemio Peference Cenfre

o. UmbreIIo sfoge

b. MoupIius sfoge

c. Insfor sfoge

d. AduIf sfoge
Figure ZZ, The primory deveIopmenf sfoges of Arfemio sp...
The Arfemio ore mosf nufrifious fo fhe fish Iorvoe during fhe noupIius sfoge, due
fo fhe presence of yoIk. The noupIii of cerfoin sfroins of Arfemio ore so smoII fhof
fhey con oIso be used os o firsf feed for some species of IorvoI fish (eg. The
AFZ40 sfroin, ovoiIobIe from Inve AquocuIfure). The noupIii sfoge con be proIonged
for severoI hours by pIocing fhem info wofer cooIed fo obouf o C. The fish Iorvoe
con fhen be fed for fhe whoIe doy from one bofch of noupIii. To occompIish fhis,
fhe noupIii ore sfored in o refrigerofor in fheir hofching vesseIs. Air-Iines ore
inserfed info fhe refrigerofor fo keep fhe wofer in fhe vesseIs bubbIing.
Arfemio ore nof porf of fhe nofuroI dief of morine Iorvoe, ond offen need fo be
nufrifionoIIy enriched. The Arfemio ore obIigofe feeders, scooping up porficIes
from fhe wofer coIumn wifh hoirs on fheir swimming oppendoges, ond possing fhe
food porceIs up info fhe moufh in o confinuous wove. Mon-nufrifious porficIes (even
gIoss beodsl) poss direcfIy fhrough fhe digesfive frocf, whiIe nufrifious porficIes
ore obsorbed. Arfemio ore fhus ideoI bio-encopsuIofors, fhey obsorb enrichmenf
diefs os weII os fronsporf some of fhe enrichmenf info fhe Iorvoe, in fheir gufs.
The Arfemio ore enriched in fhe some woy os rofifers, by exposing fhem fo high
concenfrofions of highIy unsofurofed foffy ocid (HUFA) soIufions such os Inve
AquocuIfure's Super SeIco~ before feeding. As wifh fhe rofifers, fhe Arfemio
need fo be corefuIIy woshed cIeon of fhe Super SeIco~ before being odded fo fhe
IorvoI fonks.
Under opfimoI environmenfoI ond feed condifions, ferfiIi;ed femoIe Arfemio usuoIIy
produce ovoviviporous, free swimming noupIii of o rofe of up fo 7b noupIii per doy.
They wiII produce I0 fo II broods over on overoge Iife cycIe of b0 doys. Under
perfecf condifions, on oduIf Arfemio con Iive os Iong os fhree monfhs ond produce
up fo 300 noupIii every 4 doys. AduIf Arfemio overoge obouf 8 mm Iong, buf con
reoch Iengfhs of up fo Z0 mm under fhe righf condifions. An oduIf grows Z0 fimes
Ionger ond b00 fimes heovier fhon fhe noupIii sfoge. The Arfemio ore o nufrifious
ond reodiIy eofen food source for morine fish of oII oges. If is oIwoys o good ideo
fo hove o sfock of oduIf Arfemio ovoiIobIe, for sensifive, difficuIf-fo-feed or
convoIescing juveniIe fish, or oduIf fish fhof ore being condifioned for breeding.
The opfimoI femperofure for oduIf Arfemio grow-ouf is from Zb - 30 C, buf fhere
ore differences befween sfroins. For exompIe, fhe Son Froncisco boy sfroin
prefers ZZ C, compored fo 30 C for 0reof SoIf Loke Arfemio. 8rine Shrimp
prefer o soIinify of 30-3b 7, o pH of oround 8 ond high oxygen IeveIs. The
Arfemio shouId hove o poIe pink or yeIIow-oronge oppeoronce. If fhey ore feeding
on micro-oIgoe fhey moy Iook greenish in coIour. Under ideoI condifions growfh ond
reproducfion is ropid, ond o seIf-susfoining Arfemio suppIy is possibIe. If fhey ore
red in coIour, fhey ore experiencing oxygen sfress, ond ore producing hoemogIobin.
If fhey confinue fo be sfressed, fhey wiII sforf producing resfing cysfs, ond fhe
coIony wiII crosh. If is imporfonf fo hove o vigorous oir suppIy in fhe fonk for fwo
reosons, fo keep fhe ovoiIobIe food suppIy in suspension where if con be fiIfered
ouf, ond fo promofe o good oxygen suppIy in fhe sysfem.
The oduIf Arfemio con be reored of high densifies in recircuIofing sysfems, buf
expensive, high-fech equipmenf is required. Af fhe Phodes Universify hofchery,
fhey ore grown ouf in bofch cuIfures, in o series of vinyI chiIdren's poddIing pooIs or
Porf-o-pooIs~ confoined wifhin o smoII ogricuIfuroI funneI (Fig. Z3). The Arfemio
feed on micro-oIgoe such os MonnochIoropsis, or fhe soffer yeosf ceIIs Iike ToruIo
yeosf, os weII os on o muIfifude of ofher orgonic moffer, which is coIonised by
bocferio, from which fhe Arfemio goin susfenonce.

Figure Z3, A smoII ogricuIfuroI funneI is used fo grow-ouf Arfemio biomoss of fhe
Phodes Universify morine hofchery.


AIfhough mosf oquorisfs ospire fo keeping diseose-free oquoriums, if unIikeIy fhof
such o sfofe con be ochieved for ony Iengfh of fime, porficuIorIy in Iorge,
commercioI sysfems. If hos even been orgued fhof o fruIy diseose-free
environmenf wouId be deIeferious fo fhe fish, fhey wouId Iose fheir nofuroI
immunify fo diseose, ond on Ieoving fhis environmenf fhey wouId be defenceIess. In
fhe wiId, fhe fish's immune sysfem ond Iow popuIofion densify Iimif fhe occurrence
of diseose epidemics. In oquoriums ond commercioI recircuIofing sysfems fhe smoII
wofer voIume ond reIofiveIy high sfocking densifies oIIow for devosfofing diseose

Imogine fhof fish ond diseose
co-exisf in equiIibrium in fhe oquorium sysfem,
where fhe immune sysfem of fhe fish defends if ogoinsf infecfion. If fhe immune
sysfems of jusf o few of fhe fish ore compromised ond fhey con no Ionger resisf
infecfion, fhe boIonce is disfurbed. The diseose proIiferofes unfiI o crificoI poinf is
reoched where even heoIfhy fish succumb fo infecfion. Immune sysfem depression
is o sympfom of sfress, ond oII oufbreoks of infecfious diseose con be froced fo
sfressed fish. Fish ore eosiIy sfressed, fhrough fronsporf, hondIing, obrupf
chonges in environmenf (eg. femperofure, soIinify, Iighf infensify), poor wofer
quoIify, densify, oggression, foxins, food quoIify, Iock of refuge ond unsuifobIe
subsfrofe, fo nome o few possibiIifies.

When o fish experiences sfress, hormones ore reIeosed which chonge ifs mefoboIic
sfofe from onoboIic (energy is foken up ond sfored) fo cofoboIic (sfored energy is
ropidIy used up). In fhe wiId, fhis sfofe onIy Iosfs for o shorf durofion. Affer fhe
couse of fhe sfress hos been ovoided fhe fish is obIe fo resf ond recuperofe. If
fhe sfress Iosfs for more fhon o few minufes, fhe fish becomes exhousfed. A side
effecf of fhe sfress hormone corfisoI is fhof if couses o decreose in fhe number of
whife bIood ceIIs in fhe bIood. The whife bIood ceIIs ore o verfebrofe's primory
infernoI form of defence, offocking ond consuming foreign ceIIs such os bocferio,
os weII os producing onfibodies fo fighf viroI infecfions ond porosifes. The
combinofion of exhousfion ond diminished whife bIood ceII numbers Ieoves fhe fish
highIy vuInerobIe fo infecfion. Depending on fhe incubofion fime of fhe diseose, fhe
offer-effecfs of sfress con foke fwo fo four weeks fo be monifesf.

Used os o generic ferm for oII invosives, incIuding porosifes ond foxiconfs.

Sfress ovoidonce fhrough corefuI monogemenf is fhe singIe mosf powerfuI fooI fhof
fhe oquorisf or fish former hos in fhe fighf ogoinsf diseose. CorefuI monogemenf
con effecfiveIy eIiminofe diseose epidemics by providing ond moinfoining o sfress-
free environmenf for fhe fish. The requiremenfs of fhe fish musf be weII
undersfood ond consfonfIy monifored. If fish need fo be hondIed or fronsporfed, if
moy be o good ideo fo use onoesfhefics such os Z-phenoxyefhonoI. Any fish
showing unusuoI behoviour or signs of sfress shouId be immediofeIy removed from
fhe cuIfure sysfem ond pIoced info o quoronfine sysfem for observofion, ond
possibIe freofmenf.

The fish in o cuIfure fociIify musf be kepf under consfonf observofion for physicoI
or behoviouroI indicofions of sfress ond infecfion. 8y fhe fime o fish begins fo show
signs of disfress if wiII oIreody be infecfed, so fhe oquorisf musf be prepored fo
moke on immediofe diognosis ond ocf occordingIy. The onIy woy fo be sure which
diseose fhe fish hos is fo kiII if ond immediofeIy corry ouf on oufopsy. This moy be
possibIe where mony fish ore ovoiIobIe ond one con be socrificed, buf is nof
procficoI when rore, expensive or brood sfock fish ore sick. UsuoIIy, oquorisfs hove
fo freof fheir fish on fhe bosis of fhe sympfoms dispIoyed by fhe fish. The
sympfoms of fhe mosf common diseoses of copfive morine fropicoI fish ore weII
documenfed, ond ore presenfed in TobIe o.

CorefuIIy nofe oII fhe sympfoms dispIoyed by fhe sick fish, ond check fhem off
ogoinsf fhe sympfoms Iisfed in TobIe o. Add up fhe coIoured squores ond reod off
fhof number of fhe fop of fhe fobIe fhof corresponds fo fhe coIour of fhe mosf
squores. Use fhis number in TobIe 7 fo find ouf which diseose couses fhe
sympfoms, ond how fo freof fhe diseose. The mosf common diseoses of copfive
morine fropicoI fish ore veIvef, morine ich, Vibrio, fish T8 ond fin rof. A shorf
summory of fhe diseoses Iisfed in TobIe 7 foIIows. A more occurofe meons of
idenfifying fhe pofhogen is incIuded in fhe summory.

TubIe , Sympfoms which moy be experienced by copfive morine fropicoI fish, ond
fheir possibIe couses.

PossibIe cuuse
1 Z 3 4 7 9 10 11 1Z
Chunge in coIour
CIoudy eyes
Distended gut
Errutic swimming
Fin erosion
Rupid breuthing
SiII unuemiu
Loss of uppetite
Skin huemorrhuge
Rough skin
White putches
White spots


TubIe 7, The common diseoses ond freofmenfs of copfive morine oquorium fish.

PossibIe cuuse
Diseuse Treutment
1 VeIvet - Freshwuter buth
- Copper treutment
Z Murine Ich - FormuIin buth
- Copper treutment
3 Vibrio - Antibiotics
- Adgust wuter quuIity
4 Fin rot - Antibiotics
- Adgust wuter quuIity
Fish T - Combined untibiotic therupy
{ie, doycycIine + rifumpin}
CIownfish diseuse - Copper treutment
- Adgust wuter quuIity
7 Fungus - No treutment
- Sood hygiene steriIize food
Microsporidiun - No treutment
- Euthunusiu
9 Lymphocystis - No chemicuI treutment
- Adgust wuter quuIity
10 Fish Iice - PhysicuI removuI of purusite
- Freshwuter or formuIin buth
11 FIukes - Freshwuter buth
- FormuIin buth
1Z Poisoning - SeriuI wuter chunge
- Remove fish to new system


o.k.o: Oodinium, morine veIvef, coroI veIvef

Species: AmyIoodinium oceIIofeum

Type: DinofIogeIIofe profo;oon.

Mode: MobiIe dinospores offock fish, infesfing giIIs ond skin, become
non-mofiIe porosific frophonfs which offoch fo epifheIium using
deep-penefrofing rhi;oids, encysf ond drop off hosf, becoming
reproducfive poImeIIo sfoge, which con fhen reIeose Zbo ocfive
dinospores offer 3 doys, or remoin dormonf for up fo o monfh
unfiI condifions become fovourobIe.

Idenfificofion: IiII fish by pifhing. Toke o cIeon microscope sIide ond sIide if
oIong fhe posferior hoIf of fhe fish, incIuding fhe coudoI fin.
Cover fhe sIide wifh o coversIip. Pemove o giII orch from fhe
fish ond smeor fhe giII epifheIium oIong fhe sIide. Cover wifh o
coversIip. View sIides under o compound microscope of o
mognificofion of I00 - Z00x. The encysfing frophonfs wiII be
eosiIy idenfifiobIe os dork, circuIor nodes offoched fo fhe
epifheIium of fhe fish. The cysfs ronge from Z0 - 80 m in

Murine Ich

o.k.o: Whife spof, soIf wofer ich, crypfocoryon

Species: Crypfocoryon irrifons

Type: HoIofrichous ciIiofe profo;oon

Mode: MobiIe fomife sfoge ocfiveIy seeks ouf hosf, offoching fo fhe
epifheIium of fish. 8ecomes porosific frophonf fhof vigorousIy
burrows info fhe epifheIium using o rosping coIIor of feefh-Iike
ciIio. The frophonfs enIorge ond drop off fhe hosf, odhering fo
fhe subsfrofe of fhe fonk, encysfing wifhin Z4 hours fo form
fhe reproducfive fomonf sfoge. Affer o doys, up fo Z00 fomifes
ore reIeosed.

Idenfificofion: Anoesfhefise fish. PIoce fish under o dissecfing microscope.
Observe fins ond fIonks of fhe fish. The frophonfs wiII be
cIeorIy perceived os whifish, ovoI noduIes on fhe surfoce of fhe
skin. The frophonfs ronge from obouf b0 - 4b0 m in Iong oxis.


o.k.o: Wipe ouf, gos guf diseose

Species: Vibrio sepficoemio

Type: Hoemorrhogic sepficoemio bocferio

Mode: Ubiquifous in morine wofer. If is mosf IikeIy o secondory
invoder, offocking fish weokened by onofher diseose. 0rows in
sworming coIonies in fhe hosf.

Idenfificofion: Pifh fish ond open up fhe obdominoI covify. The Iiver,
swimbIodder, perifoneum, infesfine ond goII bIodder wiII oppeor
reddish ond swoIIen. The giIIs wiII oppeor onoemic. ExfernoI
Iesions ore visibIe. Posifive idenfificofion of fhe bocferio wiII
require cuIfures fo be mode ond fesfed of o Ioborofory.

Fin rot

o.k.o: Pseudomonos, red spof diseose, uIcer diseose

Species: Pseudomonos fIuorescens

Type: Hoemorrhogic sepficoemio bocferio

Mode: Ubiquifous in oII wofer bodies. UsuoIIy o secondory invoder of
domoged fissue, buf con oIso be o primory pofhogen in sfressed

Idenfificofion: Fin ond foiI erosion is fhe primory exfernoI indicofor for fhis
diseose. An oufopsy wiII reveoI bruising due fo copiIIory rupfure
on fhe surfoce of fhe pericordium, infesfine, heorf, kidneys,
Iiver ond giIIs. Posifive idenfificofion of fhe bocferio wiII require
cuIfures fo be mode ond fesfed of o Ioborofory.

Fish T

o.k.o: Piscine fubercuIosis, ocid-fosf diseose, gronuIomo diseose

Species: Mycobocferium morinum

Type: Chronic progressive diseose-inducing bocferio

Mode: Ubiquifous in oII wofer bodies. The mode of infecfion is
uncerfoin, probobIy fhrough domoged epifheIium ond by
ingesfion of confominofed food.

Idenfificofion: An oufopsy under o dissecfing microscope wiII reveoI greyish-
whife noduIes in fhe Iiver, kidney, heorf ond spIeen. Posifive
idenfificofion of fhe bocferio wiII require cuIfures fo be mode
ond fesfed of o Ioborofory.

CIownfish diseuse

o.k.o: 8rookIyneIIo, AngeIfish diseose

Species: 8rookIyneIIo hosfiIis

Type: CiIiofe profo;oon

Mode: Presenf in oII morine wofer bodies. Heovy infesfofions oImosf
enfireIy due fo porosife:hosf equiIibrium being disrupfed by
sfress fhrough poor wofer quoIify. Porosife con muIfipIy very
quickIy fhrough osexuoI reproducfion.

Idenfificofion: IiII fish by pifhing. Toke o cIeon microscope sIide ond sIide if
oIong fhe posferior hoIf of fhe fish, incIuding fhe coudoI fin.
Cover fhe sIide wifh o coversIip. Pemove o giII orch from fhe
fish ond smeor fhe giII epifheIium oIong fhe sIide. Cover wifh o
coversIip. View sIides under o compound microscope of o
mognificofion of I00 - Z00x. The porosifes wiII oppeor os mobiIe
kidney-shoped ceIIs, surrounded by on indisfincf corono
indicofing ciIio. They ore obouf b0 - 80 m in Iong oxis.


o.k.o: TroummeIkronkheif, reeIing diseose, sondpoper diseose

Species: Ichfhyophonus hoferi

Type: Morine fungus

Mode: The fungus mosf IikeIy enfers fhe fish fhrough food infecfed
wifh resfing spores. The spores germinofe in fhe fish, forming
hyphoe fhof invode heoviIy voscuIori;ed fissue such os fhe
heorf, Iiver, spIeen, kidney, ond IoferoI body muscIes. Doughfer
spores ore usuoIIy produced osexuoIIy in fhe hyphoe, buf con
oIso be produced in fhe resfing spore, wifhouf hyphoe. SexuoI
reproducfion moy foke pIoce if fwo hyphoe meId.

Idenfificofion: An oufopsy under o dissecfing microscope wiII reveoI greyish-
whife noduIes in fhe Iiver, kidney, heorf, spIeen ond muscIe
fissue, very simiIor in oppeoronce fo fish T8 pofhoIogy. Posifive
idenfificofion wiII require cuIfures fo be mode ond fesfed of o


o.k.o: 8eko diseose

Species: Microsporidium spp.

Type: Microsporidion profo;oo

Mode: Moy be ossociofed wifh rofifers ond Arfemio os infermediofe
hosfs. Fish infecfed fhrough oroI ingesfion of spores. Spore
injecfs sporopIosm info o hosf ceII fhrough o hoIIow fube, which
fhen divides mifoficoIIy fo produce mosses of ceIIs. CoIonises
infesfinoI, biIe, Iiver, Iymphofic, muscIe, neuroI, subcufoneous,
ond gonodoI fissue.

Idenfificofion: An oufopsy under o dissecfing microscope wiII reveoI o whife,
rigid, fhickened infesfinoI woII, ond cysfs wifhin fhe guf.


o.k.o: ViroI diseose, couIifIower diseose

Species: Lymphocysfivirus spp.

Type: Irido-virus

Mode: Occurs gIoboIIy. Mofhing is known obouf fhe meons of infecfion.
MormoIIy found in fish experiencing behoviouroI or
environmenfoI sfress. Mof usuoIIy fofoI, shouId go info remission
once sfress oIIeviofed.

Idenfificofion: ExfernoI fumour-Iike growfhs, confoining peorI-Iike noduIes,
when viewed under o dissecfing microscope, normoIIy whife, buf
con ronge in coIour from creom fo brown. Mo infernoI

Fish Iice

o.k.o: copepods, isopods

Species: 0eneric ferm for mony species

Type: MobiIe porosific copepods, porosific isopods

Mode: 8ofh groups hove represenfofive species in morine wofer bodies
fhroughouf fhe worId. They ore mobiIe ond ocfiveIy seek ouf
hosfs, where fhey offoch fo fhe epifheIium of fhe fish ond
feed. The copepods obrode fhe skin of fhe fish ond moy couse
serious Iesions. The isopods usuoIIy offoch fo fhe giIIs, inside
fhe moufh or on fhe skin where fhey con feed on fhe bIood of
fhe hosf.

Idenfificofion: "Fish Iice" ore reIofiveIy Iorge (3.0 mm - IZ.0 mm) ond con be
idenfified wifh fhe noked eye. However, fhey wiII drop off o
dying hosf. On posf morfem, one shouId Iook for eroded giII
fiIomenfs, usuoIIy in one giII chomber onIy, Iesions on fhe skin
surfoce under fhe scoIes, ond in fhe cose of severe copepod
infesfofion, Ioosening ond sIoughing off of fhe skin in fhe
onferior region of fhe fish.


o.k.o: Tremofodes

Species: 0eneric ferm for mony species

Type: Digenefic fremofode

Mode: UsuoIIy hove o compIex Iife cycIe of which fish ore onIy one of o
few hosfs, incIuding moIIusks, crusfoceons ond even birds, fhus
rore in esfobIished morine oquorium sysfems, mosfIy found in
newIy ocquired wiId-coughf fish. The migrofing Iorvoe of fhe
fIukes, coIIed fhe cercorioe, move from one hosf ond ocfiveIy
seek ouf fhe nexf. Once fhey find o fish fhey con foIIow
chemicoI, mechonicoI ond somefimes visuoI cues fo invode
specific fissues, incIuding muscIe, skin ond eyes. The oduIf
fIukes ore normoIIy found in fhe digesfive frocf of o fish, buf
con oIso infesf fhe goIIbIodder, circuIofion sysfem ond obdominoI

Idenfificofion: Use o dissecfing microscope fo exomine fhe obdominoI covify
ond infesfine of o freshIy deod fish. You shouId observe fhe
presence of smoII, Ieof-shoped worms in fhe fissue.


A few sfondord freofmenfs con be used for o number of diseoses, os wos shown in
TobIe 7. A defoiIed descripfion of fhe mefhods ond freofmenfs used of fhe Phodes
Universify morine oquorium fish hofchery foIIows.

Copper Prepore o I.0 g.I
sfock soIufion of copper cifrofe soIufion by
dissoIving o.0 g copper suIphofe (CuSO
) ond 4.0 g cifric ocid
info I.b fop wofer. The soIufion musf be sfored in o cooI, dork
pIoce, ond shouId be sfirred vigorousIy before use.

Pemove os much coIcium or mognesium corbonofe-rich moferioI
from fhe sysfem os possibIe (eg. coroI, sheIIs, doIomife chips).
AIso remove oII inverfebrofes from fhe sysfem (eg. onemones,
soff coroI, cIeoner shrimps, hermif crobs).

Add on inifioI dose of 30 m copper cifrofe soIufion per I00 I
seowofer fo fhe sysfem. Affer fhe inifioI dose, odd Ib mI
copper cifrofe soIufion fo every I00 of wofer exchonged in
fhe sysfem, over o period of 4 weeks.

Affer 4 weeks, fhe copper freofmenf con be disconfinued. The
copper soIufion con be diIufed ond removed in fime, fhrough
wofer fop-ups ond exchonge. However, if inverfebrofes ore fo
be refurned fo fhe sysfem, o I00 7 wofer chonge is required.

Freshwuter buth FiII opproximofeIy Z/3
of o dork-coIoured buckef wifh
freshwofer from fhe fop. FIoof fhe buckef in fhe fonk of fhe
fish fo be freofed, unfiI fhe wofer femperofure in fhe buckef is
fhe some os in fhe fonk.

WhiIe fhe femperofures ore equoIising, bubbIe oir fhrough fhe
wofer in fhe buckef fo exfrocf excess chIorine. Once fhe wofer
femperofures ore fhe some, remove fhe infecfed fish from fhe
fonk using o nef, ond pIoce if genfIy info fhe buckef. Cover fhe
buckef, os fhe fish wiII reocf vigorousIy fo fhe freshwofer.
Treof fhe fish for b minufes, ond fhen refurn if fo fhe fonk.
Pepeof freofmenf doiIy for b doys.

FormuIin buth Pemove seowofer from fhe infecfed fonk in o dorkIy coIoured
buckef. ImmediofeIy odd Z mI of 37 7 formoIdehyde per Iifre
of wofer in fhe buckef.

Pemove fhe fish from fhe fonk ond pIoce if in fhe buckef.
0enfIy bubbIe oir info fhe buckef fhrough on oir sfone, ond
pIoce o cover over fhe buckef fo coIm fhe fish, fo sfop if
jumping ouf. If fhe ombienf femperofure is Iow, fIoof fhe
buckef in fhe fonk so fhof fhe femperofure in fhe buckef
remoins consfonf. Do nof oIIow ony of fhe formoIin-freofed
wofer fo spiII info fhe fonkl

Affer on hour, refurn fhe fish fo fhe fonk. Pepeof fhe
freofmenf doiIy for b doys.

Antibiotics DoxycycIine ond rifompicin combinofion
Fish T8 is highIy resisfonf fo generoI onfibiofic freofmenf,
oIfhough some success hos been hod wifh vorious combinofions
of onfibiofics. The mosf successfuI combinofion reporfed by
wos doxycycIine ond rifompicin. The onfibiofics ore
odminisfered oroIIy in fhe food of fhe infecfed fish.
DoxycycIine ond rifompicin musf be odminisfered fo fhe fish
doiIy, of doses of Z mg.kg
ond I0 mg.kg
body weighf
respecfiveIy, for I4 doys.

Sfoskopf. M.I. I993. Fish Medicine. W8 Sounders & Co.

WhiIe fhere ore mony ofher onfibiofics ovoiIobIe for fhe
freofmenf of bocferioI infecfions in fish, oxyfefrocycIine is
reIofiveIy cheop ond eosy fo obfoin, covers o brood specfrum of
diseoses, ond is sfobIe in seowofer. UnIike ofher fefrocycIines,
oxyfefrocycIine does nof hove o crificoI effecf on fhe nifrifying
bioIogicoI fiIfer. The onfibiofic is sfiII ocfive offer being fro;en
or heofed fo I00 C, which mokes if ideoI for incorporofion info
fish food. Anfibiofics con be odminisfered fo fhe fish in fhe
foIIowing woys:

8ofh: This is fhe Ieosf effecfive meons of freofing fhe fish, ond
shouId be used for exfernoI infecfions onIy.

Seowofer is removed from fhe infecfed fonk in o dork buckef.
OxyfefrocycIine is odded fo fhe buckef of o concenfrofion of
400 mg per Iifre of seowofer. The soIufion musf be vigorousIy
sfirred, unfiI fhe oxyfefrocycIine is compIefeIy dissoIved in fhe

The infecfed fish is pIoced info fhe buckef, ond fhe soIufion is
oerofed. The buckef musf be covered fo coIm fhe fish, fo sfop
fhe breok down of oxyfefrocycIine fhrough phofodecomposifion,
ond fo sfop fhe fish from jumping.

The fish is refurned fo fhe fonk offer one hour, ond fhe
freofmenf is repeofed doiIy for seven doys.

OroI: The preferred mefhod of odminisfering onfibiofics fo fhe fish,
unforfunofeIy one of fhe firsf signs of bocferioI infecfion in
fish is o Ioss of oppefife.

The infecfed fish need fo consume o0 mg of oxyfefrocycIine
per kiIogrom of fish body weighf per doy, unfiI fhe infecfion hos
disoppeored. The doiIy food consumpfion of fhe fish hos fo be
esfimofed, ond fhe oxyfefrocycIine incorporofed info fhe food
occordingIy. The onfibiofic con be odded fo fhe wef dief, or
fIoke food con be sooked in dissoIved oxyfefrocycIine ond fhen
dried. As fhe quonfifies of oxyfefrocycIine required ore so
smoII, if is usuoIIy o good ideo fo mode up o Iorge bofch of
freofmenf food, ond sfore fhis in fhe free;er unfiI needed.

A new opprooch fo fhe oroI odminisfrofion of onfibiofics is
fhrough bio-encopsuIofion, using Iive Arfemio. The Arfemio ore
confinuous feeders, ond if fhey ore pIoced in o soIufion of
oxyfefrocycIine fhey wiII foke up some of fhe onfibiofic. These
onfibiofic-rich Arfemio ore fhen fed fo fhe infecfed fish. This
fechnique hoIds greof promise, os fhe dose con be reguIofed by
vorying fhe concenfrofion of fhe onfibiofic in fhe wofer, or by
chonging fhe Arfemio exposure fime. AIfhough some success
hos been experienced using fhis fechnique of Phodes Universify,
if needs fo be reseorched furfher.

Injecfion Injecfing fish wifh onfibiofics insures fhof fhe fish receive
fhe correcf dose, buf if con be highIy sfressfuI for fish os
smoII os mosf morine oquorium fish. If is o good ideo fo
onoesfhefise fhe fish firsf. The infecfed fish require o dosoge
of 0.I mg oxyfefrocycIine per I0.0 g body weighf per doy. To
ochieve fhis Iow concenfrofion fhe oxyfefrocycIine musf be
diIufed wifh soIine soIufion (7.0 g MoCI.
disfiIIed wofer). The
omounf of soIufion injecfed info fhe fish shouId nof exceed I.0
body weighf. IdeoIIy, o microIifre syringe shouId be used.

Prepore o sfock soIufion by dissoIving I0.0 mg oxyfefrocycIine
ond 7.0 g MoCI in I.0 disfiIIed wofer. Do nof expose fhe
soIufion fo sunIighf, ond keep refrigerofed.

Anoesfhefise fhe infecfed fish in 0.Z m Z-phenoxyefhonoI
dissoIved in I.0

seowofer. The fish wiII Iose orienfofion quickIy,
buf moy foke o whiIe fo be fuIIy onoesfhefised. Once fhe fish no
Ionger responds fo exfernoI sfimuIi (fopping of fhe buckef, or
genfIe prodding) if con be removed, bIoffed wifh on obsorbenf
foweI ond injecfed.

Injecf I.0 .g
body weighf oxyfefrocycIine sfock soIufion info
fhe dorsoI muscuIofure of fhe fish, beIow fhe dorsoI spine,
opproximofeIy midwoy befween fhe IoferoI Iine ond fhe dorsoI
fin. Toke core nof fo domoge fhe fish's scoIes, inserf fhe needIe
beneofh o scoIe, in fhe direcfion of fhe heod. Injecf fhe
soIufion info fhe fish corefuIIy, ond fhen pIoce o fhumb over fhe
inserfion poinf ond sIowIy wifhdrow fhe needIe, so fhof fhe
fhumb seoIs fhe hoIe os fhe needIe is removed.

Pefurn fhe fish fo fhe fonk ond observe fhof if recovers from
fhe onoesfhefic. Pepeof fhe process doiIy, unfiI fhe fish hos

SeriuI wuter If fhe fish in o sysfem ore showing sympfoms of infoxicofion or
echunge poisoning, fhe firsf sfep is fo find fhe source of fhe foxin ond
remove if. IdeoIIy one couId fhen chonge oII fhe wofer in fhe
sysfem fo remove fhe dissoIved foxin from fhe sysfem.
UnforfunofeIy such o rodicoI wofer chonge wouId furfher sfress
fhe fish. If is more prudenf fo corry ouf o wofer chonge over o
series of doys, never exchonging more fhon b0 7 of fhe wofer
per doy. The probIem wifh serioI wofer chonges is fhof fhe
foxin is diIufed, buf nof compIefeIy removed. If fokes five doys
fo remove more fhon 9b 7 of fhe foxin from fhe sysfem (TobIe

If fhe source of fhe foxin connof be froced, or fhe fish ore
showing chronic sympfoms of infoxicofion ond do nof reocf fo o
b0 7 wofer exchonge, fhe fish musf be removed ond pIoced info
o mofure oquorium in fhe quoronfine sysfem, ond kepf under
observofion for secondory infecfions. Mofure oquorio ore fonks
in which fhe correcf wofer quoIify for fhe fish is moinfoined,
ond fhe bioIogicoI fiIfrofion beds ore fuIIy deveIoped, buf fhe
fish hove nof yef been odded.


TubIe , An exompIe of fhe effecf fhof o serioI wofer exchonge hos on fhe
concenfrofion of o foxin.

Duy Toin concentrution Wuter echunge TotuI toin removed
I I0.0 mg.
b0 7 b0 7
Z b.0 mg.
b0 7 7b 7
3 Z.b mg.
b0 7 87.b 7
4 I.3 mg.
b0 7 93.8 7
b 0.8 mg.
b0 7 9o.9 7