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Chapter 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION The notion of rate or rate of change was invented almost simultaneously by Leibnitz and Newton as a tool for solving problems in geometry and astronomy. It soon became an invaluable aid in many other branches of mathematics and physics. Many familiar experiences in daily life have at their basis this crucial concept - the derivative or rate of change. An important question in daily life and applications is HOW FAST? How fast is a population growing? How fast is money flowing in an economy? How fast is a car moving? How fast is the heart beating? All of these questions are part of the topic RATE OF CHANGE or DERIVATIVE (as it is called in Calculus an important branch of Mathematics). The study of this topic is the major aim of this chapter. 1.2 CHANGE As a prelude to studying the concept rate of change, we start with the component notion CHANGE. We are all familiar with what is meant by change. The temperature in the evening is different form that in the morning, which means there is a change in the temperature. Marks scored by you in this week is different form your marks for last week. Thus there is a change in your marks or performance. More examples are given below. Study them carefully. 1 2.1 Example The direction of the front wheels of a car is determined by the steering wheel. If the steering wheel is turned through an angle x degrees from the neutral position, the front wheels turn through an angle y degree. Thus the angle y through which the front wheels turn depends on the angle x through which the steering wheel turns. That is, y is a function of x or y = f(x). 1

Now, for a small change in x, there will be a small change in y; to be precise, consider two positions of the steering wheel given by x and x + x. NOTE : x denotes a small change in the value of x. Corresponding to these two positions, the front wheel will have two positions given by y and y + y, where y = f(y) and y + y = f(x + x.) Thus y=y+ y-y x fx

= f(x

measures the change in the position of the front wheels. 1.2.2. Example (Economics) If x is the rate of production of an object manufactured for sale (for example, x number of objects produced per day), and y is the production cost (total cost per day), then y will change as x changes. Thus, if x changes f then y may increase by Rs. 2000. (in economics this increase in y is called the marginal cost). Thus, y is a function of x, y= f(x). Then, when the rate of production for two days are x and x costs will be y and y y, where, as above, y= f x x fx x the corresponding

measures the change in the cost or production. 1.2.3 Physics Suppose a car is driven on a straight road, then the position (denoted by y) of the car will change with time (denoted by x). Thus y = f(x). For two instants of time x and x x, the corresponding positions will be y and y y; where, as in 1.2.1. y=fx x fx

measures the change in the position. 1.2.4. Biology Suppose a population (of organizm or human beings) is observed for a length of time. Then the number of its members (denoted by y) will change with time (denoted by x). Thus y = f(x). The number of members at two instants of time x and x x will be y and y y, So that y=fx x fx

measures the change in the population 1.2.5 Geometry Consider a function y = f(x). Then for two values of the variable x, namely x and x x we have two values of y, namely y and y y where



measures the change in the value of the function. 1.2.6 In all the above examples the underlying theme was same CHANGE. We note two important points: POINT 1: POINT 2: The change x may be positive or negative (but is never zero). The change y may be positive or negative. (or zero sometimes)

NOTE CAREFULLY: when x is positive, y may be positive or negative. Similarly, when x is negative, y may be positive or negative. For example, go back to Example 1.2.4. healthy members. Then as time passes, changes from x to x x (where x 0) positive, because f x x is greater than number of members of our population). 3 Suppose our population consists of the population grows: i.e., as time the change in the population y is f(x). (recall that f x represents the

Suppose our population consists of weak members: that is, it is a decaying population. Then as time changes from x to x x (where x y will be negative, as f x x is less than f x EXERCISE 1. Go back to the examples listed above and study the positive and negative aspect of the changes. 2. Think of other interesting examples. 1.3 AVERAGE RATE OF CHANGE In all the examples form 1.2.1 to 1.2.5 we saw that two variables were involved x and y and these were connected by a relation y = f x . Also, corresponding to a change x in x there was a change y in y given by y=fx x fx

WARNING: x dose not mean multiplied by x. The symbol or notation x is one unit and represents a small change in x similarly y is also one unit and represents a change in y Thus, for a change x in x, there is change y in y. Hence, for a unit change in x y the corresponding change in y is given by - (i.e., divided y by x). x

y = The change in y corresponding to a unit change in x. x

This ratio

y is called the average rate of change of y with respect to x. x

y = Average Rate of Change x

Thus, we have

Average Rate of Change =

y x Change in y Change in x

= Change in y corresponding to a unit change in x. We now illustrate this concept with some examples. 1.3.1: Example Let us go back to Example 1.2.3. Suppose it is known that f (x) = 16x2. Then x 0 because x represents time (and time cannot be negative). Now, the average rate of change (or average velocity as it is called in this case) of position of the car over the first 10 seconds of motion in given by ?y ?x f x ?x f x ?x 16x 10

16x0 2


160 ft/sec.

because we are observing the motion from x = 0 sec. to x

x 10 sec s. x 4 sec s. is

Similarly, the average velocity of the car from x = 2 sec s to x given by y x 16x4 2 16x2 2 2

96 ft/sec.

1.3.2: Example Go back to Example 1.2.5. Consider f ( x) x 2 6 x 10. Now x can assume any

value positive, negative or zero. So, taking x = 2 and x

x 3 , we get.

y x

f 3 1

f 2

1 2 1


However, If we take x = 4 and x

x 4.1 , we get

y x

f 4.1 f 4 0.1

2.21 2 2.1 0.1


Thus the average rate of change can be either positive or negative, depending upon the function and the values of x. Sometimes
y x can be zero also (even though

x is not zero). For example,

consider x = 2 and x Than

x 4.


f (4)

f (2)

2 2 0

x 2
y 0. x
y is called the slope of x


When we deal with functions and their graphs, (appropriate) secant. For example,

y 1 is the slope of the secant joining the x points A (2, f (2) ) and B(3, f (3) ). see the figure given below:

EXERCISE 1.3 1. A function is given by the following table: x 2.00 2.02 2.04 2.06 2.08 f (x) 1.000 1.020 1.042 1.064 1.086 a) b) c) d) e) For x = 2.02 and For x = 2.02 and For x = 2.04 and

x 2.04, evaluate


x 2.06, evaluate
x 2.04, evaluate



Verify that the value of

x in (a) and (c).

x in (b) is the same. As the values of

y x.

For x = 2.04 and x

x 2.00 , evaluate

2. If the production cost of an item is given by y f ( x) 2 x 2 3 x 2 find

y x when x changes from 100 units to 102 units.

3. Let f ( x) x 2

6 x 10 and x vary from 0 to 4 with increment

x 0.5 (that

is, when x = 0, x

x 0.5 and when x 0.5, x

x 1.0 etc). Look up a

y x.

computer program which will evaluate the values of 1.4 INSTANTANEOUS RATE OF CHANGE

In this section we develop the main idea RATE OF CHANGE. The passage from the concept of average rate of change to the instantaneous rate of change is a subtle one involving the concept of limit. We explain this first by means of the following example: 1.4.1: Example Go back to the Example 1.3.1. The distance traveled by a car, in x seconds, is given by f ( x) 16 x 2 .

We are interested in finding the instantaneous velocity of the car when x = 2 secs. To do this, we consider small changes in x namely x 0.1 sec or
x 0.01 sec. or x 0.001 sec or x 0.1 sec or x 0.01 sec. or x 0.001

sec etc. NOTE : Even though x cannot take negative values here (WHY?) very well take negative values. Go back to POINT: 1 of 1.2). The following table gives the values of x x
x can

x for the various values of


2 2.1

2 2.01

2 2.001

2 1.9

2 1.99

2 1.999

65.6 64.16 64.016 62.4 63.84 63.984

From the above table, it is clear that as x

x 2, y x becomes very close to the value 64.

x take values close to

Also, when x x takes values close enough to x = 2, enough to zero. Thus, when x = 2 we see that as

x takes values close

x assumes values close enough to zero,

x assumes values close enough to 64, we express this fact by saying

x tends to zero,

that as

x tends to 64 or we write

lim x 0

y 64. x

we have a short hand notation for the left hand side. This is

dy Thus dx

dy dx
Hence we can write

lim y x 0 x

dy dx


Remember that all this happens when x = 2. We express this fact by dy ( ) x 2 64. dx

dy ) x 2 is called the (instantaneous) rate of change at x = 2 or dx the (instantaneous) velocity at x = 2 or more generally as the rate of change at x = 2 or the derivative of f (x) at x = 2.
The value ( The general set up is as follows: given a function x f ( x) and a value x = a. The rate of change of f(x) at x = aor the derivation of f(x) at x = a is defined as

Remember the following:

dy )x dx

lim f (a x 0

x) x

f (a)

1. It is customary to say rate of-change rather than instantaneous rat-ofchange even though the second name is the most appropriate. 2. The words rate-of-change and derivative stand for the same idea. They will be used interchangeably. dy 3. The derivative of f (x) at x = a is given by ( ) a dx 1.4.2: For the above example, we can now find the derivative of f(x) at, x = a, where a can be any value (of course non-negative). The reasoning is simple.

dy )x dx

lim x 0

f (a

x) x

f (a)

lim 16(a x 0

x) 2 16a 2 x

lim 16( x) 2 2a x x 0 x

lim 16 ( x 2a) x 0

Thus we get (

dy ) dx

32 a.

Since the above equation is true for all (non-negative) values of a, it is customary to write it in the following form:

dy ) 32 x. dx

Thus, in particular, when x = 2 we get

dy ) dx

32 x 2 64.

agreeing with what we got in 1.4.1. Remember : if f ( x) 16 x 2, then

dy 32 x. dx
This is also written as 1.4.3. FORMULAS (a) Let y

d (16 x 2 ) 32 x. dx

f ( x) where f ( x) x. Thus we have


hence we get

f (x x x

x) x x

f ( x).



y 1 and hence x dy dx lim y 1. x 0 x


dy 1if y x dx


More generally, suppose y f ( x) where f ( x) x n. where n can take any one of the values 2,3,4, Then it can be shown that

dy n. x n dx
Thus we have

d n ( x ) nx n dx d n ( x ) nx n dx


for 2,3,4,.

Memorize the above formulas. 1.4.4: EXAMPLE

dy for x = 2, dx x = 3 and x = 4. One way of doing this is to proceed as in Example 1.4.1. but then we must do the same kind of computations three times once for x = 2, once for x = 3, and once for x = 4. Instead of this, a better way is to proceed as in dy 1.4.2 and get the value of ( ) x a for any value of a. This can be done, but is not dx a wise way because we may have to repeat the same process all over again once the above function is changed to f(x) = x3 + 9x2 2x +71 All these troubles can be avoided if the above two formulas are committed to memory. These
Go back to Example 1.3.2. Here f(x) =x2 - 6x + 10. We wish to find 11

formulas are like computer programmes. You plug in the value and get the required result without any extra effort. 1.4.5: Even though the two formulas are general, still they are not sufficient for us to handle our function f(x) = x2 6x + 10. So we need some more formulas which we list below:


d (k ) 0, where k is a constant dx d d (1) 0, (10) 0 and dx dx d (3) 0. dx

d d (kf(x)) k (f (x)), where k is any constant dx dx

For example,


For example,

d d (2 x 2 ) 2 ( x 2 ), dx dx
d d (9 x 5 ) 9 ( x 5 ) etc. dx dx


d ( f ( x) dx d 2 (x dx x3 )

g ( x))

d ( f ( x)) dx

d ( g ( x)) dx

For example,

d 2 d 3 (x ) (x ) dx dx


COMMIT THE ABOVE FORMULAS TO MEMORY 1.4.6: (Example 1.4.4 continued) consider our function f ( x) x 2 have 6 x 10, we

d d ( f ( x)) ( x 2 6 x 10 ) dx dx d d d (x 2 ) ( 6 x) (10) by formula 5 dx dx dx 2x ( 6) .1 0


2x 6
Thus we get

dy )x dx dy )x dx dy )x dx

2 2 6

2 3 6

2 4 6

Now can you perceive the POWER of these formulas? 1.4.7. So far as a function is concerned,

dy )x dx

is called the SLOPE of the tangent to the curve y = f (x) at x = a. see the figure :


Tangent at x = a is a straight line touching the curve y = f(x) at the point A(a, f(a)).


dy )x dx

is the slop of this line.

1. Suppose y = f(x). Then the rate-of-change (of y with respect to x) at x =a is given by

dy )x dx

This is also called DERIVATIVE of f (x) at x = a or SLOPE of the tangent line to f(x) at x = a or VELOCITY of the motion y = f (x), when x = a 2. Rate-of-change =

dy dx.

3. Note that rate-of-change at x = a is a number, whereas rate-of-change is a function. 4. To compute

dy follow the steps given below : dx.


(a) Compute f(x + x) for

(b) Compute f(x) and f(x + x) f(x)

x) f ( x) x (d) Compute the limit of the above ratio as x tends to 0: i.e. take smaller and smaller values of x and find the corresponding values of the above ratio. These values will stabilize at a number and this dy number is . dx.
(c) Compute the ratio EXERCISE 1. 4 Find 1.

f (x

dy of y where dx.
y x3 2x 2 4x 4 8 7 3 x x 3 18
x5 5 x3 3

2 5 8 x 9


3. 4. 5. 6.

y ( x 5) ( x 1) (Hint: Multiply the right hand side)

y 26 x 6 x4 1

Find the slop of the tangent to the curve y x 5 2 x 4 3x 2 x 5 at x 1


The position of an object at time x (in seconds) is given by y (in meters) where y 128 x 16 x 2 (a) Find the velocity of the object. 15

(b) Find the velocity of the object at time x 4 secs. (c) Verify that the velocities of the object at x 2 secs and x 6 secs are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. 8. Fill up the blanks:

d 3 ( x 3x 2 dx

1 x 100) 5


1.5 MORE EXAMPLE OF RATE-OF-CHANGE In this section, we show how to make use of the rate-of change idea in solving real-life problems. 1.5.1 Example x2 A tank of water is filled in such a way that in x hours there are 2 x litres of 2 water in the tank. The person filling the tank is instructed to turn off the water when the water is entering the tank at the rate of 15 liters per hour. When should he turn off the water? Here our function is y x2 2 2 x (lit). The rate of-change is

dy dx

1 x 2 x 2 x 2. 2

Give that the water is to be turned off when the rate is 15 liters per hour.

dy rate 15 lit per hour dx

i.e., x+2 = 15 or x =13 hours. So the water should be turned off after 13 hours. Before we give the next example, we take another, look at the derivative (or rateof-change).



dy is the rate-of-change of y with respect to x, we have that y changes dx

dy times as fast as x. dx
Familiarize yourself with this idea.

1.5.2 Example The profit of a retail store is Rs. y (in hundred) if when Rs. x are spent daily on 1 2 advertising where y 2500 36 x x . Use the derivative to determine if it would 5 be profitable for the daily advertising budget to be increased if the current daily budget is (i) Rs. 60 and (ii) Rs. 100. From y 2500 36 x

1 2 x we get 5

dy 2 36 x dx 5
Thus, when x = Rs. 60, (

dy )x dx dy )x dx



And when x = Rs. 100, (


So, when x = 60, the profit y is changing 12 times as fast as the expenses x; whereas, when x = 100, the profit y changes 4 times as fast as the expenses x. Thus, it would be profitable for the daily advertising budget to be increased when the current budget is Rs. 60. (Note that the budget should never be Rs. 100). EXERCISE 1.5 1). A retailer sells a certain item, and finds that 8.2 customers are lost for that item per Rupee cost of the item. The price y (in rupees) of the item at the end of x months is given by

0.4 2 x where x = 1,2,3,..10. 27


How many customers are lost per month at the end of 9 months? 2) The supply equation for a certain kind of pencil is y 3x 2 2 x where x paise is the price per pencil when 1000 y pencils are supplied. Find the rate of change of supply per 1 paise change in price when the price is 80 paise 3) Water is being drained from a swimming pool and the volume of water in the pool x minutes after the draining starts is given by y 250 (1600 80 x x2 )

(y being measured in litres). How fast is the water flowing out of the pool 5 minutes after the draining starts? 4) The annual earnings of ABC and Co Ltd. x years after January 1, 1984 is y lakhs of rupees where y=

2 2 x 5

2 x 10

find (a) the rate at which the earnings were growing as on January 1, 1984; (b) the rate at which the earnings should be growing as on January 1, 1989, 1.6 MORE FORMULAS ON RATE-OF-CHANGE

In this section, we give three more formulas, which are very useful in applications. 1.6.1: suppose u and v are functions of x. then


d du dv (uv) . v u. dx dx dx

This is called the PRODUCT RULE. We illustrate its use by an example. 18

Example: suppose y ( x 2 1) ( x 3 x 2
write u x then

2), find dy/dx.

x2 2


v x

y uv. dy dx du dv . v u. dx dx d 2 d 2 d ( x 1) (x ) (1) dx dx dx 2x d 3 ( x x 2 2) dx d d 2 d (x3 ) (x ) ( 2) dx dx dx 3x 2 2 x

therefore Now du dx

dv dx

dy dx

2 xu u. (3 x 2 2 x) 2x (x3 x2 2) ( x 2 1) ( 3 x 2 2 x)

1.6.2 : Again, suppose u and v are functions of x. Then


d u 1 du ( ) 2 (v dx v v dx

dv ) dx

This is called the QUOTIENT RULE. The following example illustrates its use.
y x x 1 , find dy dx.

write u then y

x and v x 1

u and v du d ( x) 1 dx dx dv d d d ( x 1) ( x) (1) dx dx dx dx 1 1 du dv (v u ) 2 dx dx v

dy dx


1 ( ( x 1).1 ( x 1) 2 1 ( x 1 x) ( x 1) 2 1 ( x 1) 2


In the above two examples, we made use of the formulas 6 and 7. What other formulas we made use of ? Study these examples carefully and find them out. 1.6.3. CHAIN RULE Suppose y is a function of u and u is a function of x, then we have


dy dx

dy du . du dx

This is called the CHAIN RULE. It is useful on many occasions. Example: Suppose y ( x

1) 2, find

dy dx

Write u x 2 1 so that y u 2

dy du

d 2 (u ) 2u dx


du dx

d 2 d 2 ( x 1) (x ) dx dx

d (1) dx

So finally we have dy dy du dx du . dx = = 2u.2x 4x(x2 +1) from above 20

EXERCISE 1.6 1. If y = (x+2) (x-5)8, find

dy (Use Product Rule) dx dy (Use Product Rule) dx

2. If y = (3x-2)3 (4x+1)4, find

3. If y =

2x 1 dy , find (Use Quotient Rule) 3 x 6, dx ( x 1) 3 dy , find (Use Quotient Rule and Chain Rule) 4 dx ( x 1) ,

4. If y =

(HINT : put u = (x-1)3 and v = (x+1)4. Also put f = (x 1) and g = x+1 Then y =

u , u = f 3 and v = g 4 v
du df dv and df dx dx dv dg . ) dg dx


du dx

5. If y = (x3 + 1)2 (x2 + 1)3, find

dy . dx

(HINT : Use Product Rule and chain Rule. Put

u = (x3 + 1)2 and v = (x2 + 1)3 Also put f = x3 +1 and g = x2 + 1. Then y = uv, u = f 2 and v = g 3 Further du dx du df dv and df dx dx dv dg . ) dg dx 21

6 . If y (

x 3 2 dy ) , find x 2 dx

7. If y (

x2 1 2 dy ) , find . 2 dx x 3

8. If y = (x2-1)3 (2x 2+ 3x +2)2 find

dy dx

9. If y


1 dy , find 3 dx x 2)
x x 1

10. If y

x2 1 and w 2 x2 x 1 x

Verify that

dy dx

dw dx.

1.7 SECOND-ORDER DERIVATIVE : ACCELERATION In section 1.4 we became familiar with rate-of-change or derivative. On many occasions we can also find the rate-of-rate-of-change or what is called the second-order derivative. We introduce this by means of an example. After this we will introduce the notation for it and another name for it. 1.7.1: EXAMPLE: Consider y 8 x 4 5 x 2 . Then its derivative is given by

dy 32 x 3 10 x . dx
Notice that the right-hand-side expression is again a function of x. so writing z = 32x3 +10x


we get

dz dx
Thus we have

96 x 2 10

96 x 2 10

dz dx = derivative of z = derivative of 32x3 + 10x dy = derivative of dx = derivative of (derivative of y)

1.7.2: This derivative of (derivative of y) is called the second derivative of y or second-order derivative of y. we denote it by the symbol d2y . dx 2 Thus, for our example 1.7.1, we have d2y 96 x 2 10. 2 dx 1.7.3 : Recall from section 1.4 that

dy dx
is also called the velocity (when we deal with problems involving motion), and dy is written as v (the first letter for VELOCITY) dx i.e.,

dy =v dx

In this context, the second derivative


d2y dx 2 is called the ACCELERATION and is denoted by a. (first letter for acceleration). Thus we have Acceleration = a d2y dx 2 Note also that a = 1.7.4 EXAMPLE A boat is moving along a straight river and its distance (from its starting point ) in feet is given by

dv dx.

1 4 x 12

1 3 x 3

3 2 x 4x 5 2

where x is time measured in seconds. If v ft/sec. Is the velocity and a ft / sec2. is the acceleration of the boat at x sec., find x, y and v when a = 0. Now

dy 1 3 x x 2 3x 4 dx 3
dv x 2 2 x 3. dx



a 0, we get x 2 2 x 3 0 ;

Or (x + 1)2 = 4 or x + 1= 2 (since time cannot be negative) or x = 1 sec. So substituting in y and v we get


1 x14 12 7 11 feet 12

1 3 x1 3

3 2 x1 4x 1 5 2

1 3 2 x 1 1 3x1 4 3 1 2 ft/sec. 3



Let m be the slope of the tangent to the curve y = x3 2x2 + x. Find the rate of change of m at the point (2,2).

ii) iii)

d2 y Find where y = 7 x3 8x2 2 dx Find the slope of the tangent at each point of the curve y= x 4 + x3 3x2 where the rate-of-change of the slope is zero. A stone is thrown vertically upwards. At time x (in seconds), its distance above the ground is given by y (in feet) where y = 128x 16x2


a) b) c) d)

Find the velocity and acceleration Find the velocity when x = 2, x = 4 and x = 6. Find the distance above the ground, when v = 0. Verify that acceleration is always constant.


1.8 HIGHER ORDER DERIVATIVES 1.8.1. In section 1.7 we learnt how to calculate the second derivative of a given function. There is nothing to stop us form computing the derivative of the second derivative (which is called the third derivative of f(x)) and so on The third derivative of f (x) or y is denoted by d3y dx 3 and the fourth derivative is denoted by d4y dx 4 and etcetera. In general the k th derivative is denoted by dky dx k where k can be 1 or 2 or 3 or 1.8.2. Recall that the first derivative or 1) 2) 3) 4)

dy has several names: dx

FIRST DERIVATIVE (of y with respect to x ) VELOCITY (if y is the distance covered in time x) SLOPE (of the tangent line to y = f (x)) RATE OF CHANGE.

d2y Similarly, the second derivative or has several names: dx 2 1) SECOND DERIVATIVE 2) ACCELERATION 3) CURVATURE (of the curve y = f(x)) 4) RATE OF RATE-OF-CHANGE


NOTE: We have not introduced the name (3) given above i.e. CURVATURE. We dont have any intention of introducing it ever. It has been included for completeness sake. Thus the first and second derivatives have several names. But the third derivative onwards, we dont have several names associated with them. THIS SHOWS THAT THE FIRST AND-SECOND DERIVATIVES ARE VERY IMPORTANT FOR APPLICATION. This is the reason for the various names for these two. 1.8.3. It is high time that we illustrated the concept of higher order derivatives by means of some examples. 1.8.4. EXAMPLE: Find all the derivatives of y = x 3 + x2 + x + 1 Here dy dx d 3 d 2 d d (x ) (x ) ( x) (1) dx dx dx dx 3x 2 2 x 1 d2y dx 2 d (3 x 2 2 x 1) dx d d d (3 x 2 ) (2 x) (1) dx dx dx 3( 2 x) 2 6x 2 d3 y dx 3 d ( 6 x 2) dx d d (6 x ) ( 2) dx dx 6 d4y dx 4 0 d ( 6) dx


d5y dx 5 0

d (0) dx

This is because zero is also a constant and the result follows by formula 3. Similarly we have d7 y d6y 0 , dx 6 dx 7

0 and so on.

Thus we can write that dk y 0 if k 4,5,6,....... dx k 1.8.5: EXAMPLE Find the second derivative of

x x 1

Notice that our function has something (i.e., x) in the numerator and something (i.e. x + 1) in the denominator. Thus, if we take u x and v x 1 u v

we can wirte now dy dx

d u ( ). dx v


How to find the right hand side? Can you guess the formula? The correct formula is formula (7). Recall it. If you cannot recall it from memory go back to this formula, and read it again. At least now you should commit it to memory. O.K., the formula is

d u 1 du dv ( ) 2 (v u ) dx v v xd dx
so we calculate
du dx d ( x) 1 dx dv dx d ( x 1) 1 dx



d u 1 ( ) ( ( x 1)1 x1) dx v ( x 1) 2 x 1 x ( x 1) 2 1 ( x 1) 2


dy dx

1 ...........( ) ( x 1) 2

Now we take

u 1 (numerator value of )
v Thus ( x 1) 2 (denominator value of )

dy u dx v
Notice that now the values of u and v are different from what they were before. The values of u and v will vary from problem to problem and sometimes within a problem too as in the present problem. 29

So we get

d2y dx 2

d u ( ) dx v 1 d ( ( x 1) 2 0 1 ( x 1) 2 ) 2 2 dx [ ( x 1) ] 1 d ( x 1) 2 4 ( x 1) dx

Our next job is to calculate d ( x 1) 2 dx This is very similar to the Example of section 1.6.3 So we proceed as therein. Put

y1 ( x 1) 2 and u x 1.
y1 u 2 and dy1 d ( x 1) 2 dx dx dy1 du . du dx d 2 d (u ). ( x 1) du dx

2u 1 2u 2 ( x 1)


Thus, we have, finally

d2y dx 2

1 d ( x 1) 2 4 ( x 1) dx 1 2 ( x 1) ( x 1) 4 2 . ( x 1) 3

Dont get discouraged by the above example. It looks formidable because it is lengthy and it looks lengthy because we have exhibited all the steps. With some experience, you can also do such problems. Not only that ! you can skip some of the steps and arrive at the answer quickly! So dont give up ! try and try again ! Here are some problems to give you enough experience. EXERCISE 1.8 Find all derivatives of 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 2 x x2 x2 + x + 2 if y = x6 + x 5+ x4 + x3 + x 2+ x + 1, verify that the seventh derivative of y is zero.

6) if y = x6, verify that the seventh derivative of y is zero 7) what do you learn from the above two problems ? 8) Find the second derivative of a) b)

1 x x2 1 x


1.9. TAYLORS FORMULA AND APPROXIMATIONS 1.9.1. POLYNOMIALS We have already come across functions of the form x2 + x + 1 x6 + 5x

2 3

4 17 2 x x . 5 9

and so on. These functions, which are very important, are called POLYNOMIALS. Thus, a polynomial has a finite number of terms, separated by + or sign, where one of the terms may be a number only and all other terms are of the form a number multiplied by a power of x.

For example, consider

2 3

4 x 5
4 multiplied by x ) 5

17 2 x 9
17 multiplied by x 2 9

(Number called constant term)

We said above that polynomials are important. There are several reasons for this. One of them is that their values can be computed easily. For example, consider the polynomial X 2+ X +1 Let us write y x 2 x 1 as we have done so far. Then, when x = 0, y = 1 when x = 1, y = 3 and so on. Some of the values of y for various values of x are exhibited in the table given below: X -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Y 7 3 1 1 3 7 13 32

You can not only calculate the value of y for integer values of x, but also for any value of x. look at the following table: y x2 x 1 X 0.1 0.2 0.12 0.19 ? Y 1.11 1.24 1.334 Now go ahead and compute the value of y when x = 0.19. The blank space in the above table is for you to complete. Dont stop ! Calculate the values of y for further values of x. CAN YOU SEE THAT YOU CAN COMPUTE THE VALUE OF Y FOR ANY VALUE OF X WHEN THE VALUE OF X CONTAINS AT MOST FOUR DECIMALS ? Now compute the value of y when X = 0.123456789 !!! Can you do it ? it will take a long time. Here is where a computer can be of use. The computer will calculate the value of y within a second providing you have the correct program. Such programs are available. look it up and do it. It is great fun ! So we see that if we are satisfied with three or four decimal accuracy, then we can compute the values of the given polynomial either by hand or by a calculator. And, If we require higher level of accuracy or the given value of x contains more than four decimals, then we can resort to the use of computer. 1.9.2: TAYLORS FORMULA As explained above values of polynomials can be found by performing a finite number of additions and multiplications. However, there are functions, such as exponential and logarithm functions (about which you will study in chapter 3), that cannot be evaluated easily. 33

Then how to compute their values? One way is to go to a computer. A second way is to look into a table giving the values of such functions. A third way is to approximate such functions by polynomials (as closely as we can) and calculate the value of these polynomials. Of course the third method gives only an approximate value or so it appears. In reality, all the above listed three methods give only approximate values never the exact value to various levels. So, all is not lost by adopting the third method. This idea of approximating functions with polynomials was conceived by the English mathematician Brook Taylor and the formula given below is called Taylors Formula. _______________________________________________ TAYLORS FORMULA
f ( x) f (a) f (a) ( x a) 1! f (a) ( x a ) 2 ..... 2! (n) f (a ) ( x a ) n Rn ( x ) n!

where dy )x a dx d2 f f (a) ( 2 ) x dx f (a) ( f ( n ) (a) ( dny )x dx n y f ( x)

n! 1.2.3.....n (1 times 2times 3 times ...... times n) R n (x) Remainder. NOTE: The above formula holds under certain conditions. But most of our functions will satisfy these conditions automatically.


The remainder Rn (x) is a function of x, which in the case of a polynomial is always zero. In all other cases (i.e. when the given function is NOT a polynomial) Rn (x) is not zero. We illustrate this idea with some examples. EXAMPLE Consider f(x) = x2 + x + 1. Taking a = 0 in Taylors Formula we get the following: y = x2 + x + 1 = f (x) a=0 dy ) x 0 [2 x 1] x o 1 dx d2y f ( 0) ( 2 ) x o [ 2] x 0 2 dx 3 d y d4y ..... 0 ( WHY ?) dx 3 dx 4 f ( 0) ( Thus we take n = 2, and get f ( x) f (a ) 1 2 ( x 0) ( x 0) 2 1! 2! Rn ( x). Rn ( x )

1 x x2 Thus Rn (x) = 0!

So, in this case, we see that 1) Rn (x) = 0 for n = 2 2) Taylors Formula gives the polynomial itself, if we take a = 0! These two facts are true in the case of any polynomial. So remember the following: If f (x) is a polynomial, then 35



Rn (x) = 0 for some value of n. This value of n will vary from polynomial to polynomial. In fact n is equal to the highest power of x in f(x)( ) Taylors Formula gives the polynomial itself, if we take a = 0

Point (2) above tells an important fact : That is, if we consider only the first n+1 terms on the right hand side of Taylors formula. f (a) ( x a) 1! f (a) ( x a ) 2 .. 2! f ( n ) (a) ( x a) n n!

f (a)

than what we get is a polynomial. This polynomial is known as TAYLORS POLYNOMIAL. So we note the following: TAYLORS POLYNOMIAL (B) f (a) ( x a) 1! f (a) ( x a ) 2 ... 2! f ( n ) (a) ( x a) n!

f (a) in point (2) of (A) we saw that Taylors formula gives the polynomial itself, when a = 0. What happens if a is different from zero? The following example illustrates this idea. ( ) For example, in the case of our polynomial f (x) = x2 + x+ 1 the term x2 has the highest power, namely 2. Thus the highest power of x in x2 + x + 1 is 2. EXAMPLE: Consider again our old friend f (x) = x2 + x + 1. Now we take a = 1. (There is no 1 sanctity about 1. we can take any value like a = - 1; a , a = - 0.04, a = 1.12 2 etc. some of these are given as exercises). Then


f (a) f (a) f (a)

f (1) 3. dy f (1) ( ) x 1 [2 x 1] x 1 3 dx d2y f (1) ( 2 ) x 1 [2] x 1 2 dx

and as in Example 1.9.3, we have d3y dx 3 d4y dx 4

... 0.

Thus we take n = 2 and get (Recall (A)) f ( x) f (a ) f (a) ( x a) ( x a) 2 1! 2! 3 2 3 ( x 1) ( x 1) 2 11 2! 3 3 ( x 1) ( x 1) 2 f (a) x 1 3 3 ( x 1) ( x 1) 2 !

i. e., x 2

Does this look surprising to you? Dont worry! We will now clarify it. Take the right hand side. It is equal to 3 + 3 (x-1) + (x-1)2 = 3 +3x 3 + x2 2x + 1 = x2 + (3x 2x) + (1+3-3) = x2 + x +1 which is the left-hand-side expression ! Thus, all that we have done is to express the given polynomial as a Taylors polynomial. Note that our polynomial x2 + x + 1 is simpler than Taylors polynomial 3 + 3(x 1) + (x 1)2. [simpler in the sense that we can compute the values of x2 + x +1 more easily than the values of 3 + 3(x- 1) + (x-1)2 ]. Then what is the use of Taylors Formula ? well, in the case of polynomials this formula is not of much use. But in the case of functions, other than polynomials, it is of much use. This point will become clear only after we study the exponential and logarithm functions. 37

(Recall the basic algebra)

For the present, we give below an example to show that Rn(x) need not be zero. EXAMPLE Consider the function f(x) =

1 x a = 0 and calculate a few terms:

f (a) f (a) f ( 0) 1 1 1 d 1 f ( 0) [ ]x dx 1 x 1 [ ]x 0 (1 x) 2 1 f (a)

. Note that this is not a polynomial. We will take

( see problem 4)

d2 1 f ( 0) [ 2 ]x 0 dx 1 x 2 [ ]x 0 (1 x ) 3 2 d3 1 ]x 0 dx 3 1 x 2 .3 [ ]x 0 (1 x) 4 6.

( see problem 4 )

f (a)

( 0) [

( see problem 4)

Thus we see that f ( x) f ( 0) f ( 0) ( x 0) (x 1! 2! 2 2 2 .3 3 1 x ( x) x R3 ( x) 2 3! 1 x x 2 x 3 R3 ( x) f ( 0) 0) 2 f ( 0) (x 0 )3 3! R3 ( x)

We write this as f ( x) 1 x x 2 x3


where Thus

means approximately equal to

1 1 x

1 x x2

1 1 x
(which is not a polynomial ) by a

so we have approximated the functions polynomial.

This idea of approximation is very important. We take it up in the next section. 1.9.3 : LINEAR APPROXIMATIONS

We write Taylors Formula as an approximation formula f (a) ( x a) 1! f (a) ( x a ) 2 ... 2! f ( n ) (a) ( x a) n n!

f ( x)

f (a)

This is what we meant when we said that Taylors Formula gives polynomial approximation to a general function. Go back to section 1.9.2 and read the five paragraphs (before Taylors Formula) again. If we take n 1 in the above approximation we get:


f ( x)

f (a)

f ( a ) . ( x a ).

This is known as LINEAR APPROXIMATION FORMULA. It is very useful, when x a is very small. This idea is illustrated by the following examples: EXAMPLE Suppose f (x) = x2 + x + 1. Find the value of f(x) when x =1.01. Of course, we can find this value by direct substitution. But, if we want only an approximate value of f(1.01), we can use the above formula as follows Take x = 1.01 and a = 1. Then 39

x a = 0.01 which is very small value. Now Thus

dy 2x 1 dx f (a) f (1) [2x 1]x 1 3 f (x)

f (1.01) f (1) 0.01 x f (1) 3 0 .01 3 3 .03

so f(1.01) 3.03.

The actual value of f (1.01) is 3.0301. So our approximation is very good indeed! Now, are you able to perceive the power of formula 9? Before going to the next example, note the following: FORMULA 2 IS TRUE EVEN WHEN n IS A FRACTION. i.e., WE HAVE

d (xn) dx

n x

n 1


2 5 7 , , 3 2 3 etc . EXAMPLE Find an approximate value of (1.1)1/3 So we consider the function

f ( x) x1 3 f (1.1)

so that (1.1)1 3

Thus we have to find an approximation for f (1.1). Take x = 1.1 and a = 1. 40

Also f ( x) d 13 (x ) dx 1 3 1 x 3 1 23 x 3 1 1 . 3 x2 3 1 3

by above formula

Thus f (a ) Hence, we have

f (1)

(1.1)1 3

f (1.1) f ( a ) f ( a ). ( x a ) f (1) 1 f (1) x 0.1

1 0 .1 3 1 0.03 1.03 Where we have used the fact that

f (1) (1)1 / 3 1. EXAMPLE Find an approximation for 3 7 .8 Now 3 7.8

(7.8) 1 3. so we take f ( x) x 1 3 . Also we take x =7.8 and a = 8.


f (a) (8)1 3 2 1 1 ]a 3 x2 3 1 12

f (a) [

So 3 7.8

(7.8)1 3

f ( x) f (a) 2 f (a ). ( x a ) 1 (7.8 8) 12 1 2 0.2 12 2 0.0167 1.9833


1. Compute the values of x2 + x + 1 corresponding to the following values of x. - 0.18, - 2.01, 0.1234, 0.1121.

Compute the values of 3!, 4! and 5!. What is the highest power of x in a) x6 + x10 + 2? b) 2 + x4 + x5 ? c) x11 ?


4. If y =

1 1 x

: verify that

dy 1 d2y , dx (1 x) 2 dx 2

2 d3y , (1 x) 3 dx 3

2 .3 . (1 x) 4


5. Let f (x) = x2 + x+1. Take n = 2 in Taylors Formula and find the Taylors Formula for a) a = -1 and 1 b) a = - . 2 6. Let f (x) = x2 + x + 1. Use formula 9 to compute an approximate value for a) f (0.18) Take a = 0 b) f (1.123) Take a=1 c) f (-0.18) Take a = -1 d) f (0.123456789) Take a = - 0. 7. Find an approximate value of a) 3 28 b) 37.5 c) 4 82 Take x = 28 and a = 27 Take x = 37.5 and a = 36 Take x = 82 and a = 81.

8. Find an approximation for f (2.01) 1 Where f (x) = 2 x (HINT: Take a = 2)


Chapter 2

In this block you will be introduced to the following ideas Related Rates and Maxima Minima mainly from the point of view of applications to real life situations. Related Rates, as the name indicates, concern with rates (more than one) related to one another by means of a relation. If the values of all, except one of them are known, the value of the remaining rate can be found. This simple idea is so very useful that many complex problems arising out of real-life situations can be solved with surprising ease. The theory of maxima-minima is an extensive one, our aim is to present the basics of this great idea and show how this nodding acquaintance can be exploited to solving sufficiently complex problems.


2.1 INTRODUCTION In computer 1 you learnt about RATE and some applications of this idea to simple real-life situations. In this chapter you will learn about related rates and maxima-minima and how all these ideas can be used in more complex situations. 2.2 RELATED RATES When two variable x and y are related by an equation, then their rates with dx dy respect to time t will also be related by an equation. and dt dt If the value of one of them is known at an instant of time, then the value of the other can be calculated (for the same instant of time). Problems of this kind come under the heading Related Rates. The following examples will illustrate this idea by means of applications to reallife situations. 2.2.1 EXAMPLE A ladder 25 meters long is leaning against a vertical wall. If the bottom of the ladder is pulled horizontally away from the wall at 3 meters per second, how fast is the top of the ladder sliding sown the wall, when the bottom is 15 meters form the wall? Let t = the time that has elapsed since the ladder started to slide down the wall; y = the distance form the ground to the top of the ladder at t seconds; x = the distance from the bottom of the ladder to the wall at t seconds. See the figure below.


Because the bottom of the ladder is pulled horizontally away from the wall at 3 meters per second,

dx dt


We want to find dy/dt when x = 15. Note: x will be 15 meters at some instant of time. This instant of time is not given explicitly because it is not required for this (and most of the) problem (s). This fact should be borne in mind. From the figure we have X2 + y2 = 252 = 625 2 y = 625 x2


.. (2)

because x and y are functions of t, we differentiate on both sides of (1) with respect to t and obtain (by chain rule) 2y

dy dt


dx dt


dy x dt y So , when x y
from (2); and hence

dx dt 15 we get 20

..... ( 3 )

..... ( 4 )

dy 15 ]x=15 = dt 20

because of (1), (3) and (4). Thus

dy ] dt


1 . 4

1 m / sec 4 when the bottom is 15 m from the wall. (The significance of the minus sign is that y decreases as t increases).
Hence, the top of the ladder is sliding down the wall at the rate of 2 2.2.2 EXAMPLE Two cars, one going due east at the rate of 37.5 km/hr and the other going due south at the rate of 30 km/hr, are traveling toward an intersection of the two roads. At what rate are the two cars approaching each other at the instant when the first car is 40 km and the second car is 30 km from the intersection? Let P be the intersection of the two roads. See the figure below:


Let x = the distance of the first car form P at t seconds; y = the distance of the second car from P at t seconds; z = the distance between the two cars at t seconds. As t increases (i.e. as time passes) x decreases because the first car approaches P. thus

dx dt


Similarly, we have

dy dt


we want to find dz/dt when x = 40 and y = 30. 48

From the figure, we obtain z2 = x 2 + y 2 Differentiating with respect to t (apply chain rule), we obtain .. (5)

2z and so
dz dt

dz dt


dx dt


dy dt

x dx z dt

y dy z dt

..... ( 6)

When x = 40 and y = 30, we have z = 50 from (5). Thus, we have

dz dt

x 40 y 30

40 x ( 37 . 5 ) 50 48 .

30 x ( 30 ) 50

Therefore, at the instant under consideration, the cars are approaching each other at the rate of 48 km/hr. (Again the minus sign shows that z decreases as t increases. This fact is also clear from the situation because the two cars move to wards P and has to decrease). 2.2.3 EXAMPLE A pebble is dropped into a pond causing a circular ripple. A measuring device indicates that at the time the radius of the circular ripple is 5 inches, the radius is changing of at the rate of 3 inches per second. How fast is the area changing at this instant of time? Let A be the area of the circular ripple, when r is its radius. Then we know that A= r2 . (7)

We are given that, when r = 5,

dr dt 2.
r 5

dr dt

2 . That is
. (8)


From (7) we have

dA dt
So when r =5 we get

.2 r .

dr dt .

dA dt

2 10 20

5 2 by

dr dt

x 5

Thus, when r =5 inches, the area is changing at the rate of 20 square inches per second. (here the plus sign shows that the area is expanding at the above rate. This is also clear from the context. Perform an experiment to get a better understanding). EXERCISE 2.2 1. Two trucks have a common starting point, but one moves southward at 30 km/hr and the other westward at 40 km/hr. at the end of 1 hr, how fast are the trucks moving away from each other? 2. The marginal revenue corresponding to a quantity of 2 units is known to be Rs. 10 per unit. If the price corresponding to 2 units is Rs. 8 per unit, how fast is the price changing (with respect to quantity) when the quantity is 2 units? (HINT : Total Revenue = number of units x price per unit Marginal Revenue = rate of change of with respect to the quantity. Quantity = number of units. Let x = number of units at some particular instant p = price per unit R= Total revenue.




Then R = px Marginal Revenue = We are given that

dR dx p 10
x 2

dR dx

p x

dp dx

8 when


3. a manufacturer finds that when 100 units of a commodity are sold, profit is increasing at the rate of Rs. 4 per unit and price is decreasing at the rate of Rs. 1 per unit. The price for 100 units is Rs. 60 per unit. How fast is the total cost changing per unit at this level of sales? (HINT: Again, let x = number of units sold P = profit c = cost p = price Then P = xp c.) 4. A boy flies a kite at a height of 300 feet. The wind is carrying the kite horizontally away from the boy at a rate of 2 feet per second. How fast must the boy pay out the string when the kite is 500 feet away from him? 5. A man on a dock is pulling in a boat at the rate of 50 feet per minute by means of a rope attached to the boat at water level. If the mans hands are 16 feet above the water level, how fast is the boat approaching the dock when the length of the rope is 20 feet?

2.3 MAXIMA AND MINIMA In many day-to-day problems we are concerned with maximum or minimum values for example, what is the maximum profit one can obtain, what is the maximum number of employees that can be used for a specific purpose, what is the minimum loss one has to suffer in a venture etc.


To give a specific illustration, assume that a manufacturer knows that he will earn p(x) rupees if he produces x items of some commodity. If he produces too few items, he will be unable to meet demand, and if he produces to many, he will be overstocked, thus, he expects p to be small if x is too small or too large. His problem is to determine the number x for which p is maximum. If we call this number x0, then p(x0) will be the maximum earnings possible. (Note that p is a function of x). The following algorithm tells you how to solve a given problem involving maxima or minima. ALGORITHM I. II. III. Determine the function y = f (x) involved in the problem. dy Find . dx dy Solve the equation 0. dx This will give values for x, Call the value a.



d 2 y dx 2

V. VI.


d 2 y dx 2

(i) If above value is negative, x = a gives maximum; i.e. f(a) is the maximum value required. (ii) If the above value is positive, x = a gives minimum; i.e., f(a) is the minimum value required.

CAUTION: A given problem will involve only one: either maximum or minimum. No problem can involve both maximum and minimum.


2.3.1 EXAMPLE A processor who sells a certain raw material to manufacturers has analyzed the market and determined that p(x), the unit price charged (in thousands of rupees ) to each manufacturer for x tons of raw material is given by p(x) = 60 - x2 with 0 x 7. How many tons should the processor sell to each manufacturer in order to obtain the greatest total revenue? What is the greatest total revenue? The total revenue R(x) is given by R(x) = x p(x) = 60 x x3 Now

dR dx

60 - 3x2 = 3(20 x2).


dR = 0 gives 20 x2 = 0. dx
20 .

That is, we have x = + 20 or -

Since x represents number of tons sold, it cannot be negative. Thus - 20 is ruled out. So X = 20 d 2R = - 6x, dx 2 d 2R dx 2



6 20
x 20

which is negative. Thus x = maximum revenue is R = 60 20 -

20 = 4.47 tons are sold to a manufacturer and the


=179 approx. So maximum revenue is Rs. 179,000. 53


EXAMPLE: A photographer has a thin piece of wood 16 inches long. How should he cut the wood to make a rectangular picture frame that encloses the maximum area? Let x = the length of the rectangular frame y = the width of the rectangular frame.

Then the area of the frame is given by A = x y. . (9)

Note that we are restricted here by the total length of 16 inches of wood to make up all the four sides. The total length of all the four sides of the frame is x + y + x + y = 2x + 2y And this must be 16. so we have 2x + 2y = 16 or x + y = 8. So we get y = 8 x And using this in (9) we get A = x (8 x) = 8x x2. . (10)

Note that there are two sides of length x and their sum 2x should be less than 16. That is 0 < 2x < 16 or 0 < x < 8. Now, from (10) we see that . .. (11)

dA 8 2x . dx


dA 0 dx

gives 8 2x = 0 or x = 4 Observe that the value 4 lies in the interval given by (11). Also we have d2A dx 2 and hence
d2A dx 2
x 4


which is negative. Thus x =4 gives the maximum. So the maximum area is 16 from (10) and this occurs when the frame is a square having sides equal to 4 inches. [Because y = 8 4 = 4]. 2.3.3 EXAMPLE: The crime-rate index of a locality, denoted by y, and the weekly contact-hours (denoted by x) that social workers spend in direct contact with persons living in that area are related as follows: Y = 0.001x2 0.2x + 12 where x can be any number between o and 150. What is the optimum number of contact hours per week for this area? Observe that the optimum number of contact hours per week is that value of x for which y is a minimum; i.e. the value of y is as small as possible. We have


dy 0.002 x 0.2. dx dy 0 dx

gives 0.002x 0.2 = 0 Or x = 100. 55

Note that this value lies between 0 and 150. Further d2y 0.002 dx 2 And hence
d2y dx 2
x 100


Since 0.002 is a positive quantity, we see that the value x = 100 gives the required minimum value for y. Hence, minimum value of y = 0.001 (100)2 0.2 (100, + 12 =2 Thus, the optimum number of weekly contact hours should be 100 and the corresponding crime-rate index is 2. EXERCISE 2.3 1. For a firm, the total cost and total revenue are given by the following relations: C = x 3 5x2 + 9x and R = 34x 3x 2 where x denotes the level of output and x can be any value between 0 and 7. (a) Find the value of the output for which total revenue is maximum. (b) Find the value of the output for which total profit is maximum. 2. When a person coughs, the diameter of the trachea decreases. The velocity y of air in the trachea during a cough is related to the radius (x) of the trachea by the equation: Y = 5x2 (10 x) where x can take any value between 0 and 10. Find the value of x for which the velocity is greatest and also find the maximum velocity of the air. 3. A manufacturer produces x articles per day where x can be any value between 0 and 50. The total cost per article is given by

16 x 12 x 100

How many articles should be produced each day in order to minimize the cost? 4. A small amount of water is treated to control bacterial growth. After x days, the concentration of bacteria per cubic centimeter is given by y = 20x2 200x + 640 over a 9-day period. How many days after treatment will the bacterial concentration be lowest? What is the lowest concentration? 5. The sum of one number x, and three times a second number y is 80. Find the numbers if the product of x by the square of y is maximum.


Chapter 3
Objective In this block you will be introduced to the ideas of exponential functions and integrations. Exponential functions occur very frequently in applications growth, decay and waiting time distribution to name a view topics. It is the single most important function which is ubiquitous and useful. Here you will learn its properties and its inverse function called the natural logarithm function. Closely related with differentiation is the idea of integration. Infact, integration is the reverse process of differentiation. At the same time it is something more than that. You will learn about antiderivation of simple functions, and how to manipulate antiderivatives: further the idea of definite integral, which is again an important idea, is introduced by means of well motivated examples and you are shown how the two ideas- antiderivatives and definite integrals are related. In this way one can compute the values of definite integrals.


Exponential Function
3.1 Introduction If any sufficiently large segment of population is measured in any reasonable way, the normal mode of growth is exponential. In other words population grows like compound interest, multiplied by a constant factor in equal periods of time. What it means mathematically is that at any point of time the rate of growth is proportional to the size of the population, is proportional to the total magnitude already achieved. Thus bigger a population, faster it grows. The same is true of the human population of the world or any particular country. The exponential growth is thus of great significance. Let us try to build a mathematical model. 3.2 The Exponential Function As a population following exponential growth gets multiplied by a constant factor in equal intervals of time, it will double itself in certain equal intervals of time. If we take such an interval of time to be one unit, we may say that the rate of change of the population at any point of time will be equal to itself. In other words if the population at any point of time t is denoted by the function f(t), we get.

df t dt

f t.


We may further assume that the population at any point of time where we start our measurement of time, to be one unit, i.e., f(t) = 1 at t = 0, or f(0) = 1. If we write y = f(t) and y 0 f 0 , then we have

dy dt

y, y 0 1.


We have thus obtained a differential equation satisfied by y = f(t). We would like to find a solution of the differential equation (2), that is we want to find a function, which will satisfy (2). Let us call this function, exponential function and write the same as exp(t). 3.3 Properties The question arises what are the other properties of this function. At any time t, the value of the concerned population will be exp(t) and at equal intervals of time 59

it gets multiplied by a constant factor. Thus after an interval of time equal to a units, the population will be some constant multiple of exp(t). In other words.
exp t a C exp t ,


Where C is some constant. To get the value of C, we consider what happens to (3) when t = 0, We obtain from (3) by putting t = 0.
exp a C exp 0 .

But according to our assumption exp (0) = 1. Thus C = exp (a) and we obtain.
exp t a exp a exp t .


As the measurement of time t, could be started for any point of time, (4) will be true for every value of t and a, positive as well as negative. Thus taking a = -t in (4), we get. Exp (0) = exp (-t) exp (t) i.e.


1 exp t

exp t


Further for any positive integer p, we have exp(pt) = exp (t + t + ...p times) = exp(t) exp (t).... expt(t) = ((exp(t))p and
exp pt 1 exp pt 1 exp t

exp t

Hence for any integer q 0, we have

1 exp t q

exp t

Consequently exp

1 t q

exp(t )


p is a rational number (p a positive integer and q an integer not equal q to zero), then it follows that Also if r P t q
p q r

exp rt


exp t

exp t


According to the definition of exp(t), its value at t = 0 is 1 and for any subsequent value of t(>0) the value of exp(t) will be more than 1. Thus
exp t 1 for t 0.


also for t = -a, where a is positive, we have

exp t


1 exp a

Thus 0 < exp (t) < 1 for t < 0. It follows from (7) and (8) that exp (t) > 0.


for all values of t in R. Further from (5) and (6) we conclude that exp(t) takes values larger than any given positive number for sufficiently large positive values of t and very small positive values for sufficiently large negative values of t. Thus for the function exp(t). Domain = R and Range = {x / x > 0} and for large negative values of x, the x-axis is an asymptote to the graph of exp(x). The value of exp(1) is 2.718281828 (correct upto 9 places after the decimal) and is denoted by e. We can calculate this value using computer. It follows from (6), by taking t = 1, that for any rational number r.

exp r

exp 1


using this as the motivation we define exp x e x for every x R.

In view of the above discussion and the values of exp(0) and exp(1) the graph of exp (x) may be drawn as shown below:

3.4 Natural Logarithm We recall that the domain of the exponential function is the set of all real numbers R and the range is the set of all positive numbers. Further the property exp(x+a) = exp(a) exp(x) and the result (4) tells us that exp (x+a) > exp(x) for a>0. In other words we have exp (x1) < exp(x2) whenever x1 < x2. Thus the exponential function takes distinct values at distinct points. It is thus a one-one function. Consequently the function. Exp : R R+

Is one-one and onto and therefore it possesses the inverse. The inverse of the exponential function has domain R+ and range R and is called natural logarithmic function. It is denoted by ln x. Thus Ln : R+ R 62

Is denoted as y = lnx wherever x = exp (y).

We now draw the graph of lnx by taking the reflection of the graph of y = exp x in the line y = x. We note that ln(1) = 0 because exp (0) = 1 and ln e = 1 because exp(1) = e. 3.5 Properties of the function ln x (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)
ln x1 x 2 ln x1 ln x 2


1 x
x1 x2

ln x
ln x1 ln x 2

ln x r

r ln x

r any rational number.

d ln x dx

1 x


To establish (i) suppose

ln x1 y1 and ln x 2 y2 .


x1 exp y1 and x 2 exp y 2 .

hence x1 x 2 exp y1 exp y 2

exp y1 y 2 , by (4)

Thus we obtain
ln x1 x 2 y1 y 2 ln x1 ln x 2



1 , we get x1 1 x1

ln1 ln x1 ln

which proves (ii) because ln 1 = 0.

x1 x2 1 x2

(iii) is proved by writing


and using (i) and (ii). To prove (iv) assume

ln x r

y, where r is a rational number

Then x r exp y
1 r


exp y


1 y , by (6). r

Hence Or

1 y ln x r
y = r ln x

Thus ln xr = r ln x. 64

To prove (v), assume y = ln x. Then x = exp(y). This on differentiation with respect to x, gives

1 exp y

dy dx 1 . x


dy 1 dx exp y

3.6 The Value of e We have defined e = exp (1). In order to find the value of e, we once again look at the derivative of ln x. Then

f x

1 . x

Hence f 1 1. By definition of derivative we have

f 1

h 0

f 1 h h

f 1

lim it
h 0

ln 1 h ln 1 h

1 Limit ln 1 h h 0 h

Limit ln 1 h
h 0

Using the fact that ln x is the inverse of exp x, we note that

exp1 Limit 1 h
h 0
1 h

1 h


e lim it 1 h
h 0


Let us now evaluate this limit by using a calculator. We calculate the values of 1 h
1 h

for values of h = .1, .01, .001, etc. We find h .1 .01 .001 .0001 .00001 .000001 .0000001 .00000001
1 h

1 h

2.59374246 2.704813829 2.716922932 2.718145927 2.718268237 2.718280469 2.718281692 2.718281815

This table gives us the value of e, correct upto six places after the decimal. For still better accuracy one can take values of h smaller than those considered in this table. However as suggested earlier, one may use a computer to find the value of e correct to any places after the decimal. 3.7 Graphs In any problem of growth of a certain type of population let us determine the population x0 , x1 , x 2 ,...... at equal intervals of time, say at the instances of time t 0 , t1 , t 2 ,....


and plot the graph of the points t 0 , x0 , t1 , x1 , t 2 , x 2 ,.... We now try to join the points by drawing a smooth curve through them. If the curve resembles the graph of exp(t), we conclude that the growth of population is exponential. There is another way of looking at the problem. Instead of plotting the points t1 , x1 , t 2 , x 2 , t 3 , x3 , as above, we plot the points (t1, ln x1), t 2 , ln x 2 , t 3 , ln x3 ,.. In the case of exponential growth we shall have the relation. x1 or x1 exp t1 , x 2 exp t 2 , x3 exp t 3 ,.... exp t1 , x 2 exp t 2 , x3 exp t 3 ,

for some constant

. Hence we have

z1 ln x1 t1 , z 2 ln x 2 t 2 , z 3 ln x3 t 3 .... or z1 ln x1 t1 , z 2 ln x 2 t 2 , z 3 ln x3 t 3 ......

This shows that the points t1 , z1 , t 2 , z 2 , t 3 , z 3 ,.... will lie on a straight line as shown in the adjoining figure. As it is easy to visualize a straight line in comparison to the graph of the exponential function, many a time it is preferred to draw the curve using the natural logarithm of the observed values of the population under consideration. If the points lie on a straight line we conclude that the mode of growth is exponential.


Chapter 4
4.1 Introduction In elementary arithmetic there are certain simple, direct processes, like addition, multiplication, and squaring a number. These can always be carried out within the framework of the natural numbers: 0,1,2,3,4, what is 3 added to 4? Answer is 7. What is 3 multiplied by 4? Answer is 12. What is the square of 3? Answer is 9. Later on, we learnt to reverse these operations. We learnt to subtract by reversing additions: 3 and what makes 7? Answer is 4. We divided by reversing multiplication: 3 times what is 12? Answer is 4. We reversed squaring to extract square root: Which number squared gives 9? Answer is 3. These reverse operations lead us to extend our ideas and discover new ones. In fact, the idea of negative numbers, the idea of fractions, the idea of irrational numbers and the even more striking idea of complex numbers were discovered by this process of reversing. In calculus also exactly the same kind of growth occurs. In Chapter 1 we learnt how to compute derivatives of functions, and how this concept is used. For dy example : What is the slope of the curve y = f(x) at any point? Answer is . dx Given a law y = f(x) which tells you where an object is at any time, what is its dy velocity? Answer is .. dx We can easily reverse this and ask: Given the slope of a curve at any point, find the curve or, given the law for the velocity, find the law for the position. In symbols, given that

dy g ( x) dx
(where g(x) is a known function) find y as a function of x. This kind of problems goes by the name: ANTIDERIVATION or INTEGRATION.


Recall that when we learnt about rates, we studied two notions: 1. Derivative at a point give by
dy dx

x a

and 2. Derivative (at any point) given by

dy . dx
In the same way, in this Chapter you are going to study about two notions: 1. General (Integration) which solves the problem of finding the (unknown) dy function y when g x , (Here g(x) is the given function). And dx 2. Definite Integral which is the difference of the values of the anti-derivative at two points. (More will be said on this at the appropriate place). 4.2 Antiderivation As explained above, anti-derivation or (general) integration solves the problem of dy finding the (unknown) function y given that g x (g(x) being the given dx function). For example, given that

dy 2 x. dx


We know that the answer is: x2 (Look up the formula 2) But, surprisingly, this is not the only answer! any one of the following functions will also satisfy the above given equation(*) 69

x2 x2 x2

2 2 3 2

and, in general, x2 + K, where K is any constant. Note : Do you see why the above statements are true? Go back to Formula 3. Thus, the general answer for the problem

dy 2 x. dx
is given by y x2 k.

This is generally written as y x 2 C (where the capital C is used to denote the general constant). This function X2 + C Is called (general) Antiderivatives of the function 2x, which appears on the righthand-side of (*). The process of finding antiderivatives is called ANTIDERIVATION. Remember: Anti derivative of a given function is not unique; i.e., given a function g(x), the equation

dy dx

g x

has many answers. Any two of these answers differ by a constant. Thus, if we know one answer, F(x) , then all the answers are known and they are given by F(x) + C, for suitable values of C.


4.2.1 Example Find an anti-derivative of x 3

3. Here, we are given that

dy dx


Now, because of Formula 5 we can find anti-derivative of x 3 and 3 separately. Antder x 3 by Formula 3, and Antder (3) = 3x by Formula 4, thus Antder x 3 x4 4 x4 4

3x C

Memorize the following formula Formula 1 Antder x n where n xn 1 C n 1 1.

The case n = 0, which is included in the above formula, needs special mention. So we give it as a separate formula. Formula 2 Antder (k) = kx + C where k is any number

We give one more example.


4.2.2 Example Find an anti-derivative of

1 3 2 5

5 8

Using the above formulae, we get

1 1 3 1

Antder x

x3 1 1 3

3 3 x 4
Antder x
2 5

2 1 5

2 1 5

5 5 x 3


5 8

5 x 8

Thus required anti-derivative is

3 3 x 4

5 5 x 3

5 x C 8

Before giving further formulae, we note the following: To every formula of differentiation there is a corresponding formula of antiderivation. Now commit the following formulae to memory. Formula 3 Antder (f(x)+ g (x)) = Antder (f(x)) + Antder (g(x)) Note that we have already made use of this formula in examples given above. 72

Formula 4 Antder (kf(x)) = k Antder (f(x)) Where k is constant For example, Antder (3x2) = 3 Antder (x2)
x3 3 x3

C , where C, is some constant.

4.2.3 Example Consider the following modification of example 2.2.

1 3 2 5



5 8

Using the results of example 4.2. and the formulae 3 and 4 we get
1 2 5

Antder 4 x 3


5 8
2 5

= 4 Antder x

1 3

3 Antder x


5 8

3 3 5 5 4 x 3 x 4 3
4 3

5 x C 8

3x 3

5x 5

5 x C. 8


Formula 5 Antder e x Formula 6 ex C


1 x

ln x where x

C 0

Note that this formula fills up the lacuna in formula-1. In formula-1 the case n = -1 was excluded. The above formula shows what happens when n = -1.

Example: Find the antiderivatives of

1 x2
Note that

2 x

10e x

1 x2

x 2 . We have


1 x2

2 x

10e x

Antder x

2 10e x x
1 x 10 Antder e x

Antder x

2 Antder

x 21 2 ln x 2 1 1 2 ln x x

10e x C

10e x


Formula 7

Antder e ax

1 ax e a

where a is a non-zero constant Formula 8 Integration by Parts Antder

f x

dg x dx

f x g x - Antder

df x g x dx

Formula 8 goes by the name integration by parts. This is a very useful formula and must be committed to memory firmly! The following example illustrates its use: 4.2.4 Example Find antiderivative of xe kx . So we have to find Antder xe kx . First of all we try to express e kx in the form

d g x for some suitable function g(x). Since dx


Antder e kx

1 kx e k

by formula 7, we get d 1 kx e dx k 1 ke kx k e kx Thus e kx 1 d kx e k dx

d 1 kx e dx k


And so we take g x

1 kx e . Thus we have k

e kx

d g x dx

where g x

1 kx e k

Next we take f(x) = x and apply formula 8. We get Antder x e kx

Antder f x

d g x dx

f x g x x e kx k

Antder g x e kx k 1

d f x dx


1 kx e k
1 kx e k 1 kx e k 1 kx e k


1 kx e k

1 Antder e kx k 1 1 kx e C k k 1 kx e C. k2

In particular, taking k = -1. We get Antder xe





Exercise 4.2 Find the antiderivatives of the following: 1.

3 2

2 x
2 3

3 x3



3x 2 x 2x 2

x 1

(Hint: Divide each term by x3)

4. 5. 6.

(Hint: Expand first)

x2 ex (Hint : Apply Formula 8 twice) x ln x (Hint: Recall x

d 1 2 x dx 2


ln x (Hint: Write lnx = 1.ln x and use 1

d ( x) ) dx

4.3 Definite Integral 4.3.1 In this section, we will introduce the important concept- Definite integral. Roughly speaking, definite integral is an infinite sum; i.e. a sum containing a limitless or unending number of terms. To put it in proper focus, we start by considering sum of finitely many terms. Consider the following sums. 1+2 1+2+3 1+ 2 + 3 + 4 1 + 2 + 3 + . + 100 These are all finite sums because we are adding a finite (may be two or three or. > number of terms. 77

Before proceeding further, we use a short-hand notation for representing sums of above forms and infinite sums. This is the notation. ( is read as sigma. It is Greek alphabet corresponding to the English alphabet S). Using this notation, we can write 1 + 2 + 3 + + 100 in a compact form:

n 1

For example,

n 1

is a short form for






Do you understand how useful this notation is? 4.3.2 Now let us move on to infinite sums. For example,

1 12

1 22

1 32


is an infinite sum. The pattern is : if you know a term, say, is

1 , then the next term n2

1 . Thus we can generate as many terms as we want and there will be no 2 n 1 end to this process! That is why, the above sum is called an infinite sum. (The word infinite is the opposite or antonym of the word finite) Note that the above sum can be written compactly as

n k 1

1 k2

This needs explanation:

n k 1

1 k2

is short for

1 12

1 22

1 32


1 n2

The symbol lim stands for generate terms without end.


We will express the above sum in a slightly different way: let

f x

1 x2

1 k2

f k

and the above sum is given by


n k 1

f k

Also note that in f(x), x takes only the values 1,2,3,., n. We picture this as follows:

Now it is clear that the distance between any two consecutive x-values is 1(one). So we write the above sum as


n k 1

f k .1 (*)

Now, we will see that the definite integral is a generalization of (*). Thus, we can think of the definite integral as the generalized sum or generalized aggregate. 4.3.3 For the process of definite integration, we need the following data: 1. 2. An interval [a,b] where a < b A nice function f(x) defined on [a,b]. Given these, we divide the interval [a,b] into n equal parts, as shown below:

Each part will have the same length x1 in the first part, x2 in the second part -------------------------xk in the kth part; -------------------------xn in the nth part. We form the sum

b a . In each part we take a point: n

f x1

f x2


f xk


f xn
k 1

f xk

Multiply this sum by the length of each part;

b a n
we get

b a n

f xk
k 1

Now consider 80


b a n

f x k ......(**)
k 1

This value is called the definite integral of f(x) from a to b, and is denoted by

f x dx

The symbol

is elongated S.

Note the close resemblance between (*) and (**) Remember 1.

b a

f x dx is called the definite integral of f(x) from a to b.

2. 3.

b a

f x dx is a generalized sum.

The meaning of

f x dx is given by (**)

4.3.4 We have seen above that the definite integral can be thought of as a generalized sum. Since this concept is an important one, we will provide two more motivations: One of these is given here and the other is given in the next section. Suppose you are traveling in a car going along a straight road with velocity (speed) given by f(x) where x represents time. If you travel from time x = a to time x = b, how much distance has been traveled? We cannot find this distance by multiplying the velocity f(x) and the total time traveled b-a; because the velocity is not a constant! It varies with time! So we feel that, if we divide the total time b-a into several small intervals then an argument similar to above will work-take sum of velocity in each interval multiplied by the length of the interval.


Also we feel that the smaller each interval is, the better will be our approximation! THIS IS PRECISELY THE IDEA BEHIND DEFINITE INTEGRATION!!! So proceeding as in 4.3.3., we see that the total distance traveled is given by

f x dx

Do you feel comfortable about this concept now? 4.3.5 Definite Integral as Area: We now give another motivation for definite integral from another angle- from geometric viewpoint. Now go back to 4.3.3. We are given a nice function (i.e., a continuous function which lies above the x-axis y = f(x) defined on [a,b]. See figure 1.

As before, we divide the interval [a,b] into n equal parts each of length

b a n

Where the points of division are a a 0 , a1 , a 2 ,.....a k , a k 1 ,......a n 1 , a n b

See Figure 2.

As before (4.3.3) we take points x1 , x 2 ,....., x k ,.....x n in each part, as shown in figure 3.

We form the sum

b a n
n k 1

f xk
k 1

b a . f xk n b a . f x k can be interpreted as the area of the rectangle whose n

Now the term sides are

b a and f x k . See figure 4. n


Thus the sum

n k

b a . f xk n 1

can be interpreted as the sum of areas of rectangles each with base

b a n
and heights f x1 , f x 2 ,...., f x n , see figure 5.


Thus the sum can be taken as an approximation for the area under the curve y f x from x = a to x = b. Hence, when n becomes larger, the base of the rectangles become smaller and the sum
n k 1

b a . f xk n

gives closer approximation for the area under the curve. So the value (**) gives the EXACT VALUE of the area under the curve y = f(x) from x = a to x = b. We thus have the important interpretation:

f x dx

represents the area under the curve y = f(x) from x = a to x=b! (Remember that f(x) is nice) 4.4 Fundamental Theorem of Integration As the title indicates this result is a basic one. It exhibits a remarkable relation between the antiderivatives and the definite integral of a function. This relation is quite useful in evaluating the definite integrals. We state this result in an informal way: Fundamental Theorem: If a function f(x) is nice over the interval [a,b], then
b a

f x dx

Antder f x

b a

Note: If F(x) is any function, the symbol

F x
b a

stands for the value F(b) F(a). 85

F x

b a


F a
b a

The Fundamental Theorem tells you that in order to evaluate enough to 1. Find an antiderivatives of f(x); 2. Evaluate Antder f x
b a

f x dx , it is

b a

Then 3. This is the required value of

f x dx.

The following example illustrates this idea. 4.4.1 Example:



x 2 dx

Now Antder x 2

x3 . 3

There is no need to add the constant C here, because we need only one antiderivative.
2 1


x dx

x3 3

2 3 13 3 3

8 1 3 3 7 3


4.4.2 Example Find the area under the curve y = ex between x = 0 and x = 1.

The required area = e x dx


ex 4.4.3 Example Evaluate


1 0


xk e


This integral is important. Now Antder xke




1 e k


(Go back to example 4.2.5). Thus 1 kx e k






1 k
Because lim x e
x kx

0 & lim e



Exercise 4.4 Evaluate



x 4 dx


e x dx


1 2




4 x dx




1 dx t 1
Find the area under y = x from x = 0 to x = 1. Sketch a figure. What do you see? Find the area under y = 4 x2 between x = -1 and x = 2.

7. 8.



x x2 1


(Hint : Find

d dx

x2 1



x 3 dx


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