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Hybrid-Pi Model of BJT

EE 332
Transconductance: I gm = y = C 40 I C 21 V T Input resistance: V 1 = o T = o r = y I gm C 21 Output resistance: 1 V A +VCE V A = ro = y I I 22 C C


Lecture 7 Small-Signal Modeling and Linear Amplification (2)
The hybrid-pi small-signal model is the intrinsic lowfrequency representation of the BJT. Small-signal parameters are controlled by the Q-point and are independent of geometry of BJT

Small-Signal Current Gain and Amplification Factor of BJT

Amplification factor is given by: V +V I V +V = g m ro = C A CE = A CE F V V I T T C For VCE << VA,

Equivalent Forms of Small-Signal Model for BJT

o = g m r =

F 1 F 1 I C i C F

A 40V
Q po int


Voltage -controlled current source gmvbe can be transformed into current-controlled current source,

o > F for iC < IM, and o < F for iC > IM, however, o and o are
assumed to be equal.

individual BJT can provide and doesnt change with operating point.

F represents maximum voltage gain

v = i r be b g m v = g m i r = o i be b b v ic = o i + ce o i b r b oin both dc and ac analysis when BJT Basic relationship ic=ib is useful is in forward-active region.


Small Signal Operation of BJT

v V i = I + ic = I exp BE exp be C C S V V T T 2 3 v v v =I 1 + be + 1 be + 1 be + ... C V V V 2 6 T T T 2 3 v v v 1 1 be be be ic = i I = I + + + ... C C C V 2V 6V T T T
v i =I exp BE C S V T

Small-Signal Model for pnp BJT

For pnp transistor

i = I -i B B b i = I - ic = I i F B Fb C C
Signal current injected into base causes decrease in total collector current which is equivalent to increase in signal current entering collector.

v << 2V = 0 .005 V For linearity, ic should be proportional to vbe T be v I C be ic = I 1 + v = I + gm v + = I C V C V be C be T T Change in ic that corresponds to small-signal operation is: v ic g m 0 .005 = = 0 .200 v = be be V 0 .025 I I T C C

Small-Signal Analysis of Complete C-E Amplifier: AC Equivalent

Ac equivalent circuit is constructed by assuming that all capacitances have zero impedance at signal frequency and dc voltage source is ac ground. Assume that Q-point is already known.

Small-Signal Analysis of Complete C-E Amplifier: Small-Signal Equivalent

v v Avt = v c = v o = g m R L b be
Overall voltage gain from source vi to output voltage across R3 is: v v v vo be be Av = vo = = A vt v v v i be i i R r B Av = g m R L + R r R I B

=R R 1 2

= ro R R C 3

Terminal voltage gain between base and collector is:


C-E Amplifier Voltage Gain: Example

Problem: Calculate voltage gain Given data: F =100, VA =75 V, Q-point is(1.45 mA, 3.41 V), R1 = 10 k, R2 = 30 k, R3 = 100 k, RC = 4.3 k, RI = 1k. Assumptions: Transistor is in active region, O = F. Signals are low enough to be considered small signals. Analysis: gm = 40 I = 40(1.45mA ) = 58 .0mS R B = R1 R = 7 . 5 k 2 C V +V 75V + 3.14V A CE R = ro R R = 3 . 83 k = = 54 .1k ro = L C 3 1.45mA I C V 100(0.025V) = 1.72 k r = o T = R r B = 130 = 42 .3dB 1.45mA I Av = gm R L C r R + R B I r ) R + (R I B = 8 .57 mV v (0.005V) i R r B

Small-Signal Model Simplification

If we assume R << R r I B

Av Avt = g m R = g m r R R o L C 3 This implies that total signal voltage at input appears across r.
Generally R3 >> RC and load resistor << ro. If we assume IC RC = VCC with 0<<1 I R Av Avt = g m R = C C = 40 V C CC V T design allocates one-third power For this case, =1/3 since common supply across RC. To further account for other approximations leading to this result, we use: Av 10 V CC Also, if load resistor is forced to approach ro, RC and R3 are infinite, voltage gain is limited by amplification factor, f of BJT itself.

C-E Amplifier Input Resistance

C-E Amplifier Output Resistance

Input resistance, the total resistance looking into the amplifier at coupling capacitor C1 represents total resistance presented to source.

v x = i x ( R r ) B v R = x = R r = R R r B 1 2 in ix

Output resistance is the total equivalent resistance looking into the output of the amplifier at coupling capacitor C3. Input source is set to 0 and test source is applied at output. v v But vbe=0. ix = x + x + g m v be R ro C v R out = x = R ro R As ro>> RC. C C ix


Sample Analysis of C-E Amplifier

Analysis: To find the Q-point, dc equivalent circuit is constructed. 105 I +V + ( +1) I (1.6 104 ) = 5 B BE F B
I = 3 .71A B I = 65 I = 241A B C I = 66 I = 245A E B

Sample Analysis of C-E Amplifier (contd.)

Next we construct the ac equivalent and simplify it.

R = R r = 6.23k in B

Problem: Find voltage gain, input and output resistances. Given data: F = 65, VA =50 V Assumptions: Active-region operation, VBE=0.7 V, small signal operating conditions.

5 104 I V (1.6 104 ) I (5) = 0 E C CE V = 3.67V CE

gm = 40I = 9.64 10 3S C oV T = 6.64k r = I C V +V ro = A CE = 223k I C

R out = R
v Av = o v i

r = 9 . 57 k C o R in = 84 .0 = gm ( Rout R ) 3 R +R in I

Small Signal Model of MOSFET

i y = g 11 v gs v i G v GS =0 = =0
Q point

Using 2-port y-parameter network, ig = y vgs + y v 11 12 ds i = y vgs + y v 22 ds d 21

y = 12 v
y i = d v gs v



ds v


i = G v DS =0
i v D

Q point

End of Lecture 7


The port variables can represent either time-varying part of total voltages and currents or small changes in them away from Q-point values.

GS Q point =0 ds i i I D D y = d = = 22 v 1 v + V DS Q point ds v = 0 DS gs