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HKDSE CHEMISTRY A Modern View (Chemistry)

Coursebook 1 Suggested Answers


Chapter 1 The Fundamentals of Chemistry Class Practice Chapter Exercises Chapter 2 The Atmosphere Class Practice Chapter Exercises Chapter 3 Oceans Chapter Exercises Chapter 4 Rocks and Minerals Class Practice Chapter Exercises

1 3 5 7 9 12 13 15 17 19 21 22 24 26 29 30

Part Exercises

Chapter 5 Atomic Structure Class Practice Chapter Exercises Chapter 6 The Periodic Table Class Practice Chapter Exercises Chapter 7 Chemical Bonding: Ionic Bonding Class Practice Chapter Exercises Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding: Covalent Bonding Class Practice Chapter Exercises

Chapter 9 Structures and Properties of Substances Class Practice Chapter Exercises

34 35 37 40 41 43 44 46 50 52 53 55

Part Exercises

Chapter 10 Occurrence and Extraction of Metals Class Practice Chapter Exercises Chapter 11 Reactivity of Metals Class Practice Chapter Exercises Chapter 12 Reacting Masses Class Practice Chapter Exercises Chapter 13 Corrosion of Metals and Their Protection Class Practice Chapter Exercises Part Exercises

Chapter 1

Fundamentals of chemistry

Suggested Answers for Class Practice A1.1

Clothing Food Housing polyester, nylon, PVC, fertilizers, insecticides, metals, alloys, cement, glass, dyes food additives plastics

Transport Medical care Entertainment metals, alloys, fuels, glass, drugs, antibiotics, artificial metals, alloys, cement, glass, plastics hormones plastics, semi-conductors A1.2 Phosphorus and mercury are elements. The others are not. (Note: A substance with a name consisting of two words (e.g. sodium chloride) is not an element. A substance with a name of only one word (e.g. ammonia) may or may not be an element. The only sure way is to check the name against the Periodic Table.) A1.3 Sodium - silvery grey solid; Chlorine - greenish yellow gas; Sodium chloride - white solid. A1.4 (a) Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, iron, sulphur (b) Water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sodium chloride, iron(II) sulphide (c) Air, sea water, town gas, sodium chloride solution, wine (Other answers may be given.) A1.5 (a) Chemical change
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(b) Physical change (c) Physical change (d) Chemical change (b) and (c) are physical changes because no new substances are formed. (a) and (d) are chemical changes because new substances are formed. A1.6 (a), (b) and (e). A1.8 (a) Flat-bottomed flask (b) Round-bottomed flask (c) Clamp (d) Retort stand (e) Conical flask (f) Wire gauze (g) Evaporating basin (h) Tripod (i) Crucible (j) Pipeclay triangle (k) Bunsen burner

(l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (t) (u) (v)

Crucible tongs Spatula Heat-resistant mat Pestle Mortar Desiccator Test tube holder Test tube rack Test tube Boiling tube Dropping bottle

(w) (x) (y) (z) (aa) (bb) (cc) (dd) (ee) (ff) (gg)

Reagent bottle Gas syringe Measuring cylinder Beaker Funnel Plastic washbottle Teat pipette Thermometer Watch glass Separating funnel Glass rod

Chapter 1

Fundamentals of chemistry

Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. science, observations, experiments substances, compositions, structures, properties, changes Oxygen, atmosphere chemically combined together, hydrogen, oxygen . heating, electrolysis mixture chlorine, compound element, compound, mixture retains, different appearance , odour , temperature , density , melting chemical physical new A B D C C D B B A D A D C B D A

30. (a) A = beaker, B = test tube, C = Bunsen burner, D = wire gauze, E = tripod stand, F = heat-proof mat, G = test tube holder, H = evaporating dish (evaporating basin) (b) (i) Test tube (B). (ii) Test tube(B), test tube holder (G), Bunsen burner (C) , heat-proof mat (F). (iii) Beaker (A), tripod stand (E), wire gauze (D), Bunsen burner (C), heat-proof mat (F). 31. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Tasteless; no smell; colourless; liquid at room conditions React with iron; react with sodium Water changes into stream at 100oC./ Water changes into ice at 0oC. It is because no new substance is formed. Iron reacts with water to form iron rust./ Sodium reacts with water to form hydrogen gas.
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(f)

New substance (e.g. rust or hydrogen gas) is formed.

32. (a) Chlorine, hydrogen, iron, mercury , oxygen, sodium and sulphur (b) An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into anything simpler by chemical methods. (c) Ammonia, sodium chloride and water (d) A compound is a pure substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined together (e) A mixture consists of two or more pure substances (elements or compounds) which have not chemically combined together. (f) Sodium chloride solution is a mixture (because a solution is a homogeneous mixture). 33. (a) No. Both oxygen and hydrogen are gases at room conditions while glucose is a solid at room conditions. Carbon is black in colour while glucose is white. (b) Glucose solution is a mixture. It is because there is no chemical reaction taking place between glucose and water. (c) Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water 34. Compounds and mixtures are different in a number of ways. These include: (1) Compounds have fixed chemical composition while mixtures have variable chemical composition. Examples: water and air (2) During the formation of compounds, a chemical change occurs. New substances are always formed. On the other hand, a mixture is obtained when different substances are physically mixed. There is no chemical change. No new substance is formed and the change is seldom accompanied by energy changes. Examples: formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen, mixing of sand and sugar (3) Properties of a compound are very different from that of its constituent elements. For example, water is colourless liquid while hydrogen and oxygen are colourless gas. (4) Separation of the constituents of a compound requires a chemical process. For example, breaking water down into the elements hydrogen and oxygen requires a chemical process called electrolysis. On the other hand, separation of a mixture requires a physical process only. For example, separation of iron powder from a mixture just requires the use of a magnet. 35. Physical properties of a substance are those properties that can be determined without the substance changing into another substance. Examples of physical properties of a substance include colour, odour (smell) and physical state. For example water is a colourless, odourless liquid under room conditions. Chemical properties of a substance are the chemical reactions of the substance, and the respective conditions under which each reaction takes place. Examples of chemical properties of a substance include how fast and vigorous it reacts (i.e., its reactivity) with another substance, the condition(s) needed for it to react with other substances and what products can be produced when it reacts with other substances. For example, hydrogen reacts vigorously with oxygen (or air) only when lit with a burning splint to form water.
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Chapter 2

The atmosphere

Suggested Answers for Class Practice A2.1 (a) People in ancient times had little scientific knowledge. In fact, any visible portion of the Earth appeared more or less flat to the eyes. (b) Satellite photos clearly show that the Earth is roughly spherical. (Other answers may be given.) A2.2
atmosphere crust mantle inner core outer core

A2.3 1. (a) No. (7 planets have an atmosphere.) (b) Yes. 2. There is no air on the Moon. A2.4 Elements nitrogen oxygen helium neon argon krypton xenon A2.5 (a) Helium Neon Nitrogen Argon Oxygen Krypton Xenon -269 -246 -196 -186 -183 -153 -109
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Compounds carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (b) Neon and helium.

-78

Chapter 2

The atmosphere

Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. crust, mantle , core, atmosphere atmosphere nitrogen, oxygen fractional distillation liquefied supporter glowing A A B B B D

14. (a) Nitrogen (b) Carbon dioxide and water vapour (c) Oxygen, argon, neon, helium, krypton, xenon (any two) 15. (a) The volumes of the three gases obtained are argon 930 litres, nitrogen 78,000 litres and oxygen 21,000 litres. (b) The gases are separated by a process called fractional distillation. (c) No. Oxygen is the most reactive gas in air, whereas nitrogen is unreactive, it serves the good purpose of diluting oxygen in air. If there were more oxygen in air, metals would be oxidized and corroded faster. Things would also burn easier, so there would be a greater hazard of fire. 16. (a) Fractional distillation of liquid air (b) Oxidizing (c) Physical property: colourless, odourless Chemical property: it supports combustion (d) Put a glowing splint into a test tube containing the gas to be tested. If the gas is oxygen, the splint relights. 17. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Nitrogen and oxygen Oxygen. Copper + oxygen copper(II) oxide 50 cm3 33 cm3 = 17 cm3 17 cm3 / 50 cm3 100% = 34% 21% The percentage of oxygen in dissolved air (34%) is much greater than that in the atmosphere (21%) because oxygen is more soluble in water than nitrogen.

18. Fractional distillation of liquid air is used to separate nitrogen and oxygen from air.
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The air is first liquefied by repeated cooling and compression. Then the liquid air is warmed up bit by bit very slowly. Different gases in air boil at different temperatures, so they can be collected one by one. The one boiling off first is nitrogen (boiling point -196C). The second one to be collected is argon(boiling point -186C) /noble gas. Then oxygen gas (boiling point -183C) is collected.

Chapter 3

Oceans

Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. sodium chloride (common salt), sodium, chlorine evaporation filtration, crystallization saturated boiling, condensation distillate, residue distillation flame test brilliant golden yellow white water, white, blue, blue, pink Brine hydrogen, chlorine, sodium hydroxide B C B C D A

20. (a) Filtration (b)


glass rod

mixture

of

sand

and

sodium chloride solution

filter paper residue filter funnel

filtrate stand

(c) Distillation (d)

thermometer

clamp boiling tube delivery tube

receiver test tube mixture of sand and heat anti-bumping granule water pure water sodium

chloride solution

(e) Test for sodium ions: Flame test. The sample gives a brilliant golden yellow flame in the flame test if sodium ions are present. Test for chloride ions: Silver nitrate test Add silver nitrate solution to the sample, followed by excess dilute nitric acid. The appearance of a white precipitate indicates the presence of chloride ions. 21. His conclusion is not justified. He should add solid to distilled water and stir well, then filter and evaporate the filtrate to dryness by heating, and see if any solid is left. 22. (a) This is because some metal ions can produce a characteristic coloured light when they are burnt or heated strongly. (b) (1) Moisten a clean platinum wire with concentrated hydrochloric acid. (2) Dip the platinum wire into a crushed sample of the salt (or solution) to be tested. (3) Heat the platinum wire with the sample strongly in a non-luminous flame. (4) Observe the colour of the flame at the wire and identify the metal ions present. (c) Potassium ions: lilac; calcium ions: brick red; copper ions: bluish green. 23. (a) It was not a suitable method because the liquid may be unclean, harmful or even poisonous. (b) Flame test. (c) To show the presence of chloride ions, acidified silver nitrate solution is added to the sample. If chloride ions are present, a white precipitate will be formed. (d) To show the presence of water, a few drops of the liquid are added to anhydrous copper(II) sulphate. The powder changes from white to blue if water is present. Alternatively, add a few drops of the liquid to dry cobalt chloride test paper. The paper changes from blue to pink if water is present. (e) He could not be sure that the liquid was sea water. Even if the tests showed that sodium ions, chloride ions and water were present, the liquid might not
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necessarily be sea water. For example, it might be just a sodium chloride solution, without any other salts naturally present in sea water. 24. (a) Electrolysis means decomposition by electricity. (b) Chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide. (c) Chlorine water sterilization, manufacture of bleach, etc. Hydrogen production of margarine, as rocket fuel, etc. Sodium hydroxide manufacture of soap, extraction of aluminium, etc. 25. Sea water is an important source of common salt (sodium chloride) which has many uses. By the electrolysis of sea water, useful products, hydrogen, chlorine and sodium hydroxide are obtained. These products can be used to manufacture a lot of useful chemicals. Hydrogen can be used to produce ammonia. Chlorine can be used to produce bleach. Sodium hydroxide can be used to produce soap.

11

Chapter 4

Rocks and minerals

Suggested Answers for Class Practice A4.1 Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: heat calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide calcium oxide + water calcium hydroxide calcium hydroxide + water calcium hydroxide solution (limewater) calcium hydroxide solution (limewater) + carbon dioxide calcium carbonate + water

A4.2 calcium carbonate + nitric acid calcium nitrate + carbon dioxide + water

12

Chapter 4

Rocks and minerals

Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. minerals, a mixture of minerals crystalline, chemical extraction ore, aluminium haematite, carbon (or coke) chalk, marble Neutralizing, building material, cement (or other acceptable answers) Weathering Erosion Physical Chemical quicklime, calcium oxide . acids, carbon dioxide milky iron + carbon dioxide aluminium + oxygen carbonic acid calcium hydroxide + heat calcium hydrogencarbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide calcium carbonate (white solid) + water calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water B D D C A B D C C B Both react with acid to give out carbon dioxide. Both are decomposed on strong heating. Neutralizing acidic soil and lakes affected by acid rain. As a raw material to make glass by heating with sand and sodium carbonate. (3) As a raw material to make cement by heating with clay. (or any other possible answers)

32. (a) (1) (2) (b) (1) (2)

33. (a) Weathering is the slow process in which exposed rocks are broken down into smaller pieces. (b) Physical weathering and chemical weathering (c) It is because carbon dioxide in air dissolves slightly in rainwater, forming
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carbonic acid. Carbonic acid can attack rocks. (d) Calcium hydrogencarbonate (e) Calcium carbonate + carbonic acid calcium hydrogencarbonate 34. (a) Calcium carbonate (b) strong heat Calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide (c)

limewater

heat

(d) When the gas is passed through limewater for a few seconds, the limewater turns milky. 35. (a) (i) Calcium oxide (ii) Calcium hydroxide (iii) Calcium hydroxide solution (b) (i) heat calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide (ii) calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water (iii) calcium oxide + water calcium hydroxide (iv) carbon dioxide + calcium hydroxide solution calcium carbonate + water (c) The rock fizzes (colourless gas is given out).

14

Part I

Planet Earth

Suggested Answers for Part Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. C C A A C A B C A C D D C B A C B C B

20. (a) Hydrogen as fuel Oxygen in breathing aids (or any other possible answers) (b) No. Oxygen and hydrogen inside the container mix to form a gaseous mixture. All mixtures are impure substances. (c) Water (d) Yes. Water is a compound, and a single compound is a pure substance. 21. (a) This conclusion is valid. The brick red colour in the flame test indicates the presence of calcium, and the white precipitate formed when silver nitrate solution is added indicates the presence of chloride. (b) This conclusion is invalid. The bubbles formed when acid was added may not be carbon dioxide. (c) Conclusion (a) cannot be disproved. To test the validity of conclusion (b), pass the gas formed into limewater. If the limewater turns milky, the gas is carbon dioxide, then the conclusion is valid. If the limewater doesn t turn milky, the conclusion is invalid. (d) The only validity of this statement is that the sample is a mixture containing calcium chloride. Even carbonate is shown to be present, the tests carried out are insufficient to rule out the possibility of other substances present in the sample. 22. (a) X: carbon dioxide; Y : water; Z : carbon dioxide. (b) heat Calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide The limestone cracks and makes a cracking noise.
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(c) Calcium oxide + water calcium hydroxide + heat A lot of heat is produced, with the possible production of some steamy vapour. The white solid turns into a paste. (d) Calcium hydroxide + carbon dioxide calcium carbonate + water The calcium hydroxide solution (limewater) turns milky. (e) This is the limewater test for carbon dioxide. 23. (a) Refer to Book 1A p.69. (b) Refer to Book 1A p.70. (c) Frost action is a physical weathering process. This is because no new substances are formed during the process. Action of carbonic acid is a chemical weathering process. This is because carbonic acid changes calcium carbonate to a new substance, calcium hydrogen carbonate. (d) When excess of carbon dioxide is bubbled in, soluble calcium hydrogencarbonate is formed.

16

Chapter 5

Atomic structure

Suggested Answers for Class Practice A5.1 They are the only two liquid elements. A5.2 1. (a) Only an element can be classified as a metal or non-metal. Water is not an element. (b) Non-metal. (c) Metal. 2. (a) Mercury. All are metals. Mercury is a liquid, while the others are solids at room conditions. (b) Sulphur. Sulphur is a non-metal, while the others are metals. (c) Iodine. All are non-metals. Iodine is a solid, while the others are gases at room conditions. (d) Graphite. All are non-metals. Graphite conducts electricity, while the others are non-conductors of electricity. A5.3 (a) (i) Mg (ii) Ag (iii) Na (b) Ar, He and Ne respectively. (c) (i) fluorine (ii) bromine (iii) mercury A5.4 (a) 118 (b) Br (c) N (d) The element copper or a copper atom. A5.5 (a) The commonest type of hydrogen atom. (b) 91 electrons. Number of neutrons cannot be predicted. (c) It is not an atom. The numbers of protons and electrons are not equal. A5.6 A magnesium atom would be changed to a chlorine atom. A5.7 1. (a) (b) (c) 2. (a) (b) (c) A5.8 (a) 3
17

silver silver silver Aluminium 27 13 Al (i) 13 (ii) 13

(iii) 27 - 13 = 14

(b)

16 16 8O ( O,

or oxygen-16)

A5.9 (a) 37 (b) 35 (c) 4 (d) 238 (e) We cannot tell from the given data. (The mass number is not given.) A5.10 (a) Relative atomic mass of sodium = mass number of the only type of sodium atom = 23 (b) Relative atomic mass of neon = 20 90 + 22 10 = 20.2 100 A5.11

(a)

(b)

(c) A5.12 (a) 17

(d)

(b) (i)

2,8,7

(ii)

18

Chapter 5

Atomic structure

Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. physical bromine, mercury metals, non-metals metals, non-metals, graphite symbol smallest part element atoms. nucleus, neutrons, nucleus, electrons positively, negatively, neutral protons mass number same, different carbon-12 weighted average, relative isotopic shells electronic arrangement (or electronic configuration) B D D B C D C D

26. (a) True. This is because there is no gaseous metal or semi-metal at room conditions. (b) False. This is because mercury is a liquid metal at room conditions. (c) False. This is because carbon (graphite) is a non-metal which can conduct electricity. / This is because semi-metals cannot conduct electricity by themselves. (d) False. This is because some metals (e.g. sodium) are soft. (e) True. This is because metals are silvery white, golden or brown in colour. No metal is red in colour. 27. (a) The mass number of an atom is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the atom. (b) The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons in the atom. (c) Isotopes are different atoms of the same element, with the same number of protons (and electrons) but different numbers of neutrons. (d) Atom Number of Number of Electronic protons neutrons configuration
19

B 11 B 5 (e) 10.8

10 5

5 5

5 6

2.3 2.3

28. (a) Q and R (b) Boron (c) Carbon-13 and carbon-14 13 Q, 14 R, 14 S (d) 13 5 P, 7 6 6 29. (a) Atom (a) (b) (c)
35

Cl O 40 Ar
17

Atomic no. 17 8 18

Mass no. 35 17 40

protons 17 8 18

Number of neutrons electrons 18 17 9 8 22 18

Electronic arrangement 2,8,7 2,6 2,8,8

(b) (c) Neon (d) Argon is very unreactive. 30. Elements can be classified according to their physical states. For example, at room temperature, hydrogen and oxygen are gases; bromine and mercury are liquids; carbon and iodine are solids. Elements can also be classified into metals and non-metals. A few elements have properties in between those of metals and non-metals. They are classified as semi-metals. Examples of metals include sodium and mercury; examples of non-metals include bromine and hydrogen; examples of semi-metals include boron and silicon.

20

Chapter 6

The Periodic Table

Suggested Answers for Class Practice A6.1 (a) Period 7, Group II; alkaline earth metals. (b) Radium. (c) Yes. Radium is a metal (all metals conduct electricity). A6.2 Element X: Metal Element Y: Non-metal Element Z: We cannot tell from the given data as elements in Group IV can be a metal, non-metal or semi-metal. A6.3 (a) 2,8,8,2. (b) Yes, it is a metal. (c) (ii). A6.4 (a) Yes. By knowing the chemical properties of familiar elements in the same group and the group trend, predictions about the unfamiliar element can be made. (b) Astatine: D; strontium: A

21

Chapter 6

The Periodic Table

Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Element Electronic Atomic Period Group arrangement number number number A 2,6 8 2 VI B 2,8,2 12 3 II C 2,8,8,1 19 4 I D 2,8 10 2 0 / VIII E 2,8,18,3 31 4 III F 2,8,18,18,7 53 5 VII 19. (a) (b) (c) (d) 2 They all have two electrons in the outermost shell. Increase down the Group. (i) Beryllium reacts very slowly with water. (ii) Barium reacts vigorously with water. (e) Barium is more reactive than calcium. It should be stored in an air-tight container. Magnesium, silicon, chlorine. They are in Period 3. Lithium, rubidium, caesium. They are in Group I. Iron, copper Caesium Fluorine Silicon Helium Helium, fluorine, chlorine Fluorine, chlorine
22

electrons, outermost ascending, atomic numbers period, group, eight, period number, outermost metals, semi-metals, non-metals chemical 1, 1, increases 7, halogens, decreases 8, noble gases B B D C C C C D

20. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i)

21. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

Group II Alkaline earth metals Strontium has 2 outermost shell electrons. Strontium is a silvery white solid at room conditions. Strontium reacts with cold water more readily than calcium does and colourless gas bubbles are given off. This is because the reactivity of Group II elements will increase down the group.

22. In the modern Periodic Table, elements are arranged in ascending order of atomic number. The elements are arranged in periods and groups of the Periodic Table. A horizontal row of elements is called a period while a vertical column of elements is called group. Period number = number of occupied electron shells Group number = number of electrons in outermost shell Elements within the same group of the Periodic Table have similar properties. Across a period, the elements change from metals through semi-metals to non-metals. Some of the groups have special names. Group I elements are named as alkali metals; Group II elements are named as alkaline earth metals; Group VII elements are named as halogens; Group 0 are named as noble gases. The elements in between Group II and Group III are called the transition elements.

23

Chapter 7

Chemical bonding: ionic bonding

Suggested Answers for Class Practice A7.1 (a) Delete non-metals. (b) Delete metals. A7.2 (a) Colourless (c) Yellow

(b) Purple (d) Green

A7.3 (a) The cathode. Potassium ions are positively charged. They are thus attracted towards the negative electrode (cathode). (b) No. Potassium ions are colourless. (c) A green patch would move towards the negative electrode (cathode). Chromium(III) ions are green in colour and positively charged. They are attracted towards the negative electrode. A7.4 (a) (i)

Aluminium atom: 2,8,3 aluminium ion: 2,8 (ii) Chlorine atom: 2,8,7 chloride ion: 2,8,8 (b) Charge on aluminium ion = 3+; charge on chloride ion = 1A7.5 Simple ions: H+, H-, Mn2+ Polyatomic ions: NH4+, NH2-, OHA7.6 (a) I Group Period 2 3 4 (b) (i) A7.7 (a) (b)
24

II

III

IV

VI

VII

Li+ Na+ K+ Sr2+

Be2+ Mg2+ Ca2+ (ii) At-

N3Al
3+

O2S2-

FClBr-

A7.8 (a) CuCl2 (c) Al(OH)3 (b) CaS (d) (NH4)2CO3 A7.9 (a) Mg(OH)2 (b) Na2O (c) PbSO4 (d) K2Cr2O7 A7.10 (a) Calcium nitrate (b) Iron(III) chloride (c) Zinc sulphate-7-water (d) Copper(II) hydroxide

25

Chapter 7

Chemical bonding: ionic bonding

Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Compound Sodium nitrate Copper(II) sulphate Potassium chloride Nickel(II) sulphate Potassium dichromate Iron(II) sulphate Iron(III) chloride Sodium permanganate Ammonium nitrate 21. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Formula NaNO3 CuSO4 KCl NiSO4 K2Cr2O7 FeSO4 FeCl2 NaMnO4 NH4NO3 Expected colour Colourless Blue Colourless Green Orange Pale green Yellow Purple Colourless octet, duplet electrons, noble gas, ions simple, polyatomic cations, anions coloured electrolysis name, formula group minus ionic, ionic, calcium oxide, calcium, oxygen, Calcium (Ca2+), oxide (O2-), ionic bonds giant ionic structure B A D A C A C B

Calcium sulphate Cation: calcium ion; Anion: sulphate ion Ionic bond CaSO4 The coagulant is white in colour.

26

(g) Polyatomic ion 22. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) A: 2,5; B: 2, 8, 1; C: 2, 8, 2; D: 2, 8, 6 Elements A and D tend to gain electrons to attain an octet of electrons. Elements B and C tend to lose electrons to attain an octet of electrons. 4 B3A; B2D; C3A2; CD

23. (a) Magnesium chloride: MgCl2; Potassium chloride: KCl; Sodium chloride: NaCl (b)

(c) Giant ionic structure (d)

27

24. Consider the reaction between sodium and chlorine. A sodium atom Na has the electronic arrangement 2,8,1. It loses 1 electron to get the stable octet structure to form a Na+ ion. A chlorine atom Cl has the electronic arrangement 2,8,7. It gains 1 electron to get the stable octet structure to form a Cl- ion. When sodium atom reacts with a chlorine atom, the sodium atom loses 1 electron to the chlorine atom. By transfer of electron, two ions are formed. The electrostatic force between the ions is called ionic bonds and the compound is called ionic compound.

28

Chapter 8

Chemical bonding: covalent bonding

Suggested Answers for Class Practice A8.1 1. Br2, C6H12O6, Ne, NH3 2. (a) Ne (b) H2 (c) Na (d) N2 (e) F2 (f) Mg A8.2 1. lose gain share

2.

(a) (i)

(or (ii) 3 bond pairs, 1 lone pair

(b) (i) A8.3 (a) CF4 (c) PH3 A8.4 (a) Molecule (c) Ion (e) Molecule (g) Molecule A8.5 1. (a) (b) (c) 2. (a) (b) (c) (d)

NCl3

(ii)

(b) H2O (d) SiCl4 (b) (d) (f) (h) Atom or molecule Atom Ion Atom

C H4 12.0 + 1.0 4 = 16.0 C2 H6 12.0 2 + 1.0 6 = 30.0 C12 H22 O11 12.0 12 + 1.0 22 + 16.0 11 = 342.0 23.0 + 35.5 = 58.5 12.0 2 + 1.0 6 = 30.0 (same as relative molecular mass) 12.0 + 16.0 3 = 60.0 63.5 + (14.0 + 16.0 3) 2 + 3 (1.0 2 + 16.0) = 241.5
29

Chapter 8

Chemical bonding: covalent bonding

Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. molecule atomicity covalent, covalent share, covalent double covalent triple covalent molecular structural molecular formula, structural dative covalent lone pairs electrostatic, non-directional, directional molecules, ions Relative molecular mass Formula mass C D B C A C C B

24. (a) Silane SiH4

(b) Hydrogen chloride HCl

(c) Ammonium chloride NH4Cl

30

(d) Trichloromethane CHCl3

(e) Phosphorus trichloride PCl3

25. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

HBr PH3 CCl4 CS2 NCl3 C: 2,6; D: 2,8; E: 2, 8, 2; F: 2, 8, 7

26. (a) A: 2,1; B: 2,4; (b) Element D

(c) (i)

(ii) (d) BC2; C=B=C (e) A diatomic molecule refers to a molecule of an element which is formed by 2 atoms (i.e. its atomicity is 2).

31

(f)

(i)

(ii) 27. (a) W: HH X: O=O Y: HOH


H H C H H

Z:

(b)

W:

X:

Y:

Z: (c) Simple molecular structure 28. Hydrogen reacts with chlorine to form hydrogen chloride. It is formed by sharing of electrons, one from hydrogen and one from chlorine. Covalent bond exists between hydrogen and chlorine atom.

Ammonia reacts with hydrogen chloride to form ammonium chloride. The ammonium ion has an overall charge of 1+. Ammonium chloride contains
32

one ionic bond and four covalent bonds, three of the NH bond are normal covalent bonds and one is dative covalent bond. The reaction between ammonia and hydrogen chloride can be considered to be the formation of dative covalent bond between the lone pair of electrons on the N atom in NH3 and a H+ ion from HCl.

33

Chapter 9

Structures and properties of substances

Suggested Answers for Class Practice A9.1 (a) Simple molecular structure, giant covalent structure (b) Simple molecular structure, macromolecules, giant covalent structure A9.2 Iodine, bromine, chlorine and fluorine have a simple molecular structure and their molecules are held by weak intermolecular forces called van der Waals' forces. The larger the molecular size, the greater the van der Waals' forces. The molecular sizes of the substances are: I2 > Br2 > Cl2 > F2. Therefore, the strength of the van der Waals' forces are: I2 > Br2 > Cl2 > F2. A9.3 (a) Low-melting. (b) No. They are soft. (c) No. (d) (i) No (ii) Yes. A9.4 (a) (i) No (ii) No (b) No A9.5 (a) 2 (b) 2 A9.6 (a) C. It conducts electricity when solid. (b) B. It does not conduct electricity when solid, but conducts when molten. (c) A. It does not conduct electricity whether solid or molten; low melting point. (d) D. It does not conduct electricity whether solid or molten; very high melting point. (e) A. Substances with a simple molecular structure are usually soluble in non-aqueous solvents (such as methylbenzene).

A9.7 (i) The compound formed between a Group II element X (a metal) and a Group VII element Y (a non-metal) is an ionic compound. Element X forms X2+ ions; Element Y forms Y- ions. The formula of the compound is thus X2+(Y-)2 or XY2. (ii) It has a giant ionic structure. (iii) Its physical properties are similar to those mentioned in the answer to Example 9.3, part (a) (iii).
34

Chapter 9

Structures and properties of substances

Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. giant molecules, covalent bonds, intermolecular forces (or van der Waals forces) giant, giant lattice (or network) low, non-conductors, insoluble, soluble, non-aqueous solvents solid, high, molten, aqueous solution, soluble, insoluble, non-aqueous solids, high, graphite, non-conductors, insoluble structure giant metallic, metallic, metal ions, sea, delocalized electrons delocalized electrons, non-directional. C A A B A C B

17. (a) Covalent bonding (b) Giant covalent structure (c) Diamond

carbon atom

Quartz

silicon atom oxygen atom

(d) Diamond > quartz> glass


35

(e) Quartz is a crystalline solid while glass is a non-crystalline solid. (f) Diamond (g) Diamond 18. (a) X: Giant ionic structure; Y: Giant covalent structure; Z: Simple molecular structure (b) X: Sodium chloride; Y: Diamond; Z: Iodine (Accept other reasonable answers) (c) X: ionic bond; Y: covalent bond; Z: van der Waals forces (d) (i) X has a higher melting point than Z as X has a giant ionic structure while Z has a simple molecular structure. (ii) Y has a higher melting point than Z as Y has a giant covalent structure while Z has a simple molecular structure. 19. (a) Substance B (b) (i) Substance E is a metal because it conducts electricity in solid state. (ii) Substance A is an ionic compound because it does not conduct electricity in the solid state but conducts electricity when molten. (iii) Substances B and C are covalent compounds with simple molecular structure because both of them do not conduct electricity whether in the solid state or in molten form. Besides, they have low melting points. (iv) Substance D is a covalent compound with giant covalent structure because it does not conduct electricity whether in the solid state or in molten form and has a very high melting point. (c) Substances B and C are likely to be soluble in heptane (a non-aqueous solvent.) 20. The melting point of the above compounds follows the order: CO2 < Li2O < SiO2 SiO2 has a giant covalent structure. It has the highest melting point. To melt the compound, large amount of energy is required to break the strong covalent bonds among the atoms in SiO2. CO2 has a simple molecular structure. It has the lowest melting point. To melt the compound, relatively small amount of energy is required to break the weak intermolecular forces among the molecules of CO2. Li2O has a giant ionic structure. It has a melting point in between SiO2 and CO2. To melt the compound, energy is required to break the strong ionic bonds among the ions in the Li2O.

36

Part II

Microscopic World I

Suggested Answers for Part Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 11. 12. B C B A B D C A A C C A

13. (a) The air is first liquefied by repeated cooling and compression. The liquid air is then warmed up very slowly. Different gases in air boil at different temperatures and are collected separately. (b) Ne (c) (i) 2, 8 (ii)

(d) Neon has an octet of electrons which gives it an exceptional stability. Therefore, it is very unreactive. (e) 20.1877 14. (a) (i) C (ii) D (or E) (iii) D and E (iv) A (v) B (b) A and B A: 2; B: 2, 8 (c) (i) CD2 (ii) HE (iii) CO (iv) AB 15. (a) No. If dry filter paper is used, the circuit will be an open one as no electrolyte is present to complete the circuit. (b) No. Since copper(II) ions are coloured, they will interfere with the experimental result. (c) Permanganate ions. (d) Since purple permanganate ions are anions (or negatively charged ion), they
37

are attracted towards the positive electrode (i.e. anode). Hence, Q is positive electrode (i.e. anode). (e) It is because the substance migrating towards P is colourless. (f) The purple patch would migrate towards the opposite direction. 16. (a) The electronic arrangement of C and D are 2,6 and 2,8,7 respectively. Their atoms can attain noble gas structure by sharing electrons.

(b) A, since it is a metal while all others are non-metals. (c) (i) A2C; ionic (ii) AD; ionic (iii) BC2; covalent (d) The compound in (c) (iii), BC2. Since BC2 is a covalent compound with molecular structure, only weak van der Waals forces exist among the discrete molecules. Little energy is required to overcome these forces during melting and boiling. (e) No. It is because it is a noble gas. 17. (a) Gas (b) At2 (c) Size of I2 > Br2 > Cl2 > F2. The size of molecule is proportional to the strength of van der Waals force between the molecules. As the van der Waals force between iodine is the greatest, iodine is a solid at room conditions. (d) At2 < I2 < Br2 > Cl2 > F2 (e) Sodium + iodine sodium iodide (f)

18. (a) A: Giant ionic structure B: Giant covalent structure C: Giant covalent structure D: Simple molecular structure (b) A: Sodium chloride B: Diamond C: Graphite D: Dry ice (or other acceptable answers) (c) A: Ionic bonding B: Covalent bonding
38

(d) (i) Covalent bonding (ii) In structure B, each atom is covalently bonded to four other atoms, forming a 3-dimensional giant network. In structure C, each atom is covalently bonded to only three other atoms to form a layer. Between each layer, van der Waals forces exist. (e) (i) C (ii) A (iii) B (iv) D (v) A 19. In sodium chloride, Na+ and Cl- are held together by ionic bonds. They are packed regularly, so that each ion is surrounded by 6 ions of the opposite charge. The packing continues until a continuous, three-dimensional giant ionic structure is formed. The ions are arranged to form a cubic structure as shown below:

Sodium chloride has a high melting point as energy is required to break the strong ionic bonds among the ions in the compound. In solid state, the ions present in sodium chloride lattice are not mobile. Thus, solid sodium chloride cannot conduct electricity. When molten or in aqueous solution, the ions become mobile and can conduct electricity.

39

Chapter 10 Occurrence and extraction of metals


Suggested Answers for Class Practice A10.1 (a) B. It is hard and strong, yet very cheap. (b) A and C. They have a beautiful shiny appearance. A is chemically inert, and C is also corrosion resistant. They are both very expensive metals. (c) C. It is very expensive. (d) D. It is light (with a low density) but strong and corrosion resistant. (e) A and C. C is more widely used because it is cheaper. A10.2 (a) Electrolysis. electrolysis aluminium oxide aluminium + oxygen Electrolysis. electrolysis sodium chloride sodium + chlorine Heating the metal ore with carbon. heat with carbon haematite iron + carbon dioxide Displacement from solution containing silver. Physical separation. Electrolysis. electrolysis magnesium chloride magnesium + chlorine Heating the metal ore in air and then with carbon heat in air lead(II) sulphide lead(II) oxide + sulphur dioxide heat with carbon lead(II) oxide lead + carbon dioxide

(b)

(c)

(d) (e) (f)

(g)

40

Chapter 10 Occurrence and extraction of metals


Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. physical Iron electrical wires. high, density Silver , expensive compounds heating, carbon, electrolysis abundance, mining, extracting Abundance, ore, extracting, supply, demand non-renewable, conserving, longer. reusing, reducing, replacing, recycling melting, using, conserves, pollution D B B D C A B E. This is because it is light and highly resistant to corrosion. A. This is because it is strong and cheap. D. This is because it is strong and highly resistant to corrosion. E. This is because it is a good conductor of electricity and light. C. This is because it is highly resistant to corrosion and expensive. Electrolysis Silver (or other acceptable answers) Silver oxide silver + oxygen Lead (or other acceptable answers) Lead(II) sulphide + oxygen lead(II) oxide + sulphur dioxide Lead(II) oxide + carbon lead + carbon dioxide Metal X is the most reactive whereas metal Y is the least reaction.

20. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 21. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

22. (a) P might be calcium. Calcium would react with cold water to give calcium hydroxide and hydrogen at a moderate rate. Q is mercury. Mercury(II) nitrate and silver nitrate would decompose on heating to give metal, nitrogen dioxide (brown fumes) and oxygen. Since Q is a liquid metal, it should be mercury. R might be copper. Since R has no reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid, it should be below lead in the reactivity series (i.e. it may be copper, mercury, silver or gold). But R displaces Q (mercury) from an aqueous solution of nitrate of Q, therefore R is more reactive than mercury. It is therefore likely to be copper. S might be zinc. Zinc oxide could be reduced to metal by carbon monoxide
41

but not by hydrogen at 1500C. (b) P, Q, R, S (c) The lower the position of a metal in the reactivity series, the more ancient would be the year of discovery. 23. (a) Landfills (b) We have to conserve metal resources because metals are limited in amount in the Earths crust and non-renewable. (c) (1) Reuse the metal mooncake containers to hold things e.g. stationery or letters. (2) Recycle the use metal mooncake containers by putting them at used metal collection booths so that iron and tin can be recycled for use. (3) Replace the metal moocake containers with paper containers. (We can choose to buy mooncakes with more environmentally friendly paper containers.) (4) Reduce the consumption of mooncakes to save metal resources. 24. Social perspective: Recycling promotes public awareness of resource scarcity. For example, special containers are provided for people to dispose of recyclable aluminum cans. Posters and television advertisements are designed for educational purposes. Economic perspective: Metal resources are limited. However, demand for metals keeps on increasing. Recycling is an effective way of conserving metals. Recycling saves energy and other resources. Thus, it reduces the cost of metals. Environmental perspective: Recycling of metals can reduce pollution due to metal waste. Also, recycling would cause less metal ores to be mined. This would minimize the environmental problems arising from mining and extraction from ores.

42

Chapter 11 Reactivity of metals


Suggested Answers for Class Practice A11.1 Rubidium hydroxide. As can be seen from Figure 11.10, very reactive metals (e.g. K, Na, Ca) react with water to form a metal hydroxide and hydrogen; fairly reactive metals form a metal oxide and hydrogen. Rubidium should be more reactive than potassium, since it is lower than potassium in Group I. (The reactivity of Group I elements increases down the group.) Thus rubidium should form rubidium hydroxide, not rubidium oxide. A11.2 (a) C, A, D, B (b) C: potassium; A: calcium; D: magnesium; B: copper A11.3 1 molecule of sulphur dioxide gas reacts with 2 formula units of aqueous sodium hydroxide, to produce 1 formula unit of aqueous sodium sulphite and 1 molecule of liquid water. A11.4 (a) (i) 2 (b) (i) 4 (c) Yes A11.5 (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(ii) 2 (ii) 4

2 Cl atoms, 7 O atoms 2 N atoms, 8 H atoms, 2 Cr atoms, 7 O atoms 6 Fe atoms, 9 S atoms, 36 O atoms 6 Na atoms, 3 C atoms, 39 O atoms, 60 H atoms (b) 2Pb3O4(s) 6PbO(s) + O2(g) A11.6 (a) Cu(s) + 2Ag+(aq) Cu2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) (b) 3Mg(s) + 2Al3+(aq) 3Mg2+(aq) + 2Al(s) A11.7 1. Yes. Magnesium is more reactive than iron. 2. No. Magnesium is much more expensive than iron. 3. (a) 2Fe2O3(s) + 3C(s) 4Fe(s) + 3CO2(g) (b) 2AgO(s) 2Ag(s) + O2(g)

43

Chapter 11 Reactivity of metals


Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. (a) oxides (b) hydroxide, hydrogen, oxide, hydrogen (c) chloride, hydrogen (d) reactivity, same, reactivity, metal reactivity series formulae, symbols, physical states, relative, products electrons, positive, electrons more, displace, oxides, compounds lower heat, reactive, carbon. ions, ions, Ions, spectator ions position, electrolysis, carbon, gold, impurities. B A B C D C C D copper potassium gold iron aluminium potassium 4Al(s) + 3O2(g)2Al2O3(s) 2C2H6(g) + 7O2(g)4CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) 2Cu(NO3)2(s) 2CuO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g) 2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) 2C2H2(g) + 5O2(g)4CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) 3CuO(s) + 2NH3(g)3Cu(s) + N2(g) + 3H2O(l) 4FeS2(s) + 11O2(g)2Fe2O3(s) + 8SO2 (g) 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g)4NO(g) + 6H2O(l) Mg3N2(s) + 3H2O(l)3MgO(s) + 2NH3(g) 2Al(s) + 3Fe2+(aq)2Al3+(aq) + 3Fe(s)

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

17. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 18. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j)

19. (a) A reaction takes place. Magnesium dissolves and colourless bubbles are evolved. Mg(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g) (b) A reaction takes place. Calcium burns quite vigorously with a brick-red flame to produce a white powder. 2Ca(s) + O2(g) 2CaO(s) (c) No reaction takes place.
44

(d) No reaction takes place. (e) No reaction takes place. (f) A reaction takes place. Copper slowly dissolves and some shiny cru=ystals form on the copper surface. The solution gradually turns blue. Cu(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + Ag(s) 20. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Oxygen gas Silver Hydrogen gas Sodium (i) Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) (ii) Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) A<C<B

21. Electrolysis of molten ore: Reactive metals can be obtained from their ores by electrolysis. During the process, the purified ore is melted. Electricity is then passed through the ore to separate the metal from it. e.g. aluminium oxide aluminium + oxygen Reduction of the metal ore with carbon: Some less reactive metals can be extracted from their ores by heating with carbon. e.g. iron(III) oxide + carbon iron + carbon dioxide Heating the metal ore in air: Metal oxides of some unreactive metal decompose on heating to produce the metal and oxygen. e.g. silver oxide silver + oxygen The method used to extract a metal from its ore depends on the position of the metal in the reactivity series.
electricity

45

Chapter 12 Reacting masses


Suggested Answers for Class Practice A12.1 1 mole of silver contains 6.02 1023 silver atoms. Number of moles of silver atoms = number of atoms/L = 1.204 1023 = 0.200 mol 6.02 1023 Molar mass of silver (Ag) = 108 g mol-1 Mass of pure silver metal to be weighed out (for counting indirectly) = number of moles molar mass = 0.200 108 g = 21.6 g A12.2 1. (a) 55.8 2 + (32.1 + 16.0 4) 3 = 399.9 (b) 399.9 g mol-1 (c) 399.9 0.2000 = 79.98 g 2. Molar mass of silver (Ag) = 108 g mol-1 Number of moles of silver atoms = mass (g) molar mass (g mol-1) = 27.0 mol 108 = 0.250 mol Number of silver atoms = number of moles L = 0.250 (6.02 1023) = 1.51 1023 A12.3 1. (a) 0.200 35.5 = 7.10 g (b) 0.200 (35.5 2) = 14.2 g (c) 1.20 mol of chlorine (Cl2) contains the same number of molecules as 1.20 mol of water (H2O). Mass of chlorine = 1.20 (35.5 2) g = 85.2 g 2. (a) Molar mass of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) = 23.0 + 16.0 + 1.0 g mol-1 = 40.0 g mol-1 Mass of NaOH = 0.250 40.0 = 10.0 g Number of formula units of NaOH
46

= 0.250 6.02 1023 = 1.51 1023 (b) Since helium is monoatomic, molar mass of He = 4.0 g mol-1. Number of moles of He molecules = 0.20 = 0.050 mol 4.0 Number of He molecules = 0.050 6.02 1023 = 3.0 1022 (c) Molar mass of sulphur dioxide (SO2) = 32.1 + 16.0 2 g mol-1 = 64.1 g mol-1 Number of moles of SO2 = 3.01 1024 mol 23 6.02 10 = 5.00 mol Mass of SO2 = 5.00 64.1 g = 321 g (d) Number of moles of X = 3.01 1023 mol 23 6.02 10 = 0.500 mol Molar mass of X = 23.0 g mol-1 0.500 = 46.0 g mol-1 A12.4 1. Number of moles of Na = 100/23 = 4.35 mol Since number of moles of Na : number of moles of NaNO3 = 1 : 1 number of moles of NaNO3 = 4.35 Mass of NaNO3 = 4.35 (23.0 + 14.0 + 16.0 2) = 300.15 % by mass of N in NaNO3 = 14.0 23.0 + 14.0 + 16.0 2 = 20.1% Mass of N = 300.15 20.1% = 60.3 g 2. Number of moles of Na = 4.6/23 = 0.2 mol Since number of moles of Na : number of moles of Na2CO310H2O = 2 : 1 number of moles of Na2CO310H2O = 0.1 Mass of Na2CO310H2O = 0.1 (23.0 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 3 + 10 (1 2 + 16)) = 28.6 % by mass of H2O in Na2CO310H2O = 10 (1 2 + 16) (23.0 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 3 + 10 (1 2 + 16)) = 62.9% Mass of H2O = 28.6 62.9% = 17.99 g 3. Let the relative atomic mass of M be a. Fraction by mass of M in MO = relative atomic mass of M formula mass of MO 79.87 = a
47

4.

100 a + 16 a = 63.5 % by mass of Cl in MCl = 5.68/26.88 = 21.13% % by mass of M in MCl = 100% - 21.13% = 78.87% Let the relative atomic mass of M be a. Fraction by mass of M in MCl = relative atomic mass of M formula mass of MCl 78.87 = a 100 a + 35.5 a = 132.5

A12.5 (a) C4H8 (b) CH2 A12.6 1. Let CxHyOz be the empirical formula of the compound. Number of moles CO2 = 1.173/44.0 = 0.0267 mol number of moles of C = 0.0267 mol Number of moles of H2O = 0.24/(1.0 2 + 16.0) = 0.0133 mol number of moles H = 0.0133 2 = 0.0266 mol Mass of C in the compound = 0.0267 12.0 = 0.3204 g Mass of H in the compound = 0.0266 1.0 = 0.0266 g mass of O in the compound = 1.2 0.3204 0.0266 = 0.849 g number of moles of O in the compound = 0.849/16.00 = 0.053 mol C H O Masses (in g) 0.3204 0.0266 0.849 Number of moles 0.0267 0.0266 0.053 Relative number 0.0267/0.0266 ~ 1 0.0266/0.0266 = 1 0.053/0.0266 ~ 2 of mole the empirical formula of the compound is CHO2. 2. C H Masses (in g) 0.857 0.143 Number of moles 0.857/12.0 = 0.07142 0.143/1.0 = 0.143 Relative number of 0.07142/0.07142 = 1 0.143/0.07142 ~ 1 mole the empirical formula of the compound is CH2. A12.7 Since all the C in CO2 and H in H2O came from the compound, 12.0 mass of C in the compound = 1.32 g = 0.36 g 12.0 + 16.0 2 0.45 g 1.0 2 mass of H in the compound = = 0.05 g 1.0 2 + 6.0 The rest of the compound must be oxygen.
48

mass of O in compound = (0.81 0.36 0.05) g = 0.40 g Now go on to find the empirical formula as follows: C H Masses (in g) 0.36 = 0.03 1.0 0.05 0.05 = 0.05 Number of moles of atoms 0.36 (mol) mass in g 12 ( = molar mass ) Relative number of moles 0.03 (divided by the smallest number) 0.025

O 0.40 0.40 = 0.025 16

0.05 = 1.2 0.025 =2

0.025 =1 0.025

multiplied by the smallest 1.2 5 = 6 2 5 = 10 15=5 possible whole number (5 here) to turn all values into whole number empirical formula of compound is C6H10O5 Let its molecular formula be (C6H10O5)n, where n is a whole number. Relative molecular mass of (C6H10O5) n = 80 n(12 6 + 1 10 + 16 5 ) = 320 162n = 320 n=2 A12.8 (a) Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) (b) Mole ratio of Ca : Ca(OH)2 = 1 : 1 Molar mass of Ca = 40.1 g mol-1 Molar mass of Ca(OH)2 = 40.1 + (16 + 1) 2 = 74.1g mol-1 1.50 Number of moles of Ca used = mol 40.1 = 0.0374 mol Number of moles of Ca(OH)2 formed = 0.0374 mol theoretical mass of Ca(OH)2 formed = 0.0374 74.1 g = 2.77 g

49

Chapter 12 Reacting masses


Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. relative atomic masses Avogadro constant (L) 12, carbon-12. formula mass, gram molar mass Relative atomic mass, number empirical composition relative molecular mass theoretical B C D C D B A

18. Formula

a. Na b. NO3c. N d. N2 e. H2O f. NaCl g. [Cu(NH3)4]2+ 19. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Relative atomic mass 23.0 n.a. 14.0 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

Relative molecular mass n.a. n.a. n.a. 28.0 18.0 n.a. n.a.

Molar mass

23.0 62.0 14.0 28.0 18.0 58.5 131.5

1.204 1024 atoms 7.525 1022 atoms 2.709 1024 atoms 1.084 1025 atoms 6.578 1023 atoms 213 g 6 mol 2 mol AlCl3

20. (a) (i) CH4 (ii) Na2SO3 (b) Sodium oxide forms in air: NaO. Sodium oxide forms in pure oxygen: Na2O.
50

21. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

4.84 g 106 0.0457 mol 0.457 mol 10

22. (a) 2Fe2O3(s) + 3C(s) 4Fe(s) + 3CO2(g) (b) 0.226 kg (c) 1.398 kg 23. 1. 2. 3. 4. Weight a clean, dry crucible and lid. Clean a magnesium ribbon with sandpaper and put it into the crucible. Cover the crucible with the lid and weigh again. Calculate the mass of magnesium used Heat the crucible strongly until the magnesium catches fire.
crucible pipeclay triangle magnesium ribbon rocksil

tripod

heat

very

strongly

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

From time to time, lift the lid slightly so as to let in air to react with magnesium. When reaction completed, allow the crucible to cool. Weigh the lid, crucible and the contents. Calculate the mass of magnesium oxide formed. Then calculate the mass of oxygen in the compound. The empirical formula can be worked out by changing the composition by mass to the simplest whole number mole ratio.

51

Chapter 13 Corrosion of metals and their protection


Suggested Answers for Class Practice A13.1 1. In Tube 1, moisture in air has been absorbed by anhydrous calcium chloride. In Tube 2, dissolved air in water has been driven out by boiling. Besides, the oil layer on top prevents air from dissolving in water again. Iron nail is immersed in distilled water in Tube 3, and in sea water in Tube 4. Distilled water and sea water both contain dissolved air. 2. No; there is no air on the Moon. (In 3/1998, NASA revealed that there was strong evidence for the existence of a large quantity of ice at the poles of the Moon. Thus the old idea that there was no water on the Moon might have to be changed.) A13.2 Stainless steel is too expensive to be used in large objects.

52

Chapter 13 Corrosion of metals and their protection


Suggested Answers for Chapter Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. Corrosion, air, water rusting water, iron(III) oxide (a) acidic solutions, soluble salts (b) temperature (c) less (d) Uneven, pointed blue, Fe2+(aq) (a) paint, oil, grease, metal (b) alloys (c) Sacrificial, galvanizing (d) Cathodic aluminium oxide, anodizing (or anodization) A B B B B C

5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

14. (a) The anhydrous calcium chloride can absorb moisture (water) in air. (b) The oil layer can prevent air from dissolving in water. (c) Tubes 2, 3 and 4. This is because all these tubes have both water and air inside. (d) Tubes 1 and 5. This is because tube 1 has no water inside wheras intube 5 the boiled distilled water does not contain air. (e) 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) + 2nH2O(l) 2Fe2O3nH2O(s) (f) Adding acidic solutions or soluble salts to the test tubes can increase the speed of rusting. 15. (a) Dish 1: A blue colour appears, mainly around the head and tip of the nail. Dish 2: A blue colour appears, mainly around the head and tip of the nail. The blue areas are larger than the ones observed in Dish 1. Dish 3: No blue colour appears but gas bubbles appear around the magnesium ribbon. (b) Dish 1: A blue colour appears, showing that the iron nail rusts. The blue colour appears mainly around the head and tip of the iron nail because these regions are sharply pointed. Iron loses electrons more readily in these regions. Dish 2: A blue colour appears, showing that the iron nail rusts. The iron wrapped with copper rusts more quickly than iron alone. This is because the copper is less reactive than iron, causing iron to lose electrons more readily. This speeds up the rusting of the iron nails. Dish 3: A blue colour does not appear, showing that the iron nail does not rust. This is because magnesium is more reactive than iron, preventing iron
53

from losing electrons. However, magnesium reacts with hot water in the gel to form hydrogen. This explains why there are gas bubbles around the magnesium. (c) Magnesium > Iron > Copper 16. Both water and air are necessary for rusting to occur. Any method which can keep out one or both of them from iron will prevent rusting. Methods include: Applying a protective layer: Coating with paint, plastic, oil or grease as well as tin-plating prevents oxygen and water from contacting with iron for rusting to occur. Sacrificial protection: When iron is in contact with a more reactive metal, the more reactive metal loses electrons in preference to iron. This would prevent iron from rusting. Use alloys of iron: Stainless steel can be made by alloying steel with other metals like chromium, nickel and manganese. Cathodic protection: Electricity can prevent iron rusting by supplying electrons to the iron. Thus, preventing the iron from losing electrons.

54

Part III Metals


Suggested Answers for Part Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. A D B B A B D D A A Y>X>Z Stored under paraffin oil. 2Y + 2H2O(l) 2YOH(aq) + H2(g) Y floats on water and burns. Colourless gas bubbles evolved. X is calcium. Ca(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2(g) (f) Brick red flame (g) Z is iron. Z can be extracted from its ore by heating with carbon. Fe3O4(s) + 2C(s) 3Fe(s) + 2CO2(g)

11. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

12. (a) 0.90 g (b) 217 g (c) No. of moles of Y = 2 Charge of an ion of X = 2+ (d) X(s) + 2Y+(aq) X2+(aq) + 2Y(s) 13. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 20.7 g 220 g 48 g 292 g CH PbO2 Al2S3O12 C2NOH5

14. (a) To maintain a continuous flow of town gas over copper oxide and to burn away excess town gas. (b) Larger (c) 2.58 g (d) 2.06 g (e) 0.52 g (f) This oxygen was removed by combining with CO and H2 in town gas to form CO2 and H2O respectively. (g) 0.0324
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(h) 0.0325 (i) CuO 15. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Air and water Sodium chloride and wet mud Yes The paint acts as a protective layer which keeps oxygen and water from iron. (b) Car exhaust contains acidic gas like nitrogen oxides which speed up the rusting process. Also, the exhaust is very hot. (c) Aluminium

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