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Problem Set 6 Solutions MATH 110: Linear Algebra Each problem is worth 5 points. PART 1 1. 2. 3. 4.

Curtis Curtis Curtis Curtis p. p. p. p. 150 150 182 182 2. 6. 1. 2.

Solution to 2: Suppose u1 , u2 , . . . , un are orthonormal vectors in Rn . Write them as row vectors in a matrix A. Notice that AAt = I (At denotes the transpose of A, i.e. the matrix obtained by ipping the entries of A across the diagonal). Furthermore, det(A) = det(At ) because the determinant can be calculated by expanding by rows or by columns. Thus, det(AAt ) = det(A)2 = 1, hence the result. Note that we have only shown that the determinant can be 1 or 1. It is clear that the determinant can be 1 (for example if ui = ei , the ith unit vector). It is not hard to see that there are examples with the determinant equal to 1. Remember that the starred problem is non collaborative. Problem 1(10) Two matrices A and B are said to be similar if there exists a matrix C such that B = C 1 AC . Show that two matrices that are similar have the same determinant. Proof: det(B ) = det(C 1 AC ) = det(C 1 )det(A)det(C ) = det(C 1 )det(C )det(A) = det(C 1 C )det(A) = det(I )det(A) = det(A). Problem 2(10) For each of the following statements about square matrices, give a proof or nd a counter example: a) det(A + B ) = det(A) + det(B ). False. Counterexample: A = B = I are 2 2 matrices. b) det((A + B )2 ) = (det(A + B ))2 . Proof: det(A + B )2 ) = det(A + B )det(A + B ) = (det(A + B ))2 . c) det((A + B )2 ) = det(A2 + 2AB + B 2 ). False, because A and B do not necessarily commute. Counterexample: Let A, B be 2 2 matrices where A is the identity with an extra 1 in the 1

upper right hand corner and B has two ones in the rst column and two zeros in the second. Then the left hand side of c) is 1 and the right hand side is 0. d) det((A + B )2 ) = det(A2 + B 2 ). False. Counterexample: A = B = I are 2 2 matrices. Problem 3 (15) Given n2 functions fij on an interval (a, b) dene F (x) = det[fij (x)] for each x in (a, b). Prove that the derivative F (x) is a sum of n determinants F (x) =
n i=1

detAi (x).

where Ai (x) is the matrix obtained by dierentiating the functions in the ith row of [fij (x)]. Solution: F (x) = Pn ( ) n i=1 fi, (i) . Here is a permutation of 1, 2, . . . , n and Pn is the set of all permutations. ( ) is the sign of , which is either plus or minus one. Taking the derivative of F (x) we nd that F (x) = This is equal to
j =1 Pn n ( )fj, (j ) i=1,i=j n Pn

( )

j =1

fj, (j )

i=1,i=j

fi,(i) .

fi,(i)

which is simply n j =1 detAj . Problem 4 (10) Prove Demoivres theorem: Proof:

(cos + i sin )n = cos n + i sin n. (cos + i sin )n = (ei )n = ei(n) = cos n + i sin n. PART 3 - Optional Problem Let f, g, h be relatively prime nonzero polynomials (not all constant) with f + g = h. Dene n0 (f ) to be the number of distinct roots of a polynomials f . Show that max(deg (f ), deg (g ), deg (h)) n0 (f gh) 1. 2