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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies

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Research Paper

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE WITH THE USE OF GRANITE FINES


Divakar. Y 1, Manjunath. S 2 and Dr. M.U. Aswath 3

Address for Correspondence


PG Student, B.I.T, Bangalore, 2Assistant Professor, RVCE, Bangalore, 3Professor B.I.T, Bangalore ABSTRACT
Granite fines which are the byproduct produced in granite factories while cutting huge granite rocks to the desired shapes. While cutting the granite rocks, the powder produced is carried by the water and this water is stored in tanks. After evaporation of water the granite dust remained is transported and disposed on the lands. Disposing this granite fines is a major problem in an Urban set up. Factories are situated close to the residential areas that in case random disposal of the granite fines would lead to health hazards of the people dwelling in the areas in particular and also would prove to be an environmental hazard in general. With the properties of the granite fines, i.e., its size and fineness, it can be very effectively used as a filler material in the concrete, replacing the fine aggregate which will help in filling up the pores in the concrete which is otherwise porous. Filling up of the pores by the granite fines increase the strength of the concrete and also a material which is abundantly available and which has a disposal problem can be made use effectively. In this paper an attempt is made experimentally to investigate the Strength Behavior of Concrete with the use of Granite Fines as an additive. Concrete is prepared with granite fines as a replacement of fine aggregate in 5 different proportions namely 5%, 15%, 25%, 35% and 50% and various tests such as compressive strength, Split tensile strength and Flexural strength are investigated and these values are compared with the conventional concrete without granite fines. KEYWORDS Granite fines, Strength Behavior of concrete, Compressive strength, Split tensile strength and Flexural strength
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1.0 INTRODUCTION: The Granite stone industry generates different types of waste. Solid waste and stone slurry, where as solid waste is resultant from rejects at the time of cutting or at the processing unit. Stone slurry is a semi liquid substance consisting of particles originated from the sawing and polishing process and water used to cool and lubricate the sawing and polishing machines. The slurry is stored in tanks for evaporation. To conserve water the slurry is passed through filtration and slurry compacting machine. The compacted granite fine cakes are transported and disposed in landfills. Its water content are drastically reduced (Approx 2%) and the granite fines resulting from this will have environmental impacts. The stone slurry generated during the processing will be around 40% of the final product. Disposing of compacted granite fine slurry cakes is a major problem anywhere. The factories were use to dispose these granite fines around their own factories. These factories are situated very close to the residential areas. As per the government regulations, any disposable waste is to be disposed minimum 2 Km away from x. Since the cities are expanding the land around the cities are very expensive leading to disposal problems. Disposal of these granite fines leads to health hazards like respiratory and allergy problems to the people around. It also decreases the fertility of soil and yield. It also causes Air and Water pollution. The high cost of concrete used depends on the cost of the constituent materials. Cost of concrete can be reduced through the use of locally available alternative material, to the conventional ones. This paper is on use of granite fines as an alternative to expensive and depleting sand. The world wide consumption of sand as fine aggregate in concrete production is very high, and several developing countries have encountered some strain in the supply of natural sand in order to meet the increasing needs of infrastructural development in recent years. A situation that is responsible for increase in the price IJAERS/Vol. I/ Issue IV/July-Sept., 2012/84-87

of sand, and the cost of concrete. Expensive and scarcity of river sand which is one of the constituent material used in the production of conventional concrete was reported in India. To overcome the stress and demand for river sand, researchers and practitioners in the construction industries have identified some alternatives namely fly ash, slag, limestone powder and siliceous stone powder etc. In India the use of quarry dust to replace river sand was reported. The rejection of very fine materials like clay size particles passing the through 75 microns has been common practice in the past. However, at the light of state of the art concrete technology, the dimension of dust particles is compatible with the purpose of filling up the transition zone (measuring between 10 to 50microns) and the capillary pores (which range from 50nm to 10microns of diameter) this acts as micro filler. Hence various fine particles have been tried in the production of concrete. 2.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The experimental program included first the preliminary investigation on the materials used in the study, i.e, ingredients of concrete. The results are indicated below 2.1 Cement: In the present work, Ordinary Portland Cement of 53 grade conforming to IS: 12269-1987 has been used. The physical properties of the cement obtained on conducting appropriate tests as per IS: 269/4831 and the requirements as per IS 12269-1987 are given in table 1. 2.2 Other Properties of Granite Fines The properties such as Specific Gravity, Water absorption, chloride content, sulphate content, Alkali Aggregate Reactivity and soundness of the granites fines are tested and tabulated as follows as per the codal provisions as per IS:383-1970 (RA 2007) The presence of CaO and Fe2O3 is due to addition of iron pellets and lime as abrasives and lubricant and also to maintain the PH value while cutting the granites.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies Table 1: Physical properties of cement

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Table 2 Other Properties of Granit Fines

2.3 Petrography Report on Granite Fines Sample Technical Reference: IS: 2386 (Part I to VIII)-1963 (Reaffirmed - 2007) and IS: 383-1970 (Reaffirmed 2007) Table 3: Petrography Report on Granit Fines

Fig 1: Granite Fine Samples 2.4 Preparation of Granite Fines before Mixing The granite fines are collected from an open air dumpsite. The insitu water content of the different samples ranges from 0 to 2%. When collected, the dried stone dust is composed of individual particles and lumps. The lumps resulted from the fragmentation of compacted slurry slabs obtained in the water recovering operations held at the processing plant. In order to perform testing the collected samples have to be reduced to dust. 2.5 Mixing of Concrete The performance of the concrete is influenced by the mixing. This means that a proper and good practice of mixing can lead a better performance and quality of the concrete. The quality of concrete is influenced by the homogeneity of the mix material used while mixing and placing of fresh concrete. A proper mix of concrete will achieve good strength of concrete and better bonding of cement with the aggregates. The mixing of concrete was carried out manually in the concrete laboratory at BIT College Bangalore. Before the concrete mixing begins, all of the mix materials were weighted and prepared according to the M20 grade of concrete. (1: 1.5: 3) (Cement: Fine Aggregates: Course Aggregates) The various percentages of fine aggregates are replaced by granite fines with equivalent weights. 2.6 Experimental Investigation on Hardened Concrete Experimental investigation on hardened concrete specimens includes Compressive test on concrete cubes, Split tensile test on concrete cylinders and Flexural Strength test on cement concrete prisms and reinforced concrete beams specimens. Concrete is a combination of Portland cement, water and aggregates that consists of rocks and sand. Normally, concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension. There are many ways to indicate the strength of concrete. The tests used to indicate the strength of concrete can be categorized as destructive and non destructive tests. The testing of the strength of concrete is very important in the civil works. The engineers can compare the value of the testing to the designed value used for the building structure. This is to make sure that the structure has been built well. All the test procedures used was accordance with the Indian codes IS 516-1959 and IS 5816-1999. 2.7 Description of Specimens The experiments included 6 different variations i.e, 5 variations with different percentages of granites fines and one variation is with that of the conventional concrete. All the variations were with respect to M20 grade of concrete (1:1.5:3) and the granite fines were replacement to fine aggregates. The various

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies specimens and there variations are listed in the tabular column below. Table 4 List of Specimen casted with and without granite fines

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similarly all the mix specimens are noted while tabulating the results.

Mix Notation Details:


CTGF Compression Test Specimen with Granite Fines STGF Split Tensile Test Specimen with Granite Fines PCGF -Plain Cement Concrete Test Specimen with Granite Fines RCGF Reinforced Concrete Test Specimen with Granite Fines.

Mix code: CTGF0- Means Compression Test Specimen with 0% Granite Fines replacement Table 5: Summary of test results for various specimens:

Fig 2: Stripping & Curing of Concrete Specimens casted 3.0 TEST RESULTS: Series of test was carried out on the concrete to obtain the strength characteristics of concrete with and without Granite fines as an additive which is a replacement for fine aggregates in various percentages. The results are such as compression test, Split tensile test, Flexure test with and without reinforcement have been tabulated in table 5.

Note : No of Specimens in each variation is 6

4.0 CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of the experimental investigation following conclusions are drawn: 1. The compressive strength has increased by 22% with the use of 35% replacement of fine IJAERS/Vol. I/ Issue IV/July-Sept., 2012/84-87

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aggregates with granite fines. With increase of granite fines up to 50% increasing compressive strength will limit to 4% only. The split tensile strength remains same for 0%, 25% and 35%. For 5% replacement there is an

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies increase of 2.4% of strength and for 15% replacement there is a reduction of tensile strength by 8%. However we can conclude that with the replacement of 35% granite fines the test results shows no decrease in strength compared with the conventional mix using fully sand as fine aggregates. The flexural strength of prism of 10cm x 10cm x 50cm without reinforcement, we can conclude that, there is 5.41% increase in flexural strength with 5 % replacement, and there is a small decrease up to 5% in flexural strength at 15%, 25% and 35% replacement with granite fines and further reduction in strength (i.e. 6%) at 50% replacement of granite fines in comparison with test results of nominal concrete mix of 1:1.5:3 (M-20) without granite fines. However there is no much change in flexural strength test conducted of all the variations. The flexural strength of beam of 15cm x 15cm x 70cm with reinforcement, we can observe that the results obtained are increasing with increase of %replacement of granite fines. There is a small increase (i.e. 2%) of strength for 25% replacement with granite fines and further large increase in strength (i.e. 32%) at 50% replacement of granite fines in comparison with test results of nominal concrete mix of 1:1.5:3 (M-20) without granite fines. Hence we can conclude that there is a considerable increase in flexural strength with the use of granite fines. We can observe that an overall increase in strength with 35% replacement of fine aggregates with granite fines. The water cement ratio has been considered for all the mixers as 0.6. We have arrived this ratio after conducting required slump test. With 0.55% water cement ratio and with 35% and 50% replacement of granite fines the concrete was not workable. From the lab test of granite fines we can observe that there is 13% absorption of water. This may the reason for more water. Even with 0.6% water cement ratio we have got all the test results better that the regular mix. With this we can understand that the workability of concrete mixes decreased with the increase in percentage of granite fines as partial replacement of sand. The physical and chemical properties of granite fines are satisfied the requirement of code provisions. The other strength and durability test conducted shows that the granite fines is fit to be used in concrete mixes. The dimension of the granite fine particles is compatible with the purpose of filing up the transition zone and capillary pores, thus acting as micro filler. The amount of fine particle present ensures effective packing and large dispersion of cement particles thus fomenting better hydration conditions moreover the dust particles completed the matrix interstices and reduce space for free water the combination of these phenomena results in better bonding

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among the concrete components. This may achieved by adding plasticizers for workability by reducing the water cement ratio. With this we can achieve more workability, compaction and more strength. We can produce high performance concrete. 10. The presence of Fe2O3 is due to addition of iron grits we may have to give a protective coating to the concrete to avoid scattered rust appearance of the surface. REFERENCES
1. Nuno Almeida, Fernando Branco, Jorge de Brito, Jose Roberto Santos high-performance concrete with recycled stone slurry Cement and Concrete Research 37 (2007) 210-220 R.M. Senthamarai P. Devadas Manoharan Concrete with Ceramic Waste Aggregate Cement and Concrete Composite 27(2005) 910-913 37 (2007) 210-220 Manasseh JOEL Use of Crushed Granite Fine as Replacement to River Sand in Concrete Production Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies ISSN 1583-1078, Issue 17, July December 2010 Page 85-96 A.K.Sahu, Sunil Kumar and A.K.Sachan Crushed stone waste as fine aggregate for concrete The Indian Concrete Journal 845-848 R.Ilangovana, N.Mahendrana and K.Nagamanib Strength and Durability Properties of Concrete Containing Quarry Rock Dust as Fine Aggregate ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences ISSN 1819-6608, 20-26. Vol-3, No.5, October 2008 T.S.Nagaraj and Zahida Banu Efficient utilization of rock dust and pebbles as aggregates in Portland cement concrete The Indian Concrete Journal 53-56 Vicente Navarro, Victor Barrientos, Anglel Yustres, Jorge Delgado Settlement of embankment fills constructed of granite fines Computers & Geosciences 34 (2008) 978-992 Kou Shi-Cong, Poon Chi-Sun Properties of concrete prepared with crushed fine stone, furnace bottom ash and fine recycled aggregate as fine aggregates Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 28772886. IS 383 1970 : Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from Natural source for Concrete. IS 516-1959: Methods of Tests for Strength of Concrete IS 5816-1999: Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete Method of Test IS SP-23-1982: Concrete Mixes (Based on Indian Standards) IS 4032-1985: Method of Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement IS 2386 1963: Reaffirmed 2007: Method of test for Aggregates for Concrete Part I : Particle Size and Shape Part II: Estimation of deleterious materials and organic impurities Part III: Specific gravity, density, voids, absorption and bulking Part IV: Mechanical proprieties Part V: Soundness Part VI: Measuring Mortar making proprieties of fine aggregates Part VII: Alkali aggregate reactivity Part VIII: Petrographic examination

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IJAERS/Vol. I/ Issue IV/July-Sept., 2012/84-87