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T. ARTS - von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium J.-M. DUBOUE - SNECMA, Centre de Villaroche, France G. ROLLIN - SNECMA, Centre de Villaroche, France

ABSTRACT The purpose of this contribution is to report on the aerothermal performance measurements and calculations carried out around a high pressure gas turbine rotor blade profile mounted in a two-dimensional linear cascade arrangement. The measurements were performed in the CT-2 facility of the von Karman Institute, allowing a correct simulation of the operating conditions encountered in modern aero-engines. Independent variations of exit Mach (0.8 ... 1.3) and Reynolds numbers (5 105 ... 2 106), free stream turbulence (1 ... 6 %) and incidence angle (-14 ... +11 deg) provided the definition of a detailed data base of test results. The measured quantities were the blade velocity and convective heat transfer coefficient distributions. The first objective of the paper is to open and analyze this data base which is one of those used at SNECMA for validation purposes. The paper shows the degree of maturity and reliability SNECMA-ONERA NavierStokes solvers have now reached for daily use in turbine airfoil design and analysis. LIST OF SYMBOLS c chord g pitch h forced convection heat transfer coefficient or blade height I incidence angle M Mach number q forced convection heat flux Re Reynolds number s coordinate along profile T temperature Tu turbulence intensity flow angle stagger angle Subscripts 1 inlet 2 exit

ax is w

INTRODUCTION CFD tools represent a significant source of improvement in the design process of SNECMA turbines, leading to higher performances, cost and cycle savings as well as to lower associated risks. Today, most of the blade to blade CFD calculations used in the turbine design and analysis methodology are carried out with quasi-3D and 3D Navier-Stokes codes ; the last Euler solver presently in use is applied to get the 3D unsteady aero-mechanical blade forced response due to wake excitation. These codes have been developed at ONERA and adapted for turbomachinery and integration applications at SNECMA; they compute compressible flows with finite volume and time marching techniques applied on multiblock structured grids. The quasi-3D Navier-Stokes code COLIBRI is able to give accurate aerodynamic (velocity field, losses, angles) and heat transfer predictions for uncooled or cooled turbines operating in steady or unsteady conditions (Vuillez and Veuillot, 1990; Petot and Fourmaux, 1992; Chanez et al, 1993; DHoop et al, 1996). The 3D Navier-Stokes code CANARI provides precise aerodynamic and heat transfer solutions for uncooled, film cooled, unshrouded or multi-stage turbines running in steady or unsteady conditions (Petot and Fourmaux, 1992; Heider and Arts, 1994; Fougres and Heider, 1994; Heider et al, 1993; Billonnet et al, 1995). An important, even essential, step in the development of these numerical tools remains their validation procedure. Accurate and reliable test cases have to be developed for this purpose. Besides the classical flat plates or bump channels, geometries representative of modern airfoil design should be considered as well. Considerable efforts were therefore devoted at the von Karman Institute (Sieverding, 1973 and 1982; Arts et al, 1989 and 1994) as well as in other laboratories

around the world; a detailed review of these test cases has been provided by Simoneau and Simon (1993). The first objective of the paper is to present the data base obtained from uncooled measurements around the 2D RS1S rotor blade profile of SNECMA. Independent variations of Mach and Reynolds numbers as well as of free stream turbulence intensity and inlet incidence are reported and analyzed. These results are presented in terms of blade velocity and convective heat transfer distributions. The second objective is to demonstrate the degree of reliability and maturity the Navier-Stokes solvers used at SNECMA have now reached for day-to-day application in turbine airfoil design and analysis. MODEL DESCRIPTION The airfoil investigated in the present contribution was designed by SNECMA (RS1S profile). It is a 2D rotor blade characterized by a turning of about 119 deg, and design values of the exit isentropic Mach and Reynolds numbers respectively equal to 1.11 and 1.0075 106. Its geometry is plotted in Fig. 1; a summary of the manufacturing coordinates is provided in table 1. This airfoil was mounted in a linear cascade arrangement; 6 blades (i.e. 5 passages) were used. The 3rd (counted from the top) profile was instrumented either for static pressure or heat flux measurements.

25

20

15

10

0 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

FACILITY - INSTRUMENTATION The measurements were performed in one of the two Isentropic Light Piston Compression Tube facilities of the von Karman Institute, namely the linear cascade wind tunnel CT2. Its description and operating principles, derived from the initial development of Schultz, Jones and co-workers about 2 decades ago (Jones et al, 1973; Schultz et al, 1978), have been described by Richards (1980). The definite advantage of this facility is to provide an independent selection of Mach and Reynolds numbers as well as of gas-to-wall temperature ratio. Air is used as working fluid. The typical test duration is about 500 ms. Free stream total pressure and temperature, static pressure and turbulence intensity were quantified at 1/2 Cax (measured along the axial direction) upstream of the leading edge plane. Static pressure taps were installed at 1/3 Cax (also measured along the axial direction) downstream of the trailing edge plane. These taps covered almost 2.5 pitches in order to define the exit Mach number and to qualify the downstream periodicity. The latter was proved to be fully acceptable. The blade Mach number distributions were determined by means of 27 static pressure taps distributed at mid height around one of the profiles in the cascade. The forced convection heat flux distribution at the wall was determined by means of a transient technique. Platinum thin film gauges, painted at mid height onto one of the profiles made of machinable ceramic, provided the local time dependent temperature history. The local wall heat flux was then obtained from the solution of the unsteady conduction equation in a semi-infinite body. An electrical analogy was used for this purpose (Schultz & Jones, 1973). The convective heat transfer coefficient h used in this contribution is defined as the ratio of the measured wall heat flux and the difference between the total free stream and the local wall temperatures: &w q h= T01 Tw It is also worth to mention that the present results describe some kind of spanwise averaged behavior as the heat flux gauges were about 20 mm long. More details about these measurement procedures have been presented by Arts et al (1990). MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY The uncertainty on the measured quantities was carefully evaluated and led to the following error bars, based on a 20:1 confidence interval. The uncertainty on pressure was of the order of 0.5 %, on gas temperature of the order of 1.5 K and on the heat transfer coefficient of the order of 5 %. The repeatability of the results was verified and proved to remain within 0.5 % and 1 %, respectively for the velocity and heat transfer measurements (Arts et al, 1990) VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS-MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS Blade isentropic Mach number distributions have been obtained for various inlet incidences and loadings from local static pressure measurements, referred to the upstream total

-5

The main geometrical characteristics of the blade and the cascade are summarized hereafter : c : 35.906 mm g/c : 0.7607 h/c : 1.393 : 58.38 deg (from tangential direction) 1 : 53.36 deg (from axial direction) 2 : -65 deg (from axial direction) The cascade model was manufactured at a scale 2/1. The test matrix is based on variations of exit isentropic Mach (0.8 ... 1.3) and Reynolds (5 105 ... 2 106) numbers, inlet free stream turbulence intensity (1 ... 6 %) and inlet incidence (-14 ... +11 deg). Because of paper length constraints, only some representative results will be presented here. The complete data base, including the detailed geometry, is nevertheless available upon simple request.

pressure. The instrumented airfoil was equipped with 27 taps along suction (15) and pressure (12) sides. The influence of inlet turbulence intensity and free stream Reynolds number has not been considered. All tests were performed for an upstream total temperature of the order of 415 ... 420 K and an exit static pressure almost equal to the atmospheric value. The results are presented in terms of isentropic Mach number distribution in function of a coordinate measured along suction and pressure surface wetted length. A first series of measurements were conducted to verify the influence of inlet incidence. The latter was varied between -14 deg and +11 deg while maintaining the exit Mach number at a constant value of about 1.10. A sample of these results is presented in Fig. 2. As might have been expected, the airfoil is quite sensitive to this parameter. An early transition of the suction side boundary layer most probably occurs at positive incidence whereas the acceleration is much more continuous at negative incidence, favoring the development of a laminar boundary layer. The existence of a velocity peak, decreasing from negative to positive incidences, on the front part of the pressure side also definitely influences the local boundary layer development. A detailed analysis of these results finally led to the decision to set the nominal incidence at -5 deg. The main reason was to control the position of the stagnation point, as the same cascade had to be used later on with a leading edge film cooling configuration.

1.75 M is [-] 1.50

1.00

0.75

1.25

1.00

0.75

The influence of exit Mach number is shown in Fig. 3. These results were obtained at the nominal incidence of -5 deg. The velocity peak is clearly present on the pressure side. As will be shown in the next section, the flow regime and the different rates of acceleration along the rear part of the suction side also influence the boundary layer development.

CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER DISTRIBUTIONS MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS Blade convective heat flux measurements were conducted for different values of Mach and Reynolds numbers, free stream turbulence intensity and inlet incidence. Local heat transfer data were obtained by means of 45 platinum thin film thermometers painted on a machinable ceramic airfoil. All tests were performed for an upstream total temperature of about 415 ... 420 K. The results are presented in terms of convective heat transfer coefficient distributions in function of a coordinate measured along suction (positive values) and pressure (negative values) surface wetted length. The effect of turbulence intensity is shown in Fig. 4. These tests were conducted at I = -5 deg, M2,is = 1.12, Re2,is = 1.04 106. The increase of laminar heating with turbulence intensity is clearly observed in the leading edge area and along the first (laminar) part of the suction side. At Tu = 0.8 %, the suction side boundary layer clearly remains laminar until s 80 mm. The transition is induced by the impingement of the shock on the blade surface. At Tu = 4 %, the transition is triggered much more upstream (s 35 mm); it is well correlated with the change in the free stream acceleration rate (Fig. 3). The footprint of the shock is also clearly seen and is preceded by a decrease of the heat transfer coefficient; the latter is attributed to the reacceleration of the flow (40 mm < s < 80 mm). The existence of a small recirculation bubble at the beginning of the pressure surface, due to the velocity peak identified in the preceding section, is proven by the strong heat transfer coefficient variation, indicating the separation and reattachment of the flow. The amplitude of this variation is strongly reduced for increasing values of turbulence intensity.

Along the suction side, the transition is triggered at s 35 mm in the 3 cases. The major differences are observed in the development of the turbulent boundary layer along the rear part of the airfoil. Because of the shock/boundary layer interaction, it grows much faster in the transonic and supersonic regimes. In the last case, the effect of the acceleration is perfectly visible.

1200 h [W/m2K]

600

400

200

800

0 -100

-75

-50

-25

25

50

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600

400

The influence of free stream Reynolds number is presented in Fig. 5. The corresponding flow conditions were I = -5 deg, M2,is = 1.12, Tu = 4 % and Re2,is = 0.54, 1.05 and 1.84 106. As expected, the overall heat transfer coefficient level increases with Reynolds number. At the lowest value, the suction side boundary layer remains laminar until the impingement of the shock (s 80 mm). At the two highest values, the transition is again triggered by the change in acceleration rate, i.e. around 35 and 10 mm, respectively for the medium and highest value of Re2,is. These locations correlate very well with the two major variations observed in the acceleration rate (Fig. 3). The stabilizing effect of the favorable pressure gradient measured between s = 40 and 80 mm justifies the decrease of heat transfer until the location of the shock/ wall interaction. Along the pressure side, the boundary layer gradually varies from a fully laminar to a fully turbulent state. The importance of the separation bubble is not a function of Reynolds number.

1400 h [W/m2K] 1200 Re2=0.54E6 Re2=1.05E6 Re2=1.84E6

200

0 -100

-75

-50

-25

25

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125 s [mm]

Finally, the influence of the inlet incidence is shown in Fig. 7. The flow conditions correspond to Tu = 4 %, Re2,is = 1.06 106, M2,is = 1.12 and I = -14, -5 and +5 deg. An important separation bubble is observed along the pressure side at I = -14 deg whereas the suction side boundary layer undergoes an almost immediate transition at I = +5 deg. Both phenomena are well explained by the corresponding velocity distribution (Fig. 2). The overall distributions can again be justified by the arguments developed in the 3 preceding paragraphs.

800

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-75

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Fig. 6 demonstrates the effect of the free stream Mach number distribution. The flow conditions were set as follows: I = -5 deg, Tu = 4 %, Re2,is = 1.05 106 and M2,is = 0.796, 1.118 and 1.277. The pressure side distributions are similar.

NUMERICAL PREDICTIONS Two Navier-Stokes solvers have been applied to compute the Mach number and heat transfer distributions around this 2D rotor blade. The first one is the daily-used, basic quasi-3D code COLIBRI using a Runge Kutta cell-vertex scheme with a mixing-length turbulence model while the second one

is the latest version of the 3D code CANARI using a RungeKutta cell-centered scheme with a k- turbulence model . Solvers Several cell-vertex and cell-centered integration schemes are used in these codes, depending on the application: a 1 or 2 step Lax-Wendroff-Ni scheme or a Jameson-type space discretization combined with a 4 step Runge-Kutta time integration scheme. The convergence is accelerated by local time stepping and implicit residual smoothing techniques, allowing higher CFL numbers to be applied. Second and fourth order Jameson artificial dissipation is also included. Two types of low-Reynolds number turbulence models are available when running these codes ; an algebraic mixing-length model formulated by Michel (Michel et al, 1969) and a two equation k- model formulated by Jones and Launder (Jones & Launder, 1973; Liamis & Lebret, 1995; Moreau & Mauffret, 1996). Transition modelling As the quasi-3D Navier-Stokes code uses a mixing-lenth model, the transition onset locations on suction and pressure sides are imposed ; the eddy viscosity is modified in the transitional zone by an intermittency factor, as recommended by Abu-Ghannam and Shaw (1980). The transition is 'free' in the 3D code using the k- model, and is triggered by the numerical procedure. Mesh The computational domain is divided into 3 subdomains. Each domain supports a structured grid, leading to a H-O-H mesh type. The 0-mesh wrapped around the airfoil is built with an automatic dual algebraic-optimization process in order to obtain better orthogonality and regularity of the grid cells. The mesh of the RS1S blade is shown in figure 8 ; the total number of grid points is equal to 26500, distributed as follows: H-mesh upstream (13x49), 0-mesh (301x65), H-mesh downstream (129 x 49). The thickness of the cell adjacent to the surface is fixed at 1m and the ratio by which the cell size increases normal to the wall is 1.12 ; these values allow to get y+ < 1 in most of the configurations. Boundary Conditions The total pressure, total temperature and flow angle are imposed at inlet while the dual static pressure/non reflexion condition is used in the exit plane, depending on the flow regime (subsonic/transonic). For the k- model, inlet values of .k and . are calculated from the external turbulence intensity. No-slip and isothermal boundary conditions are imposed at the wall. The corresponding heat transfer coefficient was defined in section 4. Computational results and analysis The Mach number distributions calculated by the quasi-3D code COLIBRI and the 3D code CANARI are very close to each other (Fig. 9 & 10; I = -5 deg, M2,is = 0.844 & 1.092). When comparing them to the measured results, the agreement is rather good along the pressure side. Along the suction side, both codes have some difficulties to predict the real shock structure. Moreover, for the positive incidence test case (Fig. 11; I = +5 deg, M2,is = 1.088), it seems that the real inlet flow

angle is more tangential than the one specified in the code. It has to be noticed that all the calculations were performed by slightly adjusting the exit static pressure in order to obtain the best possible correspondence with the measured blade velocity distributions.

The calculated pressure side heat transfer coefficient distribution agrees fairly well with the experimental results at nominal incidence. Figs.12 and 13 present the results calculated respectively for subsonic (I = -5 deg, Tu = 4 %, Re2,is = 0.97 106, M2,is = 0.796) and transonic (I = -5 deg, Tu = 4 %, Re2,is = 1.07 106, M2,is = 1.132) exit flow conditions. The separation buble close to the leading edge is only predicted by the k- model. With a positive incidence, (Fig. 13 - I = +5 deg, Tu = 4 %, Re2,is = 1.07 106, M2,is = 1.124) the difference between calculations and measurements increases; this may eventually be due to non negligible secondary flows encountered at this regime. When looking at the suction side heat transfer predictions (Figs. 12, 13 and 14), the lack of imposed transition associated with the k- model penalizes the CANARI code; the transition imposed in the COLIBRI code at the first acceleration change in the velocity distribution allows to keep the prediction within the measurement uncertainty. When the transitional regime extends over a large portion of the suction surface (Fig. 13), the k- heat transfer prediction better agrees with the measured distribution.

1600.0 3D (CANARI)

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1.50 M is 1.25

Fig. 12 - Computed heat transfer distributions (I = -5 deg, Tu = 4 %, Re2,is=0.97 106, M2,is = 0.796)

2000.0 h (W/m 2 K) Measurements Quasi 3D (COLIBRI) 1600.0 3D (CANARI)

1.00

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1.50 M is Measurements 1.25 Quasi 3D (COLIBRI) 3D (CANARI) 1.00

Fig. 13 - Computed heat transfer distributions (I = -5 deg, Tu = 4 %, Re2,is=1.07 106, M2,is = 1.132)

2 0 0 0 .0 h (W /m 2 K ) 1 6 0 0 .0

M eas u rem en ts Q u as i 3 D (C O L IB R I) 3 D (C A N A R I)

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1 .0 0 s /s m a x

Fig. 14 - Computed heat transfer distributions (I = 5 deg, Tu = 4 %, Re2,is=1.07 106, M2,is = 1.124)

SUMMARY - CONCLUSIONS Detailed blade velocity and convective heat transfer meaurements have been performed around the 2D RS1S rotor blade designed at SNECMA. This experimental investigation was performed in one of the VKI Isentropic Compression Tube facilities, allowing a correct simulation of modern aero-engine operating conditions. The analysis of the data includes the effect of Mach and Reynolds numbers, free stream turbulence intensity and inlet incidence. It has clearly been shown that velocity and heat transfer data correlate very well to define the onset of laminar to turbulent transition. Both quasi-3D (COLIBRI) and full 3D (CANARI) NavierStokes solvers were used at SNECMA to predict the measured performances. The proper choice of the turbulence model (algebraic or two equations) remains a key point to reproduce the measured flow features. The reliability and maturity of both codes in routine use for design and analysis of turbomachinery airfoils have been demonstrated. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge SNECMA for the financial support of this investigation as well as for the permission to publish the present results. The contribution of Mrs. L. Demons and Miss V. Guibert in preparing and running the numerical simulations is also acknowledged. REFERENCES Abu-Ghannam, B.J. & Shaw, R. (1980): Natural transition of boundary layers - The effect of turbulence, pressure gradient, and flow history. J. Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 22, No 5, pp213-228 Arts, T.; Lambert de Rouvroit, M.; Sieverding, C.H. (1989): Contribution to the workshop on two-dimensional inviscid and viscous turbomachinery flow calculation. Numerical Methods for Flows in Turbomachinery, VKI Lecture Series 1989-06 Arts, T.; Lambert de Rouvroit, M.; Rutherford, A.W. (1990): Aero-thermal investigation of a highly loaded transonic linear turbine guide vane cascade. VKI Technical Note 174 Arts, T. (1994): Test case No 2: highly loaded transonic and film cooled linear turbine guide vane cascade LS94. Numerical Methods for Flow Calculations in Turbomachines, VKI Lecture Series 1994-06 Billonnet, G.; Fourmaux, A.; Huard, J.; Occhionigro, A. (1995): Utilisation de calculs 2.5D et 3D d'coulements instationnaires pour le choix de l'instrumentation d'un banc d'essai de turbine. 85th PEP-AGARD Loss and Unsteady Flows in Turbomachines, Derby, UK Chanez, Ph.; Petot, B.; Jourdren, Ch. (1993): Viscous Analysis of High Pressure Inlet Guide Vane Flow including Cooling Injections. AIAA Paper 93-1798 D'Hoop, E.; Dubou, J.-M.; Chanez Ph. (1996): Aerothermal Turbine Test Analysis using a Quasi-3D Navier-Stokes Code. Eccomas Conference, Paris

Fougres, J.-M. & Heider, R. (1994): Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Prediction of Heat Transfer with Film Cooling. ASME Paper 94-GT-14 Heider, R.; Dubou, J.-M.; Petot, B.; Billonnet, G.; Couaillier, V.; Liamis, N. (1993): Three-Dimensional Analysis of Turbine Rotor Flow including Tip Clearance. ASME Paper 93-GT-111 Heider, R. & Arts, T. (1994): Aerodynamic and Thermal Performance of a Three Dimensional Annular Transonic Nozzle Guide Vane (part I and II). AIAA Paper 94-2930 Jones, T.V.; Schultz, D.L.; Hendley, A.D. (1973): On the Flow in an Isentropic Free Piston Tunnel. ARC R&M 3731 Jones, W.P. & Launder, B.E. (1973): The calculation of lowReynolds-number phenomena with a two-equation model of turbulence. Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 16, No 3, pp 1119-1130 Liamis, N. & Lebret, Y. (1995): Implantation of a Low Reynolds k- Turbulence Model in a 3D Navier-Stokes Solver for Turbomachinery Flows. AIAA Paper 95-2335 Michel, R.; Quemard, C.; Durand, R. (1969): Application dun schma de longueur de mlange ltude des couches limites turbulentes dquilibre. ONERA NT 154. Moreau, S. & Mauffret, T. (1996): Numerical Simulations of Afterbody Flowfield with Two-Equation Turbulence Models. AIAA Paper 96-0570 Petot, B. & Fourmaux, A. (1992): Validation of Viscous and Inviscid Computational Methods around Axial Flow Turbine Blades. Eccomas Conference, Brussels Richards, B.E. (1980): Heat transfer measurements related to hot turbine components in the von Karman Institute Hot Cascade Tunnel. Testing and Measurement Techniques in Heat Transfer and Combustion, AGARD CP 281 Schultz, D.L. & Jones, T.V. (1973): Heat transfer measurements in short duration hypersonic facilities. AGARDograh 165 Schultz, D.L.; Jones, T.V.; Oldfield, M.L.G.; Daniels, L.C. (1978): A new transient facility for the measurement of heat transfer rates. High Temperature Problems in Gas Turbine Engines, AGARD CP 229 Sieverding, C.H. (1973): Sample calculations - Turbine tests. Transonic Flows in Turbomachinery, VKI Lecture Series 59 Sieverding, C.H. (1982): Workshop on two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow calculations in turbine bladings. Numerical Methods for Flows in Turbomachinery Bladings, VKI Lecture Series 1982-07 Simoneau, R.J. & Simon, F.F. (1993): Progress towards understanding and predicting heat transfer in the turbine gas path. Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 14, No 2, pp 106-128 Vuillez, Ch. & Veuillot, J.-P. (1990): Quasi-3D Viscous Flow Computations in Subsonic and Transonic Turbomachinery Bladings. AIAA Paper 90-2126

x (mm)

y(mm)

x (mm)

y(mm)

x (mm)

y(mm)

0.000 -0.248 -0.746 -1.378 -1.852 -2.031 -1.883 -1.297 -0.063 2.119 5.345 9.077 12.791 16.320 19.643 22.739 25.573

0.000 0.031 0.251 0.933 2.208 4.007 6.248 8.839 11.597 14.103 15.592 15.687 14.748 13.242 11.490 9.668 7.876

28.102 30.299 32.144 33.630 34.758 35.542 35.969 35.949 35.868 35.697 35.284 34.660 33.762 32.572 31.090 29.327 27.300

6.179 4.642 3.310 2.218 1.380 0.783 0.362 0.076 -0.052 -0.177 -0.062 0.297 0.797 1.432 2.188 3.046 3.967

25.035 22.561 19.924 17.180 14.395 11.655 9.079 6.806 4.940 3.513 2.489 1.760 1.154 0.575 0.183 0.000

4.904 5.787 6.553 7.146 7.481 7.469 7.007 6.123 4.937 3.620 2.335 1.230 0.440 0.082 0.008 0.000

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