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Encyclopedia of Canonical \adÊth

Encyclopedia of
Canonical \adÊth
By

G.H.A. Juynboll

LEIDEN • BOSTON
2007
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LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES v

To the late Abd a-amad Sharaf ad-Dn


vi LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES vii

Contents

Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX

List of technical abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI

List of (shortened) bibliographical references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII

General Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVII

An alphabetical list of persons with whom canonical traditions may be associated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Appendix: List of abdl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733

List of Qurnic passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802


viii LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES ix

Preface

When I was still an undergraduate, I was employed for half a year by Leiden University
Library. I was to take temporary charge of the Oriental reading room in order to relieve its
keeper who was going on leave. One of the great privileges of this job was that I was
granted free access to the oth erwise closed stacks of the oriental collection, enabling me
to browse to my heart’s delight. Some years later, on one of my wanderings amid the stacks,
I was one day intrigued by volume one of a series published in India, Tufat al-ashrf bi-
marifat al-arf by Ysuf b. Abd ar-Ramn al-Mizz (d. 742/1341). Upon opening it I was
astonished to find that it contained virtually only names found in chains of adth transmitters.
This series, once completed, was supposed to list all the isnds of Prophetic traditions brought to-
gether in the Six Books, eventually Islam’s revered canonical hadth corpus. But the traditions
were only referred to in this work by text snippets or a few salient features. At that time
I thought that I probably would never have use for a book seemingly solely devoted to
isnds and for the next few years I forgot about it. However, as from the mid-seventies
I was working on designing a method for identifying the originators of adths which were
(rightly or wrongly) attributed to the Prophet Muammad. Gradually it began to dawn upon
me that the common link phenomenon, as recognized in the fifties by J. Schacht, might come
in handy. Thus, as from June 1993, I embarked upon reading all the thirteen volumes of
the work. Mizzi’s Tufa and subsequently the usefulness it proved to have for my research
prompted me to dedicate the present volume to the late Abd a-amad Sharaf ad-Dn, the
Tufa’s Indian editor. For the Tufa turned out to be the indispensable sourcebook for finding
plausible answers, at least in my eyes, to my questions.
At this point I should like to acknowledge my indebtedness to J.J. Witkam, Leiden
University Library’s erstwhile keeper of Oriental manuscripts. Throughout the years
during which I have been researching and writing this book he, together with his staff,
has always been most helpful in accommodating me and my private trolley of various yards
of books in the Oriental reading room. Finally, I should like to express my gratitude to
all those friends and colleagues who have helped me in one way or another or other wise
encouraged me in all those years it took me to compile this book, especially L.I. Conrad
and W. van der Molen.
The index/glossary, which can at the same time be utilized as a concordance of prominent
words and phrases, is intended to be exhaustive, but it is probably not faultless. I would
be grateful for any mistakes and shortcomings to be brought to my notice.

September 2007 Gautier Juynboll


x LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES xi

List of technical abbreviations

* and  = symbols of two categories of traditions associated with Mlik b. Anas, for which see the
introduction to his tarjama
#
or ## = signs that a certain tradition occurs more than once on that page
CL = common link
ICL = inverted common link
MC = matn cluster
PCL = partial common link
SCL = seeming common link
(S)CL = (seeming) common link
(S)PCL = (seeming) partial common link
SS = single strand
xii LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES xiii

List of (shortened) bibliographical references

Abd Allh b. al-Mubrak, Kitb az-zuhd wa ed. Abd al-Malik b. Abd Allh b. Duhaysh,
‘r-raqiq, ed.
abb ar-Ramn al-A am, Mecca 1986-8
Malagaon [1966] Fasaw = Yaqb b. Sufyn al-Fasaw (also spelled
Ab Ubayd = Ab Ubayd al-Qsim b. Sallm, al-Basaw), Kitab al-marifa wa ‘t-tarkh, ed.
Gharb al-adth, ed. Muammad Abd al- Akram iy al-Umar, 2nd impr. Beirut 1981
Mud Khn, Hyderabad 1964 Fat = Ibn
ajar al-Asqaln, Fat al-br bi-
Ab Ubayd, Amwl = Ab Ubayd al-Qsim shar Sa al-Bukhr, the Mu af Bb al-
b. Sallm, Kitb al-amwl, ed. Muammad
alab edition, Cairo 1959
Amra, Beirut 1989 Festschrift Wagner = G.H.A. Juynboll, On the
Arabica (I) = G.H.A. Juynboll, Dyeing the hair and origins of the poetry in Muslim tradition
beard in early Islam, in Arabica, XXXIII, 1986, literature, in Festschrift Ewald Wagner zum 65.
49-75 Geburtstag. Studien zur arabischen Dichtung,
Arabica (II) = G.H.A. Juynboll, Some notes on ed. W. Heinrichs and G. Schoeler, Beiruter
Islam’s first fuqah distilled from early adth Texte und Studien, LIV, Beirut 1994, 182-207
literature, in Arabica, XXXIX, 1992, 287-314 GAL = Carl Brockelmann, Geschichte der
Authenticity = G.H.A. Juynboll, The Authenticity of arabischen Litteratur, Leiden 1937-49
the Tradition Literature. Discussions in Modern GAS = F. Sezgin, Geschichte des arabischen
Egypt, Leiden 1969 Schrifttums, vol. I, Leiden 1967
Azq. = Abd ar-Razzq, Muannaf, ed.
abb ar- GdQ = Th. Nöldeke, F. Schwally a.o., Geschichte
Ramn al-A am, Beirut 1970-2 des Qorns , Leipzig 1909-38
Bagh. = Abd Allh b. Muammad al-Baghaw, Al- Goitein, Studies = S.D. Goitein, Studies in Islamic
jadiyyt, ed. R.F. Abd al-Mu alib, Cairo 1994 History and Institutions, Leiden 1968
Bashal = Aslam b. Sahl al-Wsi  al-marf bi- Goldziher, Muh. Stud. = I. Goldziher, Muham-
Bashal, Tarkh Wsi, ed. K. Awwd, Bagh- medanische Studien, Halle 1889-90
dad 1967 Graham = W.A. Graham, Divine Word and
Bay. = Bayhaq, As-sunna al-kubr, Hyderabad Prophetic Word in Early Islam. A reconsidera-
1344 tion of the sources, with special reference to the
BiOr = Bibliotheca Orientalis divine saying or adth quds, The Hague/Paris
BSOAS = Bulletin of the School of Oriental and 1977
African Studies Gribetz = Arthur Gribetz, Strange Bedfellows:
Caskel = Werner Caskel, amharat an-nasab. Das mutat al-nis and mutat al-ajj. A study based
genealogische Werk des Hišm ibn Muammad on sunni and sh sources of tafsr, adth and
al-Kalb, Leiden 1966 fiqh, Berlin 1994
Conc. = Concordance et indices de la tradition ilya = Ab Nuaym al-Ifahn, ilyat al-awliy,
musulmane, ed. A.J. Wensinck et alii, Leiden Cairo 1332-8
1939-88 Hinz = W. Hinz, Islamische Masse und Gewichte,
d = Ab Dwd, Sunan as printed in A mbd, Leiden 1955
Awn al-mab d, ed. Beirut 1990
um. = Abd Allh b. az-Zubayr al-
umayd,
Draqu n = Al b. Umar ad-Draqu n, Sunan, Musnad, ed.
abb ar-Ramn al-A am, Cairo
with cmt. by A mbd, 4th impr. Beirut 1986 1380-2
Drim, Sunan = Drim, Sunan, ed. Fawwz IASh. = Ibn Ab Shayba, Muannaf, ed. Hyderabad
Amad Zamarl and Khlid as-Sab al-Alam, 1966-88; new edition by M. A. Shhn, Beirut
Cairo 1987 1995
Dhahab, Mzn = Dhahab, Mzn al-itidl, ed. A. Ibn Ad3 = Abd Allh b. Ad, Al-kmil f
uaf
M. al-Bajw, Cairo 1963 ar-rijl, third edition, ed. Yay Mukhtr
—, Siyar = Dhahab, Siyar alm an-nubal, ed. Ghazzw, Beirut 1988
Shuayb al-Arna , 4th impr., Beirut 1986 Ibn al-Athr = al-Mubrak b. Muammad Ibn al-
EI 2 = Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition Athr, An-nihya f gharb al-adth wa ‘l-
(English) athar, ed. Mamd a - an & hir az-Zw,
Fkih = Muammad b. Isq b. al-Abbs al-Fkih, Cairo 1963-5
Akhbr Makka f qadm ad-dahr wa-adthihi, Ibn Askir, TMD = Ibn Askir, Tarkh Madnat
xiv LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

Dimashq, ed. Umar b. Gharma al-Amraw, Juynboll, Leiden 1862-1908 and as quoted in
Beirut 1995-2000 I
j., Fat al-br
Ibn
ujr = Hadith Al b. ujr as-Sad an Ismil LA = Ibn Man r, Lisn al-arab
b. Jafar al-Madan, ed. Umar Rafd b. Rafd Lech = K. Lech, Geschichte des islamischen
as-Sufyn, Riy 1998 Kultus. Rechtshistorische und ad-kritische
Ibn al-Mubrak, Zuhd = Abd Allh b. al-Mubrak, Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung und Systematik
Kitb az-zuhd wa ‘r-raqiq, ed.
abb ar- der Ibdt, vol. I, das Rama
n Fasten, part 1,
Ramn al-A am, Malagaon [1966] Wiesbaden 1979
Ibn at-Tn = Ab Muammad Abd al-Wid b. at- Lisn al-arab = Ibn Man r, Lisn al-arab
Tn a-afqis al-Maghrib al-Mlik; his book m = Muslim b. al-
ajjj, a, ed. Muammad
entitled Kitb al-mukhbir al-fa f shar al- Fud Abd al-Bq, Cairo 1955-6
Bukhr as-a has not (yet) been edited MT = G.H.A. Juynboll, Muslim Tradition. Studies
I
. = Amad ibn
anbal, Musnad, ed. Samr h in Chronology, Provenance and Authorship of
al-Majdb, Beirut 1993 Early
adth, Cambridge 1983
I
j. = Ibn
ajar al-Asqaln Mujhid = Tafsr al-imm Mujhid b. Jabr, ed.
— Fat al-br bi-shar a al-Bukhr, the Muammad Abd as-Salm Ab Nl, Cairo,
Mu af Bb al-
alab edition, Cairo 1959 Madnat Nar 1989
— Hady as-sr. Muqaddimat Fat al-br, ed. Ms b. Uqba = E. Sachau, Das Berliner Fragment
Ibrhm A wa Iwa, Cairo 1963 des Ms ibn Uba, etc., in SB Pr Ak. W., XI,
— Al-iba f tamyz a-aba, ed. Al Muammad 1904, pp. 445-70
al-Bajw, Cairo 1383-92 Muséon (I) = G.H.A. Juynboll, Early Islamic society
— Lisn al-mzn, Hyderabad 1329 as reflected in its use of isnds, in Le Muséon.
— Tahdhb at-tahdhb, Hyderabad 1325-7 Revue d’études orientales, CVII, 1994, 151-94
IJMES = International Journal of Middle Eastern Muséon (II) = G.H.A. Juynboll, Shuba b. al-
Studies
ajjj (d. 160/776) and his position among
ILS (I) = G.H.A. Juynboll, (Re)appraisal of some the traditionists of Bara, in Le Muséon. Revue
technical terms in adth science, in Islamic d’études orientales, CXI, 1998, 187-226
Law and Society, VIII, 2001, 303-49 Muséon (III) = G.H.A. Juynboll, The role of non-
IS = Ibn Sad, Kitb a-abaqt al-kabr, ed. E. Arabs, the mawl, in the early development of
Sachau et alii, Leiden 1905-17 Muslim adth, in Le Muséon. Revue d’études
IS2 = idem, ed. I. Abbs, Dr dir, Beirut [n.d.] orientales, CXVIII, 2005, 355-86
IS qm = idem al-qism al mutammim MW = Muslim World
Islam (I) = G.H.A. Juynboll, Nfi, the mawl of Mz. = Ysuf b. Abd ar-Ramn al-Mizz, Tufat
Ibn Umar, and his position in Muslim adth al-arf bi-marifat al-arf, ed. Abd a-amad
literature, in Der Islam, LXX, 1993, 207-44 Sharaf ad-Dn, Bhiwandi 1965-82
Islam (II) = G.H.A. Juynboll, An excursus on the ahl Mz., Tahdhb = Mz., Tahdhb al-kaml f asm
as-sunna in connection with Van Ess, Theologie ar-rijl, ed. Bashshr Awwd al-Marf, Beirut
und Gesellschaft, vol. IV, in Der Islam, LXXV, 1992
1998, 318-30 Nawaw = m’s a edited with the commentary
JAOS = Journal of the American Oriental Society of Nawaw, ed. Mamd Tawfq, Cairo
JESHO = Journal of the Economic and Social 1349/1930
History of the Orient Paret = R. Paret, Der Koran. Kommentar und
JNES = Journal of Near Eastern Studies Konkordanz, Stuttgart etc., [1971]
JSAI (I) = G.H.A. Juynboll, Muslim’s introduction q = Ibn Mja, Sunan, ed. Muammad Fud Abd
to his a, translated and annotated with an al-Bq, Cairo 1952-3
excursus on the chronology of fitna and bida, Qanara (I) = G.H.A. Juynboll, Some isnd-
in Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, V, analytical methods illustrated on the basis of
1084, 263-311 several woman-demeaning sayings from adth
JSAI (II) = G.H.A. Juynboll, Some new ideas on literature, in al-Qanara. Revista de estudos
the development of sunna: as a technical term in árabes, X, 1989, 343-83
early Islam, in Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Rmahurmuz = al-
asan b. Abd ar-Ramn ar-
Islam, X, 1987, 97-118 Rmahurmuz Amthl al-adth, ed. Amatul
JSS = Journal of Semitic Studies Qureshi, Hayderabad 1968
Juynboll, Th.W., Handbuch = Juynboll, Th.W., s = Nas, Sunan bi-shar as-Suy , Cairo 1348
Handbuch des islamischen Gesetzes nach der (= al-Mujtab)
Lehre der schafiitischen Schule, Leiden 1910 — Kubr = Nas, Kitb as-sunan al-kubr, ed.
Kattani = Jafar al-Kattn, Na m al-mutanthir f Abd al-Ghaffr Sulaymn al-Bundr and
‘l-adth al-mutawtir, [Aleppo 1328] Sayyid Kasraw
asan, Beirut 1991
kh = Bukhr, a, ed. L. Krehl and Th.W. — Amal al-yawm = Nas, Kitb amal al-yawm
LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES xv

wa ‘l-layla, Beirut 1986 ed. Abd al-Majd ama


alab, Beirut 1996
Schacht, Origins = J. Schacht, The Origins of Uqayl = Muammad b. Amr al-Uqayl, Kitb a
-
Muhammadan Jurisprudence, Oxford 1950
uaf al-kabr, ed. Abd al-Mu  Amn Qalaj,
—, Introduction = J. Schacht, An Introduction to Beirut 1984
Islamic Law, Oxford 1964 Van Ess, TG = J. van Ess, Theologie und
Sra = Ibn Isq/Ibn Hishm, As-sra an-nabawiy- Gesellschaft, Berlin 1991-7
ya, ed. Mu af as-Saqq, Ibrhm al-Ibyr, Whid = Al b. Amad al-Wid, Asbb an-nuz l,
Abd al-
af Shalab, Cairo 1936 the Mu af al-Bb al-
alab edition, sec. impr.
Studies etc. = G.H.A. Juynboll, Studies on the Cairo 1968
Origins and Uses of Islamic adth, Variorum, Wqid = Muammad b. Umar al-Wqid, Kitb
Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot 1996 al-maghz, ed. Marsden Jones, London 1966
Suy , Isf = Suy , Isf al-mubaa bi-rijl al- WI = Die Welt des Islams
Muwaa, ed. Frq Sad, Beirut 1979 WKAS = Wörterbuch der klassisch arabischen
t = Tirmidh, Al-jmi a-a, ed. A.M. Shkir Sprache
a.o., Cairo 1937-65 WZKM (I) = G.H.A. Juynboll, The role of
abar, Tafsr = Ab Jafar Muammad b. Jarr a - muammar n in the early development of the
abar, Jmi al-bayn an tawl y al-qurn, isnd, in Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des
the Mu af al-Bb al-
alab edition, second Morgenlandes, LXXXI, 1991, 155-75
impr., Cairo 1954 ZDMG = Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlän-
Tj = Zubayd, Tj al-ar s dischen Gesellschaft
ay. = aylis, Musnad, Hyderabad 1321 Zurqn = Muammad az-Zurqn, Shar al ‘l-
TB = al-Kha b al-Baghdd, Tarkh Baghdd, Muwaa al-imm Mlik, edition al-Maktaba
Cairo 1931 at-tijriyya al-kubr, Cairo 1954
tm = Tirmidh, Ash-shamil al-muammadiyya,
xvi LIST OF (SHORTENED) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
GENERAL INTRODUCTION xvii

General introduction*1

A—Old and new technical terms. Mizz’s Tufa by the biographers of adth transmitters. More-
over, in recent research their way of establishing
This encyclopedia of Muslim adth proposes to the historicity and hence acceptance of isnds has
present in English translation most of the major been opened up and placed on an unsure footing1.
traditions of the canonical collections, simply Especially because of its relatively late introduc-
called the Six Books (al-kutub as-sitta). In addition tion into Islam towards the end of the first/seventh
to those, it draws upon a number of other, earlier, century2, close scrutiny of the isnd phenomenon
non-canonical collections. The traditions were se- leads to the question of whether or not the ascription
lected on the basis of a—sometimes merely tenta- of a tradition should rather be deferred, until certain
tive—identification of their respective originators, recently developed analytical methods have been
who are enumerated in alphabetical order below, tried out on isnds. In the conviction that not only
each with the tradition(s) for which he conceivably the transmitters’ dictionaries, but all relevant Mus-
is, or possibly may be held, responsible. The origi- lim sources surveyed together tell a different story,
nators form the backbone of this book and consti- this book is set up to tell that story. In short, it tackles
tute together at the same time some sort of chapter the question of the historicity of the ascription of tra-
division. Every adth within the corpus—or tarja- ditions to their purported originator(s) anew. And
ma—of every transmitter/originator is followed by it does not only deny this historicity, as was done
a list of loci where it can be traced in the collections. by Goldziher and later researchers, it attempts to
An analysis of the chains of transmitters (isnds) of furnish also positive data in order to arrive at a feasi-
each is added as well in an attempt to justify, or the ble reconstruction of the developmental history of
case so being speculatively postulate, the identifica- Muslim adth.
tion of that originator. In this book, one major characteristic of Muslim
In the Islamic world such an identification adth is purposefully circumvented: its repetitive-
exercise was—and still is—generally held to be ness. Whenever that appeared practicable, the is-
otiose. After the introduction of the isnd as au- nds as well as the texts (= matns) of each tradition
thenticating device had been accomplished, and were condensed, so as to give each separate idea or
after this device had become accepted everywhere concept expressed in Muslim adth literature, for
among the orthodox of Islam, it was believed that which an originator could be brought forward, no
the religion had in this tool a more or less foolproof more than one mention. Occasionally we find more
instrument to determine the origin of the sayings than one. If all the traditions from all the six canon-
and deeds ascribed to the Prophet Muammad. ical collections had been listed without this conden-
After a tradition with its supporting isnd strand sation having been carried through, the resulting
had found a place in those adth collections which, translation would have grown to colossal, and in
some time later, were considered to ascend to an the end strictly unmanageable, proportions. Howev-
unassailable level of sanctity, only second to the er, often enough one and the same idea crops up
Qurn, the attribution was generally taken at face more than once scattered over the so-called compos-
value. It was thought that the canonical collections
such as those of Bukhr and Muslim were guar- 1. Cf. MT, esp. chapters IV and V, and index, s.v.
antee enough for the ascription to the Prophet to be li.
believed and acted upon. 2. Cf. MT, index s.v. isnd, chronology of—. More-
However, medieval Muslim isnd investigation over it is stated in the biographical entry in Dhahab, Si-
yar, V, p. 231, on
ammd b. Ab Sulaymn, a mawl
was almost solely built upon the expertise displayed and faqh from Kfa, that he did not transmit many tra-
ditions because he died already in 120/738 and that was
before the awn al-riwya, i.e. before the time adth
transmission proper took shape. This indication of time
*
For the referencing methods employed in this book, is one of those ultra-rare examples from which becomes
see the final chapter of this introduction and also the list clear that adth transmission was not always, or by every-
of abbreviations and (shortened) references immediately one, thought to have started as early as was generally con-
preceding this introduction. ceived, namely directly after the Prophet’s death.
xviii GENERAL INTRODUCTION

ites. Such unavoidable repetitions will be marked Collector


in each single instance.

Mizz and his Tufa fuln

This book is modelled on the arrangement, which fuln


an important medieval adth scholar chose for
his isnd presentation of all the canonical tradi- fuln
tions from the Six Books and some major other
collections. This scholar is Ab ‘l-
ajjj Ysuf b. fuln
Abd ar-Ramn b. Ysuf al-Mizz, a Syrian tradi-
tionist who lived from 654/1256 until 742/13411. (fuln)
His arrangement of the adth material is quite
unique, at least in print. His Tufat al-ashrf bi-ma- Successor
rifat al-arf was edited by the Indian scholar and
printer Abd a-amad Sharaf ad-Dn, Bhiwandi Companion
(Bombay) l965-812. Printed in thirteen volumes,
the work contains all the traditions from the canon- Prophet
ical collections organized on the basis of the alpha-
betical order of Muammad’s companions who al- single
= SS
legedly transmitted one or more adths from him. strand
Of necessity and in order to avoid prolixity, several
new technical terms were coined, which are here- Diagram 1
with introduced.

Single strands, spiders and isnd bundles The majority of traditions appears to be found in
the sources supported by a so-called ‘single strand’
Mizz (henceforth abbreviated to Mz.) presented (henceforth: SS) of transmitters (see diagram 1).
the material as follows. Each tradition is identified A single transmitter in a strand is in the following
by its araf, i.e. an abbreviation of the contents, or diagrams generally referred to as fuln, i.e. the
one significant single line—mostly the first one Arabic word for ‘so-and-so’. A sizeable percentage
—, or one or a few crucial terms by which the tra- of SS-supported traditions occurs in two or a few
dition is deemed to be instantly recognizable. This more collections, resulting in the case of each of
is then followed by a list of all the isnd strands such traditions in as many partly overlapping SSs
in all the collections, with references to chapters forming together configurations, which are called
and paragraphs, which are found to support the tra- ‘spiders’3, diagram 2.
dition. The traditions are numbered by the editor The tripartite division of isnd structures into
from number 1 to 19,626. SSs, ‘spiders’ and ‘bundles’ was elaborated upon
and introduced in a number of earlier publications,
to which the reader is referred for closer inspec-
tion4. Now follows a digest gleaned from those ear-
lier studies.
1. For this author and an introduction to his major The overall ruling principles in the historical
works, see Qanara (I), and EI 2, s.n. Furthermore, see appraisal of isnd strands can be compressed into
the introductory remarks of the editor of Mz.’s Tufa in
several adages. The first of these adages runs:
vol. III, pp. iii ff.
2. When the Leiden Oriental publisher, Brill, had
almost finished printing the first four volumes of Con-
cordance et indices de la tradition musulmane, this firm
decided to cut the by then astronomically high costs of 3. After a method of presenting them in computer-
printing Arabic texts and to put out the job of printing drawn diagrams was developed, the name was inspired
the remaining volumes, to wit as from IV, p. 321, with a by the ‘spidery’ appearance of such isnd constellations.
printer in India. For this purpose it put at the disposal of The arachnid in question (from the phalangida) is the
Abd a-amad Sharaf ad-Dn its own Arabic type in four common harvest spider (BE), or daddy-longlegs (AE). In
different sizes. The printer then gratefully used this type French the name is faucheur, in Spanish: opilion, in Ger-
also for bringing out his edition of Mz.’s Tufa as well as man: Weberknecht and in Dutch: hooiwagen.
a number of other text editions. 4. See Studies etc., the papers VI - XI.
GENERAL INTRODUCTION xix

Collector B
Collector A
fuln
fuln fuln
fuln fuln
fuln fuln

fuln a
fuln fuln
fuln b fuln

fuln
fuln c

Successor
spider of
four SSs
Companion

Prophet

Diagram 2

Collector
diving SS
Collector Collector
fuln Collector
Collector Collector
PCL PCL
PCL PCL

PCL PCL PCL PCL


PCL PCL
PCL

PCL PCL
PCL PCL

COMMON LINK

(Successor)

Successor

Companion

Prophet
isnd bundle
of believable strands
and with one SS

Diagram 3

The more overlap the individual SSs display in him and/or blossoming forth from him, the more
support of one particular matn, the more clearly that moment of transmission, which can be seen as
visible becomes an isnd structure, which will be a ‘knot’, deserves to be considered historically ten-
called ‘bundles’. See diagram 3. Most bundles are able.
characterized by a SS from the oldest authority— The degree of transmission historicity de-
the Prophet or a companion—to the common link, termines then the degree of plausibility for the hy-
after whom the branches fan out in a number of pothesis that that transmitter has indeed had a hand
directions. in the formation and/or transmission of the matn of
that tradition. Conversely, postulating any measure
The more strands of one particular bundle come of transmission historicity for SSs, in which the
together in one transmitter, either converging in transmission of a tradition is allegedly achieved at
xx GENERAL INTRODUCTION

the hands of one single individual to another single who is well-nigh undeniable, he is the one. It stares
individual to another single individual and so on, one in the face, as it were.
requires an act of faith of which most dispassionate But there are more considerations to be taken
historians are not capable1. In other words, we are into account, for instance we must ask: how was it
not well served with only SSs, including those passed on to following generations? The tradition
‘propping up’ veritable bundles, when the task is was transmitted by Yay b. Sad to some other
first and foremost on our minds to look for an orig- transmitters, each of whom had his own pupil, in
inator. But isnd bundles do tell us a lot. In the end, some cases more than one. When a pupil of a CL has
the main purpose of isnd analysis is to identify the himself two or more pupils, he is called a partial CL
person who may be held to be a likely candidate (henceforth: PCL). Some of these PCLs have their
for bringing (the wording of) that tradition into cir- transmitted tradition directly end up in a collection
culation. In short, we would like to find out when, currently available in a printed edition, as in this
where and, if possible, at the hands of whom certain diagram marked by names in capital letters.
traditions we wish to study originated. The examples from the diagram are:
CL Yay b. Sad al-Anr/Mlik (Muwaa) +
Some more technical terms: common links and Ibn al-Mubrak (Kitb az-zuhd wa ‘r-raqiq);
partial common links PCL Sufyn b. Uyayna/
umayd (Musnad);
PCL Yazd b. Hrn/Ibn
anbal (Musnad) + Ibn
Isnd analysis aims at the identification of Islam’s Ab Shayba (Muannaf);
common links. They may be thought of as the PCLs
ammd b. Zayd + Zuhayr b. Muammad/
conceivable, often even more or less historically ten- aylis (Musnad)4;
able, originators of a tradition under scrutiny, and and from PCL Mlik:
that is in the end the main purpose of this exercise, PCLs Yay b. Qazaa + Qanab/Bukhr (a).
as pointed out above. One such common link, in
the following abbreviated to CL, together with his The CL/PCL ratio gives rise to a second major
main pupils, the partial CLs (henceforth: PCLs, see adage:
diagram 3 above) will now be presented, and this
for reasons which will soon become obvious: Ya- When a key figure—as we loosely label every trans-
y b. Sad b. Qays al-Anr (d. 144/761) and his mitter whose position is assessed in a first attempt
tradition listed in Mz.’s Tufa, VIII, no. 106122, to identify a CL if any—who has in a bundle two or
which occurs in the Six Books: more key figures as pupils, the position of the first
‘Deeds are to be appraised on the basis of their mentioned key figure becomes consolidated there-
intentions3’. by. Or to use the new technical terms: the more
This is arguably one of the best-known traditions favourable the ratio CL/PCLs in a certain bundle
of the entire canonical corpus. It is supported by an appears to be, the more credible is the position of
isnd bundle (cf. diagram 4) beginning in a SS from that CL in that bundle.
the Prophet Muammad via Umar b. al-Kha b It may be a source of never-ceasing amazement
and two other persons upwards, after which it fans that there still are various scholars, who maintain
out as from the CL, in this case Yay b. Sad al- that a bundle such as this one does not tell us any-
Anr. After a comprehensive analysis of all the thing. No, they say, nothing tangible can be deduced
bundles and other isnd configurations from Mz.’s from it, even with its seemingly clear SS back to the
Tufa was carried out, the overall conclusion was Prophet which, as stated above, constitutes a salient
reached that Yay, in this bundle, can be regarded characteristic of any bundle, and in spite of its CL
as the clearest, not to say the most spectacular, illus- and his six plausible PCLs via transmission strands
tration of the CL phenomenon in the entire Muslim spreading out to some twelve different sources.
tradition literature. In short, if there ever was a CL
4. In this enumeration one person, Ab Khlid Abd
1. Even among Muslim scholars the SS phenomenon al-Azz b. Abn (d. 207/822), is missing. He would
appears to have led once in a while to raised eyebrows, have been included here, if the source in which his
cf. the tarjama (i.e. chapter) of Muammad b. Isq traditions found a place had been edited, but that is not
under no. 7305. the case. Isq b. Ibrhm b. Makhlad ibn Rhawayh
2. For more data on this person as well as a comprehen- (d. 238/853) is a well-known author and collector in
sive treatment of this tradition, see below the tarjama of his own right, but for a small part his work remains in
Yay b. Sad al-Anr himself under this number. manuscript. Only his chapter on isha is available in
3. In Arabic: innam ‘l-aml bi ‘n-niyyt. a recent Cambridge (UK) doctoral dissertation.
GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxi

IBN MJA NAS


MUSLIM

TIRMIDH
Ibn Rhawayh al-Hrith
b. Miskn
IBN
ANBAL IBN AB
SHAYBA M. b. Al. Ab Ar. b. al-
AB DWD b. Numayr Khlid Suwayd
BUKHR Qsim b. Nar
. b. al-
Muthann Ab ’r- Sul. B.
Rab Ab
M. b. Y. Mu. B. Kurayb Manr
Qutayba b. A. Umar Rum Yay b.
M. b. Musaddad Ab
abib
Kathir
UMAYD Numn AYLIS

af b.
Ghiyth Al. B.
Layth al-MUBRAK
Sufyn b. Y. b.
Sufy. ath- Abd al-Wahhb Uyayna Yaz. b Qazaa Qanab
ammd
Thawr Hrn b. Zayd
Zuhayr
MLIK b. Mu.

YA
Y B. SAD al-ANR
Muammad b. Ibr. at-Taym
Alqama b. Waqq
Umar b. Al-Kha b
PROPHET: Innam ’l-aml bi ’n-niyyt

Diagram 4

Those scholars claim, if they claim anything at all, lations listed in part II of this book are of a kind that
that a bundle, even one like this one, must have allows us only to surmise that a certain key figure is
been the handiwork of one or more, otherwise strict- its CL/originator. For the sake of convenience and
ly anonymous, unidentifiable isnd forgers, busily in order to introduce some sort of grading refine-
copied in the course of time by a number of equally ment, a key figure’s position in the bundles to be
unidentifiable fellow-forgers. Several years ago, at studied has therefore been divided into three cate-
a Paris conference on early Islamic transmission of gories:
religious knowledge, at least two senior colleagues 1. that of CLs;
could be observed from close quarters, both tak- and, where the isnd strands fail to convince
ing their time peering at the same diagram. After outright because, for example, the CL/PCL ratio
pensive scrutiny, both confessed that they had no in a bundle is not immediately convincing and the
inkling of who it was that might conceivably be adth researcher is in other words compelled to
held responsible for the SS down to the Prophet and adopt a more speculative stance:
the text of the tradition, the matn. However, in this 2. that of (seeming) CLs, henceforth: (S)CLs;
book the point of departure is taken that, with this and, where he is even less convinced of the tenability
example, the CL phenomenon can be considered, of his conclusions:
if not clinched, then at least as a provisional, work- 3. that of seeming CLs, hence: SCLs.
able tool for arriving at plausible conclusions as to Thus, when analysing a bundle in order to unearth
chronology, provenance and/or authorship of cer- the originator of the (wording of) one particular
tain canonical adths, arguably the main purpose tradition, on the plausibility curve, the (S)CL is
of any tradition analysis. deemed to be sitting between the CL and the SCL.
Put differently, when an analytical probing does
Yet more technical terms: seeming CLs and seeming not allow the investigator to be sure about a CL in a
PCLs particular bundle, because he does not have three or
more credible PCLs to assess, he has two gradations
It is regrettably not always possible to be sure about at his disposal. The admittedly somewhat fluid
the identification of the originator of (the wording delimitations of these gradations are the following:
of) a particular tradition. Quite a few isnd constel- The investigator either identifies the key figure
xxii GENERAL INTRODUCTION

in a particular bundle not as a CL but rather as a Collector B


Collector A
(S)CL, because he has no more than two believable
fuln
PCLs in the currently available adth collections fuln fuln
fanning out from him1 and further only SSs; fuln fuln
or he identifies the key figure in a particular fuln fuln

bundle as a SCL, because he has only one PCL in fuln a


fuln fuln
addition to a few SSs.
Let us now return for a moment to diagram fuln b fuln
4 with the bundle of Yay b. Sad al-Anr. fuln
Next to the CL Yay and his PCLs identified fuln c

above, we could attach the label of seeming PCL Successor spider of four
diving SSs
(= henceforth: SPCL) to Abd al-Wahhb, whilst or dives
the strands through Thawr,
af b. Ghiyth and Companion

Layth b. Sad are here no more than SSs. But to- Prophet
gether with the undeniable PCLs identified above,
all these strands blossoming forth from Yay tak- Diagram 5
en together make Yay in the eyes of many isnd
analysts the unmistakable CL.
adth master, such SSs reflect the attempts of their
The artificial CL. Diving. Superimposition of originators to hide themselves under the cover of a
spiders and SSs certain older transmitter, namely one who sits some-
where down a few steps below the originator of that
When the key figure in a tangle of strands supporting SS. In other words, collector A’s SS is plagiarized
a particular tradition has only SSs sprouting forth by collector B in three different ways. For a visual
from him, there is no question of a CL, a (S)CL, or aid, see diagram 5.
a SCL. That key figure is then nothing more than This spider diagram can be interpreted as first
the person in whom a number of SSs are seen to representing a SS in support of a tradition brought
come down together, in other words we are looking into circulation by collector A (fuln—fuln a—fu-
at a spider, and not at a bundle. There are quite a ln b—fuln c—successor, etc.). His junior—or in
few of such tangled isnd constellations found in rare cases: senior—colleague, collector B, eager to
Mz. which, at first sight, suggest that we have a bun- share in the prestige of his colleague A’s strand and
dle, but which, upon closer scrutiny, turn out to be matn, but unwilling to own up from where he re-
no more than spiders. In fact, they easily outnumber ceived the tradition with this SS, devises his own
veritable bundles. In Mz.’s practice of presenting strand by diving—as it is called here—onto some-
his material, concentrating it around one particular one well-known from A’s SS, namely fuln a. This
companion with one particular successor2, we often not being enough in his eyes, he devises another
find two or more of these spiders superimposed strand, this time diving onto fuln b. And then he
upon one another, supporting exactly the same or adds for good measure a third SS diving onto the
one or more closely resembling matn wording(s), successor of A’s original SS, thus ‘asserting’ that
resulting in isnd constellations which, at first he had received A’s original tradition via not one
sight, leave us with the (false) impression that we but three ‘independent’ strands. Through this, B is
have a veritable bundle in front of us. Since SSs at the same time outdoing A by boasting of more
have to be visualized as the handiwork of the youn-
strands for the same tradition, resulting in some
gest transmitter mentioned, i.e. either the collector
sort of competition as to who may claim to have the
or—in certain cases—his immediate informant or
most strands. Throughout their collections entitled
the two as, Bukhr and Muslim, for example,
1. There is no chauvinism at play here: in the entire
could be observed to be locked in rivalry, competing
canonical tradition literature there is not one single isnd
bundle found with a woman as CL. Women occur in abun- with one another in this manner. In short, this is
dance in isnds but only as fulns in SSs and a handful a theoretical visualization of the ‘diving phenom-
of spiders. enon’. Without a full grasp of this phenomenon,
2. Followed in several cases by yet another successor Muslim isnd analysis is bound to founder or, to
or later transmitter, cf. our EI 2 lemma on Mizz and the
use another metaphor, more often than not derails
explanation given for Mz.’s use of one *, two ** or three
*** preceding transmitters’ names in the preliminary in a direction of unwarranted credulity with those
matter of each of the thirteen volumes. unwary analysts who discard it. Very often diving
GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxiii

SSs are still assumed by those analysts to be just ‘artificial CLs’ unearthed from Mz. could on good
as significant and ‘historically relevant’ as strands grounds also be qualified as fictitious, or to use the
peopled by a demonstrable CL and demonstrable Arabic term majh l, (unknown), since there are no
PCLs. data found on them in the sources at all, or the data
Besides, ‘dives’ launched by a contemporary are scant, contradictory or otherwise unsubstantial,
or younger adth colleague need not necessarily failing to result in the identification of a believable
bypass one or more fulns in the SS of a fellow-tra- or otherwise plausible adth figure.
ditionist, on the contrary they can either be targeted
in a particular bundle onto a certain PCL, or a cer- Three medieval Arabic technical terms and their
tain CL, or a certain informant of that CL, or an uselessness in the present discussion: a, asan
informant of that last informant, etc. Throughout and af
Mz.’s arrangement of his material we encoun-
ter a host of bundles supporting their respective First of all, some terms originating in the Middle-
traditions with, more often than not, superimposed Ages should be introduced in order that we gain
upon them one or more SSs, often together forming insight into their overall impracticableness. In the
one or more spiders. main, medieval Muslim adth scholars view an is-
In connection with dives, a third major adage in nd strand, which they find attached to a particular
isnd appraisal can be formulated as follows: adth, individually—we would say: as a SS. At
times they may talk about it as a strand within a
‘Shallow’ dives are on the whole older, i.e. are tangle of other strands, all supporting the same
launched at an earlier point in time, than ‘deep’ idea, but when they do, they fail to draw plausible
ones. The ‘deeper’ a certain dive is, the later is conclusions from them: they do not study the links
the moment in time, when its originator thought the strands have in common, or where they cross or
of circulating it. This boils down to stating that overlap each other. Most adth experts do of course
‘diving’ SSs onto a CL are on the whole of earlier admit that there is the occasional pile-up of strands
origin than those with a successor sitting under that supporting one and the same tradition, but isnds,
CL as target, whereas a ‘diving’ SS to a compan- in their approach, more often than not, boil down to
ion sitting under that successor is of even younger enumerations of five or some more names of single
origin. The deeper the dive, the later it came into individuals. It seems as if they never studied adth
existence. with the constant help of a work such as Mz.’s
To sum up, the crucial difference between Tufa, at least not in a meaningful way, although
spiders and bundles presented and analysed in the it was often referred to. Its usefulness for assessing
diagrams found in this book is that a bundle reflects at a glance the spread of a tradition over the main
the transmission history of a certain tradition from adth sources does not appear to have been appre-
old times until the lifetime of the collectors, in ciated. A crucial difference between the terminolo-
other words: it is to be viewed upwards, whereas gy used in the medieval Arab’s point of view and
the spider reflects the transmission ‘history’ of a in the foregoing survey is that, in the latter, there is
certain tradition by back projection, beginning with a continuous differentiation between SSs, spiders
the collections and, via various ‘diving’ strands, and bundles, whereas the medieval scholar nearly
working its way downwards. Differently put, the always speaks of ‘the isnd of a tradition’, without
historically tenable CL in a bundle of a certain distinguishing between SSs, spiders and bundles,
tradition is formed out of a historically tenable or even hinting at the existence of such. In short, in
transmission path via PCLs from the past into the the Middle Ages they were hardly ever on the look-
present, while the historically untenable key figure out for CLs or SCLs, although they do seem to have
in a spider supporting a certain tradition is the re- coined a technical term for them. For them an isnd
sult of back projection at the hands of collectors is either ‘sound’ (a), ‘fair’ (asan) or ‘weak’
or their direct spokesmen/adth masters from the (
af), and that sufficed them for evaluating the
present into the past1. We may therefore also label (un)historicity of its transmission. The definitions
the historically untenable key figure as an ‘artificial of these three terms are the following2:
CL’. Ironically, at the same time quite a few of the a is an isnd strand in which the transmission
is achieved along an uninterrupted chain of

1. A rare case of a collector (Bukhr) openly jug-


gling with SSs and textual variants is found in I
j., Fat, 2. Ibn a-alh ash-Shahrazr (d. 643/1245), Muqad-
XII, p. 338, -4. dima, ed. Bint ash-Sh i, pp. 82-118.
xxiv GENERAL INTRODUCTION

transmitters, preferably from the adth collection workable and constitute no more than a fossilized
all the way down to the Prophet Muammad, convention. If they convey anything, it is some-
whereby the lifetimes of every pair of two thing about a certain SS supporting a certain tra-
transmitters show sufficient overlap (muara). dition, and that is, especially in view of what was
This overlap is necessary to allow the conclusion said above about SSs in general, on the whole im-
that they could have met one another and that there material. Besides, the individual appraisals of the
is a conceivable, if not established, master/pupil transmitters enumerated in the rijl lexicons in
relationship. Furthermore, every transmitter has to such a SS are, more often than not, based upon high-
be known for his capacity to understand fully and ly ambiguous epithets like li, uwayli or a-
to transmit accurately every adth he hears and/or d q, or meaningless ones like thiqa3. Moreover, the
writes down from his similarly well qualified adth collections of the two shaykhs, Bukhr and Mus-
master. As far as the transmitted text is concerned, lim, are chockfull of transmitters who receive no
a a tradition can be either generally recognized more than one or two such, on the whole irrelevant,
or controversial, either ‘well known’ (mashh r) or qualifications in the lexicons, in spite of the general
‘strange’ (gharb), or anything in between those idea developed in the Middle Ages that occurrence
perimeters. of a tradition in one of the two as or both, au-
asan is an isnd1 when its provenance and its tomatically entitled it to the qualification a.
transmitters (rijl) are known, without anyone of These Arabic terms are only useful in that they
these being identified with mendacity (kadhib). amply illustrate the overall impotence, inconsisten-
A late definition has it that there may be some cy, and superficiality of medieval Muslim isnd
conceivable weakness in a asan tradition, but the appraisal. Often the observation sufficed in the Mid-
idea laid down in its matn should be beneficial in the dle Ages that a tradition was incorporated in one of
main and, where it concerns a rule or prescription, it the Six Books, preferably in one of the two as,
deserves to be put into practice. Ibn ash-Shahrazr to be henceforth accepted as basically ‘sound’. Ac-
says that the transmitters of a asan tradition are ceptance for practical purposes of what is in fact no
not exempt of undisclosed defects, but they should more than a khabar al-wid4 became widespread.
in any case not be heedless (mughaffal) and they In Islamic handbooks on jurisprudence many para-
should not make too many mistakes in what they graphs, sometimes entire chapters, are based on one
transmit. They should not be suspected of any de- or a few traditions supported by ‘sound’ but nonethe-
liberate mendacity or any other feature that leads to less asthenic SSs. And questions as to chronology,
ungodliness. A matn of a asan tradition should be provenance and/or authorship of such adths are
well-known through other, similar versions. This not posed, let alone answered, nor those concern-
includes matns transmitted through strands with al- ing the historicity of a adth’s transmission as ten-
ternative companions and/or successors2; thus they able or untenable. Without further ado, if the isnd
avoid belonging to the genres of unique (shdhdh) strand of a tradition from the canonical collections,
or objectionable (munkar) matns. Its transmitters preferably those of the two shaykhs, ended in the
should preferably be known for their veracity and Prophet Muammad, then that was enough for de-
reliability but to a degree that falls short of com- termining the authorship, and thus the overall relia-
parable qualities in transmitters of a material bility, of that tradition.
because of the former’s defective memories or ac-
curacy. asan thus falls short of a. More terms over and above a: mutawtir vis-
af is every isnd strand that does not meet the à-vis mashhr
standards of either a or asan.
In what follows these three terms will not The tradition on the intentions mentioned a few
occupy us any further. Within the new analytical pages above and here associated with Yay b.
methods introduced in this book they are strictly un- Sad always figures in discussions on two technical
terms, the participle mutawtir and the verbal noun
tawtur. Tawtur is the technical adth term for
1. The asan isnd is, according to Ab Sulaymn such broad attestation of a particular adth through
al-Kha b (d. 388/998), the overall basis (the term he multiple isnd strands in the sources that large-
uses for basis is madr!, for which see below) for most
of the adths accepted by the majority of scholars and scale mendacity in that tradition thus supported is
used by most fuqah, cf. Ibn ash-Shahrazr, Muqaddi-
ma, p. 103. 3. For these technical terms, see our lemmata in EI 2,
2. See the definitions of the terms mutbit and s.vv. li and thia.
shawhid further down. 4. Cf. our EI 2 lemma on this concept.
GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxv

considered to be absurd (mul), or: out of the ques- Some more technical terms: mutbit and sha-
tion. For an exposé on the terms mutawtir— ta- whid
wtur, their evolution and their practical use, see
elsewhere1. It is true that the Yay tradition is It may come as a surprise, but the technical term
by general agreement not included among the tra- ‘dives’ introduced above appears to have an
ditions labelled mutawtir, i.e. falling within the equivalent—or near-equivalent—in Arabic medie-
delimitations of tawtur. Its authentication by its val technical language, or rather two terms used in
one single strand comprising four single transmit- tandem: the mutbit, the plural of mutbi, and the
ters from the Prophet via Umar up to Yay, after shawhid, the plural of shhid5. Unlike the word
whom the strands fan out in a number of different madr, which has no discernible adth-technical
directions, precludes it from that label. But in con- connotation in Arabic6, the terms mutbit and
nection with it, we do find in the sources the term shawhid do turn up in theoretical adth works.
mashh r, i.e. well-known. And in the same context Among the early users of the terms we find Q
yet another seemingly technical term crops up, ma- Iy b. Ms al-Yaub (d. 544/1149), one of the
dr2. However, until today, no Arabic handbook on most eminent commentators of the second most
adth could be unearthed in which this term is used prestigious of the canonical collections, that of
in an unmistakably technical connotation. Muslim b. al-
ajjj. The Q employed the terms,
Medieval theoretical studies on adth occasion- when he dissected Muslim’s presentation of isnd
ally show up in an offhand manner in a range of strands in his a. He labelled what we above
different contexts the word madr, literally: ‘piv- defined as ‘shallow, early dives’ with the term
ot’ ‘turning point’. This word appears to embrace, mutbit, literally: ‘followers’, and what we called
or come very close to, our concepts CL, (S)CL ‘deep, late dives’ with the term shawhid, literally:
or SCL. For more on the equation madr = CL/ ‘testimonies’.
(S)CL/SCL, as well as a host of related issues, see (It must constantly be borne in mind, as also
elsewhere3. Although it has not found an official pointed out above, that, more often than not, trans-
place in adth analysis as practised by medieval mitters and collectors are each other’s rivals, engag-
Muslim scholars, here we see how the technical ing most of the time in fierce competition for the
term CL that was coined in a twentieth century wes- prestige that went with the acceptance of certain
tern study on adth4 does crop up casually in an traditions which proved crucial for the formulation
Arabic adth study, reflecting as it were at least of law and/or ritual.)
some awareness with those scholars of the CL con- Diagram 6 is a systematic representation of those
cept. By using it they may have hinted at capricious two categories of dives, mutbit and shawhid.
tangles of strands converging in one single trans- A theoretical ‘reconstruction’ of the transmission
mitter responsible for authorship. We are probably paths of the imaginary tradition supported by this
not far wrong, when we surmise that this awareness imaginary bundle could be formulated as follows:
can be interpreted as pointing to their suspicion of The CL supported a certain tradition by means
the untenability of Prophetic authorship in the case of a SS which he led back via a successor and a
of a number of traditions. Best-known among such companion to the Prophet; then it was transmitted
scholars are Uqayl and Ibn Ad. And time and to later generations via PCLs 2, 4, 5 and 6 (via
again, what they hint at can be corroborated with uninterrupted lines to be read upwards), until it
isnd bundle analysis on the basis of Mz.’s Tufa. reached the collectors A, B, C, D and E;
collector A had it directly from the CL and also
via PCLs 4, 5 and 6;
collector B received it indirectly from the CL
via PCLs 3, 4 and 5;
1. Cf. ILS(I). The term tawtur seems to keep also collector C, who had received it from PCLs 1,
modern Muslim thinkers occupied: in an Internet peri- 2 and 3, read or heard somewhere that PCL 1 had
odical Message from thaqalayn we find Hadith al-thaqa- his own mutbi SS to the informant of the CL via
layn: a study of its tawatur. According to the fifteenth
century definition of the term the thaqalayn tradition is
anything but mutawtir. 5. It seems that it was the adth scholar Ab
tim
2. Cf. Kattn, p. 18, 10. Muammad b.
ibbn al-Bust (d. 354/965) who was the
3. Cf. ILS (I), pp. 307 ff. . first to introduce these technical terms.
4. Cf. Schacht, Origins, pp. 171 ff, later extensively 6. But see now the penetrating study of the nuances
elaborated in MT, pp. 206-17, and in Studies etc., index of the term madr in the sources on adth by H. Ozkan
s.v. common link. in ILS, XI, 2004, pp. 42-77.
xxvi GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Coll B Coll A
Coll D Coll E Coll F
Coll C

pcl 1 pcl 3 pcl 5 f f


f

f pcl 4 pcl 6
pcl 2 f
f f f f
f
f
f f
f f
CL
f f
f
Successor f f
alternative
Companion companion

Prophet
mutbit shawhid
dives = dives =

Diagram 6

two fulns, either imaginary or historical personal- with qualifications that amount to no more than
ities, so he copied that idea and launched his own majh l, although they are occasionally historical
mutbi SS to that same informant via two of his personalities, who are just lent by the SS inventors
own—imaginary or historical—fulns; from credible strands supporting other traditions.
collector D, who had it from PCL 1 and, being He must then realize that those to be read down-
aware that PCL 1 and collector C had their own wards constitute only SSs of variable depth and
mutbit, he devised one of his own via four of are all historically untenable accounts of the trans-
his own—imaginary or historical—fulns which he mission of the tradition at hand. But once the mu-
also led back to the informant of the CL; tbit and the shawhid are recognized for what
collector E, who had initially received it from they are, he is left with the original bundle in its
PCL 6, then launched two shawhid, peopling them pristine form with a discernible CL who could be
with his own—imaginary or historical—fulns, held responsible for the (wording of the) tradition
both via the companion of the CL’s SS to the scrutinized. Often the original bundles are so heav-
Prophet; ily snowed under by veritable layers of mutbit
finally, having read or heard somewhere that his and shawhid, either taking the forms of spiders or
fellow-collectors A, B, C, D and E had their own simple SSs, that he cannot possibly reach any ten-
strands and SSs, collector F launched the deepest able conclusion as to chronology, provenance and
possible shhid (the singular of shawhid) which authorship of a tradition without first peeling away
he led through his own—imaginary or historical— those layers. Here we need to point out that the gra-
fulns and adding an alternative companion (not dations (S)CL and SCL were introduced in the ex-
seldom a wholly fictitious one!) directly onto the pectation that future editions of as yet unavailable
Prophet. early collections turn the occasional fulns into be-
Confronted with this at first sight very complex lievable PCLs, helping the isnd analyst to attach
bundle—Mz. is chockfull of them!—which the the label of CL to a key figure who appeared at first
isnd analyst reconstructed on the basis of what he to be no more than a (S)CL or SCL.
traced in Mz., he must first sort out which strands
should be read upwards, because they constitute A closely related technical term: tbaa
historically tenable transmission paths namely
through PCLs, and which strands should be read The term mutbit is the plural of a participle of the
downwards. On the whole he is helped in this task verb tbaa, which is itself a technical adth term.
by data from the lexicons on transmitters. He will Used sparingly already in the earliest sources, such
find that the fulns, peopling the SSs from the as the talqt (additional remarks) in the a of
bundle, are very often so obscure as to be labelled Bukhr, but on a grand scale in a late source like
GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxvii

Zurqn’s commentary of Mlik b. Anas’ Muwaa, (d. 310/923), al-Mujam al-kabr of abarn (d.
tbaa does not simply mean ‘to follow’, but could 360/971) as well as the late-medieval Kanz al-
better be interpreted as ‘to follow the wording of’ umml of Al al-Muttaq al-Hind (d. 975/1567) is
or ‘to imitate’, especially in the ubiquitous phrase: an eloquent demonstration of that. Already as ear-
ly as the second/eighth and third/ninth centuries,
wa-akhraja hdh ‘l-adth al-Bukhr wa-Muslim when the pre-canonical as well as the canonical col-
an … an Mlik wa-tbaa-hu bihi an … lections were in the process of being compiled, the
This means: adth material thanked its bulk to the tireless ‘for-
Bukhr and Muslim listed this tradition on mation’ of such diving strands, supporting word
the authority of their informants on the authority for word repeated, or the case so being ‘doctored’,
of Mlik, whereupon Mlik’s fellow-traditionists versions, of original matns, brought into circulation
followed him therein on the authority of Mlik’s by their original CLs. More than one adth resear-
informant. cher in the west, without batting an eyelid, accepted
The specific use of the verb tbaa + suffix + in the course of time those diving strands as con-
bihi an … can be traced in virtually all the old pre- stituting believable transmission paths. And Mz.,
medieval sources on a limited scale but, with time, whose Tufa almost always unmistakably identifies
the use becomes ever more frequent, especially in mutbit and shawhid strands for what they are,
the late Middle Ages. Tbaahu bihi does not simp- namely spiders or SSs, underlines the diving model
ly mean ‘to follow him in it’ but specifically ‘to reconstructed here.
follow, or copy, someone’s wording of a certain It is true that the ‘embellishments’ added to the
tradition’, sc. on the authority of the informant of original wording of the tradition of a CL reflect
the person ‘followed’. In actual fact, the use of the (facets of) legal, ritual, ethical or dogmatic discus-
phrase tbaa-hu bihi and the phrase lahu mutbit sions which that tradition evoked. But the origins of
can be found alternatively in the sources1. That these discussions lie in the CL’s original wording,
‘copy’ need not be identical to the original word- by the Q Iy referred to as the al. Moreover,
ing of the CL/transmitter copied. Often the mut- the outlines of the debates can already be traced
bi or the shhid strand ‘authenticates’ a doctored back in the countless statements (aqwl) of first/
version of the original: it adds or omits something, seventh century legal specialists, fuqah, or prece-
it either constitutes some sort of commentary of dent experts, ulam. These are preserved in other-
the original, or it supplies background data, or it wise not precisely datable but nonetheless mostly
provides a preamble or a sequel missing in the ancient reports with or without ‘defective’ isnd
original, or it contains a merely textual variant of strands. Examples of such strands are those going
variable import. All this was very often carried back to a companion without the Prophet having
through with the sole aim of creating the impres- been mentioned (i.e. mawq ft), or those supported
sion of originality. Attaching the mutbi and/or the by a Prophetic strand without a companion having
shhid strand is then believed by its originator to been inserted (i.e. mursalt), or simply statements
constitute sufficient ‘authentication’ of this ‘wholly (i.e. aqwl) of early knowledgeable persons, fuqa-
new’ version for the transmission path to be taken h or ulam3. However, as was already pointed
seriously. And that mutbit and shawhid dives out above, this book avoids as much as possible
were taken at face value as seemingly genuine the repetitions of traditions, which, more often than
transmission paths can be demonstrated by the fact not, do not amount to meaningful nuances which
that the phenomenon never stopped snowballing. require disentangling. If one wants to dissect the
The emergence of truly gigantic post-canonical above mentioned debates and to delineate their ear-
collections such as the Tahdhb al-thr of abar2 liest constituent elements in an attempt to depict
the evolutionary stages of early Islam, one will find
1. Two examples from Zurqn should suffice here: data, as well as the necessary references to associat-
(1) akhraja-hu ‘l-Bukhr … an Mlik bihi wa-lahu
mutbit wa-uruq kathra (II, p. 277, lines 15 f, uruq
is another Arabic term for shawhid); (2) wa-rawhu ‘l- Arabica, XLI, 1994, pp. 309-51. Cf. also F. Rosenthal’s
Bukhr an … wa-Muslim an … an Mlik bihi wa-lahu treatment of the work in his general introduction to the
mutbit f ‘-aayn wa-ghayrihim (II, p. 349, -4 f). English translation of abar’s Annales, vol. I, New York
2. Regrettably, this work which, if it had been com- 1989, pp. 128 ff.
pleted by its author, must have amounted to abar’s 3. These types of reports are found in abundance in
largest and most comprehensive collection of non-ca- some major pre-canonical collections such as Azq. and
nonical spider and SS-supported traditions is only partly IASh. For an evaluation of these three types of reports,
available in a printed edition, cf. Cl. Gilliot in a paper in see Arabica (II), pp. 287-314.
xxviii GENERAL INTRODUCTION

ed issues, in the commentary attached to each tradi- foremost to their isnd strands, but also in the texts
tion translated in this book. of their traditions we witness some remarkable
developments, for which see further down.
Some more technical terms concerning the matn
The strands
After the foregoing technical terms, which deal
mostly with isnds, some more technical terms The application of the authentication device of the
concerning the matn must be introduced at this isnd has its most ancient roots in a time shortly
point. In order to facilitate differentiation in matns before the end of the first/seventh century3. In fact,
the term ‘composite’ is hereby introduced. Often the oldest CL unearthed until today was Ab ‘l-
a tradition constitutes one in an enumeration of a liya Rufay b. Mihrn who is recorded to have
series of related, or the case so being hardly related died in 93/712 (see his tarjama at Mz., XIII, no.
or unrelated, traditions, all supported by the same 186424). At first the earliest Prophetic traditions
isnd strand. Such multi-faceted traditions are here were circulated shortly before the turn of the first/
called ‘composites’. A rule of thumb is that the more seventh century, initially in a trickle but gradually,
different items one encounters in a composite, the in the course of the second/eighth century, in an
later is its date of origin. Some CLs were masters ever-increasing torrent. Devising a suitable isnd
in rolling three or more different items into one strand in order to ‘prop up’ a saying attributed to
‘composite’, Mlik b. Anas being a case in point. the Prophet Muammad roughly one hundred or
The classical study on what are called ‘composites’ more years earlier meant in practice the bridging of
in this book is the doctoral dissertation of Stetter1. some one hundred or more years. It is here that the
A further term used here is the matn cluster. Within earliest CLs displayed an unsurpassed and rarely
the analysis of the matn of each tradition, there are detected inventiveness. A number of methods are
very often allusions to whether or not it formed discernible:
part of a so-called matn cluster, abbreviated to MC. (I) Peopling strands at the successors’ level
A MC is a newly coined technical term, which in- with historical transmitters whose age at death was
dicates that a legal, theological, ethical or ritual advanced enough to make contacts between each
issue gave rise to a variety of some slightly dif- pair of persons in the isnd believable; here we
ferent but often closely resembling, if not wholly notice the first attempts at ‘age stretching’5.
identical, matns which originated at different times (II) Peopling strands at the successors’ level
in different adth centres. Each of these matns not with conceivably historical but with fictitious
may have its own bundle, complete with its own persons whose alleged ages at death were comput-
CL, (S)CL or SCL, or it is supported by a spider ed to have made contacts with earlier transmitters
or a SS. Where possible, references to other, older in those strands believable6.
and newer versions of a matn within a MC are pro- (III) In a combination of (I) and (II): inventing
vided2. persons at the successors’ level who are reported
to have died at ages of between one hundred and
B—Brief introduction to a few major CLs as much as one hundred and sixty or more years.
Thus the class of muammar n, initially pertaining
In conclusion some of the most prolific CLs to be
found in the following alphabetical enumeration
are now surveyed. In conformity with the hypothe- 3. For a study of the birth and further chronology of
sis that lies at the basis of this book that CLs are not the isnd, see MT, chapter I.
only responsible for (the wording of) the traditions 4. For an equally ancient one, see ala b. Muarrif
(d. 112/730) under Mz., II, no. 1775.
with which they are associated, but in most cases
5. For a study of this phenomenon, see MT, pp. 46
also for the appurtenant isnd strands back to the ff.
Prophet, their various modi operandi are here 6. It is striking that in the Arabic adth handbooks
described. Several of these CLs are characterized one never finds a verb such as ‘khtaraa (= to invent) used
by innovative, ingenious approaches to present for inventing a fictitious person. The only term that comes
their traditions. This ingenuity pertains first and close to our concept fictitious is invariably circumscribed
by the term majh l (lit. unknown). But that qualification
is surprisingly little used, as if inventing a transmitter was
1. E. Stetter, Topoi und Schemata im ad, Tübin- felt to be too scandalous to be applied to any dubious fig-
gen 1965. ure. On the whole the number of demonstrably fictitious
2. For more on the MC phenomenon, see Studies etc., transmitters in Muslim adth literature vastly outnum-
index s.v. matn cluster. bers the people qualified as majh l …
GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxix

mostly to (pre-Islamic) poets1, was extended so as alleged famulus of the Prophet only made it to Is-
to include also adth transmitters. Muammar n lam’s earliest historical sources a sizeable number
were men whom God allegedly had granted very of years after biographical accounts of Muam-
advanced ages at death. Prime examples of CLs mad’s lifetime such as Ibn Isq’s Sra were put
who created several muammar n, fictitious as well together4.
as conceivably historical persons, in order to attach (VI) The CL himself projecting his own year
suitable strands to their traditions were among oth- of birth back into the past so as to make himself
ers the mawl Sulaymn b. Mihrn al-Amash (d. a believable transmitter of his spokesman. Most
147/764) and Isml b. Ab Khlid (d. 145/762). eminent examples of CLs who, by pulling out all
Amash and Isml were among Kfa’s first, most the stops, resorted to stretching their own birth into
gifted CLs2. the past so as to make their contacts with particular
(IV) The devising of apocryphal family isnds ancient adth masters historically acceptable were
(i.e. on the authority of someone/his father/his Mlik b. Anas (d. 179/795) and the mawl Sufyn
grandfather and so forth), often in combination b. Uyayna (d. 198/814), who blithely emphasized
with one or more features of (I), (II) and (III). These time and again that they were just about old enough
family isnds did not catch on immediately with to have received traditions respectively from Ibn
all adth collectors, but in the end even Mlik b. Umar’s mawl Nfi (d. 117/735) and Zuhr (d.
Anas (d. 179/795), Medina’s most influential and 124/742).
prolific CL, produced family isnds listing various (VII) Creating a new adth centre by devising
of his own family members, to wit fictitious uncles. a number of strands all closely associated with one
And also Bukhr and Muslim, initially somewhat particular city, thus placing that city on the map.
hesitant to adopt them, ultimately made use of them The best example of this phenomenon goes by the
to authenticate their traditions3. name of Wsi connection in this book5.
(V) Introducing fictitious companions with the
aim to serve as props for additional diving strands The texts
(i.e. shawhid). Next to that we encounter several
cases of stretching the year of birth of historical (I) Contributing to matn clusters (MCs) around one
persons who flourished during the second half of the particular event or a much debated issue centring in
first/seventh century back into the past so as to make one particular person (often leading to unwarrant-
them fit into the generation of companions, thus ed qualifications of tawtur6). A notable example
also creating what are in fact fictitious companions. of an event, which led to numerous traditions in
The most spectacular example of the latter category the course of time acquiring all sorts of topical
is the creation at the hands of Bara’s most eminent trimmings and digressions, is formed by the MC
CL, Shuba b. al-
ajjj who died in 160/776. Ex- on solar eclipses (cf. Zuhr under no. 6335 and
tensive isnd analysis has confirmed that it was Yay b. Sad al-Anr under no. 17936). As for a
he—and nobody else—who first introduced the figure around whom a controversial issue in ritual
persona of an inhabitant of Bara, the Anr Anas purification blossomed into numerous traditions
b. Mlik (d. 91-3/710-2), into the Prophet’s house- with various CLs is the companion Mughra b.
hold. For good measure Shuba is the undeniable Shuba and his alleged role in the mas al ‘l-
CL of a tradition in which is described how Anas’ khuffayn debate, i.e. the wiping over one’s shoes
mother offered her son to the Prophet shortly after instead of washing one’s bare feet. It was the Kfan
the Hijra to serve him as his personal servant, thus CL Amash who may have cleared the air in this
establishing his early—i.e. fictitious—year of discussion by bringing a tradition into circulation in
birth. Ironically, this crucial information about the which the chronology of the prescription was once
and for all established shortly before the Prophet’s
1. See Goldziher, Abhandlungen zur arabischen Phi- demise.
lologie. II Das Kitb al-muammarn des Ab tim al- (II) Creating ever more diverse composites
Siistn, Leiden 1899. comprising ever more rules and regulations
2. For a special study of the muammar n phenom- concerning legal and ritual prescripts. The number
enon in adth, see WZKM (I).
3. One such family isnd was eventually devised
of items constituting those composites increased
by q and solely used by him, see Mz., III, nos. 3825-33.
There is even a family isnd exclusively consisting of 4. How Shuba went about this is studied in Muséon
Abbsids, see TB, IX, p. 488: al-Mamn / ar-Rashd / (II), pp. 205-11.
al-Mahd / al-Manr / Muammad / Al / Abd Allh b. 5. See for this Muséon (II), pp. 225 f.
Abbs: “The messenger of God once said …” 6. For this concept, see ILS (I), pp. 322-41.
xxx GENERAL INTRODUCTION

with time. One CL who appeared to be particularly ways, shown the way by Mz.’s Tufa. Where for
prolific in composites was Mlik b. Anas. one reason or other Muslim does not list his version
(III) Creating a wholly new genre of adths of a tradition, a reference to one of the other collec-
blending sayings of the Prophet Muammad with tions was adopted as starting point for the investiga-
sayings and brief utterances directly attributed to tion. Ab Dwd’s collection had as drawback that
God. This genre is called adth quds and the it was less extensive than Muslim’s. Nas’s collec-
first, probably oldest and initially most prolific CL tion was easily comparable with that of Muslim in
responsible for this sort of traditions is again Mlik size, but Nas could not help himself repeating the
b. Anas. same tradition on various occasions, more or less in
the same way as Bukhr had always done, albeit
C—Layout not so frequently. And the collections of Tirmidh
and Ibn Mja were smaller in size than those of
Survey of methods and procedures followed in the their colleagues. On balance this approach worked
making of this book well. On the whole one can say that Muslim rarely
omitted mentioning a tradition found in the other
With the basic technical terms and angles of collections. When Muslim did not have a particular
approach in adth analysis as point of departure, a tradition, Bukhr listed it mostly at least once and
method was developed to mould and present the ma- that proved enough for a start. And when a tradition
terial in a manageable form that allows the reader was only listed in two, three or four of the lesser col-
to find his/her way in it with ease. Whereas Mz.’s lections, there turned out to be a strong reason for
Tufa lay at the basis of the isnd-analytical part of Bukhr and Muslim to discard it. In several cases
the book, for an evaluation of the matns a different that was the isnd by which it was known, rejected
approach was devised. Everybody familiar with the because the two shaykhs thought nothing of it. A
six canonical collections will have been struck by famous isnd strand spurned by them was, for ex-
the varying methods followed by the collectors in ar- ample, the family strand via Abd Allh b. Amr and
ranging the material they had gathered. Here one of several of his descendants, a strand ubiquitous in
the six collectors was chosen, for he adopted a way the ‘four’ but, significantly, lacking in the ‘two’2.
of presenting his collection that far surpassed in Traditions in this book, always preceded by the
clarity of organization the ways adopted by his five isnd strand back to the Prophet or, the case so
colleagues. That collector is Muslim b. al-
ajjj (d. being the narrator, are set off against one another
261/875)1, number two of the Six. Bukhr hardly by a bullet •, after which the—sometimes abbreviat-
ever presented his traditions on one issue all con- ed—translation or paraphrase of the matn follows.
veniently together in one chapter. He rather chose After that we find an enumeration of references to
to sprinkle them (or repeats thereof) haphazardly the canonical collections (e.g. the Six, or kh, m, d,
over a range of mostly widely scattered and on etc.). Thereafter we find in most cases a series of
the whole only vaguely, not to say unrelated, sec- references to one or more pre-canonical as well as
tions. But Muslim chose to include all the material some prestigious post-canonical collections present-
he had gathered on one particular issue in one and ed in roughly chronological order. The canonical
the same chapter, thus allowing the user of his col- and non-canonical references following each tradi-
lection to survey at a glance what, if anything, he tion are invariably separated from one another by
could expect to find in the five other collections. the words ‘confirmed in …’.
Ab Dwd, Tirmidh, Nas, and Ibn Mja all The main part of this book is arranged on the
more or less followed the presentation procedure of basis of the alphabetical order of the CLs. Each CL
their senior contemporary Muslim, but in their col- (who might turn out to be no more than a (S)CL
lections his rigorous method was not adhered to as or SCL) is awarded his own tarjama3. The tar-
consistently as Muslim had done. It was therefore
self-evident that whenever a tradition was also 2. The traditions transmitted via this family strand
listed by Muslim, his version was taken as point were supposedly collected in a afa, nicknamed a-
of departure. With that as basis, the different, or at diqa that means ‘the veracious one’. A afa is a
least closely related, versions of the same tradition (long) leaf of writing material, often rolled up, so as to
result in a scroll. In Mz., VI, nos. 8656-8823, they are all
were traced in the other collections, herein, as al- conveniently presented together. Nevertheless, kh and m
thought nothing of this material.
1. For an evaluation of Muslim as a collector among 3. Also several major companions of the Prophet are
his peers, see our lemma Muslim b. al-
adjdjdj in EI 2. included.
GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxxi

jamas amount to chapters. Within each tarjama collections in the order which lay also at the basis of
every tradition with which a CL could be identi- Concordance et indices de la tradition musulmane,
fied is given in the numerical order in which the namely kh for Bukhr, m for Muslim, d for Ab
araf thereof was listed in Mz.’s Tufa. Cross- Dwd3, t for Tirmidh4, s for Nas5 and q for Ibn
references to someone else’s tarjama are always to Mja. The references to the canonical collections
the number of Mz. therein, invariably preceded by are followed in most cases by those to some pre-ca-
the preposition ‘under’. These numbers are printed nonical and/or post-canonical collections, e.g. mus-
in bold figures in order to facilitate the tracing nads or muannafs in roughly chronological order
within the various tarjamas. Of each tradition first of their respective compilers, see below.
the isnd strand is translated; between the names of
each pair of transmitters a single dash (—) is given Referencing to the collections
as a general sign for transmission. On purpose, no
attempt whatsoever has been made at differentia- When references to adth collections are listed,
ting between terms such as addathan, akhbara- perhaps the greatest difficulty one encounters is
n and the like. Time and again we find statements which editions of the collections one should use,
ascribed to early adth experts who assert that a difficulty which also plagued Wensinck and
these terms just boil down to saying: there occurred his collaborators when they embarked upon the
transmission from one person to another person, Concordance. In order to avoid the often inconsistent
the differentiation having been inserted, if not for or otherwise defective kitb (= section) and bb (=
purely coquettish reasons, then in order to create chapter) numbering apparent in most collections, in
the impression that a certain transmitter had fol- this book referencing will be made to volume and
lowed the transmission procedure as laid down in page (where applicable), rather than to kitb and
the adth handbooks. The significance that was bb, this in contrast to Wensinck’s alphabetically
purported to lie in distinguishing between the terms arranged Handbook of Early Muhammadan Tra-
was theoretical rather than that it contributed to a dition, Leiden 1927, and Concordance et indices
better understanding of certain individual adths de la tradition musulmane, ed. A.J. Wensinck
and their transmission. et alii, Leiden 1939-1988, in which we find hun-
Following the isnd strand, the literal, or at dreds of references that simply lead nowhere. Here
times paraphrased, translation of the matn is given. now follows a (roughly chronological) list of the
Mostly that is an integral, in a few cases abbrevi- reference material and, where necessary, a tentative
ated, rendition of the matn as given in Muslim, justification of the chosen edition.
since his collection formed the starting point of this —kh references are invariably specified by the
encyclopedia, as stated above1. Variant readings, numbers of kitb and bb as found in the antiquated
if any, and where they were deemed meaningful, edition of Krehl/Juynboll (Brill, Leiden 1862-
were incorporated. The translation is immediate- 1908). kh’s a is available in so many different
ly followed by a reference to Mz., volume and editions, sophisticated as well as popular ones,
number(s)2. That is followed by references to the that any choice of edition is virtually as good or
as bad as any other. The official Cairo 1313/1895
edition in nine volumes does not have any number-
1. It must be pointed out here that many traditions
ing to speak of. It is for that reason that it was left
show up sudden changes in the subject of the verb, from
someone speaking in the third person to someone speak- out of consideration. The Brill edition may be old
ing in the first, e.g. changes from qla to qultu. This is but it constitutes an exception amidst the other kh
called iltift in Arabic, see for instance a Mlik tradition, editions in that its numbering is consistent as well
where his commentator Zurqn, III, p. 238, 8, points to as reliable. Moreover, that numbering was whole-
the iltift phenomenon.
sale copied through the good offices of Muammad
2. In the preliminary matter of each volume of the
Tufa Mz. distinguishes between the respective rep-
ertoires of companions without asterisks, successors 3. Occasionally we find after the symbol d a refer-
preceded by one * asterisk, successors of successors ence to his marsl collection.
preceded by two **, and the repertoires transmitted by 4. Instead of t it says sometimes tm, a reference to
persons in the next tier of the isnd preceded by three *** Tirmidh’s collection of Shamil.
asterisks. That is why on many occasions the reference 5. With s we sometimes find a reference to another
to Mz.’s volume may be followed by more than one, in smaller collection of his traditions such as Ishrat an-nis
fact at times a whole series of numbers. Good examples or Amal al-yawm wa ‘l-layla. In most cases the s refer-
of such series of numbers are found in the tarjama of ence is to that author’s As-sunna al-kubr. In places in
Hishm b. Urwa. Mz.’s methods were described in some which the word Kubr is not given, the reference is to his
detail in our EI 2 lemma on him. collection entitled simply Sunan, also called Al-mujtab.
xxxii GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Fud Abd al-Bq in Muibb ad-Dn al-Kha b’s V), Cairo 1937-65, was used. Finding one’s way in
edition of Ibn
ajar’s Fat al-br bi-shar … al- this edition remains awkward because of Shkir’s
Bukhr, al-Ma baa as-Salafiyya, Cairo 1380/1960. stubbornness in not adhering to Abd al-Bq’s
Regrettably, on the other hand, this Fat edition is directives in adth numbering, cf. the introduction
so poorly printed that it was decided to refer in this to vol. III, in which he vented his frustration at
book instead to the well-produced Mu af Bb Shkir’s unwillingness to cooperate. References
al-
alab edition, which unfortunately lacks this are to volume and page.
reliable kitb -cum-bb numbering of the 1960 edi- s—References to Nas are either to his Sunan
tion1. If one has no recourse to the Krehl/Juynboll also entitled Al-mujtab, the edition with Suy ’s
edition or the Salafiyya edition of the Fat and one commentary, ed. Cairo 1348, eight vols and re-
wants to trace a Bukhr tradition, one is advised prints, or to his As-sunan al-kubr, ed. Abd al-
to follow up the reference in Mz.’s Tufa to kitb Ghaffr Sulaymn al-Bundr and Sayyid Kasraw
and bb, at which point the list of section headings
asan, six vols, Beirut 1991. References are to
in the beginning of Wensinck’s Handbook, pp. XI volume and page.
f, is useful, but regrettably not all the way. Next to q—Ibn Mja and his Sunan are referred to in
Wensinck’s Handbook, Abd a-amad Sharaf ad- the Muammad Fud Abd al-Bq edition, two
Dn’s compilation of all the sections and chapters vols, Cairo 1952-3 and reprints. References are to
in the Six Books, on which he based the referenc- volume and page.
es to the collections in his Tufa, is indispensable. N.B. Occasionally referencing begins with ‘the
This compilation, sometimes considered as vol. Six’, when the tradition is found in all six of them.
XIV of the Tufa, is called Al-kashshf an abwb Then follow more precise details. The general rule
marji tufat al-ashrf bi-marifat al-arf, 2nd observed in referring to the canonical collections
impression, Bhiwandi (Bombay) 1981. But the fact is that when a tradition occurs in kh and m, each of
remains that, ironically, Islam’s most prestigious these is listed. As far as the remaining four collec-
tradition collection, that of Bukhr, is a source in tions are concerned, when references in kh and m
which tracing a tradition often entails a lot of leaf- are lacking, references to one or two of those four
ing through various volumes. are listed.
m—Muslim’s a is at the time of writing still The references to the canonical collections are
everywhere available in the reliable Muammad then followed by those from other, non-canonical
Fud Abd al-Bq edition, Cairo 1955-6, with collections (if any) after the words ‘confirmed in…’;
many reprints. References are to volume and page. here follows a roughly chronological selection:
References to Muslim’s best-known commentary, Mlik = the Yay b. Yay version of Mlik
that of Nawaw, are to the eighteen volume Cairo b. Anas’ Muwaa, ed. Muammad Fud Abd
1349/1930 edition, ed. Mamd Tawfq. al-Bq, Cairo 1952-3 and reprints, occasional-
d—For references to Ab Dwd, A mbd’s ly followed by references to other Muwaa
commentary entitled Awn al-mab d was used. versions; references are solely to volume and page.
Since the (otherwise highly unsatisfactory) edition Abd Allh b. al-Mubrak, Kitb az-zuhd wa ‘r-
by Muammad Muy ‘d-Dn Abd al-
amd had raqiq, ed.
abb ar-Ramn al-A am, Malagaon
been replaced by various other, mostly modern, edi- [1966] and occasionally his Kitb al-jihd, ed.
tions, opting for the Awn al-mab d commentary Nazh
ammd, Baghdad 1970.
appeared the most convenient solution. References ay. = aylis’s Musnad, Hyderabad 1321;
are to volume and page. references are to numbers.
t—For Tirmidh the edition in five volumes Azq. = Abd ar-Razzq a-ann’s Muannaf,
of Amad Muammad Shkir (I-II), Muammad ed.
abb ar-Ramn al-A am, eleven vols, Beirut
Fud Abd al-Bq (III) and Ibrhm A wa (IV- 1970-2; references are to volume and page, occa-
sionally followed by number.
IASh. = Ab Bakr b. Ab Shayba’s Muannaf,
1. If finding one’s way to the right page in whatever ed. Mukhtr Amad an-Nadw, Bombay 1967-83;
edition of kh still poses problems, one can always fall references are to volume and page, occasionally
back onto the references of Mz.’s volume and number followed by number.
in bold given right after the translation of each adth,
whereby consulting Mz.’s Kashshf may at times come
IS = the Kitb a-abaqt al-kabr by Ibn Sad,
in handy. But this work is well-nigh unusable when the ed. E. Sachau, Leiden 1905-17.
differentiation between sections—and this goes for all the
um. =
umayd’s Musnad, strictly speaking
canonical collections—does not tally with that of Wen- the traditions transmitted to him by Sufyn b.
sinck’s Handbook.
GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxxiii

Uyayna, ed.
abb ar-Ramn al-A am, Cairo/ Al b.
ujr, adth an Isml b. Jafar, ed.
Beirut [n.d.]; references are to numbers. Umar b. Rafd b. Rafd as-Sufyn, Riy 1998.
Bagh. = Abd Allh b. Muammad al-Baghaw, Ibn
ibbn, Al-isn bi-tartb a Ibn ibbn,
Al-jadiyyt, ed. R.F. Abd al-Mu alib, Cairo 1994; ed. K.Y. al-
t, ten parts, Beirut 1987.
references are to volume and page. Bay. = Bayhaq, As-sunna al-kubr, eight vols,
I
. = Amad b. Muammad b.
anbal’s Hyderabad 1344.
Musnad, ed. Samr h al-Majdb, Beirut 19931. ilya = Ab Nuaym al-Ifahn, ilyat al-
Abd b.
umayd, Al-muntakhab min musnad awliy, Cairo 1932-8.
… , ed. ub al-Badr as-Smarr & Mamd Etc., etc.
Muammad Khall a-ad, Cairo 1988. After the references to the collections there mostly
Sad b. Manr, Sunan, ed.
abb ar-Ramn follows an analysis of the isnds and the (tentative)
al-A am, Beirut ca. 1985; references are to vol- identification of the CL, (S)CL or SCL who may be
ume and page. held responsible for (the wording of) the tradition.
Drim, Sunan, ed. Fawwz Amad Zamarl and Further comments on the place of the tradition
Khlid as-Sab al-Alam, Cairo 1987; references in legal or other discussions in which it played a
are to volume and page. role as well as digressions on the matn or variants
Ab Yal, Musnad, ed.
usayn Salm Asad, thereof, if any, are often borrowed from one or
Damascus/Beirut 1984-8. more medieval commentaries, such as those of Ibn

ajar (abbreviated to I
j.), Nawaw, Zurqn and
the like. There are often also references to other
1. This edition has preserved the pagination of the an-
cient Cairo 1313/1895 edition in the margin, whereby one Mz. numbers, sometimes in the tarjama of another
is warned not to look down at each new marginal page (S)CL, where the tradition, or parts thereof, was
number but rather up. analysed.
xxxiv GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1

An alphabetical list of persons with whom canonical traditions may


be associated

Abd Allh b. Abbs, the son of the Prophet’s self and I put down some washing water
uncle, Abbs b. al-Mu alib. His age in the year for him. When he had returned, he asked:
Muammad died was a matter of dispute: ten, ‘Who has placed that washing water here?’
thirteen, or fifteen1. His widespread reputation as I (v.l. they) said: ‘Ibn Abbs.’ Thereupon
Islam’s first and foremost Qurnic exegesis expert the Prophet said: ‘God, teach him ((the law
cannot be gleaned with certainty from fa
il
of) the religion)’”,
reports2 that originated at any time earlier than the
second half of the second/eighth century. The very cf. Mz., V, no. 5865 (kh, 4/10, m, IV, p. 1927, s,
first reference to his reputed Qurn expertise that confirmed in I
., I, p. 327). Ab ’n-Nar is (S)CL
could be unearthed is found in Muqtil’s Tafsr of this fa
il tradition. I
. added four strands of
(IV, p. 895), but there it is as yet still unsupported his own in support of this tradition but with the sig-
by an isnd strand. And it always remains a matter nificant addition: ‘God, teach him how to interpret
of uncertainty whether it was Muqtil himself or it,’ in which ‘it’ is presumed to refer to the Qurn6.
a later anonymous redactor of the tafsr work that This addition is, however, not found in the canon-
goes under his name who is to be held responsible ical collections, only in I
., and it may therefore
for data emerging therein which do not expres- tentatively be ascribed to I
. himself. I
j. was
sis verbis mention Muqtil’s transmission3. Ibn aware of this and warns that attributing the addition
Abbs’ name first emerged in marf  strands some- to kh and m is wrong7. Ibn Abbs’ expertise is sub-
time in the first half of the second/eighth century. ject of another, probably older fa
il tradition, for
In this context it is perhaps interesting to point which the transmitter Khlid al-
adhdh may be
to a late tradition on Ibn Abbs’ alleged Qurn responsible, see his tarjama under no. 6049, also
expertise which has as (S)CL Ab ’n-Nar Hshim because of the partial association of that tradition
b. al-Qsim, a transmitter from Baghdad. He was with the Qurn.
a ib sunna4 and he is said to have died in 205 Ibn Abbs is credited with hundreds of tradi-
or 207/820-822. Ibn
anbal’s teacher from among tions in which he allegedly gave explanations for
those ‘who ordered the decent and forbade the Qurnic passages. Upon scrutiny of the respective
objectionable’, he was considered ad q, thabt f isnd strands, all these seem to date to a relatively
’l-adth, and l bas bihi5, and the inhabitants of late time of origin, as they are at most supported
Baghdad were proud of him. This late tradition runs by late spiders. The vast majority only has SSs as
as follows: authentication device. A comparison of these tra-
With a strand on the authority of Warq b. ditions with ones dealing with the same Qurnic
Umar al-Yashkur—Ubayd Allh b. Ab Yazd— passages in the older tafsr collections, such as
Abd Allh b. Abbs said: Mujhid, Muqtil b. Sulaymn, Thawr and the
ancient exegetical materials cited in abar’s Tafsr
• “The Prophet had once gone to relieve him- makes clear that figures such as Mujhid, Sudd,

asan al-Bar, Ikrima and Qatda were being
1. Cf. I
., Kitb al-ilal wa-marifat ar-rijl, ed. T. credited with mawq f assertions that later turn up
Koçyit & I. Cerraholu, I, nos. 1626-39, I
j., Iba, IV, in SS-supported Ibn Abbs traditions, sometimes
p. 142. but not always with a slightly more elaborate
2. Reports that sing the praises of a particular person or exegesis attached, in which matters of abrogation
a certain locality. seem to have been settled definitively. The conclu-
3. For a seemingly early report supported by a bundle
sion seems to present itself that Ibn Abbs’ pur-
in which one can discern a key figure who lived during
ported Qurn exegesis constitutes in fact the final
the first half of the second century, see Khlid b. Mihrn
al-
adhdh under no. 6049, but his position cannot be stage in early Islam’s exegesis evolution, in as far
considered as more than that of SCL.
4. For this qualification, see Islam (II), pp. 318-30.
5. Cf. I
j., Tahdhb, XI, p. 19. For such qualifications, 6. I
., I, pp. 266, 314, 328, 335.
see MT, ch. V, and our lemma li in EI 2. 7. Cf. Fat, VIII, p. 101, -13 f.
2 ABD ALLH B. ABBS

as that was based upon Prophetic tradition. On the sible. It is impossible to determine who could be
whole, Shfi is reported to have trusted no more the first transmitter to bring into circulation the
than some one hundred tafsr traditions from Ibn wording by which they became generally known in
Abbs, cf. Suy , Itqn, IV, p. 209. later years. Moreover, both prohibitions have been
On the other hand, he may be credited with the subject of an ongoing discussion ever since, as is
rules and regulations concerning the practice of evidenced in numerous aqwl, mawq ft, and mur-
slaughtering sacrificial animals on the occasion salt listed in the pre-canonical collections, e.g. cf.
of the ajj. But the matns in which these rules are Azq., VIII, pp. 199-202, IASh., VI, pp. 238-43. For
worded have been attributed here to Ibn Abbs’ extensive studies, also of a number of concomitant
alleged transmitters like Qatda, Mujhid, and issues, see Shuba under no. 13411 and Mlik under
others. no. 13802°.
He is also to be credited with particular rules in Another rule in respect of sales with which Ibn
respect of sales. The wording in the form of a con- Abbs may tentatively be directly associated is the
cise maxim of one of these may be somewhat later, following. According to ws he reported that the
but its origin may conceivably lie in the lifetime of Prophet said (paraphrase incorporating different
the Prophet. For convenience’s sake it will there- wordings):
fore be dealt with here:
• “He who trades in foodstuffs may not sell
• “ ws reported that Ibn Abbs said: them before he has taken possession of
‘The Prophet said: ‘Do not (leave town to) them. (Ibn Abbs added) I reckon that this
meet bedouin riders (out in the desert in applies also to everything other than food-
order to trade with them at inflated prof- stuffs”,
its). Townspeople should not sell (goods
cf. Mz., V, no. 5736 (the Six, kh, 34/55, m, III, p.
or animals) on behalf of nomads.’ I asked
1159, ay., no. 2602, Azq., VIII, p. 38,
um., no.
Ibn Abbs: ‘What do the words mean 508, I
., I, p. 270) with Amr b. Dnr as (S)CL in
‘townspeople should not sell on behalf the bundle, and no. 5707 (kh, 34/54, 2, m, III, p.
of nomads’? Ibn Abbs answered: ‘That 1160, d, s, Azq., VIII, p. 38, I
., I, pp. 356, 368)
means that townspeople should not act as with Abd Allh b. ws as SCL. Ibn Abbs is
brokers for nomads’”, reported to have said that he based himself on a Pro-
phetic ordinance, but occasionally he formulated
cf. Mz., V, no. 5706 (kh, 34/68, 2, Fat, V, p. 275,
the rule as his own. The ascription of the rule to
m, III, p. 1157, d, Awn al-mab d, IX, pp. 219 f, s, q,
the Prophet may in actual fact be the handiwork of
confirmed in Azq., VIII, p. 199, I
., I, p. 368). The
a transmitter in a tier, one or two slots above Ibn
above matn in fact combines two important early
Abbs. It is hard to pin this case of raf 2 on one par-
prohibitions: (1) riding out into the desert to meet
ticular person. Mlik is in any case CL in a bundle
bedouins and, taking advantage of their gullibility,
with a Nfi / Ibn Umar strand back to the Prophet
dupe them in transactions, and (2) deceitfully bro-
which supports a similar matn, cf. Mz., VI, no.
kering for bedouins. Both prohibitions have been
8327* (kh, 34/51, m, III, p. 1160, d, s, q, Mlik, II,
studied closely elsewhere1, along with a number of
p. 640, I
., I, pp. 56, 63 f). This bundle has given
concomitant issues, ethical or otherwise. Suffice
rise to the usual unconvincing spiders and SSs all
it to say here that both prohibitions may very well
converging in Nfi (cf. Mlik’s tarjama under no.
have originated during the lifetime of the Prophet.
8321). And for another matn belonging to this MC,
Other companions were allegedly also associated
but one with a cunning twist, see Mlik under no.
with either or both, but that association is, as ever,
8371°. See also Zuhr under no. 6933.
the product of back-projection. Thus we find Ab
NB For a prescript concerning sexual attitudes
Hurayra (cf. Mz., X, nos. 13123, 13271), Anas b.
with which he conceivably may be associated, see
Mlik (cf. Mz., I, no. 1454), Abd Allh b. Masd
the tarjama of Miqsam b. Bujra, a mawl who
(cf. Sulaymn b. arkhn at-Taym under Mz., VII,
stayed continuously in his vicinity.
no. 9377) and Jbir b. Abd Allh (cf. Mz., II, no.
2764), but they turn up in isnd strands supporting
Abd Allh b. Amr b. al-, a prominent com-
one or more of these prohibitions, strands for which
panion of the Prophet, the son of the conqueror of
second/eighth century CLs must be held respon-

1. See Arabica (II), pp. 302-14. 2. For this technical term, see our lemma in EI 2.
ABD ALLH B. AMR B. AL- 3

Egypt. He is said to have embraced Islam before his which fasting is expressly forbidden: the days at
father and to have died in 68/687 or 69/688. There Min, the day of sacrifice, and the day on which the
are two elements in his biography that emerge time fast of Raman is broken (cf. I, p. 300). Further
and again: he is described as having had a afa, components are (nocturnal) Qurn recitation and
nicknamed a-diqa (the Veracious one), in which supererogatory night prayers.
he is supposed to have written down sayings from
the Prophet. In Drim, I, pp. 136 f, there are two Abd Allh b. Awn, a Baran mawl who died in
bundle-supported traditions in which Abd Allh b. 151/768. When he married an Arab woman, he was
Amr’s afa is alluded to, see Sufyn b. Uyayna flogged by the Baran governor-cum-q
 Bill
under Mz., X, no. 14800, and Yay b. Sad al- b. Ab Burda, cf. IS, VII 2, p. 26. He had a pri-
Qa n under VI, no. 8955. The traditions in this vate prayer site in his house which had no mirb,
vein in IS, IV 2, pp. 8 f, are all SS-supported and a niche indicating the direction toward which
thus, for the time being, tell us nothing definite. Sec- Muslims must perform their alts; there he led
ondly, in a large MC, Ibn Amr is widely identified many people in communal prayers, while a mawl
with an ascetic lifestyle, entailing continuous fast- of his called out the adhn, cf. IS, VII 2, p. 28. He
ing (iym ad-dahr) and Qurn recitation and night appears occasionally in traditions copied from, or
prayers lasting the entire night, an attitude which is modelled on, those of contemporary traditionists.
recorded to have met with disapproval on the part Judging by the rijl literature, he is a well-known
of Muammad, who is said to have taken him to figure. For someone whose expertise in sunna
task for overdoing it. It could not be established is emphasized time and again1, his adth output
with any measure of certainty who could possibly found in the collections is surprisingly meagre,
have been the first to bring a tradition of this purport not at all commensurate with his supposed fame.
into circulation. In any case there is no hint of this In ilya, III, pp. 43 f, there are various traditions
supposed lifestyle of his in the Sra or in Wqid’s supported by more or less deep dives via Ibn Awn
Maghz. The oldest published history currently onto Nfi / Ibn Umar / Prophet strands, for which
available in which it is described is IS, IV 2, pp. the traditionists who used Ibn Awn in their dives
9 f, where we find a large MC. Several CLs seem are taken to task, exculpating Ibn Awn from any
identifiable in the isnds of this MC which, to make blame.
matters even more complicated, is at the same time With a strand on the authority of Ab Ramla
a composite. These feasible CLs, the one probably mir b. Ab Ramla—Mikhnaf b. Sulaym:
copying from the other, will be dealt with in their
own tarjamas. Shuba seems among the oldest CLs
• “While we were staying in Araft, the
to have ventured an opinion on the issue laid down Prophet said: ‘People, every year for each
in traditions, see his tarjama under no. 8896 but household a sacrifice (u
iya) and a propi-
especially no. 8635, which consists of a number of tiatory immolation (atra) are obligatory.
separate bundles superimposed upon one another. Do you know what is meant with a atra?
Other (S)CLs discernible in no. 8635 are Ibn That is what the people call a rajab offer-
Jurayj, Misar b. Kidm and Sufyn b. Uyayna (cf. ing (rajabiyya)”,
also no. 8897). Furthermore, see Awz under no.
cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11244 (d, Awn al-mab d, VII, p.
8961, Raw b. Ubda under no. 8960, Abd Allh
340, t, IV, p. 99, s, q, confirmed in I
., IV, p. 215).
b. Wahb under no. 8645, and Khlid b. Abd Allh
Ibn Awn is (S)CL, but the tradition is generally
under no. 8969. Mlik has only one tradition deal-
recognized as strange (gharb), a roundabout way
ing with the discouragement of excessive fasting,
of expressing suspicion. As an afterthought d added
namely the ban on the wil method, i.e. fasting
that the atra was abolished and that the obligation
two consecutive days without eating and drinking
had to be seen as revoked. Both the companion
in between, but in his Muwaa there is no trace
and the successor of the isnd strand are labelled
of the voluntary fasting traditions associated with
as completely unknown, which amounts to saying
Abd Allh b. Amr. The components of this com-
that they were fictitious, cf. Ibn al-Qayyim cited in
posite MC are awm (or iym) ad-dahr or awm
Awn al-mab d.
al-abad, defined as voluntary fasting all the time,
and iym Dw d, i.e. fasting one day and breaking
it the next, amounting to fasting half of the time. 1. Ibn Mahd is reported to have said that he knew of no
According to Mlik awm ad-dahr is permitted, one in Iraq who was more knowledgeable in sunna than
provided that it does not include the days during Ibn Awn, cf. ilya, III, p. 40.
4 ABD ALLH B. AWN

With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm an- clichés, cf. qm, p. 305, while in Ibn al-Jawz’s ifat
Nakha—Aswad b. Yazd an-Nakha—isha; a-afwa he is not mentioned at all. And there is
and with a strand on the authority of al-Qsim b. one bundle in which he is SCL, no. 12816. Even so,
Muammad b. Ab Bakr—isha (paraphrase): from bundle analysis he emerges as (S)CL in a few
traditions, as may be shown in the following:
• “At the end of the farewell pilgrimage With a strand on the authority of Abd Allh b.
I asked the Messenger of God: ‘Will the Umar the Prophet’s words:
people return to their homesteads with the
completion of two religious duties to their • “When we pledged allegiance to the Prophet
credit (i.e. umra as well as ajj) while I to hearken and obey him, he instructed us
have only one (i.e. the ajj)?’ ‘Wait,’ he and said: ‘As far as you are able’”,
said, ‘until your period is over, leave Mecca cf. Mz., V, nos. 7127, 7174, 7193, 7244, 7257
for at-Tanm and begin your performance (kh, 93/43, 3, m, III, p. 1490, d, t, s, confirmed in
of a umra from there. Meet us after that at Mlik*, II, p, 982, ay., no. 1880, Azq., VI, p. 6,
such and such a place tomorrow depending
um., no. 640, I
., II, pp. 9, 81, 101). With his four
on how tired you are’”, PCLs Abd Allh is in any case the (S)CL of this
early tradition from the sam wa-a cluster, i.e. the
cf. Mz., XI, nos. 15971, 15916, XII, no. 17467 (kh, ‘hearken and obey’ MC. This particular wording
26/8, m, II, pp. 876 f, s, I
., VI, p. 43). isha, inspired Shuba as well as Mlik, and both partici-
whose period had allegedly begun just before the pated in this MC.
ajj, had been allowed by the Prophet to partici- With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
pate in all the rituals of the ajj with the exception
of the circumambulations around the Kaba and • “Of two people who are about to con-
the run between af and Marwa. So she was now clude a transaction each one has the option
told what to do to make up for these rituals, which (khiyr2) to rescind, as long as they have
together in fact comprise a umra. Ibn Awn is not parted ways, except in the case of a
SCL of the wording, and the historical background transaction whereby the right to rescind
is centred on isha’s participation of the ajj, within three days3, or, conversely, the non-
cf. isha’s tarjama below. A similar matn may applicability of this right, is a stipulation
have been brought into circulation by
ammd b. agreed upon previously4”,
Salama with a strand through Abd ar-Ramn b.
al-Qsim and his father, cf. Mz., XII, no. 17477 (m, cf. Mz., V, nos. 7131, 7155, 7173, 7195, 7265
II, p. 874, d, Awn al-mab d, V, pp. 139 f, ay., no. (kh, 34/46, m, III, p. 1164, s, confirmed in ay.,
1413, I
., VI, p. 219). no. 1882, Azq., VIII, p. 51, IASh., VII, p. 124,

um., no. 655, I
., II, pp. 9, 51, 135). With four
Abd Allh b. Dnr, a mawl of Ibn Umar who is PCLs and some SSs, Abd Allh b. Dnr may be
said to have died in 127/745. IASh. has preserved considered in any case as the (S)CL of the word-
several mawq ft of Ibn Umar allegedly transmit- ing of this tradition. But the issue of rescission/
ted by him. Furthermore, from his tarjama in Mz., option to ratify (khiyr) is much older than he and
Tahdhb, XIV, pp. 471-4, it could be distilled that had already occupied various first/seventh century
all the canonical traditions in whose isnd strands
he occurs are supported by Ibn Umar strands along-
side one other; see below no. 14153. He also fea- 2. This right is defined by Schacht, Introduction, p. 152,
tures in several bundles, nos. 12817 ff, in which he as the option to cancel a sale unilaterally (faskh), or the
is never CL. In Uqayl, II, pp. 247 ff, he is judged option to ratify it (im
).
in harsh terms, a judgement with which later rijl 3. Or other periods of time depending on the commod-
ity sold, cf. I
j., Fat, V, p. 230: e.g. for an animal or a
experts do not seem to concur, e.g. cf. Dhahab,
garment one or two days, for a slave girl a week and for
Siyar, V, pp. 254 f, and idem, Mzn, II, p. 4171.
a house a month.
His tarjama in IS comprises only the usual empty 4. This is the gist of the interpretations of the exception
clause dealing with the term khiyr offered by Zurqn,
III, pp. 320 f. He adds that, by adopting this ruling, Mlik
1. For a particularly severe judgement of Uqayl and his went against the practice of such Medinese fuqah as
Kitb a
-
uaf, see Dhahab, Mzn al-itidl, ed. Al Sad b. al-Musayyab and Zuhr. Cf. also Awn al-mab d,
Muammad al-Bajw, III, pp. 140 f. IX, pp. 231 ff, and Schacht, Introduction, pp. 152 f.
ABD ALLH B. DNR 5

fuqah who expressed opinions on this apparently With Mlik as his best-attested PCL1, Abd Allh
ancient commercial principle. More often than b. Dnr is (S)CL in this tradition which is part of a
not, the variations are expressed in the second part MC. At issue is the question of what one has to do
of the saying. Mlik, supported by his Nfi / Ibn when one wants to go to sleep after intercourse, a
Umar strand, circulated this tradition too, but it is ghusl or perhaps something else. For other (S)CLs
likely that he actually heard it from Abd Allh b. in this MC, see Zuhr under no. 17769, Ab Isq
Dnr and then modelled his version on the latter’s as-Sab under no. 16018 and Shuba under no.
matn after which he attached his Nfi strand to it, 15926.
cf. Mz., VI, no. 8341* (kh, 34/44, 2, m, III, p. 1163, With the same strand:
d, s, confirmed in Mlik, II, p. 671). And Sufyn b.
Uyayna claims he heard it from both Abd Allh
• “While the people were performing the
and Nfi, cf. also
um., no. 654. Various other, early morning alt in (the mosque of)
later CLs then made their usual dives for Nfi, cop- Qub2, there came someone who said:
ying Mlik’s text (e.g.
ammd b. Zayd and Ibn ‘Last night the Prophet received a revela-
Ulayya). For a somewhat more elaborate version tion in which he was ordered to perform
supported by a Nfi / Ibn Umar strand with Layth the alt in the direction of the Kaba, so
as CL, cf. Mz., VI, no. 8272 (kh, 34/45, 2, m, ibi- you must now all face the Kaba.’ They had
dem, s, q). Another, early (S)CL of a similar tradi- been facing Syria, but now they all took up
tion is Qatda, see there under no. 3427. a position facing the Kaba”,
With the same strand:
cf. Mz., V, nos. 7228, 7154, 7182, 7212, 7256 (kh,
• “The Prophet forbade the selling or donat- 8/32, 3, m, I, p. 375, t, s, confirmed in Mlik°, I,
ing of patronate”, p. 195, I
., II, pp. 16, 26, 105, 113, Drim, I, p.
307). With two PCLs and several spiders and SSs
cf. Mz., V, nos. 7150, 7132, 7171, 7186, 7189,
converging in Abd Allh, he may be the (S)CL
7199, 7223, 7250 (the Six, kh, 85/2, m, II, p. 1145,
of the gist of this tradition. Its wording here may
confirmed in Mlik°, II, p. 782, ay., no. 1885,
be that of Mlik. The revelation alluded to is II:
Azq., IX, p. 3,
um., no. 639, IASh., VI, p. 121,
144. An issue3 related to the change of qibla is the
XI, p. 418, Drim, II, p. 333). With no less than
khabar al-wid problem4: one single anonymous
five PCLs Abd Allh is the likely (S)CL of this
tradition. And in the rijl lexicons he is invariably person brings the order of the Prophet, whereupon
identified with it. However, judging by the nume- everybody believes him and carries out the order. A
rous mawq ft, mursalt, and aqwl of the same more concise tradition from the qibla changing MC
or similar import (cf. Azq. and IASh.), the maxim is listed with Yay b. Sad al-Qa n under no.
may be much older and may have its origin in the 1849. Another tradition from this MC has
ammd
earliest times. But this bundle is in any case the b. Salama as (S)CL, see there under no. 314.
oldest with a strand allegedly going back to the With the same strand:
Prophet. Closely related with this prohibition is a • “A man told the Prophet that he had been
tradition in which patronate is laid down as belong- swindled in a sale. The Prophet said to him:
ing to the manumitter, cf. Yay b. Sad al-Anr
‘When a sale is about to be concluded, say
under no. 17938, and a simplified version thereof,
to the other: ‘No cheating!’”,
for which Mlik seems responsible, see his tarjama
under no. 8334°. cf. Mz., V, nos. 7229, 7139, 7153, 7192, 7215 (kh,
With a strand on the authority of Abd Allh b. 34/48, m, III, p. 1165, d, s, confirmed in Mlik*,
Umar: II, p. 685, ay., no. 1881, Azq., VIII, p. 312, I
.,
II, pp. 44, 61, 72, 80). With three PCLs and sev-
• “Umar b. al-Kha b told the Prophet that
eral SSs Abd Allh b. Dnr is the (S)CL of the
he had incurred a major ritual pollution
during the night (and asked him what to do
1. Mlik was copied by Yay b. Sad al-Qa n, cf. Mz.,
in that case). The Prophet said: ‘Perform a VIII, no. 10552.
wu
, rinse your penis and then you can 2. A locality in Medina, cf. Yqt, Buldn, IV, pp. 23
go to sleep’”, ff, and Lecker, Muslims, Jews and Pagans, p. XVIII and
chapter III.
cf. Mz., V, no. 7224, (kh, 5/27, 3, m, I, p. 249, d, s, 3. Cf. I
j., Fat, II, p. 53.
confirmed in Mlik°, I, 47, I
., II, pp. 46, 56, 65). 4. Cf. our lemma in EI 2.
6 ABD ALLH B. DNR

gist of this tradition. Mlik’s transmission was cf. Mz., IX, no. 12816 (the Six, kh, 2/3, m, I, p.
routinely copied by Shuba, Thawr, and others, cf. 63, confirmed in ay., no. 2402, IASh., XV, p.
Zurqn, III, p. 343. Because of a certain speech 334, I
., II, pp. 414, 442, 445). Although all the
defect, called rutta, in one of its transmitters, the strands in this bundle come together in Abd Allh
final word ‘cheating’, khilba, is also transmitted b. Dnr in a spectacular manner, to consider him
as khiyba. There is confusion about the identity of the (S)CL for this reason is hazardous: not one of
the man who was cheated. Some say that it was one his alleged pupils is a convincing PCL, and it is

abbn b. Munqidh, others that it was his father safer to label him as the SCL. In fact, his bundle
Munqidh b. Amr, a long-lived person (muammar) consists of a certain number of superimposed spi-
who is said to have died at the age of 170 or 180 ders and SSs and does not allow us to draw more
(Zurqn) or 130 yrs (I
j.). About the father as concrete conclusions. If one of this bundle’s later
well as the son a report is found that they suffered transmitters must be chosen in order to attach its
from an injury (mam ma) in the skull. As a result CL-ship to him, there is one who might conceiva-
of this their speech was impaired to the point that bly fit the bill: Ab mir Abd al-Malik b. Amr
they were thought to be of unsound mind, which al-Qays al-Aqad from Bara (kh, m, s) who is said
facilitated their being cheated in sales transactions, to have died in 204-5/819-20. Abd Allh b. Dnr
cf. I
j., Fat, V, pp. 240 f, Zurqn, III, pp. 341 was associated with this tradition in I
j. (Tahdhb,
f. The well-known option (khiyr) of rescinding a V, p. 202), who used the technical term infird, an
sale within three days after taking possession, when abstract which we associate with the phenomenon
further inspection reveals that the goods are not in of the (S)CL; but he stated at the same time that
order, is associated with this tradition. Abd Allh’s usual reliable pupils did not transmit
With the same strand: this from him. It is therefore certainly some later
transmitter who has to be held accountable for this
• “The Prophet used to go to (the mosque of) tradition (cf. also Uqayl, II, p. 249). Bashfulness
Qub riding or on foot (in order to perform was otherwise a highly praised characteristic, see
the alt there)”, Mlik under no. 6913*.
With a strand on the authority of Sulaymn b.
cf. Mz., V, nos. 7239, 7143, 7152, 7172, 7220
Yasr—Irk b. Mlik—Ab Hurayra, who related
(kh, 96/17, 5, m, II, p. 1016, s, confirmed in Mlik
the Prophet’s words:
(Shayb.), no. 925,
um., no. 658, I
., II, pp. 30, 58,
65, 72, 801, 108). With three PCLs and several SSs • “A Muslim need not pay alms tax for his
converging in Abd Allh b. Dnr he is the (S)CL slave or his horse”,
of this tradition. There are also a number of SSs
with, instead of Abd Allh, Nfi to Ibn Umar (cf. cf. Mz., X, no. 14153 (the Six, kh, 24, 45, m, II
Mlik*, I, p. 167) supporting the same tradition, pp, 675 f, confirmed in Mlik*, I, p. 277, ay., no.
but these are probably the handiwork of those late 2527, Azq., IV, p. 33, IASh., III, p. 150,
um.,
transmitters whose practice it was to copy Mlik in no. 1073, I
., II, p. 410, 469, 470, 477, Drim,
traditions with Nfi / Ibn Umar strands. Mlik lists I, p. 468). Alongside a fair number of SSs and spi-
both these strands to Ibn Umar. The occurrence of ders this bundle points to Abd Allh b. Dnr as
both strands there is elucidated by Shkir in his I
. (S)CL, with Mlik, Shuba (copying Mlik’s matn,
commentary, cf. VII, p. 207. cf. Zurqn, II, p. 137), Thawr, and Ibn Uyayna as
With a strand on the authority of Ab li PCLs. Another key figure from Kfa in a bundle sup-
Dhakwn—Ab Hurayra, who related the Prophet’s porting a tradition on the same issue is Ab Isq
words: as-Sab (see nos. 10055, 10136), but this one is too
spidery to label him as a CL. From Azq. IV, pp. 33-
• “Belief is found in more than2 seventy (v.l.
6, and IASh., III, pp. 151 ff, however, it appears that
sixty) characteristics and bashfulness is the debate may very well be considered as going
one of these”, back, if not to the time of the Prophet, then in any
case to a time immediately after his death: compan-
ions such as Umar, Al and Ibn Abbs and fuqah
1. I
. mentions a strand from Azq.—Thawr, which
such as
asan al-Bar, Shab, Ibrhm, Umar b.
could not be confirmed from Azq.’s Muannaf, although
it would have fitted admirably there in II, pp. 287-90. Abd al-Azz and
akam b. Utayba all figure in
2. The Arabic word bi
 stands for a number between versions from the MC at the end of defective but
three and ten. ancient isnd strands. So to ascribe the maxim to
ABD ALLH B. DNR 7

Abd Allh b. Dnr is unjustified. He is in any case Hrn, with whom she was compared in this verse.
not the first person to have adopted this stance in In EI 2, s.n. Maryam (Wensinck/Johnstone), VI, p.
the debate. But he may be the first man responsible 630, we read about a tentative reconstruction of the
for providing the prescript with a marf  strand. family ties Maryam is supposed to have had with
Hrn, the brother of Ms. In abar’s Tafsr we
Abd Allh b. Idrs, an Arab transmitter who lived read how the Ban Isrl customarily named their
in Kfa from 115/733 or 120/738 until 192/808 and children after pious Jewish forebears without there
enjoyed a reputation as ib sunna wa-jama, cf. being any actual blood links with those ancestors.
IS, VI, p. 271. When offered a judgeship by Hrn With a strand on the authority of Raba b. Uth-
ar-Rashd he excused himself. In the tarjama mn—Muammad b. Yay b.
abbn—Abd ar-
Dhahab devoted to him it is implied that Mlik b. Ramn b. Hurmuz al-Araj—Ab Hurayra, who
Anas, with whom he had friendly relations, may related the Prophet’s words:
have exerted a
ijz influence on him in legal mat-
ters, cf. Siyar, IX, pp. 43 f. • “The strong believer is better and dearer to
With a strand on the authority of his father Idrs God than the weak one, but in each there
b. Yazd b. Abd ar-Ramn—Simk b.
arb— may be merit. Strive for that which may
Alqama b. Wil—al-Mughra b. Shuba: bring you profit, ask for God’s succour and
do not flinch. If something (unfortunate)
• “When I had arrived in Najrn, the people happens to you, do not say: ‘If only I had
there (asked me about a passage from s ra done such-and-such …’, but say: ‘(It is)
XIX: 28 in which the relatives of Maryam God’s decree; what He wants, He carries
address her when she returns with the baby out.’ The formula ‘if only’ may introduce
boy s from her confinement and) said: the satanic suggestion that God’s decree
‘(When you recite XIX: 28), you say: can be skirted”,
‘Sister of Hrn …’, whereas Ms (the
brother of Hrn) lived so much earlier cf. Mz., X, no. 13965 (m, IV, p. 2052, s, q, con-
than s!’ (Not being able to give them an firmed in Ibn
ibbn, VII, p. 490, Bay., X, p. 89,
explanation) I returned to the Prophet and Ab Yal, XI, p. 124, Fasaw, III, pp. 6 f). Ibn Idrs
I asked him about this. He said: ‘(In olden is no more than (S)CL. I
. lists it but through SSs
without Ibn Idrs. kh does not list it, but I
j. calls
days) people used to name (their children)
the strand through Ibn Idrs the most reliable one of
after their prophets and pious ancestors
all the others found to support it, cf. Fat, XVI, p.
who lived (a long time) before them’”, 355, lines 6f. The strong believer is here identified
cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11519 (m, III, p. 1685, t, V, p. with the courageous warrior against the enemy in
315, s, confirmed in I
., IV p. 252, abar, Tafsr, holy war, promoting what is decent while actively
XVI, pp. 77 f). Ibn Idrs is (S)CL of this at first combating what is reprehensible, etc. The good
sight perhaps incomprehensible tradition. The quality in the weak believer has to be seen as his
words in brackets, which are not found in the origi- participation in ritual worship, although that may
nal Arabic, were added here in order to facilitate be less committed than the strong believer’s role
understanding. The verse is part of s rat Maryam therein.
in which it is narrated how Maryam, who had given
birth to a baby boy in isolation far away from her Abd Allh b. Jafar b. Abd ar-Ramn b. al-
family, was received back home in dismay by her Miswar az-Zuhr, a little-known Medinese trans-
relatives. Implying that she had committed a grave mitter (d. 170/786) who seems to be involved in
offence, they said to her: ‘You, sister of Hrn, a tradition on the tomb of the Prophet which had
(how could you get pregnant without a man having something built as a marker on its top, cf. Mz. III,
touched you) whereas both your parents are such nos. 3867 and 3926. Even if he is hardly a tena-
honourable people!’ According to some commen- ble SCL, the tradition is too important to skip, cf.
tators the implication of the partly quoted verse therefore the tarjama of Hishm b. Urwa, under
in the tradition above is, however, not connected no. 16786.
with Maryam’s putative sin, but only with the,
for the Christian Najrns, incomprehensible way Abd Allh b. Masd, one of the first companions
of address ‘sister of Hrn’. Other commentators of the Prophet to embrace Islam. He was a recog-
say that there was apparently a sinful man called
8 ABD ALLH B. MASD

nized early Qurn expert. For the special order in by strands featuring other persons in his place. At
which Ibn Masd arranged the s ras in his Qurn times these other persons sit in traditions, which
version, see Suy , Itqn, I, pp. 182 f. The last are in fact variants of the immediately preced-
years of his life he lived mostly in Kfa and, more ing Ibn Mubrak traditions, while at other times
than any other companion he is this city’s linchpin the break in the Ibn Mubrak texts seems totally
in tradition. Since he met his death relatively early haphazard. Among the alleged masters of Ibn al-
in 32/653, isnd strands to the Prophet figuring Ibn Mubrak we find a great many different persons:
Masd had to bridge some two thirds of the first/sev- Mlik b. Anas, Mlik b. Mighwal, the two Sufyns,
enth century. Before they reach the level of the ear- Sufyn b. Uyayna and Thawr, who are not always
liest CLs, strands supporting Ibn Masd traditions easily distinguishable from one another, relatively
permit an approximate division into roughly three few Shuba (which is a pity for the more prominent
categories, (1) those featuring one or two of his so- traditions with Shuba as CL do not occur in the
called circle of Kfan fuqah, (2) those featuring a Zuhd), Misar, Awz, Mamar (whose position
muammar, and (3) the rest. To his so-called circle as master of Ibn al-Mubrak is preferred to that
belong among others the following persons: Abda of Azq., according to I
j.), etc. Another book of
b. Amr as-Salmn (d. 72-4/691-3); Alqama b. Ibn al-Mubrak, his Kitb al-jihd, is available in
Qays, one of the rabbniyy n, those people who a seemingly reliable edition of Nazh
ammd,
possess a perfect knowledge of their Lord and how Tunis 1972. From its editor’s extensive references
to put that knowledge into practice, who died some- to other sources one may gain the impression that
time between 61/681 and 73/692; Amr b. Shura- most of Ibn al-Mubrak’s traditions are his, only
bl (d. 63/683), whose knees resembled those of occasionally showing up in much later sources (the
camels because of his assiduous alt performance Mustadrak, ilya, Bayhaq, etc.), and on the whole
(I
j., Tahdhb, VIII, p. 47); al-Aswad b. Yazd an- only sparingly in one or a few of the canonical
Nakha (who is the famous Ibrhm an-Nakha’s collections. There are precious few CLs who are
maternal uncle) d. 74-5/693-4; al-
rith b. Suwayd definitely earlier than Ibn al-Mubrak, if one con-
(d. 71-2/690-1); and Masrq b. al-Ajda (d. 63/683). siders Mlik, who makes an appearance sometimes,
It is reported that Ibn Masd’s companions enjoyed
to be a contemporary.
the honorifics qandl al-masjid, candles of the
With a strand on the authority of Umar b. Sad
mosque, and suruj al-mir, lamps of the town, cf.
b. Ab
usayn—Ibn Ab Mulayka—Abd Allh b.
Dhahab, Siyar, IV, p. 309. Many of their aqwl
Abbs:
as well as their mawq ft from Ibn Masd are pre-
served in IASh. and Azq. The muammar n strands • “(After Umar had died), his body was
often figure as alternatives for the faqh strands placed upon a bier and, before carrying it
from his circle. For a list of these muammar n, see away, the people enveloped him in shrouds
WZKM (I), pp. 155-75. while praying over him and evoking God’s
grace upon him. I was among them. Sud-
Abd Allh b. al-Mubrak (d. 181/797, 63 years
denly someone grasped me by the shoul-
old), a mawl of the B. Abd Shams from the B. Sad
Taym or from the B.
an ala (cf. TB, X, p.153).
der. I turned around and saw that it was Al
His mother was from Khwrizm and his father was b. Ab lib. He sought God’s forgiveness
a Turk. For his position among Islam’s earliest the- for Umar and said: ‘I cannot think of any-
oreticians of the sunna, cf. Islam (II, pp. 318-30). one with whose pious deeds I would rather
One book ascribed to him entitled Kitb az-zuhd be associated when I meet God than you!
wa ’r-raqiq is full of peculiarities. Its edition by I swear by God that He will join you once

abb ar-Ramn al-A am is difficult to use, for more with your two associates! How many
its indexes are on the whole unreliable and their times have I heard the Prophet say: ‘… and
organization is idiosyncratic. The first seven ajz then I and Ab Bakr and Umar went this
are divided into bbs, the four final ajz have to way, and then I and Ab Bakr and Umar
do without even that. At a glance the Zuhd book entered …, and then I and Ab Bakr and
has few marf t, a large number of mursalt and
Umar went out …!’”,
even more mawq ft beside a number of traditions
whose isnd strands are downright maq . Not all cf. Mz., VII, no. 10193 (kh, 62/6, 7, m, IV, pp. 1858
the strands feature Ibn al-Mubrak. Sometimes the f, s, q, confirmed in I
., I, p. 112). Ibn al-Mubrak
stream of Ibn al-Mubrak strands is interrupted is (S)CL of this fa
il tradition. It is precisely dur-
ABD ALLH B. AL-MUBRAK 9

ing his lifetime that the concept of the four rightly d, q, confirmed in I
., II, p. 22). Abd Allh b.
guided caliphs as exponents of orthodoxy emerges Numayr is CL while Ubayd Allh is, as always, no
in Islamic political theory. In this tradition a link more than the SCL of this bundle. Ibn Numayr was
between the two first khulaf rshid n and Al is copied—the technical term used is tbaahu, cf.
already discernible, but no sign yet of a link with I
j., Fat, IV, p. 327— by Ab Usma and others,
Uthmn. His name was added somewhat later as cf. Mz., VI, no. 7824. The watering of the pilgrims
the last of the four. during the ajj ceremonies, the siqya, was the task
With a strand on the authority of Sulaymn of the descendants of Abd al-Mu alib. They used
b. arkhn at-Taym—Ab Uthmn—Maqil b. water in which raisins were steeped, cf. Lane, p.
Yasr, who related the Prophet’s words: 1386, left column, penult.
With the same strand:
• “Recite s rat ysn (XXXVI) (when visit-
ing those) who are dying”, • “When the Prophet came out of his quar-
cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11479 (d, Awn al-mab d, VIII,
ters on a feast day, he ordered a spear to be
p. 270, s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 931, I
., V, planted in the ground in front of him in the
pp. 26, 27##, Bay., III, p. 383). Ibn al-Mubrak direction of which he would then perform
is (S)CL. The Ab Uthmn from the isnd is an the alt with the people (arranging them-
entirely unknown person not to be confused with selves) behind him. He would also do this
the well-known Ab Uthmn Abd ar-Ramn b. when he was on a journey. The command-
Mull an-Nahd. ers (after him) adopted this practice”,
With a strand on the authority of Wuhayb b.
al-Ward—Umar b. Muammad b. al-Munkadir— cf. Mz., VI, no. 7940 (kh, 8/90, 2, m, I, p. 359, d,
Sumayy, the mawl of Ab Bakr b. Abd ar-Ra- confirmed in I
., II, p. 22). Abd Allh b. Numayr
mn—Ab li Dhakwn—Ab Hurayra, who is the (S)CL. The tradition is part of the sutra MC,
related the Prophet’s words: i.e. the MC dealing with the devices and/or prac-
tices used by Muslims to create for themselves a
• “He who dies without having participated qibla in the direction of which they could perform
in a raid (sc. in enemy territory) and with- a alt, in this case a spear, and which ‘shielded’
out even having considered it, dies as some them (satara) from passers-by, if any, in front of
sort of hypocrite”, the sutra, cf. Lane, s.v. Another version is sup-
ported by a spider with Yay b. Sad al-Qa n
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12567 (m, III, p. 1517, d, Awn al- as key figure, cf. Mz., VI, no. 8172 (kh, 8/92,
mab d, VII, p. 130, s, confirmed in I
., II, p. 374, s). A simplified version (Mz., VI, 7908, m, d, t):
Bay., IX, p. 48). Ibn al-Mubrak is (S)CL. ‘The Prophet used to perform the alt behind his
(kneeling) camel (with the animal in the direction
Abd Allh b. Numayr (d. 199/815), a mawl and of Mecca as qibla)’, was the creation of Ab Khlid
a ib sunna who died in Kfa in 199/815. He is Sulaymn b.
ayyn al-Amar (d. 190/806). And
perhaps best known for his role as PCL of several there are finally several spiders and SSs supporting
CLs like Hishm b. Urwa and Amash as well as similar versions left unmentioned here, for a survey
for his diving SSs onto figures like Ubayd Allh of which see m, I, pp. 358 ff. For a longer tradition
b. Umar1. on disruptive elements in someone’s alt in which
He occurs in a tradition on the Prophet’s signet the sutra is referred to in passing, see Shuba under
ring, cf. Sufyn b. Uyayna under no. 7599. no. 11799, and also Qatda under no. 5379.
With a strand on the authority of Ubayd Allh b. With a strand on the authority of Ubayd Allh
Umar—Nfi—Ibn Umar: b. Umar—Khubayb b. Abd ar-Ramn—
af b.
• “Al-Abbs b. Abd al-Mu alib asked the im—Ab Hurayra, who related the Prophet’s
Prophet permission to spend the night in words:
Mecca during the days (the pilgrims stayed • “Faith has become established in Medina
at) Min in order to water the pilgrims. It like a snake coiled up in its den”,
was granted”,
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12266 (m, I, p. 131, q, confirmed in
cf. Mz., VI, no. 7939 (kh, 25/133, 2, m, II, p. 953, IASh., XII, p. 181, I
., II, p. 496, Ibn
ibbn, VI,
p. 17). Only one verb, araza, is used in this tradi-
1. See Islam (I), esp. pp. 231 ff. tion, which is strangely enough not listed in Lane. It
10 ABD ALLH B. NUMAYR

has two meanings: ‘to become firmly established’ That he is a historical figure need not be doubted,
and ‘to become contracted/collected’. Abd Allh b. but a sceptical researcher will find it hard to lend
Numayr is (S)CL and he was copied by Ab Usma credence to the generally very advanced ages that a
(d. 201/817); otherwise the origin of the wording disproportionately large number of first and second
would have to be ascribed to Ab Usma with century Muslims is said to have reached at death,
Ibn Numayr copying him. It is impossible to say and so may have his doubts about Ibn Umar’s age
who copied whom. I
j. digresses briefly on what too. If one computes his age on the basis of these
the tradition with its comparison with a snake tells data, he must have been in his mid-eighties when
us. Snakes come into the open in order to collect he died, but that seems a rather high figure for that
food. When something frightens them, they return day and age, especially in view of the fact that
quickly to their dens. In the same manner faith is there were so many people allegedly dying at ages
spread in Medina and every believer is drawn to the of between eighty and 1202. Perhaps it is safe to
city. In the past that was out of love for the Prophet, assume that he was at least ten years younger than
or respect for the companions and following gen- his recorded age3. Whatever the case may be, Shab
erations and in order to learn from their glorious is supposed to have said that through a whole year
example. Eventually people were drawn to Medina he spent in Ibn Umar’s company, he never heard
in order to visit the Prophet’s grave (ziyra), to per- him transmit anything from the Prophet (ibidem,
form a alt in his mosque and to benefit from its p. 106, 25 f). Besides, he is also described as hav-
blessing. However, in later times, as from the final ing assiduously searched for traces (thr) of the
decades of the second/eighth century, this custom Prophet, however that may be interpreted, ibidem,
was abandoned, cf. Fat, IV, pp. 465 f. p. 106, 8, 107, 3 f.
With a strand on the authority of Hishm b.
Urwa—his father Urwa—isha: a ripe old age in the year 72/691 in Kfa, where he had
• “During his illness the Prophet ordered built a house and fathered several children (cf. Zurqn,
IV, p. 37). Rfi b. Khadj, a companion from the Khazraj,
Ab Bakr to perform the alt with the was also deemed too young for Badr but was allowed to
people, which he did”, fight at Uud.
2. Cf. WZKM (I), pp. 155-75.
cf. Mz., XII, no. 16979 (kh, 10/47, m, I, p. 314, q).
3. There is one anecdote that might help us to tentatively
In this ultra-brief version of the final illness scene,
reconstruct a less implausible age for Ibn Umar at death.
Abd Allh b. Numayr is the CL. For the earliest In 64/683, that is ten years before his recorded death,
CL within this large MC and an introduction to the the young and unexperienced son of Yazd, Muwiya b.
episode, see Zuhr under no. 16309. Yazd Ab Layl, succeeded his father to the caliphate.
On this occasion Marwn b. al-
akam, who was to suc-
Abd Allh b. Umar b. al-Khab, one of the ceed this Muwiya after a few months, offered Ibn Umar
best-known younger companions of the Prophet, the caliphate, intimating that he was more entitled to lead
famous for a host of traditions which he allegedly the community than anybody else. Ibn Umar declined,
transmitted from him. But apart from the overall arguing that if anyone objected to his becoming caliph,
there might be bloodshed which he did not want to have
historically doubtful position of any companion in
on his conscience. He is supposed to have worded this ar-
an isnd strand supporting a tradition ascribed to
gument in the following terms: m uibbu annah dnat
the Prophet, another problem facing the researcher l sabna sanatan wa-annahu qutila f sabab rajulun
when he assesses Ibn Umar’s role in the circula- widun, cf. IS, IV 1, p. 125, 2 f. This not altogether clear
tion of adths is the following: could he have met statement may allow the interpretation that he was either
Muammad and are the reports about his having seventy years of age at that moment or conceivably a few
been presented to him just before the battle of Uud years less, the number seventy being usually taken as a
in the year 3/625 at the age of fourteen factually rounding up figure rather than a rounding down one. As-
correct (cf. IS, IV 1, p. 105, passim)? Or was he in suming that this is a correct interpretation, which would
actual fact born somewhat later, this in view of the mean that Ibn Umar was in fact only nine years of age
at Uud and probably even some years younger, the in-
late year of his death, generally given as 74/693?1
cident of his being presented to Muammad then, only
serves to establish a suitably early year of birth. Similar
1. Al-Bar b. zib shares with Ibn Umar the age-deter- reports fixing the allegedly mostly very early years of
mining topos that, upon presenting himself to the Prophet birth of various ‘young’ companions may be considered
before the battle of Badr, the latter found him still too as topical and could be observed in the case of Anas b.
young for combat (cf. IASh., XIII, p. 49). This may be Mlik and Jbir b. Abd Allh, to name just two well-
called the istighr topos. Just like Ibn Umar he died at known examples.
ABD ALLH B. UMAR B. AL-KHA B 11

It is an overall striking fact that he so often proves and dyeing habits and descriptions of how he did
to be a central figure in MCs. Further data from Ibn his hair, beard, and moustaches, sometimes men-
Sad’s tarjama deserve to be listed here. This tar- tioning that he just followed a Prophetic example.
jama describes in detail how Ibn Umar cared for He had ‘Abd Allh b. Umar’ engraved in his sig-
himself and how he was concerned with matters of net ring, p. 129, 26. Muwiya is recorded to have
fashion. Mujhid said that people only began to fol- expressed the wish to kill Ibn Umar, but he thought
low Ibn Umar’s example when he was advanced in better of it in the end, p. 135, passim.
years and not yet when he was a young man (shbb),
cf. p. 108, 20 f. He oiled and perfumed himself Abd Allh b. Wahb, a mawl (d. 197/812). He
before going to the alt, p. 112, 1, 3. He was in the was the madr of the adth of the Hijz and Egypt2.
3,000 dirham bracket in the a register, p. 112, 5. He is frequently found in strands transmitting from
Another report says 3,500, p. 49, 17. When on the Amr b. al-
rith3. Cf. Mz., XI, nos. 15472-15481
campaign to Nihwand, he was at a certain moment for a strand probably of his own making. And,
struck by a bout of dyspnoea, so he strung cloves curiously, he is only rarely paraded in I
.’s isnd
of garlic(!) on a piece of string and let this cook in strands. Ibn Wahb’s muwaa is mentioned in I
j.,
his soup; when the taste had infused through the Fat, X, p. 390, 6. In I
j., Iba, III, p. 495, an
soup, he threw the garlic away and drank the soup, otherwise untraceable tradition is labelled gharb
p. 115, 4 f. He was moved to tears when he listened tafarrada bihi Ibn Wahb by Yay b. Muammad b.
to the q Ubayd b. Umayr, the man who may be id (d. 318/930). The traditions in whose bundles
deemed responsible for the circulation of the story he is (S)CL can almost always be traced to older
depicting how Muammad received his first call1, models, mainly circulated by Mlik b. Anas, whom
p. 119, 12 f, 124, 26. He spent six months in dhar- he must have copied on a grand scale. Various tra-
bayjn, p. 119, 23. He said he saw with his own ditions are nonetheless listed in the following tar-
eyes the Prophet, Ab Bakr, Umar and Uthmn, p. jama, because they manifest a sufficiently different
119, 26 f. He disliked cucumber and watermelon, wording, or contain elements missing from the tra-
p. 120, 9. Once he heard a shepherd play his flute; ditions on which Ibn Wahb may have modelled his
own.
he put his fingers in his ears and moved his mount
With a strand on the authority of Ynus b.
away from the path. Then he asked his mawl Nfi:
Yazd—Zuhr—Anas:
‘Can you still hear it?’ When the answer was neg-
ative, he moved his mount back to the road. Nfi • “The Prophet made for himself a signet ring
added: ‘This is what I saw the Prophet do when he of silver; its stone was from Abyssinia”,
heard a flute being played,’ cf. p. 120, 12-5. Awz
reported that Ibn Umar said that he pledged alle- cf. Mz., I, no. 1554 (m, II, p. 1658, d, Awn al-
giance to the Prophet, never broke his promise mab d, XI, p. 184, t, s, confirmed in I
., III, p.
and never changed his mind to this day, and never 209). Ibn Wahb is (S)CL in this version from the
woke a believer from his sleep, pp. 120, 28 - p. 121, extensive MC on rings. The stone is said to have
2. Muwiya had his inclination to assume power been a multicoloured onyx or carnelian mined in
tested, but Ibn Umar said that he was not inter- the Yemen, or it was thought to be simply black,
ested, p. 121, 7-17. Nfi records that he only once hence ‘from Abyssinia’.
organized a banquet. When a camel of his had col- With the same strand:
lapsed, he slaughtered it and invited tout Medina • “He who is delighted if his livelihood be
to come and eat, p. 121, 18-21. He refused to drink increased or his life be lengthened, let him
from a silver-plated vessel because of what he had strengthen the bonds of kinship”,
heard from his father (NOT from the Prophet),
p. 126, 9 f. He is described by Mujhid as being cf. Mz., I, no. 1555 (m, IV, p. 1982, d, s). Ibn Wahb
twenty years old at the conquest of Mecca, which is (S)CL.
tallies with the Uud story, p. 126, 25. He did not With a strand on the authority of Ab Hni
wear silk but did not frown when he saw a child of
umayd b. Hni—Abd Allh b. Yazd al-
his wearing it, p. 127, 14 f. He dyed his clothes with
red dye (mishq) and zafarn, p. 127, 17. Ibidem,
pp. 127-33, are riddled with Ibn Umar’s clothing 2. Cf. I
j., Tahdhb, VI, p. 72, penult: … adth …
yad ru al riwyat Ibn Wahb wa-jamihi.
3. Mz., Tahdhb, XXI, p. 572, calls Ibn Wahb his rwiya,
1. Cf. Muséon (I), pp. 159-62. i.e. his most important transmitter.
12 ABD ALLH B. WAHB

ubul—Jbir b. Abd Allh, who related the Proph- ing medicine, an issue born out of the controversy
et’s words: as to whether something decreed by God—like an
illness—can, or should not, in any way be meddled
• “One bed for the man, one bed for his wife, with.
a third bed for the guest, and the fourth bed With a strand on the authority of Ibn Jurayj—
is for the devil”, Ab ‘z-Zubayr Muammad b. Muslim b. Tadrus—
cf. Mz., II, no. 2377 (m, III, p. 1651, d, Awn al- Jbir b. Abd Allh:
mab d, XI, p. 134, s, confirmed in Ibn
ibbn, II, • “On the day that Mecca was conquered
pp. 32 f). Ibn Wahb is (S)CL. The woman is also Ab Qufa (the father of Ab Bakr) was
given a separate bed in this tradition although, nor-
brought (before the Prophet). His head and
mally, she is expected to sleep with her husband in
beard were white like a thaghma flower.
one bed. The reason for this lies in the observation
that she may be ill sometimes, in which case she
The Prophet said: ‘Change his hoariness
must have one of her own. The underlying message with something but avoid a blackening
of the tradition is that having more beds in one’s agent1’”,
house than strictly necessary is frowned upon since cf. Mz., II, no. 2807 (m, III, p. 1663, d, s). Ibn
that is taken as verging on excessive luxury, some- Wahb is SCL. The tradition is also found supported
thing which might attract the attention of the devil. by various SSs in which he does not occur, cf. I
.,
With a strand on the authority of Ynus b. III, pp. 160, 322, 338.
Yazd—Zuhr—A  b. Ab Rab—Jbir b. Abd With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al-
Allh:
rith—Ab ‘z-Zubayr Muammad b. Muslim b.
Tadrus—Jbir b. Abd Allh; and with a different
• “The Prophet once said: ‘He who eats gar-
strand: Ynus b. Yazd—Zuhr—Slim b. Abd
lic or onions should keep away from us and
Allh b. Umar—his father Abd Allh b. Umar,
from our mosque and let him stay in his who related the Prophet’s words (paraphrase incor-
abode.’ Then he was brought a cooking pot porating all the more meaningful variants):
in which there were various vegetables. He
found its odour repellent and asked about • “On land which is watered by rivers or
them. When he was told what these were, springs or precipitation, or on elevated land,
he said, pointing to a companion: ‘Present a zakt duty of one-tenth of the produce is
him with it.’ He saw that that man declined imposed, but on land that requires irriga-
eating from it also and said to him: ‘You tion with water-carrying camels a zakt
may eat from it, but I have intimate con- duty of half of one-tenth is imposed”,
versations with someone with whom you cf. Mz., II, no. 2895 (m, II, p. 675, d, s, confirmed
do not have such conversations’”, in I
., III, pp. 341, 353); the second strand: Mz.,
V, no. 6977 (kh, 24/55, Fat, IV, pp. 90 f, d, t, s,
cf. Mz., II, no. 2485 (kh, 96/24, 4, m, I, pp. 394 f,
q). Ibn Wahb is CL in both bundles, but he cannot
d, t, cf. for a superimposed SS I
., III, p. 388). Ibn
be held responsible for the gist or any of its mul-
Wahb is the (S)CL of this garlic-related tradition,
tiple wordings, only for its isnd strands. The zakt
which is part of a MC.
With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al- imposition of the fractions ‘one-tenth’ or ‘half of

rith—Abd Rabbihi b. Sad—Ab ‘z-Zubayr one-tenth’ has been the subject of legal discussions
Muammad b. Muslim b. Tadrus—Jbir b. Abd from very early on, as is apparent in hordes of tradi-
Allh, who related the Prophet’s words: tions as well as personal opinions. All these can be
traced back to first/seventh century fuqah, com-
• “There is a medicine for each illness: when plete with their highly defective isnd strands as
the right medicine is administered, the ill- paraded in sources such as Ab Ubayd’s Kitb al-
ness will be cured with God’s permis- amwl, pp. 579-83, and Shaybn, Kitb al-al, II,
sion”, pp. 139-42, 157ff (see especially in the latter source

cf. Mz., II, no. 2785 (m, IV, p. 1729, s, confirmed in


I
., III, p. 335, Ab Yal, IV, pp. 32 f, Bay., IX, p. 1. The interpretation of this final statement has led to
p. 343). Ibn Wahb is (S)CL. The tradition is part of controversy, which is summarized in Awn al-mab d, XI,
the MC on the overall permissibility of administer- pp. 178, cf. Arabica (I), pp. 63-8.
ABD ALLH B. WAHB 13

the exemplary comments of the editor Ab ’l-Waf of battle song2. It could tentatively be attributed to
al-Afghn). Shuba, see there under no. 1875.
With a strand on the authority of Ynus b. With a strand on the authority of Ab Shuray
Yazd—Zuhr—Abd ar-Ramn b. Abd Allh b. Abd ar-Ramn b. Shuray—Sahl b. Ab Umma—
Kab b. Mlik—Salama b. al-Akwa who described his father Ab Umma b. Sahl—his father Sahl b.
a famous battlefield scene (paraphrase incorporat-
unayf, who related the Prophet’s words:
ing details from different versions to enhance its
comprehensibility): • “He who in all sincerity asks God for a
martyr’s death, God will place him in the
• “When we were at Khaybar, my brother ranks of martyrs, even if he dies in his
mir fought vigorously next to the bed”,
Prophet. Suddenly the point of his sword,
cf. Mz., no. 4655 (m, III, p. 1517, d, s, q, confirmed
which was too short for man-to-man com-
in Ibn
ibbn, V, p. 78). Ibn Wahb is (S)CL next to
bat, was deflected and struck him. As a
some diving SSs in this bundle.
result he perished. The companions of With a strand on the authority of Ynus b.
the Prophet talked about him and, show- Yazd—Zuhr—Ubayd Allh b. Abd Allh b.
ing their misgivings, they said: ‘The man Utba—Ibn Abbs:
died by his own weapon.’ When we were
on our way back from Khaybar, I spoke to • “In the course of the farewell pilgrimage
the Prophet: ‘Messenger of God, allow me the Prophet circumambulated the Kaba
to recite a verse.’ He gave his permission riding his camel and reaching out for the
… and I sang out: cornerstone with his crooked staff”,

‘My God, it’s truly You Who are our guid- cf. Mz., V, no. 5837 (kh, 25/58, m, II, p. 926, d, s,
q, confirmed in Ibn
ibbn, VI, p. 52). Ibn Wahb is
ance,
(S)CL. The tradition is part of a large MC.
Directing us to charity and prayer.’
For Mz., no. 6699, a tradition on ill luck, see
‘You are perfectly right,’ the Prophet said. under Mlik.
I went on: For his position in no. 6977, see above no.
‘Please send down Your tranquility1 upon 2895.
us With a strand on the authority of Ynus b.
Yazd—Zuhr—Slim b. Abd Allh—his father
And strengthen our stance when facing
Abd Allh b. Umar:
(enemies).
The unbelievers have all sought to harm • “I saw how the Prophet rode his camel at
us.’ Dh ’l-
ulayfa, then he uttered the lab-
bayka allhum formula, when it stood
When I had finished my song, the Prophet
still”,
asked: ‘Who composed these verses?’ ‘My
brother,’ I said. ‘May God have mercy on cf. Mz., V, no. 6980 (kh, 25/2, m, II, p. 845, s). Ibn
him,’ the Prophet said. ‘But Messenger of Wahb is (S)CL in this shortened version from the
God, the people are reluctant to perform a farewell pilgrimage MC.
alt over him saying that he died by his For his tradition on the Prophet’s circumam-
bulation around the Kaba, no. 6981, see Mlik b.
own weapon.’ ‘No,’ the Prophet said, ‘he
Anas under no. 2594.
will have a double reward, he was a sincere
With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al-
servant of God who fought in His path’”,
rith—Abd ar-Ramn b. al-Qsim—his father
cf. Mz., IV, no. 4532 (m, III, pp. 1429 f, d, s). Ibn al-Qsim b. Muammad b. Ab Bakr a-iddq—
Wahb is SCL. Elsewhere it was suggested that this Abd Allh b. Umar, who related the Prophet’s
ditty in the rajaz metre may have been some sort words:

• “Sun and moon are not darkened by eclipses


to mark the death or birth of anyone, they
1. This is again the mysterious word sakna derived from
the Hebrew shekhina. 2. Cf. Festschrift Wagner, especially pp. 193-8.
14 ABD ALLH B. WAHB

are rather two signs of God. When you see is the most meritorious way of fasting, the
an eclipse, perform a alt”, fasting of (the prophet) Dwd’ … ‘I can
do even better than that,’ I said, whereupon
cf. Mz., VI, no. 7373 (kh, 16/1, 3, m, II, p. 630, s,
confirmed in I
., I, pp. 109, 118, Ibn
ibbn, IV, the Prophet said: ‘There is no better way.’
p. 211). Ibn Wahb is the clear CL of this shortened Abd Allh b. Amr concluded ruefully: ‘If
version from the large MC on eclipses. For a more I had then accepted the (monthly) regime
elaborate matn, see below under no. 16692. For a of three days, that would have been dearer
general introduction to this MC, see Yay b. Sad to me than my family and wealth’”,
al-Anr under no. 17936.
cf. Mz., VI, no. 8645 (m, II, p. 812, s). If this is not
With a strand on the authority of Abd Allh b.
just a spider superimposed upon the MC on exces-
Laha and/or Layth b. Sad—Ubayd Allh b. Ab
sive fasting, Abd Allh b. Wahb is the CL of this
Jafar—Bukayr b. Abd Allh b. al-Ashajj—Nfi—
version. For more on the issue, see the tarjama of
Ibn Umar, who related the Prophet’s words:
Abd Allh b. Amr, who is the focus of all the ver-
• “He who manumits a slave who has pos- sions within this MC.
sessions of his own, the manumitter may With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al-
keep those possessions except when he
rith—Bukayr b. Abd Allh b. al-Ashajj—Yay
stipulates that they remain with the slave”, b. Abd ar-Ramn b.
 ib—Abd ar-Ramn b.
Uthmn at-Taym:
cf. Mz., VI, no. 7604 (d, Awn al-mab d, X, pp.
356 f, s, q). Ibn Wahb is no more than SCL. The • “The Prophet forbade pilgrims to pick up
issue appears a controversial one, as the commenta- things (luqaa) (in a variant: and he must
tors in Awn assert. let an unexpected find lie there until he has
With a strand on the authority of Ynus b. found its owner)”,
Yazd—Nfi—Ibn Umar:
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9705 (m, III, p. 1351, d, Awn al-
• “The Prophet used to withdraw in seclu- mab d, V, p. 97, s, confirmed in I
., III, p. 499).
sion (itikf) during the last ten days of Ibn Wahb is (S)CL. Picking up a lost article in an
Raman”, attempt to trace its owner was perfectly permis-
sible, taking final possession of it was not, unless a
cf. Mz., VI, no. 8536 (kh, 33/1, m, II, p. 830, d, q, certain time had elapsed. In case of a stray camel or
confirmed in Bay., IV, p. 315). This is a late matn other animal the finder was obliged to advertise the
from the MC on itikf during Raman in order fact that it was temporarily in his custody in order
not to miss laylat al-qadr, which was believed to to trace its owner, if any.
have fallen on one of the last ten or seven days. Ibn With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al-
Wahb is (S)CL of this wording.
rith—Bukayr b. Abd Allh b. al-Ashajj—im
With a strand on the authority of Ynus b. b. Umar b. Qatda—Ubayd Allh b. al-Aswad
Yazd—Zuhr—Sad b. al-Musayyab and Ab al-Khawln—Uthmn b. Affn who, after a pre-
Salama—Abd Allh b. Amr: amble, related the Prophet’s words:
• “The Messenger of God was informed • “He who builds a mosque for God (thereby
that I had said: ‘As long as I live, I shall seeking God’s face, i.e. seeking to please
spend the night in prayer and I shall fast Him1), God will build for him a house in
during the day.’ ‘Did you really say this?’, Paradise”,
he asked, ‘you won’t be able to keep it up.
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9825 (kh, 8/65, m, I, p. 378, IV,
Therefore, fast and then break the fast,
p. 2287, Ibn
ibbn, III, p. 68). Ibn Wahb is CL of
sleep (first) and then perform the night this not very well-attested tradition. It is curious that
prayer. Fast three days per month, for each this otherwise strictly noncommittal saying came
good deed will be recompensed ten-fold; so late to be circulated with an isnd strand accept-
that constitutes an uninterrupted fast.’ But able for Muslim adth criteria, whereas there are
I said: ‘I am capable of doing better than numerous similar versions to be found supported
that’ … ‘Fast then one day and break your
fast during two’ … ‘But I can do better than 1. This additional remark is attributed to the transmitter
that’ … ‘Fast then on alternative days, that Bukayr b. al-Ashajj.
ABD ALLH B. WAHB 15

by strands universally decried as weak or spurious, determining the most likely candidate for being
sporting such controversial figures as Jbir al-Juf, the first within it is risky. But Abd Allh b. Wahb
cf. Ab Yal, IV, p. 411, VII, pp. 85, 277. A later may be held responsible for the above-mentioned
SCL, probably responsible for a similar tradition, is matn. Other older transmitters, like im al-Awal
Ab Bakr Abd al-Kabr b. Abd al-Majd al-
anaf in Mz., VIII, no. 10486, and Amash in VIII, no.
from Bara (d. 204/819), cf. no. 9837. 10473, have a few believable PCLs who may sup-
With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al- port their CL-ship.

rith—Thumma b. Shufayy—Uqba b. mir, With a strand on the authority of Amr b.


who related that he heard the Prophet say on the al-
rith—Ab Al al-Hamdn Thumma b.
pulpit: Shufayy:
• “’And be prepared to face them (i.e. your • “We were with Fala b. Ubayd on
enemies or God’s enemies) with as much Byzantine territory on the island of Rdis
strength as you can muster (VIII: 60)’; ver- (= Rhodes) where a companion of ours
ily strength refers here to archery (repeated died. Fala ordered us to dig a grave
twice)”, and to level it. Then he said: ‘I heard the
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9911 (m III, p. 1522, d, Awn Messenger of God order graves to be lev-
al-mab d, VII, p. 137, q, confirmed in Sad b. elled’”,
Manr, II, pp. 170 f, I
., IV, pp. 156 f). Ibn Wahb
cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11026 (m, II, p. 666, d, s). Ibn
is (S)CL. Curiously, the tradition does not figure in
abar’s Tafsr. Wahb is SCL. For a better-attested tradition in the
With a strand on the authority of Sulaymn b. same vein, see Thawr under no. 10083. Graves
Bill—Shark b. Ab Namir—Ibrhm b. Abd Allh were not supposed to rise up above ground level
b.
unayn—his father Abd Allh b.
unayn—Al by more than one span (shibr), which is defined
b. Ab lib: by Lane as the space between the extremity of the
thumb and that of the little finger when extending
• “The Prophet used to wear his signet ring them in the usual manner.
on his right hand”, For his position in a bundle supporting a tradi-
tion on cutting a debt in half before repayment, cf.
cf. Mz., VII, no. 10180 (d, Awn al-mab d, XI,
p. 193, tm, s). Ibn Wahb is (S)CL of the wording Mz., VIII, no. 11130, see Uthmn b. Umar b. Fris
of this tradition which is part of the huge MC on (d. 207-9/822-4) under that number.
(signet) rings. The hand on which the Prophet sup- With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al-
posedly wore his ring is a matter of dispute. For a
rith—Bukayr b. Abd Allh b. al-Ashajj—al-
survey of a host of other traditions from this MC,
asan b. Al b. Ab Rfi—his father Al b. Rfi,
many of which are less well established and sup- who told a story about his father Ab Rfi (a mawl
ported by spiders and SSs, see Ab Yal, V, pp. of the Prophet):
426 ff.
For his position in a tradition on the tax collec-
• “The Quraysh had sent me to the Prophet
tor’s wages, Mz., VIII, no. 10520, see Zuhr under and when I saw him, Islam penetrated my
no. 10487. heart. I said: ‘Messenger of God, I won’t go
With a strand on the authority of Ynus b. Yazd back to them.’ But he said: ‘I shall not vio-
and Amr b. Dnr—Zuhr—Slim—his father Abd late a pact, nor shall I detain messengers.
Allh b. Umar: Return to Quraysh and if what is now in
• “Umar b. al-Kha b kissed the Black your heart stays there, you may return to
Stone and said: ‘By God, I know that me.’ The transmitter Bukayr added: ‘And
you are just a stone. If I had not seen the (the grandson) al-
asan b. Al told me that
Messenger of God kissing you, I myself Ab Rfi was a Copt”,
would not have kissed you’”, cf. Mz., IX, no. 12013 (d, Awn al-mab d, VII, pp.
cf. Mz., VIII, no. 10524 (m, II, p. 925, s, confirmed 310 f, s, confirmed in I
., VI, p. 8, Bay., IX, p.
in Ibn Khuzayma, IV, p. 212). The MC on the 145). Ibn Wahb is (S)CL.
kissing of the Black Stone manifests so many dif- With a strand on the authority of Ynus b. Yazd
ferent bundles, mostly spidery like this one, that al-Ayl—Zuhr—Sad b. Ab Sad al-Maqbur—
16 ABD ALLH B. WAHB

Ab Hurayra, who related that the Prophet once responsible, see his tarjama under no. 11510, and
told the following story: partly on the version of Mlik, see there under no.
15245*.
• “An ant had stung a certain prophet. He With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al-
ordered that the anthill be destroyed by
rith—Bukayr b. Abd Allh b. al-Ashajj—Ab
fire. Then God revealed to the prophet: ‘s-Sib, the mawl of Hishm b. Zuhra:
‘Did you destroy an entire God-praising
community of ants because one ant bit • “Ab Hurayra once related that the Prophet
you?’”, said: ‘When you are in a state of ritual
pollution (junub), do not wash yourself
cf. Mz., X, no. 13319 (m, IV, p. 1759, d, Awn al- in stagnant water.’ ‘But how do we have
mab d, XIV, p. 118, q, confirmed in I
., II, pp. 402 to go about it, Ab Hurayra?’, we asked.
f). Ibn Wahb is the (S)CL of this wording. Whether
‘The Prophet just scooped some water out
he is also the originator of the story is unlikely. A
of it3,’ he said”,
case could be made for the surmise that he modelled
his tradition on one of Mlik b. Anas, who turns up cf. Mz., X, no. 14936 (m, I, p. 236, s, q, confirmed
in a SS in kh with a strand via Ab ‘z-Zind / al- in Ibn
ibbn, II, pp. 274 f, Bay., I, p. 237). Ibn
Araj / Ab Hurayra, cf. Mz., X, no. 13849 = I
j., Wahb is SCL of this tradition from a MC on what
Fat, VII, p. 168, supporting a different version, uses stagnant water has in Islam. Water is either
but in all currently available editions of Mlik’s col- both pure and usable for every legal purpose, or it
lection this version could not be traced. In any case, is mustamal, lit. used, in which case it is no longer
the story is found in a number of different wordings fit for ritual ablutions.
supported by SSs and spiders, Ibn Wahb’s bundle With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al-
being the most widely attested. Another bundle has
rith—Ab ’n-Nar Slim al-Madan—Sulaymn
Qutayba b. Sad as (S)CL. Some versions have the b. Yasr:
added—probably topical1— information that the
prophet in question had laid himself to rest under • “isha said: ‘I never saw the Prophet roar
a tree when the ant bit him, cf. Mz., X, no. 13875 with laughter so that you could see the
(m, d, s). A spider with Layth b. Sad as key figure, back of his throat. He just smiled. When he
supporting a version in which the prophet orders saw a cloud or a wind blowing, you could
his luggage to be removed from underneath the tree see that in the expression of his face.’
first, is found superimposed upon Ibn Wahb’s ver- Once isha asked: ‘Messenger of God, I
sion (kh, q). In the Fat the prophet is identified as noticed that when the people see a cloud
either Uzayr (Ezra)2 or Ms, in Awn al-mab d, they rejoice, hoping that it will bring rain,
XIV, p. 118, Dwd is mentioned in this connec- but when I see you noticing a cloud, I see in
tion. For the record, among the animals that Islam
your face that you do not like it.’ ‘isha,’
forbids to be killed the ant is also listed, see Abd
the Prophet answered, ‘what keeps me safe
ar-Razzq under no. 5850. Besides, the tradition
is adduced in connection with the general Islamic from the punishment that may be in it? In
prohibition of killing by burning (cf. Ayyb as- olden days certain folk were chastised with
Sakhtiyn under no. 5987) and, generally speak- a windstorm. But when they saw it they
ing, punishing with fire is thought to fall under just said: ‘Those clouds might bring us rain
muthla, i.e. mutilation. …’”,
Ibn Wahb is (S)CL in a tradition belonging to
cf. Mz., XI, no. 16136 (kh, 65/46, 1 f, m, II, pp. 616
the MC on the bloodwit for a baby prematurely
f, d, Awn al-mab d, XIV, pp. 3 f, confirmed in
born as a result of physical violence, Mz., X, no.
I
., VI, pp. 66 f, cf. abar, Tafsr, XXVI, pp. 25
13320 (kh, 87/26, 2, m, III, pp. 1309 f, d, s). He
f). Ibn Wahb is (S)CL. The final sentence is a direct
probably modelled his tradition partly on the ver-
reference to Q. XLVI: 24 which runs: “And when
sion for which Manr b. al-Mutamir may be held
they saw clouds gathering over their valleys, they
said: ‘Those are clouds that will bring us rain.’ No,
it is what you so eagerly wanted to happen, a wind
1. Several features (see especially I
j., Fat, VII, p. 169)
may bring the biblical story of Jonah to mind.
2. For more on this enigmatic figure, see EI 2, s.n. (H. 3. If that is what is meant with the words yatanwaluhu
Lazarus-Yafeh). tanwulan, cf. also Bay., I, p. 238.
ABD ALLH B. WAHB 17

in which there is a painful chastisement.” The verse Prophet uncovered his face. He addressed
tells the story of the pre-Islamic people of d, cf. Ab Bakr saying ‘Let them be.’ When he
EI 2, s.n. (Buhl). They were warned by the local was no longer paying attention I gave the
prophet Hd that they should turn away from their girls a sign, whereupon they left”,
gods and worship only God. They were stubborn
and demanded that Hd should send them a sign, cf. Mz., XII nos. 16391, 16574 (kh, 56/81, Fat,
but Hd excused himself, saying that it was up to III, pp. 92 ff, m, II, pp. 608 f). Ibn Wahb is (S)CL.
God to send that sign with the promised chastise- The tradition is closely related to one with Ab
ment. Usma as (S)CL, see there under no. 16801. No.
With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al- 16391 supports a matn to which, moreover, the tra-

rith—Ubayd Allh b. Ab Jafar Muammad b. dition about the dancing Abyssinians is attached,
Jafar b. az-Zubayr—Urwa b. az-Zubayr—isha, for which see Sufyn b. Uyayna under no. 16938.
who related the Prophet’s words: Singing, although generally frowned upon in
Islam, attracted a rukha, a concession, as the tradi-
• “He who dies with a fast to perform, that tion above underlines. On the whole it was thought
fast must be performed by his guardian”, to breed hypocrisy (nifq) in the heart, as a SS-sup-
cf. Mz., XII, no. 16382 (kh, 30/42, d, confirmed ported tradition in d states. Ordinary singing and
in I
., VI, p. 69, Ibn
ibbn, V, p. 232, Bay., VI, chanted Qurn recitation were believed to be dia-
p. 279). Ibn Wahb is (S)CL of the wording of this metrically opposed: reciting the Qurn prevents
concise version from the MC on performing fasting one from pursuing whims; it leads to chastity and
duties on behalf of a dead person. For an older and shunning feelings of lust, whereas singing has the
somewhat more elaborate tradition from this MC, opposite effect. Singing should be considered as
see Amash under no. 5612. the devil’s recitation. The unannounced entering
With the same strand: of a house, in which singing is heard, is permitted,
says the well-known judge Ab Ysuf, because put-
• “(On Fridays) the people used to come down ting a stop to the singing is prescribed by law as
from their homes in the villages around forbidding the reprehensible (nahy ani ’l-munkar).
Medina (awl) dressed in their striped For extensive coverage of the discussion on singing
mantles, covered in dust and reeking of in Islam by the four madhhabs and theorists like Ibn
perspiration. One of them approached the al-Qayyim, see Awn al-mab d, XIII, pp. 183-7.
Prophet while I was with him. The Prophet For his position in a tradition (no. 16572) from
said: ‘Why do you not cleanse yourselves the MC on extra-menstrual secretion (isti
a), see
for a day like this?!’”, Hishm b. Urwa under no. 16858.
With a strand on the authority of Ynus b.
cf. Mz., XII, no. 16383 (kh, 11/15, m, II, p. 581, d, Yazd—Zuhr—Urwa—isha:
confirmed in Ibn
ibbn, II, p. 268, Bay., III, pp.
189 f). Ibn Wahb is (S)CL. • “Once towards the end of the Prophet’s life
With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al- the sun was darkened by an eclipse, so he

rith—Ab ’l-Aswad Muammad b. Abd ar- went out to the prayer site and the people
Ramn al-Asad—Urwa b. az-Zubayr—isha, arranged themselves in rows behind him
and another strand on the authority of Amr b. … He performed … four protracted rakas
al-
rith—Zuhr—Urwa b. az-Zubayr—isha and, before he had finished, the sun had
(paraphrase of two similarly worded and closely become bright again. Then he addressed
related traditions): the congregation … saying: ‘Sun and
• “(Once) the Prophet entered my quarters moon belong to the signs of God, they
while two slave girls were with me singing are not darkened by an eclipse to mark
songs about (the battle of) Buth and beat- someone’s death or birth; when you see
ing tambourines. He lay down on the bed, an eclipse, hasten to perform a alt’, and
covered himself with his cloak and turned he said also: ‘Protract your alt until God
away his face. Then Ab Bakr entered and has made the eclipse disappear.’ Finally he
started to upbraid me/them saying: ‘Flute- said: ‘When I stood there in prayer, I had
like singing (mizmr) of the devil in the a vision of everything you are promised.
presence of the Prophet!’ But then the At one point I visualized myself wanting
18 ABD ALLH B. WAHB

to pick a bunch of grapes from Paradise, revealed IV: 127: ‘They will ask your deci-
when you saw how I was about to take a sion concerning women. Say: God decrees
step forward. And I had a vision of Hell for you concerning women and what is
crumbling, when you saw how I was about recited to you in the Book about the orphans
to take a step backward. Moreover, I saw among the women to whom, in your desire
Amr (b. mir) b. Luayy sitting in Hell, to marry them, you did not submit (those
the one who let the siba camels pasture dowries) as prescribed’ … (there then fol-
freely where they wished1’”, lows a repeat of IV: 3; isha went on:)
God’s words: ‘… in your desire to marry
cf. Mz., XII, no. 16692 (m, II, p. 619, d, s, q, con-
firmed in Ibn
ibbn, IV, p. 217). Ibn Wahb is the them’ pertains to the unwillingness of a
(S)CL of the wording of this version from the huge guardian to marry an orphan in his care
MC on eclipses. For the missing parts, see the intro- when she has no wealth or beauty, so they
duction to this MC in Yay b. Sad al-Anr under are forbidden to marry orphans because of
no. 17936. For a simpler version of Ibn Wahb, see wealth and beauty, except for the proper
no. 7373 above. For other matns within this MC, dowry, on account of their unwillingness
see e.g. al-Wald b. Muslim under no. 16528, and to marry those other orphans (who have no
Mlik under no. 17148°. wealth or beauty)”,
With the same strand that Urwa asked isha
about the interpretation of the verse: ‘And if you cf. Mz., XII, no. 16693 (m, IV, pp. 2313 f, d, s, con-
fear that you will not treat the orphans justly then firmed in abar, Tafsr, ed. Shkir, VII, pp. 531
marry from among (other) women whom you like, f, Ibn
ibbn, VI, pp. 150 f). Ibn Wahb may be
two, three, or four … (Q. IV: 3),’ whereupon she responsible for this precise wording, but the discus-
said: sion about these crucial and initially not entirely
clear verses surely dates to much earlier times and
• “Nephew, this pertains to the orphan who may even predate Zuhr. Ibn Wahb is, however, the
lives under the protection of her guard- only discernible key figure in this conglomerate—a
ian and shares his station in life. But he veritable tangle of SSs and spiders of related tafsr
is smitten by her wealth and beauty and traditions—who occupies a position that allows any
would like to marry her, but without grant- sort of tentative and cautious conclusion.
ing her a dowry fit for her station, thus he With the same strand:
plans to give her what someone else (sc. • “The Prophet called the gecko a fuwaysiq2
someone less wealthy) than he would have but I did not hear him issue the order to
given her. So these guardians were forbid- kill them”,
den to marry orphans in their care except
on the basis of dowries that did them full cf. Mz., XII, no. 16696 (kh, 59/15, 7, m, IV, p. 1758,
s, q). This is Abd Allh b. Wahb’s lenient version
justice and which amounted to the utmost
of a tradition from a MC on the gecko (wazagh).
degree of what is proper in respect of them.
This animal did not enjoy a good reputation with
Thus they were ordered to marry any other the ancient Arabs in spite of its potential useful-
women whom they fancied, but not those ness as an insect eater around the house. It seems
orphans. Thereupon, after this verse, the especially a large variety, called smm abra3 or
people asked the Messenger of God for
a decision concerning women, so God
2. This is the diminutive of fsiq, lit. ‘transgressor’, for
other animals called ‘transgressors’, see no. 16629 under
1. This final sentence is in need of some comments. Zuhr.
Amr b. Luayy is the name of a pre-Islamic member of 3. This is the name of a supposedly poisonous gecko
the Khuza tribe who is described as the originator of a which has the white colour of a leper. Its bite hurts but
number of pagan beliefs. Among these was the institution does not kill. There is a legend that its ancestor was pun-
of dedicating certain animals (i.e. those called siba) to ished by God with deafness and leprosy for having blown
the gods by letting them graze freely without benefiting on the fire on which Abraham was being roasted by Nim-
from them any longer by milking, riding, or slaughtering rod instead of trying to extinguish it as all the other ani-
them. For more on suchlike animals and Ibn Luayy, see mals had done, cf. Ji , ayawn, I, pp. 304 f, IV, p.
Ibrhm b. Sad under no. 13177. 287. Furthermore, cf. Lane, s.v.
ABD ALLH B. WAHB 19

a a, which allegedly prompted isha to have a 93/49, 2, t, s, Azq., VI, pp. 6 f, I
., VI, 153, 163).
pointed staff ready in the house to kill them. For With the same strand that she asked the
more on the wazagh, see the other CLs who spread Prophet:
wazagh-related traditions, cf. Sufyn b. Uyayna
under no. 18329 and also Azq. under no. 3893. • “’Have you ever had a day that was
With the same strand: harder to bear than the day of (the battle
of) Uud?’ He answered: ‘I met with con-
• “When the believing women made the siderable hardship at the hands of your
hijra1 to the Prophet, they were put to a clan (i.e. Quraysh), but the worst time I
test with God’s words: ‘Prophet, when had with them was on the day of Aqaba2.
the believing women come to you in order That is why I presented my case (in if)
to pay allegiance to you on the condition to (Kinna) the son of Abd Yll b. Abd
that they do not associate with God any- Kull, but he also refused to respond to my
thing and that they do not steal or commit proposition3. Thus I went on my way, in a
adultery … (LX: 12).’ Those women who state of deep concern, and it was only at
confirmed this had thereby passed the test. Qarn ath-Thalib4 that I came to my senses
When they confirmed this with the words again. When I raised my head I saw a cloud
they spoke, the Messenger of God said to over my head. I looked up, and there was
them: ‘Go now, I have accepted your alle- Jibrl calling out to me. He spoke: ‘God
giance.’ No, by God, the Prophet’s hand has heard what your people said to you and
never shook the hand of a woman, but he how they rebuffed you. He has sent you an
accepted their allegiance on the basis of angel of the mountains5 in order that you
what they said to him. By God, the Mes- ask him to do with them what you want.’
senger of God never imposed a commit- Then the angel of the mountains called out
ment upon women except what God had to me, greeted me and said: ‘Muammad,
ordered. His hand never touched that of a God has heard what your people said to
woman, he just said the words: ‘I hereby
accept your allegiance’”, 2. This is not a reference to the negotiations Muammad
had had with the Anr prior to his moving definitively to
cf. Mz., XII, no. 16697 (kh, 68/20, Fat, XI, pp. Medina on the mountain-path (=aqaba) near Min, but
345 f, m, III, p. 1489, s, q, confirmed in abar, a reference to a previous occasion, when he supposedly
Tafsr, XXVIII, p. 67). At issue is the question called there upon Quraysh to embrace Islam just after
of how one must conclude a pact such as pay- his wife Khadja and his uncle Ab lib had died, cf.
ing allegiance to the ruler. After a declaration of Qas alln, V, p. 308. When they refused to respond, he
intent, this is confirmed among men by means of a set out for if, an undertaking which was equally unsuc-
handshake; in the case of women enunciating one’s cessful. This reportedly occurred in the month Shawwl
of the tenth year since the beginning of his Prophetic mis-
intent suffices. Ibn Wahb is not the first responsible
sion.
for a tradition from what is in fact a MC, but he
3. It is recorded in the sources that even after the conquest
is the convincing CL of this wording. The bun- of Mecca, when Muammad laid siege to if and called
dle shows up a number of SSs, all converging in again upon the Thaqf, Ibn Abd Yll’s tribe, to embrace
Zuhr. Moreover, Ibn Wahb is also the key figure Islam, he refused and went to live in Byzantine territory,
in a spider (cf. no. 16600, m, ibidem, d), which sup- where he died, still an unbeliever, cf. I
j., Iba, V, pp.
ports only the sequel. Strangely enough, this spider 669 f. Muammad’s proposition is variously commented
mentions Mlik as Ibn Wahb’s alleged informant, upon: it is not solely his suggestion that the people of
whereas the text of Ibn Wahb is not listed in any if embrace his cause but also, by doing so, that they
grant him protection against hostile Qurashs.
riwya of the Muwaa currently available, but
4. Literally ‘small mountain of the foxes’, allegedly an-
cf. Muwaa, II, p. 983, for a differently worded other name for Qarn al-Manzil, the mqt of the people
sequel. A similarly worded sequel is supported by from Najd, i.e. the spot where pilgrims on their way to
a bundle with Azq. as CL, cf. no. 16640, -68 (kh, Mecca coming from Najd assume the status of irm.
5. Who precisely these angels were is not clarified;
the commentaries only state that they are so called be-
1. Here used in the technical sense of the word: abandon- cause the mountains were made subservient to them; cf.
ing one’s pre-Islamic customs and lifestyle. Qas alln, V, p. 308.
20 ABD ALLH B. WAHB

you. I am the angel of the mountains, and away any hint of anthropomorphisms are clearly
your Lord has sent me to you in order that discernible in the commentaries quoted by I
j. in
you tell me what I should do. If you want, Fat, XVII, pp. 206 ff. Abd al-Azz b. Abd a-
I shall ask the two (mountains called) al- amad is (S)CL.
With the same strand:
Akhshab (‘the rugged’)1 to crash down
on them.’ But the Prophet replied: ‘No, I • “In Paradise there is a tent (made) of (one)
rather hope that God will bring forth from hollowed pearl(s). Its length (v.l. breadth)
their loins (offspring) who will worship in heaven is sixty miles and in every corner
Him alone without associating anything there are servants for the believer (whom
with Him’”, he can visit and) whom nobody else can
cf. Mz., XII, no. 16700 (kh, 59/7, 8, Fat, VII, pp. see”,
123 f, m, III, pp. 1420 f, s, confirmed in Ibn
ibbn, cf. Mz., VI, no. 9136 (kh, 65/55, 2, m, IV, p. 2182,
VIII, pp. 182 f). This tradition, for which we may t, s, confirmed in I
., IV, pp. 411, 419, Ibn
ibbn,
hold Ibn Wahb tentatively responsible, is a quasi- IX, p. 244). Abd al-Azz b. Abd a-amad is
historical embellishment of the recorded encounter (S)CL. The servants referred to are identified with
Muammad allegedly had with the people of if the houris, the eternal virgins of Paradise, cf. EI 2,
prior to his ultimate decision to shift his attention s.v.  r (Wensinck/Pellat).
away from Mecca and to try to win over the inhab-
itants of Medina. (For a range of different spellings Abd al-Malik b. Ab Sulaymn al-Arzam, (d.
of the angel’s name, see Awn al-mab d, XI, pp. 145/762) a prominent Kfan tradition scholar,
20 f). who is often called only Abd al-Malik without a
patronymic, which led to some confusion. Thawr
Abd al-Azz b. Abd a- amad, an Arab from awarded him the nickname or honorific al-Mzn.
Bara (d. 187-90). In Dhahab, Siyar, VIII, pp. 369 According to TB, X, p. 393, he was a mawl of the
ff, he is identified with the following tradition: B. Fazra.
With a strand on the authority of Ab Imrn He is well-known for one particular tradition
Abd al-Malik b.
abb al-Jawn—Ab Bakr b. Ab on preemption (shufa), for which he is universally
Ms—his father Ab Ms al-Ashar, who related held responsible by a range of transmitters who
the Prophet’s words (rendition tentative): nevertheless all transmit it from him. Ibn Ad3, V,
• “(Paradise comprises) two (silver) gar- pp. 302 f, has in his tarjama a number of sayings
dens where the vessels and everything else rejecting the following tradition from the MC on
preemption:
there are made of silver, and two (golden)
With a strand on the authority of A  b. Ab
gardens where the vessels and everything
Rab—Jbir b. Abd Allh, who related the
else there are made of gold. Between the Prophet’s words:
denizens of the gardens of Adn and there
where they look upon their Lord there is • “The neighbour, even when he is absent, is
nothing except the mantle of magnificence most entitled to preemption (in case some-
shielding His face”, one is expected to sell a property), when
both their properties are situated along the
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9135 (kh, 97/24, 8, m, I, p. 163, t,
same pathway”,
s, q, confirmed in I
., IV, p. 311, Ibn
ibbn, IX,
p. 240 and a dive onto al-Jawn in ay., no. 529). cf. Mz., II, no. 2434 (d, Awn al-mab d, IX, p. 312,
In some versions in which we find the words for t, s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 1677, Azq., VIII, p.
gold and silver twice, the adjectives golden and sil- 81, IASh., VII, p. 165 f, I
., III, p. 303, Drim, II,
ver in brackets are meant to be descriptions of the p. 354). Abd al-Malik is the undeniable CL of this
respective enclosures (awi) of the two gardens. wording, even though the PCLs allegedly transmit-
The tradition is connected with Q. LV: 46 and 62, ting this from him are not altogether convincing.
verses reckoned to belong to the mutashbiht, The attribution is, however, clinched by Ibn Ad,
the ‘unclear ones’. Vigorous attempts at reasoning who depicts him in no uncertain terms as the origi-
nator. In connection with this tradition Shuba is
1. Cf. Yqt, Buldn, I, pp. 163 f, for various attempts to reported to have said: ‘If he had transmitted one
identify these two mountains. tradition more like the one on shufa, I would have
ABD AL-MALIK B. AB SULAYMN AL-ARZAM 21

discarded his entire output. He was otherwise con- the alleged age of 103 years, as he told those who
sidered a transmitter of passing quality (thiqa, asked about his age. He was nicknamed al-Qib ,
ad q), cf. I
j., Tahdhb, VI, pp. 397 f, who also the Copt. Other reports have it that al-Qib  was the
uses the telltale term tafarrada bihi, sc. that shufa name of a racehorse of his.
tradition. With a strand on the authority of Jundab b. Abd
Allh, who related the Prophet’s words:
Abd al-Malik b. Umayr, a controversial transmit-
ter from Kfa. He is said to have died in 136/753 at

FASAW MUSLIM

BUKHR
IBN
ANBAL

UMAYD
Ab Kurayb
AB BAKR b.
AB SHAYBA Abdn
al-Qsim Ubayd Allh
b. Zak. b. Mudh Uthmn
Ab Ms Amad b. b. Jabala
Ynus
Mu. b. Bishr Wak
Ghundar Mudh
b. Mudh
Ar. b. Mahd

Sufyn
Shuba Zida b. Qudma b. Uyayna
Misar b. Kidm

ABD al-MALIK B. UMAYR

Jundab b. Abd Allh

PROPHET: I shall be your water scout


at the basin

• “I shall be your water scout1 at the Basin”, spiders and a host of SSs, cf. Mz., VII, nos. 9263,
9276, 9292. For a somewhat later, but far better-
cf. Mz., II, no. 3265 (kh, 81/53, 15, m, IV, p. 1792,
attested CL in a bundle supporting a aw
-related
confirmed in
um., no. 779, IASh., XI, p. 440, I
.,
tradition, see Shuba under no. 148.
IV, pp. 313#, Ibn
ibbn, VIII, p. 121, TB, IV, p.
For his key figure position in Mz., III, no. 3847,
398; see the diagram). The Basin referred to is one
of the meeting places where the believers come see Shuba under that number.
together on the Day of Resurrection. It might be With a strand on the authority of Qazaa b.
considered the oldest tradition on the subject. Abd Yay—Ab Sad al-Khudr, who related the
al-Malik is no more than the SCL in this bundle Prophet’s words (a composite of four numbered
which features four of his alleged pupils: Shuba, elements; after a preamble):
Ibn Uyayna, Misar and Zida, who might con- • “Do not fasten your saddles on your ani-
ceivably be labelled as PCLs but are not altogether
mals to travel to mosques except the fol-
convincing as such. The saying emerges with var-
lowing three: my mosque here in Medina,
ious statements appended and supported by several
the mosque in Mecca and the farthest
mosque (i.e. in Jerusalem) (1). A woman
1. In Arabic: fara. Lane says: ‘a person who goes be-
fore, or in advance of, others, to the water, or who is sent may not travel longer than two (v.l. three,
before, or in advance, to seek water, and who prepares etc.) days without an unmarriageable male
for them the ropes and buckets and plasters with mud the relative or her husband (2). Do not fast on
watering-troughs, and draws water for them.’ In IS, I 1, the day when the Raman fast is broken
p. 92, 23, we read that Uthmn b. Ma n was called the
fara of the Prophet.
or on the day of the sacrifice (3). Do not
22 ABD AL-MALIK B. UMAYR

perform a alt after the ub alt until of an inverted CL in a bundle supporting a similar
the sun is up and do not perform one after tradition in Mz., X, no. 13496.
the ar alt until the sun is down (4)”, With a strand on the authority of A iyya al-
Qura , who related the following (paraphrase of a
cf. Mz., III, no. 4279 (kh, 28/26, 4, m, II, pp. 799, khabar with many textual variants):
976, t, s, q,
um., no. 750, I
., III, pp. 7, 34, 51
f). Abd al-Malik b. Umayr’s tarjama was cho- • “I was one of the captives of the (Jewish
sen to list this variously worded composite with tribe of) Quray a. (Our captors) inspected
its extraordinary complex bundle, but only for the our pubic region as to whether any hair
sake of convenience. If the assembling of this com- grew there. Those with hair there were put
posite and/or the origin of its individual elements to death and those without were spared. I
is to be ascribed to anyone at all, he is the most was one of the latter”,
likely candidate. But that assessment remains tenta-
tive. This number in Mz. constitutes in fact a pile cf. Mz., VII, no. 9904 (d, Awn al-mab d, XII, pp.
of superimposed bundles, spiders and SSs, each 52 f, t, s, q, confirmed in Ibn Isq, Sra, III, p. 255,
Azq., X, p. 279, IASh., XII, pp. 384, 539,
um.,
supporting all four elements, or just one, or a few,
no. 888, I
., IV, pp. 310, 383, V, pp. 311 f). Abd
virtually always in a different order and with on the
al-Malik is the CL.
whole insignificant variants. It is in some chapters
For his position in Mz., VII, no. 10378, see
in kh, and in
um. and I
., that we find the full
Isml b. Ab Khlid under that number.
combination of all four, the other collections listing
With a strand on the authority of Abd ar-
them piecemeal under different headings in various
Ramn b. Ab Layl:
chapters depending on the fiqh context. Other key
figures discernible in this bundle are Shuba, Sad • “Mudh b. Jabal told me: ‘One day in the
b. Ab Arba and Sufyn b. Uyayna1. For another presence of the Prophet, two men began
tradition containing element (2), see Ibn Ab Dhib to abuse each other. One of them became
under no. 143232. so angry that I thought his nose was going
With a strand on the authority of Amr b. to explode4’. The Prophet said: ‘I know a

urayth—Sad b. Zayd, who related the Prophet’s phrase which would take away his anger,
words: if he said it.’ Mudh asked: ‘What is that
• “Truffles are (like) manna: their juice is a phrase, Messenger of God?’ He answered:
curative for the eye3”, ‘O God, I seek refuge with You from the
stoned devil.’ Mudh ordered the man to
cf. Mz., IV, no. 4465 (kh, 65/7, 2, m, III, pp. 1619
say it, but he refused and remained stub-
ff, t, s, q, confirmed in
um., no. 81, IASh., VII,
born while his anger increased”,
pp. 446 f, I
., I, pp. 187 f, passim). Abd al-Malik
b. Umayr is the CL: he has no less than five believ- cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11342 (d, Awn al-mab d, XIII,
able PCLs who, for good measure, together with p. 96, t, s, confirmed in ay., no. 570, IASh., VIII,
several of their pupils, introduced next to their p. 346, I
., V, pp. 240, 244). Abd al-Malik is the
respective transmission lines from Abd al-Malik (S)CL of this tradition. See also a closely related
a few diving strands bypassing him and ending in tradition with Amash as (S)CL under no. 4566.
Amr b.
urayth. Under no. 4131 there are a num- With a strand on the authority of Abd ar-Ramn
ber of spiders listed some of which have Amash as b. Ab Bakra—his father Ab Bakra Nufay b. al-
SCL. Furthermore, Bundr is seen in the position
rith, who related the Prophet’s words:

• “No one5 should pass judgement between


1. He was also CL in a bundle supporting only element two persons whilst angry”,
(1), Mz., X, no. 13130 (kh, 20/1, 2, m, II, p. 1014, d, s,

um., no. 943, Fkih, II, no. 1190). cf. Mz., IX, no. 11676 (the Six, kh, 93/13, m, III,
2. For studies devoted to element (1), see Kister’s paper pp. 1342 f, confirmed in ay., no. 860,
um., no.
in Le Muséon, LXXXII, 1969, pp. 173-96, and Lecker’s
paper in JSS, XLI, 1996, pp. 21-63.
3. Another interpretation, which seems less appropriate, 4. An expression probably derived from the idiom
might be: … a curative against the evil eye. For modern amiya anfuhu, i.e. he became vehemently angry, cf.
discussions about this tradition, see Authenticity, pp. 144 Lane, p. 651, middle column.
f. 5. I.e. a judge or a governor.
ABD AL-MALIK B. UMAYR 23

792, IASh., VII, p. 233, I


., V, pp. 36, 37, 52, Ibn not, You are cognizant of the unseen. God,

ibbn, VII, p. 260#, Dhahab, Siyar, V, pp. 440 f). when You know what I ask for—at which
Abd al-Malik is the convincing CL and this seems point the man praying mentions it in so
almost to be implied in so many words in Dhahab, many words—that it is beneficial for me
ibidem. in my faith and during my daily life until
With a strand on the authority of Ab Salama
my demise (v.l. throughout my life), let it
b. Abd ar-Ramn—Ab Hurayra, who related the
Prophet’s words:
befall, and when You know that it is bad
for my faith and for my daily life until my
• “The most poetic line the Arabs quote is demise, avert it from me and decree for
the one by Labd (awl): me what is best whatever that may be, and
‘Truly, everything but God is worthless1’ make me satisfied with it (and then the per-
(then follows a sequel in some variants)”, son praying expresses his wish)’”,
cf. Mz., II, no. 3055 (kh, 80/48, Fat, XIII, pp.
cf. Mz., X, no. 14976 (kh, 78/90, 3, m, IV, pp. 1768
438-42, d, Awn al-mab d, IV, pp. 277 ff, t, s, q,
f, t, q,
um., no. 1053, I
., II, pp. 391, 393, 444,
confirmed in I
., III, p. 344#, Ab Yal, IV, p. 67,
470, 480 f). Although the bundle at first sight seems
Ibn
ibbn, II, p. 123). As this translation indi-
to point to a convincing CL, a scrutiny of Abd al-
cates, depending on the variant of the matn, the
Malik’s alleged PCLs conveys that this bundle is
praying person’s plea should be expressed either in
nothing more than a bunch of undatable spiders
the middle of the supplication or at the end. The
superimposed upon one another. It is really impos-
strands coming together in Abd ar-Ramn are all
sible to say who among the PCLs may be held
scarcely convincing SSs, which cannot possibly
responsible2.
be interpreted as plausible PCLs. Even so, he is so
clearly, not to say unmistakably, identified with
Abd ar-Ramn b. Ab ’l-Mawl3 (d. 173/789), a
this tradition in some early rijl lexicons (e.g. Ibn
mawl from Medina. His ‘patronymic’ is a curious
Ad3, IV, pp. 307 f, Mz., Tahdhb, XVII, p. 449)
variant of the Fuln b. Ab Fuln appellation. As a
that attributing it to him may be called for. But it
transmitter he was deemed to be of passing quality
is the collectors of some two generations later than
except for the following tradition, with which he is
he who are responsible for those SSs. So Abd ar-
generally identified:
Ramn’s role in the transmission of the formula
With a strand on the authority of Muammad
constituted a clear example of a rare, historically
b. al-Munkadir—Jbir b. Abd Allh (paraphrase
tenable but nonetheless artificial CL. However,
incorporating certain variants):
later adth experts rejected this tradition labelling
• “As he taught us a s ra of the Qurn, the it munkar, ‘objectionable’. According to Ibn Ad,
Prophet taught us the istikhra formula the Ibn al-Munkadir / Jbir strand was the usual
to be used in all matters: ‘When some- strand affixed in the
ijz to a tradition in which
one intends to undertake something4, let something was thought to be doubtful and which
him perform two supererogatory rakas5 needed some sort of authentication. In the same
manner the people of Bara affixed a Thbit / Anas
and then say: ‘O God, I ask Your favour
strand to any tradition which they deemed in need
through Your omniscience and Your power
of a credible isnd strand. For the position Islam
from Your omnipotence. I ask You through has taken vis-à-vis this ancient pre-Islamic, popular
Your great beneficence, for You have the practice, see EI2, s.v. istikhra (Fahd). The early
power and I have not. You know and I do Shite adth collector Ab Jafar Amad b. Ab
Abd Allh Muammad b. Khlid al-Barq (d. 274
or 280/887-893) also presents istikhra traditions,
1. In Arabic: Al kullu shayin m khal ’llha bil .
cf. his Al-masin, Najaf 1964, pp. 489 ff.
2. Cf. Festschrift Wagner, pp. 191 f.
3. For al-Mawl, the plural of mawl.
4. Examples mentioned in Awn al-mab d, IV, p. 278, Abd ar-Ramn b. Mahd, a famous mawl who
are a marriage, a journey or a habit one wants to give up. is said to have died in 198/814.
5. Following the niyya (i.e. intention) of the istikhra With a strand on the authority of Thawr—
prayer, he should recite in the first raka s rat al-kfir n Muammad b. al-Munkadir—Jbir b. Abd Allh:
(CIX) and in the second s rat al-ikhl (CXII); cf Awn
al-mab d, ibidem. • “When the Prophet came to visit me when
24 ABD AR-RA
MN B. MAHD

I was ill, he did not come riding a mule or Abd ar-Razzq b. Hammm (126/744-211/827),
a hack”, a mawl who settled in Yemen. He brought into
circulation large numbers of traditions, which
cf. Mz., II, no. 3021 (kh, 75/15, d, Awn al-mab d, he copied from earlier CLs after providing them
VIII, p. 250, t, s, confirmed in IH., III, p. 373, Ab with isnd strands of his own making. I
. is said
Yal, IV, pp. 107 f). Ibn Mahd is CL. The bb to to have confirmed that Azq. told him himself that
which this tradition belongs in kh is entitled ‘The he was born in 126, cf. Dhahab, Siyar, IX, p. 565.
chapter on visiting the sick riding or walking or sit- He became blind at the turn of the second/eighth
ting behind someone else on an ass’. It is, in other century, cf. Mz., Tahdhb, XVIII, 58. He was some-
words, not made clear what message this tradition times associated with tashayyu, cf. ibidem, pp. 59
is supposed to convey. If with this tradition is meant ff. Dhahab lists a report, which he himself did not
that one may not visit a sick person while riding an trust, in which it is stated that Azq. had certain tra-
animal, this is not in so many words expressed in ditions from Mamar’s nephew, a Rfiite, who had
the available commentaries where we do not find a inserted them in Azq.’s books, cf. Siyar, IX, pp.
satisfactorily straightforward interpretation of this 575 f. When Ibn Jurayj came to Yemen, Azq. was
tradition. In a distantly related tradition (cf. I
j., eighteen years old (ibidem, p. 580).
Fat, IX, p. 299, apud kh, 65/3, 14) the Prophet once Comparing briefly the collections of the three
came upon a group of unbelievers whom he saluted mawl aylis, IASh., and Azq. with one another,
and called to embrace Islam, but those addressed one major difference leaps to the eye. In the mate-
covered their faces against the dust raised by the rial of the first two collections isnd criticism leads
Prophet’s riding animals, thus rudely ignoring him. to the observation that a sizeable percentage is alleg-
This is in fact a vague attempt by I
j. to combine edly transmitted by means of isnd strands which,
two seemingly quite unrelated traditions in order to with full recourse to Mz. of course, frequently
arrive at some sort of explanation for one of them. reveal CLs. In contrast, that part of Azq.’s mate-
With a strand on the authority of Thawr—Ab rial, which is demonstrably brought into circulation
’z-Zubayr Muammad b. Muslim b. Tadrus—Ibn by CLs older than Azq. himself, is far more limited
Abbs: in size, not to say minimal. One may wonder why
• “The Prophet delayed circumambulating this is so. It is tempting indeed to speculate that
Azq., cooped up in Yemen as he was, had far less
around the Kaba on the day of the sacrifice
opportunity to meet adth masters from whom he
until the evening”,
could learn a thing or two, or that he did not bother
cf. Mz., V, no. 6452 (d, Awn al-mab d, V, p. 337, to look for such masters. So he simply produced a
t, s, confirmed in I
., I, pp. 288, 309, Ab Yal, huge portion of his Muannaf himself, all this sup-
V, p. 93). Thawr is SCL and Ibn Mahd is his best- ported by some of his favourite SSs, and all this
attested PCL, which is why this tradition is listed on a far more extensive scale than the two other
here. In actual fact it is a controversial tradition collectors mentioned above. All three mawl have
held by some to be no more than asan (= fair, cf. enriched Islam: the first two did it mainly through
the definition in General Introduction). Some think transmission of what was already there, and the
that it constitutes a rukha, inasmuch as the Prophet third one by cleverly introducing many brand-new
is generally thought to have performed his farewell adths. Finally, the mawl Azq. had in the Arab
circumambulation in the daytime of the day of sacri- I
. a dedicated follower in producing new matns
fice, cf. Awn al-mab d, ibidem. supported by imaginative SSs to boot1. And I
.
With a strand on the authority of Ab Awna— had in the six collectors whose compilations later
Dwd b. Abd Allh al-Awd—Abd ar-Ramn b. became canonical equally gifted and dedicated fol-
Ab Layl—al-Ashath b. Qays—Umar b. al-Kha -
b, who related the Prophet’s words:
1. For more on the methods employed by I
. in incor-
• “Do not ask a husband what reason he had porating Azq.’s material as well as other such material,
for beating his wife”, which I
. just attributed to Azq. without this being the
case, see our review article in BiOr, XLIX, 1992, pp. 357-
cf. Mz., VIII, no. 10407 (d, Awn al-mab d, VI, p. 64. For more details about Azq.’s relationship with I
.,
130, s, Kubr, V, p. 372, q). Ibn Mahd is (S)CL. see a study by C. Melchert in Der Islam, LXXXII, 2005,
For more concerning the MC on husband/wife rela- pp. 32-51. Furthermore, see the final conclusion (pp. 385
tions, see Hishm b. Urwa under no. 16848. f) of Muséon (III).
ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM 25

lowers. The six were not expressis verbis classified the Ditch, cf. I
j., Iba, III, p. 84. This seemingly
as mawl, at least the term is no longer found in far-fetched tradition elicited various interpretations
their tarjamas. meant to dampen somewhat the hyperbolic aspect
Azq. apparently also made use of the Muammad of its fa
il content. Some experts maintain that
b. Amr b. Alqama / Ab Salama / Ab Hurayra the trembling of God’s throne is to be taken strictly
strand in order to circulate traditions which are literally as bespeaking the joy2 of the celestials at
probably of his own making. A salient example is being able soon to welcome Sad’s spirit, or as a
the pages-long tradition, no. 6703, in III, pp. 567 ff, divine sign for the angels to prepare themselves for
on a wordy jinza-related account of what the (per- Sad’s arrival. Others say that before the word arsh
sonified and eloquently speaking!) alt, zakt, and (throne) the word ahl has to be inserted, resulting in
other arkn say about the merits of the departed. the construct ‘beings (who carry) the throne’. Still
The Prophet does not figure in it! other experts take arsh here as a simple metaphor
With a strand on the authority of Mamar— for the bier on which the corpse was being carried
Zuhr—Al b.
usayn—Amr b. Uthmn b. Af- to his tomb, cf. Nawaw, XVI, p. 22. For another
fn—Usma b. Zayd, who accompanied the Prophet fa
il tradition of Sad, see Ab Isq under no.
on the farewell pilgrimage1 and who said as they 1878.
were about to enter Mecca: With a strand on the authority of Umar b.
Zayd—Ab ’z-Zubayr—Jbir b. Abd Allh:
• “I asked the Prophet: ‘Messenger of God,
where will you lodge tomorrow?’ He said: • “The Prophet forbade to (eat cats or) ask a
‘Did (my cousin) Aql (b. Ab lib) leave price for a cat”,
us a dwelling?’”, cf. Mz., II, no. 2894 (d, Awn al-mab d, IX, p. 270,
cf. Mz., I, no. 114 (kh, 56/1890, m, II, p. 984, d, s, X, 200, t, q, confirmed in I
., III, p. 297, Azq.,
q, confirmed in Azq., VI, p. 14, I
., V, p. 202). IV, p. 530, I
., III, p. 297). Azq. is the CL of this
Azq. is CL. The tradition is closely linked with the bundle, but the question of whether trading in cats
important question of whether a Muslim and a non- and eating their meat is allowed or frowned upon is
Muslim can inherit from one another. Al and his much older and resulted in a MC. Both Azq. and
brother Jafar, both Muslims, had not inherited from IASh., VI, pp. 413 ff, have preserved a number
their father Ab lib, but his unbelieving brothers, of—partly contradictory—statements attributed
Aql and lib, had. to companions and early fuqah on the issue. See
With a strand on the authority of Ibn Jurayj— also Shuray in Wak’s Akhbr al-qu
t, II, p. 347,
Ab ’z-Zubayr Muammad b. Muslim b. Tadrus— where something not entirely clear is said about the
Jbir b. Abd Allh: matter. And Abd Allh b. Laha is SCL in a spider
supporting a similar tradition, cf. Mz., II, no. 2783
• “When the funeral procession of Sad (q, I
., III, pp. 339, 349, 386).
b. Mudh passed by in front of him, the With a strand on the authority of Mamar—
Prophet said: ‘At this moment the throne Zuhr—mir b. Sad—Sad b. Ab Waqq:
of the Compassionate is shaking”,
• “The Prophet ordered the killing of geckos;
cf. Mz., II, no. 2815 (m, IV, p. 1915, t, confirmed in he called them ’little transgressors’3”,
Azq., III, p. 586, I
., III, pp. 295). Azq. is one of
many (S)CLs in this ancient khabar, repeated nume- cf. Mz., III, no. 3893 (m, IV, p. 1758, d, I
., I, p.
rous times in IS, III 1, pp. 2-13. This Sad was a 176). This is Azq.’s version of a tradition from a
well-known Aws who, in the year 5/627, at the age MC on the gecko (wazagh); for other versions with
of only thirty-seven, allegedly sustained an arrow older CLs, see Abd Allh b. Wahb under no. 16696,
wound at the battle of the Ditch. He lived after that and Sufyn b. Uyayna under no. 18329. Curiously
for a month until the injury became recrudescent enough, it could not be located in Azq.’s Muan-
and he died. His martyr’s death was lamented on a naf, which on the ground of this case as well as
wide scale. Just before that he played a decisive role many others dealing with ajj and slaughter issues
in deciding the fate of the Jewish tribe of Quray a,
who had made common cause with the besiegers at
2. This particular interpretation is said to have been of-
fered by
asan al-Bar, cf. IS, III 2, p. 12, lines 24 f.
1. A SS-supported version situates this against a back- 3. For this term, in Arabic fuwaysiq which is the diminu-
ground of the conquest of Mecca, cf. m, II, p. 985. tive of fsiq, see no. 16629 under Zuhr.
26 ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM

may be assumed not to be complete in the eleven- has not found a place in the Sra and, judging by the
volume edition currently available1. CLs of its various wordings, is somewhat later than
With a strand on the authority of Mamar—Abd Ibn Isq. It is for that matter not recorded in Wqi-
Allh b. ws— ws—Ibn Abbs, who related d’s Maghz either, but in IS, II 2, pp. 36 f, we find
the Prophet’s words: a long series of reports on this topos. For the other
CLs, see Sufyn b. Uyayna under no. 5517, Mlik
• “Distribute the Qurnic obligatory por- b. Mighwal under no. 5170, Ab Muwiya under
tions among those entitled to them and no. 17610, Wak under no. 5524.
give what remains to the nearest male rela- With the same strand:
tive”,
• “The Prophet forbade the killing of four
cf. Mz., V, no. 5705 (m, III, p. 1234, d, t, q, con- animal species: the ant, the bee, the hoo-
firmed in Azq., X, p. 249, I
., I, p. 313, Ibn
ibbn, poe, and the urad “,
VII, p. 608). Azq. is CL. Superimposed upon this
bundle we find another with Wuhayb b. Khlid (d. cf. Mz., V, no. 5850 (d, Awn al-mab d, XIV, p.
165-9/782-5) as (S)CL (kh, 85/7, m, s, ay., no. 119, q, confirmed in Azq., IV, p. 451, I
., I, p. 332,
2609, I
., I, pp. 292, 325, Drim, II, p. 464, Bay., Drim, II, p. 121). This is a late matn within the MC
VI, p. 238). Whether the tradition is to be ascribed concerned with the (un)lawfulness of killing cer-
to Azq. or indeed to Wuhayb is not certain. Since tain animals. Its undeniable CL is Abd ar-Razzq.
Killing ants is illegal because they, especially one
Azq.’s position as CL is somewhat more clear-cut,
long-legged variety, are considered harmless, and
it has been decided to place the tradition in his tar-
bees are seen as useful because they supply honey
jama.
and wax (sham). For the multiple qualities of the
With a strand on the authority of Mamar—Abd
hoopoe, see EI 2, s.v. hudhud (Wensinck). The
Allh b. ws—his father ws—Ibn Abbs:
urad, probably the shrike (lanius excubitor), is
• “We used to memorize adth. It was (actu- described in Ji , ayawn, IV, p. 288, as one of
ally) memorized from (the mouth of) the the ‘obedient’ animals. Furthermore, it says in Ibn
Messenger of God. Inasmuch as you follow al-Athr’s Nihya, III, pp. 21 f, and Lisn al-arab,
s.v. urad, that killing the hoopoe and the shrike is
(at present all) courses of action (possible),
forbidden, because the meat of these birds is forbid-
commendable as well as reprehensible, den for human consumption and not because they
why bother (about more adth)?”, are sacrosanct or noxious. Moreover, the shrike’s
cf. Mz., V, no. 5717 (m, in the introduction to his killing of his prey is reminiscent of predatory birds,
a, I, p. 13, s, q). Azq. is (S)CL. This saying, and the meat of all predators (sib), birds and mam-
which is in fact not a Prophetic one, could not be mals alike, is forbidden. Besides, the hoopoe is said
traced in the Muannaf. to be malodorous because of its habit of feeding
With a strand on the authority of Mamar—Zuhr on, and nesting in, dung. For his part, the shrike
is thought to be a harbinger of evil. A final expla-
and Ubayd Allh b. Abd Allh—Ibn Abbs:
nation why he may not be killed is associated with
• “When the Prophet felt his end had come, his name: urad is related to the infinitive tard,
he said: ‘Give me something to write on in which means ‘to give someone so little to drink
order that I write for you a document so that that his thirst is not quenched’. To be sure, there
are other animals which may not be killed in Islam,
you will not go astray after my death’”,
e.g. frogs, certain varieties of snakes, and others.
cf. Mz., V, no. 5841 (kh, 64/83, 6, m, III, p. 1259, s, With a strand on the authority of Mamar—
confirmed in Azq., V, pp. 438 f, I
., I, p. 336). Azq. Zuhr—Slim b. Abd Allh—his father Abd Allh
is CL in this bundle which supports this particular b. Umar:
wording of the topical khabar about what, if any-
thing, Muammad on his deathbed may have left as • “One day, amidst several companions
a final message for his community, a scene which among whom was Umar b. al-Kha b,
the Prophet passed by Ibn ayyd, who
was still a boy and who was playing with
1. H. Motzki’s paper in JSAI, XXVIII, 2003, pp. 171-
201, is a detailed unravelling of the different transmis- some lads near the fortress2 of the Ban
sion lines of the work and partly constitutes an answer
to the surmise that the currently available edition of his 2. In Arabic um or uum, any quadrangular flat-roofed
Muannaf may not be complete. house built of stone (Tj).
ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM 27

Maghla1. He did not notice anything until his birth like a baby of one month, cf. I
., V, p.
the Prophet tapped him with his hand on 148. Al b. Zayd b. Judn, the controversial SCL,
the back and said: ‘Will you testify that I is the sole transmitter of the story (tafarrada bihi)
am the Messenger of God?’ Ibn ayyd that Ibn ayyd’s parents went thirty years without
looked up and said: ‘I testify that you are children before he was born. He had only one eye
the messenger of the illiterate2.’ Then he and was a most obnoxious and useless lad (a
arru
shayin wa-aqalluhu nafan). The most extensive
asked the Prophet: ‘Will you testify that I
survey of the figure is in I
j., Fat, XVII, pp. 90
am the messenger of God?’ (Rejecting his
ff. Significantly, I
j. concluded his essay with the
words3) the Prophet said to him: ‘I believe
saying attributed to Ab Dharr that he’d rather
in God and His messengers,’ and he asked
swear ten times that Ibn ayyd was indeed the
him: ‘What (hidden information) comes to Dajjl than swear once that he was not, cf. I
., ibi-
you?’ ‘True as well as false (information)’, dem. The figure of Ibn id or Ibn ayyd, whose
Ibn ayyd answered. Then the Prophet own name was Abd Allh or f, is paraded in
said: ‘(Your demon4) has left you totally a number of partly very similar stories supported
confused,’ and he added: ‘I have kept some- either by SSs or constellations of superimposed
thing secret for you,’—the Prophet had spiders which do not permit conclusions other than
kept from him (the revealed verse XLIV: that they are relatively late6. In the translation here
10): ‘… on the day that heaven brings a several elements from different versions have been
clear smoke (dukhn)’. Ibn ayyd said: incorporated.
‘That is dukhkh5.’ So the Prophet said to Another Ibn ayyd story has Ubayd Allh b.
him: ‘Away with you, you will never see Mudh b. Mudh, who died in 237 or 238, as SCL.
more (of the Hidden World) than is des- Since this man does not figure in any other adth
tined for you.’ Umar said: ‘Messenger of context suitable to be included in this book, it seems
God let me strike off his head!’ But then convenient to mention the account here:
With a strand on the authority of his father
the Prophet said: ‘If he is (a veritable sooth-
Mudh b. Mudh b. Nar—Shuba—Sad b. Ibr-
sayer with a special gift, v.l. if he is the
hm—Muammad b. al-Munkadir:
one you fear it is), you will not be granted
power over him and if he is not, there is no • “I saw how Jbir b. Abd Allh swore by
benefit in killing him’”, God that Ibn id is the Dajjl. I asked
him: ‘Do you swear by God (that he is)?’
cf. Mz., V, no. 6932 (m, IV, p. 2246, d, t, confirmed
in Azq., XI, p. 389). This at first sight enigmatic He replied: ‘I heard Umar swear to this in
story is supposed to represent an exchange of views the presence of the Prophet, who did not
the Prophet is presumed to have had with a mem- deny it’”,
ber of the class of soothsayers (khin, pl. kahana). cf. Mz., II, no. 3019 (kh, 96/23, m, IV, p. 2243, d,
The story is probably older than Azq., who is the confirmed in ilya, III, p. 154). Ubayd Allh b.
only passable CL discernible in this cluster of Mudh is the SCL of this wording, but he is proba-
akhbr about Ibn ayyd, and he may therefore bly not the originator of the idea that Ibn id or Ibn
cautiously be identified with this particular word- ayyd is to be identified with the Dajjl, the anti-
ing. I
j., Fat, VI, p. 513, lines 19 f, says that Ibn christ. The available SSs and spiders supporting the
ayyd’s mother was twelve months pregnant with idea do not allow conclusions as to who circulated
him before she bore him and that he screamed at it first. Several7 of these SS-supported traditions
describe Ibn ayyd as denying that he is the Dajjl,
arguing that the alleged characteristics of the Dajjl
1. An ancient clan of Khazraj. did not apply to him. Thus the Dajjl is supposed
2. Explained as the mostly illiterate nomads. not to have fathered offspring, whereas Ibn ayyd
3. The verb used in this variant is rafa
a. Another, rare
said he had, and it was prophesied that the Dajjl
variant mentions the verb rafaa here, ‘he gave him a
kick’, cf. m, IV, p. 2244, note 2.
would never enter Mecca or Medina, whereas Ibn
4. Soothsayers were thought of as the transmitters of se-
cret information prompted by their familiars or demons. 6. For a study of Ibn id, see a paper by W. Raven in
5. Which is assumed to be a dialectical shortening of Aramada, I, 1995, pp. 28-36.
dukhn. 7. Cf. m, IV, pp. 2242-6.
28 ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM

ayyd said that he was born in Medina and made cf. Mz., VIII, no. 10392 (t, IV, p. 285, q, cf. Azq.,
the pilgrimage to Mecca. Furthermore, the Dajjl X, p. 422, where Umar’s name is not recorded in
is said to be Jewish or an unbeliever, whereas Ibn the strand). Azq. is (S)CL of this—curiously rela-
ayyd claimed to have embraced Islam. The MC tively rare—tradition on the merits of the olive.
around this figure contains a number of partly con- With a strand on the authority of Mamar—
tradictory reports, all supported by SSs or spiders Zuhr—Slim b. Abd Allh—his father Ibn Umar,
that do not permit a precise chronology. who related that, at the time of his death, his father
With a strand on the authority of Mamar— Umar said (paraphrase after a preamble):
Zuhr—Ab Bakr b. Sulaymn and Slim b. Abd
Allh—the latter’s father Abd Allh b. Umar: • “I will not appoint a successor, for the
Messenger of God did not appoint one. If I
• “At the end of his life the Messenger of did appoint one, I would be following Ab
God performed one night the late evening Bakr’s example, for he appointed one.”
alt with us. When he had finished he Ibn Umar said: ‘By God, Umar only men-
said: ‘Mark this night, for one hundred tioned the Prophet and Ab Bakr. I realized
years from tonight there will be nobody that he would not put anyone on a par with
left who is alive on earth today’”, the Prophet, thus that he would not appoint
cf. Mz., V, no. 6934 (m, IV, pp. 1965 f, d, Awn a successor’”,
al-mab d, XI, pp. 337 f, t, s, confirmed in Azq. cf. Mz., VIII, no. 10521 (m, III, p. 1455, d, Awn al-
XI, pp. 275 f, I
. II, p. 88). Azq. is CL, possibly mab d, VIII, p. 112, t, confirmed in Azq., V, pp.
imitated by Ab’l-Yamn, cf. Mz., V, no. 6840 (kh, 448 f, I
., I, p. 47). Azq. is CL of the wording of
m, I
., II, p. 121). This tradition is considered one this tradition, which is part of the early MC describ-
of the miraculous predictions of the Prophet. ing the major political discussion on the succession
With a strand on the authority of Mamar— to the leadership of the Islamic community, an
Ayyb as-Sakhtiyn—Ibn Umar: issue which led to the formation of Islam’s oldest
• “The Prophet forbade (the practice of) political factions, resulting in subdivisions such as
Khrijites, various Shite factions, and ultimately
qaza, that is shaving part of a boy’s head
in Islamic orthodoxy, the ahl as-sunna1.
and leaving the other part unshaved”,
With a strand on the authority of Mamar—
cf. Mz., VI, no. 7525, 8243 (m, III, p. 1675, d, s, Zuhr—Sad b. al-Musayyab—Ab Hurayra, who
confirmed in Azq., X, p. 421, cf. IASh., VIII, p. related the Prophet’s words:
313). Azq. is the first believable CL discernible in
this tangle of superimposed spiders and SSs. It is
• “There are five obligations incumbent upon
once more Nfi and Ubayd Allh b. Umar who a Muslim vis-à-vis his brother: returning
are SCLs, their positions made seemingly unassail- his greeting, wishing him well after he
able by a number of diving strands. The prohibition sneezes (tashmt), responding to his invita-
of the cosmetic practice of qaza seems relatively tion, visiting him when he is sick, and fol-
late and is probably in conformity with the general lowing his funeral procession”,
Islamic principle that customs of adherents of other
cf. Mz., X, no. 13268 (m, IV, p. 1704, d, Azq., X,
religions, in this case the Jewish custom to shave a
p. 452, cf. kh, 23/2, 2). Azq. is the only datable
boy’s head in order to accentuate the side-locks, are
key figure in the MC on these popular prescripts. In
not to be copied by Muslims, cf. Awn al-mab d,
a SS-supported variant a sixth obligation is added:
XI, p. 166, and a SS-supported tradition in d, cf.
giving advice when asked, cf. m, IV, p. 1705, I
.,
Mz., I, no. 522. But associations with the customs
II, p. 412.
of the Khrijites, who had the habit of (partly)
With the same strand (Mz., X, no. 13270, kh,
shaving their heads too, were of course also to be
60/48, 2, m, I, p. 154, s, Azq., V, pp. 329 f, I
.,
avoided.
III, p. 164), a tradition belonging to the MC on
With a strand on the authority of Mamar—Zayd
the Prophet’s nocturnal journey to Jerusalem con-
b. Aslam—his father the mawl Aslam—his patron
taining the following features: the encounters with
Umar b. al-Kha b, who related the Prophet’s
Ms, s, and Ibrhm, and the choice between
words:

• “Eat olive oil and use it as an ointment, for 1. For an overview of the early history of the latter, cf.
the olive tree is blessed”, Islam (II), pp. 318-30.
ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM 29

wine and milk. For these features, see Zuhr under ing and lusting, and with his sexual organ
no. 1556. confirming or denying it”,
With a strand on the authority of Mamar—Abd
Allh b. ws—his father ws—Ab Hurayra, cf. Mz., no. 13573 (kh, 82/9, Fat, XIV, pp. 305
who related a story about Ms: f, m, IV, p. 2046, s, confirmed in Azq., Tafsr, II,
p. 204, I
., II, p. 276). Azq. is CL. d and abar,
• “The angel of death was sent to Ms. Tafsr, XXVII, p. 65, list the tradition with a SS
When he approached Ms, he struck bypassing Azq. and diving onto Mamar. The sex-
the angel’s face, gouging out an eye. The ual organ confirming or denying fornication is sup-
angel returned to his Lord and said: ‘You posed to be interpreted as sexual organs of persons
have sent me to a man who refuses to die.’ roused by desire touching or not touching; touching
Thereupon God restored the eye of the angel constitutes fornication, not touching does not.
With the same strand:
and said: ‘Return to Ms and tell him to
place his hand on the back of a bull and he • “A man came to the Prophet and said: ‘I
will be given as many years to live as the had a dream last night …” Then follows
hairs he can cover with his hand.’ ‘What Azq.’s version (no. 13575) of a dream and
(will happen) then, Lord?’, Ms asked. its interpretation by Ab Bakr, which is
God said: ‘Then death (will be immanent).’ dealt with in the tarjama of another CL,
‘In that case, (let me die) now,’ Ms said Sufyn b. Uyayna under no. 5838.
and he asked to be brought as close to the
Mz., X, nos. 14676-14799 comprise traditions
Holy Land as one stone’s throw”.
which are all supported by the SS Mamar / Ham-
(And Ab Hurayra went on:) mm b. Munabbih / Ab Hurayra. Together they
form a famous collection that goes by the title
“The Prophet said: ‘If I had been on the afat Hammm b. Munabbih1, generally con-
spot, I would have shown you his grave sidered in the Islamic world as possibly the oldest
beside the road at the foot of the red hill’”, surviving book of Prophetic traditions preserved in
collective volumes in various Oriental manuscript
cf. Mz., X, no. 13519 (kh, 60/31, Fat, VII, pp.
libraries and subsequently several times edited.
251 f, m, IV, p. 1842, s, confirmed in Azq., XI,
A few editions are at the moment available every-
pp. 274 f, I
., II, p. 269). Azq. is the CL of this
where in print. The alleged authorship of this collec-
wording. Main features of the story are also found
tion does not seem to have raised doubts with most
in L. Ginsberg, The Legends of the Jews, Princeton
Muslim scholars, and quite a few western adth
1909-38, III, pp. 470 ff. God’s direct speech, to be
experts accept it also as attributable to this Ham-
considered as a adth quds, is duly covered in Gra-
mm b. Munabbih2.
ham, pp. 158 f. For another view on the origina-
However, it is contended here that what goes by
tor of the tradition and an on the whole different
the title of Hammm’s afa is for the main part
emphasis, see a paper of A. Elad (or Elad) in JSAI,
the handiwork of none other than Azq. He used the
XI, 1988, pp. 1-15.
strand to support a number of partly brand-new,
With a strand on the authority of Mamar—Abd
partly other, older traditions of his own making or
Allh b. ws—his father ws—Ibn Abbs:
copied from others, which he had already circulated
• “In connection with the term lamam (i.e. a with the help of strands of an older vintage.
word for ‘forgivable offences’ from Q. LIII: Azq.’s Mamar / Hammm / Ab Hurayra strand
32), I have never come across any idea to was, in turn, copied by other, younger collectors in
identify it with which is more appropriate order to serve them as a convenient prop for their
than what I heard from Ab Hurayra, who own traditions, mainly shawhid3. In addition to
related the Prophet’s exegetical remark:
“Verily, God has assigned man a share in 1. Apud afa Lane says: a written piece of paper or
(the offence of) fornication (zin) which he skin; a writing … a book, a volume, or letter … also a
is bound to commit: zin with the eyes, that portion of a book such as is termed kurrsa, i.e. quire.
2. E.g. R.M. Speight in Der Islam, LXXVII, 2000, pp.
is glancing (at something forbidden), zin 169-79.
with the tongue, that is uttering (something 3. For this technical term, see ILS (I), esp. pp. 315-22, and
forbidden) while in his heart man is yearn- the study of this term in the General Introduction above.
30 ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM

a few other transmitters who used the strand only clusters for Hammm’s death is the most feasible.
once or twice, three major collectors are discernible In short, no date seems to work, when the historic-
in the sources who made use of Azq.’s strand on a ity—if any—of this strand is evaluated.
wide scale: I
. brought virtually the entire collec- Be that as it may, if the second cluster of dates
tion together in Musnad, II, pp. 312-9, and kh and (131 or 132) is postulated to be the correct one, Ham-
m sprinkled a large number of such shawhid in the mm must have listened to adth recited by a man
appurtenant chapters over their as. In the— who died some three quarters of a century earlier.
mainly spidery—bundles listed in Mz. under this The narrative embellishment describing Hammm
strand Azq. is the oldest and only believable CL. as being so old that his eyebrows rested upon his
The handful of Hammm traditions listed in Ibn eyes is a widely used topical digression to under-
al-Mubrak’s Zuhd collection1, in which Azq.’s line Hammm’s status as a muammar. However,
name does not occur, constitute in all likelihood Dhahab’s rijl lexicon of centenarians, entitled
dives through Ibn al-Mubrak at the hands of later Ahl al-mia fa-id2, does not list Hammm in
transmitters onto the convenient ‘master’ of Azq, any case.
i.e. Mamar. This Mamar, as will be argued below And if the first date (101 or 102/719-20) is taken
in his tarjama, is nowhere found in the sources in as point of departure, Mamar is supposed to have
the position of a CL, and his alleged role in adth learned the traditions from his informant Hammm
transmission is also almost entirely of Azq.’s mak- some nine years before he actually commenced his
ing, albeit that this role was obfuscated by a few adth gathering, which, as the appurtenant sources
late dives purposefully bypassing Azq. In sum, inform us, was in the year
asan al-Bar died,
Mamar’s alleged reputation attracted a number of namely 110/728. Hammm occurs twice in spi-
diving strands targeted onto him by contemporary dery bundles with Sufyn b. Uyayna as key figure,
and younger followers of Azq. where he sits between that man’s informant Amr
In his evaluation of the transmission via Mamar / b. Dnr (d. 126/744) and Muwiya b. Ab Sufyn
Hammm / Ab Hurayra, the modern editor of the (d. 41/661). In these two, Hammm’s year of death
‘corpus’, Muhammad Hamidullah (d. 2002), failed is apparently assumed to have been the earlier of
to appreciate that there is an anomaly concerning the two, 102/720. If Hammm’s late year of death
the recorded death dates of the first three transmit- is taken literally, creating every opportunity for
ters, something which made it well-nigh impossible Mamar to have heard him personally, and if it is
to attribute any historicity to a strand of this sort. at the same time maintained that he was a transmit-
Consider the following data: ter of Ab Hurayra, he must have reached an age
Ab Hurayra is reported to have died in 57/677 which requires an act of faith to accept. A solution
or 58/678 or 59/679. For Hammm b. Munabbih’s seems in any case to lie beyond the reach of the
year of death two conflicting clusters of dates are modern isnd analyst.
given, no less than thirty years apart. On the one Summing up, one can say that the historicity of
hand, it is recorded in Ibn Sad (V, p. 396) that it the transmission of the so-called afat Hammm
was in 101 or 102/719-20; however, on the other cannot be maintained with any reliable measure
hand, in the quotations of the same Ibn Sad in of certainty. References to young children learn-
Mz., Tahdhb, XXX, p. 300, and I
j., Tahdhb, ing adth with ancient adth masters are admit-
XI, p. 67, the date given is 131/749, while Dha- tedly legion, but they are all situated in a later stage
hab in Siyar, V, p. 312, states that Hammm died in the development of adth instruction, a stage
in 132/750. The problem is then aggravated by the which originated several centuries later than the
additional information in IS that Hammm is sup- time we are here and now digging into, namely the
posed to have died before his older brother Wahb second half of the first/seventh century and the first
(d. 110/728 or 114/732), so the apodictical solu- few decades of the second/eighth century. Besides,
tion of the editor of Mz.’s Tahdhb, namely that when one reads through all the traditions of the
the Sachau edition of IS is mistaken, is, for lack afa, the overall impression one gains, is of a late
of a better term, too hasty. In the final analysis it is collection, displaying a stylistic finish only found
impossible to say which year from any of the two in relatively late traditions. Moreover, they present
virtually all the Prophet’s direct speech with a few
quds sayings directly attributed to God thrown in,
1. Cf. p. 136, no. 403, a tradition listed in Mz., X, no.
14700 with Azq. as CL(see below), and the appendix at-
tributed to Nuaym b.
ammd in the back of the Zuhd, p. 2. In Cahiers d’onomastique arabe, ed. Jacqueline Su-
77, no. 273, p. 88, no. 308, p. 130, no. 433. blet, Paris 1979, I, pp. 99-159.
ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM 31

only a few have Muammad being asked questions / Hammm / Ab Hurayra isnd strand was initially
to which he provided answers. The whole corpus is devised by Azq., and it accumulated so much pres-
supported by a supposedly very early but probably tige or popularity that I
. made a special collection
historically untenable isnd strand. Even so, there of the relevant traditions in his Musnad. After I
.,
are many scholars in East as well as West who are reflecting their eagerness to use this strand also for
not daunted by the arguments gathered above and what turn out to be a number of their own shawhid
who continue to consider this collection to be the dives, kh and m transmitted via their teachers from
earliest written record of Prophetic traditions. Azq. also a number of traditions. That Azq.’s use
From the following list, based upon Mz., it will of certain strands stimulated other later collectors
appear that a sizeable percentage of Azq. traditions to attach those strands to shawhid of their own
is incorporated neither in the Muannaf of Azq., making constitutes a hypothesis which was already
nor in vol. II of the Musnad of I
., nor in the cel- proposed in the course of a review article2. The
ebrated edition of the afa by Muhammad Hamid- quantification detailed above may be seen as fun-
ullah. The tentative conclusion to be drawn from damental evidence for that—at the time—not yet
this is that those traditions, mentioned also in the conclusively supported working hypothesis, which
Muannaf of Azq., are probably his, those that are was solely built on a casual comparison of material
not listed in it but only in I
. and/or later collectors
taken from the Muannaf and I
.’s Musnad 3.
such as kh and m, are probably I
.’s and/or kh’s
We may now return to our survey of Azq.’s
and/or m’s, the one copying the (two) other(s).
traditions.
In order to get a clear picture of Azq.’s role in the
Supported by the Mamar / Hammm / Ab
circulation of traditions supported by the Mamar /
Hurayra strand we find:
Hammm / Ab Hurayra strand, vis-à-vis the—neg-
ligible—role played by a few others therein, here • “God will not accept the alt of anyone
now follows a (near) precise quantification of the who breaks wind without the (prescribed)
above arguments: ablution”,
Of the 124 Mamar / Hammm / Ab Hurayra
traditions listed in Mz., X (nos. 14676-14799), cf. Mz., X, no. 14694 (kh, 4/2, Fat, I, p. 245, m, I,
(a) 17 spider and SS-supported traditions were p. 204, d, t, confirmed in Azq., I, p. 139, I
., II, p.
brought into circulation supported by late dives 4318). Azq. is CL of the wording. In one version,
at the hands of third/ninth century adth collec- e.g. kh and I
., Ab Hurayra, upon the request of
tors through Ibn al-Mubrak (nos. 14676-92) onto an anonymous person, adds two words for ‘silently’
Mamar; (fus) and ‘noisily’ (
ur).
(b) 5 similarly SS-supported dives were made With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
onto Mamar through 5 contemporary single indi-
viduals1;
• “A woman should not observe a (volun-
tary) fast while her husband is at home
(c) the rest, all 102 traditions, had a Azq. /
Mamar / Hammm / Ab Hurayra strand. Of these
without his permission (1). She should not
traditions let anyone inside while her husband is at
56 could not be traced in Azq.’s Muannaf, but home without his permission (2). And half
it appears that of the (divine) reward for what she spends
at least 24 of these could have turned up in the (i.e. on charity, food for the poor) from her
Muannaf, and this for two reasons: they either fit- husband’s goods without him having given
ted seamlessly in a Muannaf chapter of compara- the order thereto goes to him (3)”,
ble purport, or they were indeed recorded verbatim
in the Muannaf but supported by a strand different cf. Mz., X, no. 14695 (kh, 34/12, 2, m, II, p. 711,
from the Mamar / Hammm strand. d, confirmed in Azq., IV, p. 305, I
., II, p. 316).
Azq. is CL. The different elements of this compos-
All these figures and arguments studied together
seem to point to one overall conclusion: the Mamar
2. In BiOr, XLIX, 1992, pp. 357-64.
3. Throughout this book we will come across references
1. Abd al-Al b. Abd al-Al (no. 14693), Abd al- to I
. / Azq. strands supporting certain traditions which
Malik b. Muammad a-ann (no. 14796), s b. are not listed in Azq.’s Muannaf. It seems that inferring
Ynus (no. 14797), Muammad b.
umayd Ab Sufyn from this that the edition of the Muannaf as we have it
al-Muammar (no. 14798) and Hishm b. Ysuf (no. now is not complete, although that may be the case, is too
14799). rash and does not constitute a satisfactory solution.
32 ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM

ite, all parts of MCs, on three related restrictions d, Awn al-mab d, X, p. 33, s, confirmed in Azq.,
incumbent upon wives vis-à-vis their husbands VIII, p. 279, I
., II, p. 317, Bay., X, p. 255). It
are occasionally listed separately in the sources. is implied in both versions that the parties were
Element (3) has also an older CL, see Amash under unable to produce any evidence (bayyina) for their
no. 17608. respective claims. Azq. is clearly the originator of
With the same strand: the gist of this important tradition, but on the basis
of the available sources it is impossible to decide
• “The Prophet said: ‘Verily, the evil eye
to whom what precise matn can safely be ascribed.
exists.’ And he banned tattooing”, In Azq.’s Muannaf we find only the first version.
cf. Mz., X, 14696 (kh, 76/36, m, IV, p. 1719, d, con- The issue gave rise to a MC in which Azq.’s contri-
firmed in Azq., XI, p. 18, I
., II, p. 319). Azq. is bution is one of the very few marf  sayings.
CL. For other traditions on the evil eye, see Mlik With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
under Mz., I, no. 136, and Wuhayb under Mz., V,
no. 5716.
• “(Accidently) setting fire to (somebody
else’s property through sparks carried by
With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
the wind to a neighbour’s patch) does not
• “It was said to the children of Israel (Q. require payment of damages”,
II: 58): ‘Enter by the gate (i.e. of Bayt al-
cf. Mz., X, no. 14699 (d, Awn al-mab d, XII,
Maqdis) humbling yourselves and say:
p. 219, s, q). Azq. is CL of this ultra-concise as
‘(We ask that there be) an unburdening (i- well as dubious tradition. If it was transmitted cor-
atun), so that We may forgive you your rectly in the first place, something which is gener-
sins.’ But they altered (the words) and they ally subject to doubt, it is curious that it does not
entered the gate dragging themselves along occur in the Muannaf. Only the closely related and
on their buttocks and they said (instead of far better-attested tradition ‘A kick from a camel
iatun) abbatun, (i.e.) a grain of wheat …, a fall into a well …, a fall into a mine … are
(inatun)’”, jubr, i.e. they do not require compensation’, for
which see Zuhr under no. 13128, is also found in
cf. Mz., X, no. 14697 (kh, 65/7, 4, m, IV, p. 2312, t, the Muannaf, not the short matn translated above.
confirmed in I
., II, p. 318). Azq. is CL. Strangely It does occur supported by one diving strand onto
enough, this bit of exegesis of II: 58 is not found Mamar but bypassing Azq., cf. no. 14796 (d).
in Azq.’s Tafsr or in any of the available early Various commentators have suggested that its first
tafsr collections. A spider with a dive through Ibn word an-nr, fire, was simply a slip of the pen for
al-Mubrak supporting the same tradition is listed al-bir, i.e. the well. If that is indeed the case, one
under no. 14680. wonders who attached the time-honoured Hammm
With the same strand a matn transmitted in two / Ab Hurayra strand to it …
different versions presented here the one after the
With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
other:
• “Upon every finger bone1 of man, every
• “The Prophet suggested to people (who
day the sun rises, there rests the duty
had come to him for a decision in a conten-
to practise charity. Making a just peace
tious matter to swear) an oath. Both parties
between two (quarrelling parties) consti-
(in the conflict) vied with one another to
tutes charity, also when he helps his fellow
swear one. The Prophet then ordered that
man to mount his own camel or to carry his
they draw lots (in order to determine) who
goods for him constitutes charity, a kind
was to swear an oath first”,
word constitutes charity, every footstep he
takes in order to perform a alt constitutes
• “The Prophet once said: ‘Whether two
charity, every time he removes an obstacle
(contenders) disapprove of (v.l. are com-
out of the pathway (v.l. he shows someone
pelled to swear) an oath or whether they
the right way) constitutes charity”,
prefer to do so, they should draw lots (in
order to determine) who swears an oath
first’”, 1. Literally it says ‘every phalanx’. The commentator
adds that man has some three hundred and sixty bones
cf. Mz., X, no. 14698 (kh, 52/24, Fat, VI, p. 214, in his body.
ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM 33

cf. Mz., X, no. 14700 (kh, 53/11, 56/71, m, II, p. own design via his favourite ‘adth master’, Amr
699, confirmed in I
., II, p. 316, Ibn
ibbn, V, p. b. al-
rith, a strand he used on a number of occa-
161, Bay., IV, pp. 187 f). Azq. is CL but the tradi- sions, cf. Mz., XI, nos. 15472-15481.
tion could not be located in his Muannaf. With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
For no. 14701, see Sufyn b. Uyayna under no.
2523. • “Paradise and Hell were having an argu-
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: ment. Hell said: ‘I have been made to receive
the mighty and the proud.’ Thereupon Para-
• “God created dam in his own image1, his dise said: ‘What is there then for me? Only
height was sixty cubits. When He had cre- the weak, the downtrodden and the simple-
ated him, He said to dam: ‘Go and greet tons enter me.’ Then God said to Paradise:
those men nearby (they were angels who ‘You are My mercy, through you I bestow
were sitting there) and listen to how they mercy to those servants whom I want.’ And
respond to your salutation, for the way you to Hell He spoke: ‘You are My chastise-
greet them is also the way your descendants ment, through you I punish those servants
will utter salutations.’ So dam went and whom I want. You will both be filled up.
said (to those angels): ‘Peace be upon you When they are thrown into it, Hell will say:
(as-salmu alaykum).’ They answered: ‘Will there be more (Q. L: 30)?’ And it will
‘Peace be upon you and also God’s mercy not fill up, until God stamps His foot on it
(as-salmu alayka wa-ramatu ’llh),’ and then Hell will say: ‘Enough, enough.’
adding the last two words. And God went Then it is full and it ends3 will be folded
on: ‘Everyone who enters Paradise will be together. God will not wrong any of His
in the image of dam, sixty feet tall. Ever creatures. As for Paradise, He will cause
since, man has decreased in height until whomever He wants to enter it”,
today’”,
Mz., X, no. 14704 (kh, 65/50, 1, m, IV, pp. 2186
cf. Mz., X, no. 14702 (kh, 79/1, m, IV, pp. 2183 f, confirmed in Azq., XI, pp. 422 f, his Tafsr, II,
f, Azq., X, p. 384, I
., II, p. 315). Azq. is the CL p. 193, I
., II, p. 314). Azq. is the first discernible
of this controversial tradition. The second part CL in what is in fact a cluster of narratives on the
plays an important role in the discussions on adth theme of Paradise and Hell arguing. God’s direct
among modern Egyptian theologians2. speech recorded here constitutes a adth quds, a
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: genre initiated by Mlik b. Anas, cf. his tarjama.
See also W. Graham’s monograph, pp. 139 f. The
• “If it had not been for the Ban Isrl, food
motive appeared popular and occurs in a number
would not rot and meat would not go bad,
of SS-supported versions, for which see m, ibidem.
and if it had not been for
aww (that is, An early short version has the Baghdd transmitter
Eve), women would not act treacherously Shaybn b. Abd ar-Ramn (d. 164/781) as SCL,
towards their husbands”, cf. Mz., I, no. 1295 (kh, m, t, s).
cf. Mz., X. no. 14703 (kh, 60/25, 2, m, II, p. 1092, For no. 14705, see Mlik b. Anas under no.
confirmed in I
., II, p. 315). Azq. is CL, but the 1529.
tradition could not be located in his Muannaf. For With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
good measure m (ibidem) lists the second part of • “The Hour of Judgement will not arrive
this tradition supported by a diving SS through Ibn until two large factions do battle with one
Wahb, who attached a strand to Ab Hurayra of his
another; there will be much bloodshed
but both will have the same claim4. And
1. The word ‘his’ refers to dam and not to God: that the Hour of Judgement will not arrive,
would have constituted a blasphemy. The commenta- until some thirty mendacious Dajjls have
tors make clear that ‘in his own image’ is to be taken as
indicating that dam was created in exactly the form in
which he was later to walk on earth and in which he died. 3. Sc. as the corners of a cloth in which one wants to
In other words, as dam looked in Paradise, so did he transport something.
look on earth, cf. m, IV, p. 2183, note 2. 4. In Arabic daw, glossed in the commentary with the
2. Cf. Authenticity, pp. 133 f. word dn, i.e. religion.
34 ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM

come to the fore, each claiming that he is concerning the Dajjl which have not found a place
a prophet”, in the canonical adth, ibidem, p. 205. One of these
legends has a distinctly woman-demeaning slant:
cf. Mz., X, no 14706 (kh, 61/25, 30, m, IV, pp. all the persons who survive the temptation of the
2214, 2240 f, confirmed in I
., II, p. 313). Azq. Dajjl number 19,000: 12,000 men vis-à-vis only
is the CL of this wording, which is part of a large 7,000 women. And why is he not mentioned in the
MC on the conflict between Al b. Ab lib and Qurn, if the temptation, fitna, of his appearance
Muwiya b. Ab Sufyn, ending in the battle of on earth is so dreaded? Various such questions
iffn and the arbitration agreement1. The tradition receive answers in a number of conflicting tradi-
is listed in Azq. but not with this isnd. The second tions. His being one-eyed gave rise to many details
half of the matn does not immediately follow the about the pellicle that grew out of his eye socket:
first half in some collections. Cf. no. 14719 below. whether the eye was protuberant or rather lying
In this book the figure of the Dajjl occurs on vari- deep in its socket, whether it still had the power of
ous occasions. For the following remarks, see I
j., sight, etc. It was furthermore compared with the pip
Fat, XVI, pp. 203 ff2. in a grape that had lost its juice. He had the word
The word dajjl means literally ‘he who cov- kfir (unbeliever) written on his forehead with the
ers’, to wit the truth, with worthless lies. His charac- three letters kf, f, and r, without an alif being
terization centres on a number of descriptions. Thus inserted. Everybody who had a mustard seed of
he is in the first place identified with Ibn ayyd, faith in his heart would flee from him. The Dajjl
also called Ibn id (cf. above no. 6932), if it is will sow confusion among the people on earth by
maintained that he enters upon the scene already being associated with two rivers, one filled with
during the lifetime of the Prophet. But this iden- water and the other with fire, the water blazing
tification is highly controversial and is not so clear- like fire, and the fire being cool like water. Anyone
cut, as the appurtenant traditions would seem to approaching the river of fire should close his eyes,
indicate. Other traditions depict a Dajjl who was bow his head and drink from it: it will turn out to
active much later in the course of the first/seventh be sweet. Thus the Dajjl causes natural phenom-
century. Many questions are asked in this connec- ena to appear as the opposite of what they really
tion, such as: where does he come from or what is are. His outward appearance is described with the
the cause of his coming onto the scene, how can he words
akhm faylamn, i.e. huge and bulky, his
be recognized3, what claims does he make (proph- head with its spiky hair looking like a tree with bran-
ethood, even divinity), what amazing, or indeed ches sticking out in all directions5.
wondrous, things will he do which bring him a large In Muslim eschatology it is generally assumed
following and when will he die and who will kill that, shortly before the Day of Resurrection, s
him? The wisdom underlying the non-occurrence b. Maryam will descend from heaven and kill the
of clear, unequivocal references to the Dajjl in the Dajjl. In connection with this we find the appel-
Qurn is neatly summarized by I
j., Fat, XVI, p. latives Mas al-hud, lit. the Messiah of right gui-
204, where all the other roundabout allusions are dance, for s, and Mas a-alla, lit. the Messiah
also reviewed4. Besides, I
j. surveys many legends of error, for the Dajjl, cf. ibidem, p. 204. Mas,
the Arabic equivalent of the Hebrew mshakh (=
Messiah), is interpreted in various ways: because
1. Cf. a paper by M. Hinds in JSS, XVII, 1972, pp. 93-
the Dajjl is one-eyed, one half of his face is created
129.
mams , lit. ‘wiped’, i.e. with neither eye nor brow,
2. See also a modern study by R. Tottoli in Hadith in
modern Islam = Oriente moderno, XXI (LXXXII), n.s.,
or because he ‘rubs’ the earth when he is released.
I, 2002, pp. 55-75. In it a survey is given of twentieth As for the word mas in connection with s, that
century political and social upheavals in the Middle East, is to be understood as his having come forth from
which are all mentioned in pamphlets and booklets in his mother’s womb anointed (mams ) with oil, or
connection with the immanent coming of the Dajjl and because Zakariyy (= Zachariah, the father of John
which are all allegedly presaged in some canonical and
post-canonical but nonetheless classical adths.
3. One Ibn Qa an, a man from the B. al-Mu aliq of the but it is said that he was obliquely referred to, or possibly
Khuza tribe is said to have resembled the Dajjl most by implication, in VI: 158, IV: 159 and XL: 57, cf. I
j.,
closely, cf. I
j., Fat, XVI, p. 213. He is also called Fat, XVI, p. 204.
Abd al-Uzz b. Qa an. Some said that he hailed from the 5. In Arabic: a mu ’l-jaththati kaanna rasahu aghnu
Jhiliyya, cf. I
j., Iba, V, p. 449. shajaratin yurdu anna shara rasihi kathrun mutafar-
4. He may not have been mentioned clearly in the Qurn, riqun qimun, cf. I
j., XVI, p. 216, lines 7 f.
ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM 35

the Baptist), anointed him. It is also said that he is know if the devil guides his hand with evil
called thus, because he only had to ‘stroke’ anyone intentions (nazagha). That may result in
afflicted with an ailment to cure him; or because he him falling into a pit in Hell”,
‘wiped’ or ‘rubbed’ the earth with his wanderings;
or because he had no hollow in the sole of his feet1; in a variant the verb is not nazagha but nazaa inter-
or because of the coarse woollen garments (mus ) preted by one commentator as:
he wore. Finally, cf. al-Wald b. Muslim under Mz., • “… for he does not know whether the devil
IX, no. 11711, Tamm ad-Dr under no. 18024,
might wrench it from his hand (thereby
Yay b. Sad al-Anr under no. 17936, Mlik b.
striking the other) …2”,
Anas under no. 13856, Isml b. Ab Khlid under
no. 11523, Awz under no. 14587,
ammd b. cf. Mz., X, no. 14710 (kh, 92/7, 2, m, IV, p. 2020,
Salama under no. 5046, and Hishm b. Urwa under confirmed in Azq., X, p. 160, I
., II, p. 317). Azq.
no. 15750, for other Dajjl traditions. is CL. The issue resulted in a MC with a few SS
For no. 14707, see Ab ’l-Yamn under no. and spider-supported versions, all amounting to
13574. the same directive, cf. Mz., X, nos. 14416, 14436,
With the same strand the Prophet’s words (para- 14583.
phrase): With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
• “The Ban Isrl were in the habit of get- • “God has said to me: ‘Spend, and I shall
ting undressed before they performed their spend on you.’ The right hand of God is
ablutions, freely looking at each other’s full, pouring with gifts3, nothing will ren-
nakedness. But Ms used to perform his der it deficient, night and day. Have you
ablutions on his own. The people said: ‘By seen how much He spent since He created
God, Ms must be suffering from scrotal heaven and earth? What is in His right
hernia since he never washes himself in hand will not diminish. His throne is on
public.’ One day he went aside for a while the water and in His other hand is death
to perform his ablutions. He laid his gar- (or: with His other hand He takes away),
ment on a stone. Suddenly the stone sped raising and lowering it”,
off with the garment, Ms racing after it
cf. Mz., X, no. 14711 (kh, 92/7, 3, m, II, p. 691, con-
shrieking: ‘Stone, (give me back) my cloak,
firmed in I
., II, p. 313, not found in Azq.). Azq.
stone, (give me back) my cloak!’ The out- is CL of the wording of this partly quds tradition.
come of all this was that after the Ban With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
Isrl had caught a glimpse of Ms’s gen-
italia, they said: ‘By God, there is really • “That you persist in your oath in connection
nothing the matter with him!’ When Ms with a relative God deems more sinful than
had caught up with the stone, he gave it a that you pay the atonement thereof which
mighty kick”, God prescribes (when you violate it)”,

cf. Mz., X, no. 14708 (kh, 5/20, m, IV, pp. 1841 cf. Mz., X, no. 14712 (kh, 83/1, 4, m, III, p. 1276,
f, confirmed in I
., II, p. 315). Azq. is CL of the
wording of this story but it could not be located in 2. This seems the only feasible, but still highly dubious
his Muannaf. It is already recorded in the early interpretation for nazaa in the present context, an inter-
tafsr of Muqtil, III, pp. 509 f. Ab Hurayra is said pretation suggested by Ibn at-Tn (cf. I
j., Fat, XVI, p.
132, line 12). All the other interpretations appear even
to have added that the stone bore six or seven scars
more unsatisfactory. The overall conclusion must be that
caused by Ms’s kicks, cf. Lane, s.v. nadab.
the commentators were not sure how to solve this prob-
For no. 14709, see Zuhr under no. 14212. lem. The little-known verb nazagha used in the tradition
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: initially met with incomprehension on the part of an early
transmitter who therefore thought at a certain point in
• “Nobody is to point with a weapon in the
time, in the course of the transmission, that nazagha had
direction of his brother, for he does not to be a mistake for nazaa, a solution which only further
complicates the interpretation. The german philologist
might call this a case of Verschlimmbesserung, a correc-
1. In Arabic it says: lianna rijlahu knat l akhma lah. tion which only results in making matters worse.
Is this a case of botched-up etymology? 3. This rendering was taken from Lane, s.v. sa.
36 ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM

confirmed in Azq., VIII, pp. 496 f, I


., II, p. 317). With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
Azq. is CL. The oath1 referred to concerns a hastily
or imprudently formulated one, for example, not • “A man bought a piece of land from
to have relations with a spouse or to speak to her, another man. In the earth he found a jar
when something hoped for does not happen2 or for containing gold. He said to the seller: ‘I
whatever reason of emphasis the oath was sworn in only bought a piece of land from you, not
the first place3. Violating an oath that entails dis- gold.’ Thereupon the seller said: ‘I sold
comfort or damage to a relative in any way is less you the land with everything in it.’ Thus
reprehensible than persisting with it for fear of vio- they argued before a man whose arbitrage
lating it. The usual atonement for breaking an oath
they sought. The arbiter said: ‘Do you both
was feeding ten paupers in the way one feeds one’s
have children?’ ‘Yes,’ said the one, ‘I have
family members, or providing them with clothes,
or giving a slave his freedom; he who did not pos- a son.’ And the other said: ‘Yes, I have a
sess the wherewithal thereto was to observe a fast daughter.’ The arbiter said: ‘Marry the girl
of three days, cf. Q. V: 89. off to the boy, spend the gold on them (v.l.
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: for yourselves) and give alms’”,
• “s b. Maryam saw a man steal some- cf. Mz., X, no. 14715 (kh, 60/54, 7, m, III, p. 1345,
thing. He said to him: ‘Did you steal?’ ‘No, confirmed in I
., II, p. 316). Azq. is CL, but the
not at all, by Him who is the only God!’, tradition could not be located in his Muannaf. The
the man said. Then s said: ‘I believe in jar is described in the commentaries as made from
God and I hold myself (v.l. my eye, my clay with two handles and a wide mouth.
For no. 14716, which is a diving spider conceiv-
eyes) to be lying’”
ably launched by I
. and after that copied by kh or
cf. Mz., X, no. 14713 (kh, 60/48, 8, m, IV, p. 1838, m (or vice versa), see Muammad b. Fuayl under
confirmed in I
., II, p. 314). Azq. is CL, but it no. 14897.
could not be located in the Muannaf. The com- With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
mentators exhausted themselves in formulating
feasible interpretations of this at first sight peculiar • “God’s ire is roused with people who have
tradition. Perhaps the man stretched out his hand struck His Prophet …”—and he pointed
at something whose rightful owner had given him at the (broken) tooth (next to his central
permission to take it, or perhaps it belonged to him incisor)—”and God’s ire is roused with
in the first place. Or perhaps he took it not with the the man whom the Messenger of God has
intention to keep it but to return it immediately. Or killed in the path of God”,
perhaps the man had obtained permission from the
owner to take it in his hand in order to inspect it. cf. Mz., X, no. 14717 (kh, 64/24, m, III, p. 1417).
Or perhaps s’s remark was meant to underline Azq. is CL of this wording, but it could not be
the truthfulness of the man who swore an oath by located in the Muannaf. That the Prophet sustained
Almighty God, whereas s’s remark was uttered various injuries in the course of the battle of Uud
in an everyday context, where recourse to divine is already amply documented in the earliest his-
approval or confirmation was not called for, etc. Cf. torical sources (e.g. Sra, III, p. 85). Thus his face
I
j., Fat, VII, pp. 299 f. was split open and bled, his tooth was broken, his
For no. 14714, see Sufyn b. Uyayna under no. cheek and lower lip were injured from the inside,
13679. his shoulder was bruised by sword blows of one
Ibn Qamia, and his knee was scratched. God’s ire
1. In Arabic yamn, which is also a word for right hand.
concerning the man who was killed by the Prophet
The etymology presented in I
j., Fat, XIV, pp. 320 f, was roused because he had initially set out to harm
is that people who swore an oath to one another used to or kill the Prophet.
take each other by the right hand. Another etymology of For no. 14718 (kh, 49/17/3, m, IV, p. 1765, I
2,
yamn boils down to identifying the right hand with hold- 316) on the ban of certain words in order to avoid
ing and keeping something safe, cf. ibidem. confusion with more sacred terms, see Isml b.
2. Circumscribed in Arabic: jb m laysa bi-wjib li- Jafar under no. 13986.
ud th amrin, cf. I
j., Fat, XIV, p. 320. With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
3. In Arabic: tawkd ash-shay bi-dhikri ‘smin aw ifatin
li’llhi, cf. ibidem.
ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM 37

• “The Hour of Resurrection will not arrive nos. 14724-95 could not be located in the Muannaf
until some thirty mendacious Dajjls will but a certain percentage is found in it; where that is
the case the authorship of the traditions thus sup-
have come to the fore. Each of them will
ported can be credited to Azq. himself. The rest is
claim that he is the messenger of God”, either the handiwork of I
., often copied by kh or m
cf. Mz., X, no. 14719 (kh, 61/25, 35, m, IV, p. 2240, or both. It may have become clear from the analysis
t, IV, p. 498, confirmed in I
., II, p. 313). Azq. may of the nos. 14694 onwards carried out above which
not be responsible for this wording, inasmuch as he collectors among the Six most benefited, and subse-
may have copied Mlik b. Anas who is mentioned quently made most frequent use of, this seemingly
in a strand supporting the same text but which is not unassailable isnd strand. It will also have become
found in the Muwaa. Curiously, it is not listed in apparent that, although the original authorship of
the Muannaf either, but cf. m, IV, p. 2240, lines 1 this strand may on good grounds be attributed to
ff. See further no. 14706 above. Azq., the other younger collectors, viz. I
, kh and
m, recognized it, and hence used it to the full, as
With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
a convenient strand with which they could support
• “From any village on which you march a number of their own diving shawhid. Although
and where you take up residence you will he was by far the most frequently paraded alleged
acquire your share, but from any village link with Mamar / Hammm etc., Azq. was not the
that rebels against God and His Messenger only prop for those younger collectors to establish
a link with this strand. Thus kh was especially fond
the fifth part of the spoils will be granted to
of Ibn al-Mubrak, instead of Azq, to bridge the
God and His Messenger and what remains
transmission path to Mamar. Opposite two m / Ibn
will be yours”, al-Mubrak-supported traditions, three t / Ibn al-
cf. Mz., X, no. 14720 (m, III, p. 1376, d, Awn al- Mubrak ones and three s / Ibn al-Mubrak ones, kh
mab d, VIII, p. 198, confirmed in I
., II, p. 317). used Ibn al-Mubrak no less than fourteen times.
Azq. is CL but the tradition is not listed in his In sum, with the help of Mz. it has been an easy
Muannaf. The first part pertains to a village which matter to sustain the overall conclusion that the
does not resist the Muslim conquerors or whose afat Hammm as presented here has an isnd
inhabitants have concluded a peace treaty (ul) or strand devised by Azq. He used it to support partly
have been sent into exile, the second part pertains brand-new, partly already existing matns. The
to a village which is taken by force (anwatan). For strand was then taken over by I
. and after him by
kh and/or m, each of whom added a number of tra-
more on the ul / anwa question, see e.g. a paper
ditions of their own to the corpus, most of which
by A. Noth in WI, N.S., XIV, 1973, pp. 150-62.
would have fitted eminently in Azq.’s Muannaf.
With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
This concludes our special study of the so-called
• “When you get up in the night for a night afat Hammm.
alt and your recitation is impeded (sc. by With a strand on the authority of Mamar—
reason of drowsiness), you must lie down Zuhr—Ab Salama—Ab Hurayra, who related
again”, the Prophet’s words:

cf. Mz., X, no. 14721 (m, I, p. 543, d, confirmed in • “He who takes a dog, except one which
Azq., II, pp. 499 f, I
., II, p. 318). Azq. is CL. protects livestock or one that is used for
For no. 14722, a prohibition to urinate in stag- hunting or one that guards sowing fields,
nant water, see Layth b. Sad under no. 2911. forfeits every day one measure of his
For no. 14723, on the merit of the alt al- (divine) reward”. Zuhr added that when
jama, see Amash under no. 12502. Ibn Umar was told what Ab Hurayra
As from no. 14724 the traditions listed in Mz. had transmitted, he said: ‘May God have
supported by the Azq. / Mamar / Hammm / Ab mercy on Ab Hurayra, he was the owner
Hurayra strand only occur in one of the Six: nos. of a sowing field’”,
14724-14737 only in kh, the next fifty-four tradi-
tions only in m, followed by three only in d, and one cf. Mz., XI, no. 15271 (m, III, p. 1203, d, t, s, con-
only in t. In conformity with the approach adopted firmed in Azq., X, p. 432, I
., II, p. 267). Azq.
in general in this book with SSs, they will not be is the convincing CL of this version, which is part
dealt with here individually. The majority of the of the large MC on dogs. This matn constitutes a
38 ABD AR-RAZZQ B. HAMMM

toning down of the overall ban on dogs, which, address the congregation and tell them, to
according to another tradition, had to be killed by which they agreed. (Follows an account of
order of the Prophet. For that tradition and other his sermon)”,
CLs involved in it, as well as the statement alleg-
edly added by Zuhr, see Shuba under no. 9665. cf. Mz., XII, no. 16636 (d, Awn al-mab d, XII,
For what the measure of the divine reward entails, p. 172, s, VIII, p. 35, q, confirmed in Azq., IX,
see Mlik under no. 4476*. pp. 462 f, I
., VI, p. 232). Rather than his alleged
With a strand on the authority of Mamar— authority, Mamar, who is no more than a SCL,
Zuhr—Al b. al-
usayn—afiyya bt.
uyayy: Azq. is the CL of this bundle. In a variant of this
report, also recorded in Azq. (IX, p. 463), the man
• “While the Prophet was spending a period with the head wound is identified as Mlik or al-
of retreat (itikf1), I came one night to visit
rith b. al-Bar, who allegedly had kept back
him. I talked to him, then I got up to go and for his own use some of the spoils resulting from
he stood up also to accompany me (to my the battle of
unayn. In I
j.’s Iba (I, p. 596)
home) … Two men from the Anr passed his name is given as al-
rith b. Mlik al-Layth,
by and when they saw the Prophet, they known as the son of al-Bar, the name of his
hurried towards him. But he said: ‘Not so mother or grandmother. In yet another variant he
quickly, this woman is afiyya bt.
uyayy is called Ab Jundab or Jundab b. al-Bar (Azq.,
…, (beware), the devil runs in the blood- IX, p. 464). All these variants seem to point to an
stream of man’”, ancient event which may have become garbled in
transmission. Ab Jahm, the irascible tax collector,
cf. Mz., XI, no. 15901 (kh, 78/121, 2 and 59/11, 14, is described in various akhbr in IS, VIII, pp. 200 f,
m, IV, pp. 1712 f, d, s, confirmed in Azq., IV, p. as someone who was accustomed to beat his wife.
360, I
., VI, p. 237). Zuhr and Mamar are SCLs It is conceivable that this reputation earned him an
in this bundle, but it also shows up two men who active role in this probably invented khabar. He is
could conceivably be its CL, Ab ’l-Yamn and furthermore mentioned as belonging to the class
Azq., the one probably having copied the other of muammar n, those who were recorded as hav-
while undercutting him by a dive. The message of ing reached particularly advanced ages at death: in
this tradition is that a stranger should not approach I
j, Iba, VII, p. 71, we read that he witnessed
too closely someone escorting a woman, lest a dev- the erection of the Kaba twice, the first time when
ilish prompting should rouse in him an untoward Quraysh built it on the indications of Muammad’s
desire for that woman. great-great-great-grandfather Quayy and the sec-
For Azq.’s role in Mz., XII, no. 16635, a tradi- ond time by order of Abd Allh b. az-Zubayr just
tion on the Prophet’s temporary abstinence of sex- before he was overthrown by
ajjj.
ual intercourse, see Zuhr under no. 17767.
With a strand on the authority of Mamar— Abd al-Wid b. Sulaym, an obscure figure who,
Zuhr—Urwa—isha:
if he is historical, must have lived in the middle of
• “The Prophet dispatched Ab Jahm b. the second/eighth century. He is generally associ-

udhayfa to collect the alms tax. A cer- ated with one well-known tradition on qadar, the
tain man started a heated discussion about divine decree; it is considered weak and it has a
his share, then Ab Jahm hit him (on the family isnd via Ubda b. a-mit and his son
al-Wald going back to the Prophet, who allegedly
head) drawing blood. (His people) went to
said (after a preamble):
the Prophet and demanded retaliation. The
Prophet made a proposition (sc. an offer of • “The first thing God created was the pen,
blood-money), but they were not satisfied. to which He said: ‘Write’ ‘What shall I
Then he made them another proposition, write?’, the pen asked. ‘Write down the
after which they gave him their consent. qadar (= how everything has been deter-
The Prophet suggested that he would mined),’ God replied, ‘what was and what
will be until the end of time’”,

1. For further details on this highly recommended, pi-


cf. Mz., IV, no. 5119 (t, V, p. 424, confirmed in
ous practice, see EI 2, s.v. (Bousquet) and p. 658 in the ay., no. 577, Bagh., II, pp. 517 f, abar, Annales,
lemma masdjid in vol. VI (Pedersen). I, p. 30, Tafsr, XXIX, p. 16; diving SSs not con-
ABD AL-W
ID B. SULAYM 39

verging in Abd al-Wid are listed in IASh., XIV, cf. Mz., I, no. 1034 (kh, 76/38, Fat, XII, p. 315, d,
p.114, I
., V, p. 317, d, Awn al-mab d, IV, pp. t, s, confirmed in I
., III, p. 151, Ab Yal, VII, p.
305 f). With its isnd strands forming into no more 20). In Arabic this charm is partly in rhyme. With
than a spider, this crucial tradition would not have two PCLs, Abd al-Writh is (S)CL and he is also
found mention in this book, if it had not been for (S)CL in a related tradition, see below no. 4363. Cf.
the fact that in various tarjamas devoted to Abd Manr b. al-Mutamir under no. 17603 for a simi-
al-Wid in the rijl literature this one tradition is lar tradition. For the stance adopted by Islam in the
quoted as a prime example of his forgeries. Infor- use of charm formulae, see I
j., Fat, XII, p. 304.
mation of this sort coming from medieval tradition Religious scholars agree that uttering charms
scholars may not be dismissed as immaterial, cf. is permissible when three conditions are fulfilled:
Mz., Tahdhb, XVIII, pp. 455 ff, Dhahab, Mzn, they should contain God’s name and/or references
II, pp. 673 f, and I
j., Tahdhb, VI, pp. 435 f. The to His qualities (ift), they should be worded in
tradition, which is really a quds because it contains intelligible Arabic, and they should be conceived of
a sample of God’s own words, is not registered in as not exerting any influence of their own, but rather
Graham’s monograph. as emanating exclusively from God’s essence. The
For another qadar tradition associated with Abd use of charms prescribes that they should in no way
al-Wid b. Sulaym, cf. Uqayl, III, pp. 53 f: contain formulae implying the merest hint of shirk,
polytheism. Charms whose meanings were not
• “… if people want to harm you (the person
fully understood were nonetheless allowed, as long
addressed is Ibn Abbs) with something as their usefulness had been established in prac-
not decreed by God, they will not succeed tice. Charms were generally found effective and
…”, This tradition is also found in Mz., were especially uttered against the evil eye (ayn),
IV, no. 5415 (t, IV, p. 667, and I
., I, pp. a scorpion’s sting (umma), pustules (namla), and
293, 303, 307), but its supporting strands, rhinorrhea (nasal catarrh = dhunn). For this, see
which make no mention of Abd al-Wid I
j., Fat, XII, pp. 304 f. For a less lenient tradition
b. Sulaym, do not allow any conclusion on the use of charms, see Sufyn b. Uyayna under
other than that the saying probably origi- no. 11898. For an official ‘concession’ in the ques-
nated in Egypt and dates back to the lat- tion of using charms, see a spider-supported tradi-
ter half of the second/eighth century. I
j., tion in Mz., I, no. 1709.
Tahdhb, VIII, p. 390, identifies it with one For his (S)CL position in Mz., I, no. 1035, a tra-
dition on falling asleep while waiting for a alt to
Qays b. al-
ajjj, but he is no more than
be performed, see Shuba under no. 1023.
the SCL and in any case too early.
For his (S)CL position in Mz., I, no. 1036, a
Abd al-Writh b. Sad (d. 180/796), a mawl tradition on people whose children die young, see
from Bara, who was censored for his stance in the Mlik under no. 13234*.
qadar controversy. Nevertheless, the rijl works For his (S)CL position in Mz., I, no. 1037, a
state that his traditions occur in all the Six Books. tradition forbidding people to long for their own
For his (S)CL position in Mz., I, no. 1033, a tra- death, see Shuba under no. 441.
dition on the performance of the alt for those who He is (S)CL in a bundle (cf. Mz., I, no. 1691)
lack the strength, see Ibn Ulayya under no. 995. supporting a khabar on the building of the first
With a strand on the authority of Abd al-Azz mosque in Medina, which seems to have been
b. uhayb: modelled on a short tradition for which his Baran
fellow-traditionist Shuba may be held responsible,
• “Together with Thbit al-Bunn I entered see there under no. 1693.
the quarters of Anas b. Mlik and, address- With a strand on the authority of Abd al-Azz
ing Anas, Thbit said: ‘Ab ’l-
amza, I b. uhayb—Ab Nara al-Mundhir b. Mlik—Ab
feel unwell.’ Anas said: ‘Shall I utter the Sad al-Khudr:
charm which the Messenger of God used?’
‘By all means,’ Thbit said. Then Anas • “Jibrl paid the Prophet a visit and asked:
intoned: ‘God, Lord of man, remove the ‘Muammad, do you feel unwell?’ ‘Yes,’
harm and heal, You are the healer, there the Prophet said. Then Jibrl said: ‘In the
is no healer but You, a cure that will not name of God I shall utter a charm against
abandon the sick’”, anything that vexes you, against the harm
of anyone, or the evil eye of the envious,
40 ABD AL-WRITH B. SAD

God will cure you. In the name of God I asked: ‘Mudh, do you know what rights
shall utter a charm’”, God has vis-à-vis His subjects and what
rights His subjects have vis-à-vis Him?’
cf. Mz., III, no. 4363 (m, IV, pp. 1718 f, t, s, q, con-
firmed in I
., III, pp. 28, 56, Ab Yal, II, 327). ‘No, Messenger of God, you know that
Abd al-Writh is the clear CL. For a similar tradi- better than anyone,’ I said. Hereupon the
tion of his and some remarks on charms, see above Prophet said: ‘God’s right vis-à-vis his
no. 1034. subjects is that they worship Him and that
With a strand on the authority of Ayyb b. Ab they attribute no copartners to Him. And
Tamma as-Sakhtiyn—Nfi—Ibn Umar, who the right the subjects have vis-à-vis God
related the Prophet’s words: is that He does not punish anyone who
• “He who swears an oath adding ‘God will- does not attribute partners to Him.’ I said:
ing’, has observed the proper procedure”, ‘Messenger of God, should I not give this
happy tiding to the people?’ ‘No,’ he said,
cf. Mz., VI, no. 7517 (d, Awn al-mab d, IX, p. ‘do not tell them lest they become overcon-
63, t, s, q, confirmed in
um., no. 690, I
., II, pp. fident’”,
10, 153). This bundle shows up two key figures,
Abd al-Writh and Sufyn b. Uyayna. It is impos- cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11351 (kh, 56/46, 3, Fat, VI, pp.
sible to make out who copied whom. Attributing it 399 f, d, Awn al-mab d, VII, p. 163, t, s3). Ab
to Ayyb, who is an artificial CL in the bundles in ’l-Awa is CL. The tradition appeared popular:
which he occurs, is not called for. several versions of it, decked out with an array of
topical trimmings, were brought into circulation
Ab ’l-Awa Sallm b. Sulaym, a mawl from supported by SSs and spiders with various key fig-
Kfa who is said to have died in 179/795. He was ures, none of which inspires, however, remotely
a ib sunna wa ‘ttib, an early member of the as much confidence as the one above4. kh lists the
orthodox party. He used to order his son to eject tradition not in a theological context, as one might
any muaddith from his home who was heard to have expected, but in a bb on animals that are
curse anyone of the companions, an oblique refer- given names by their masters.
ence to anyone who did not subscribe to the doc- The donkey Ufayr, a present sent to Medina
trine of the legitimacy of the caliphate of the first by the muqawqis, the ruler of Alexandria, is occa-
three (or four) khulaf rshid n1. He is said to have sionally erroneously confused with another don-
transmitted four thousand traditions, but that must key of the Prophet, an animal called Yafr (of the
be apocryphal for it appears not to be borne out in same root as Ufayr) presented to him by a wealthy
the sources. Anr, Farwa b. Amr. Another source has it that
With a strand on the authority of Simk b. Yafr was allocated to the Prophet from the booty

arb—Jbir b. Samura: amassed at the conquest of the Jewish settlement


of Khaybar. In respect of this animal Yafr a story
• “More than once, even more than twice, became known which survived in various versions,
I performed with the Prophet the alt
on the festival days without the two for-
mal announcements, the adhn and the ‘curtailed diminutive’ (taghr tarkhm) of the adjective
iqma”, afar, i.e. dust-coloured. Normally its diminutive would
have been uayfir, in the same way as we find suwayd
cf. Mz., II, no. 2166 (m, II, p. 604, d, t, confirmed and usaywid, blackie. For this phenomenon, see Wright,
in IASh., II, p. 168, I
., V, p. 91, Ibn
ibbn, IV, I, p. 174, D, and Lisn al-arab, s.v. FR. Diminutives
p. 208). Ab ’l-Awa is (S)CL. serving as terms of endearment in animal names can also
With a strand on the authority of Ab Isq as- occasionally be observed in European languages: in Ger-
man we find ‘Grauchen’ and in Dutch ‘grauwtje’ for a
Sab—Amr b. Maymn—Mudh b. Jabal (para-
favourite ass.
phrase):
3. I
j., Fat, VI, p. 399, suggests that s mistook Ab
• “When I was riding behind the Prophet on ’l-Awa for someone else with the same kunya, Ab
’l-Awa Ammr b. Zurayq, a mistake not noticed by
his donkey Ufayr2, he addressed me and
anyone including Mz., as I
j. asserts.
4. Cf. Mz., VIII, nos. 11306 (kh, m, key figure: Bundr),
1. Cf. our lemma sunna in EI 2. 11308 (kh, m, s, key figure: Hammm b. Yay), 11346
2. This name has the pattern of a so-called ‘softened’ or (q, SS).
AB ‘L-A
WA SALLM B. SULAYM 41

probably because of its popular appeal. The fol-


arb—Alqama b. Wil—his father Wil b.
ujr:
lowing reconstruction of the story is distilled from
some very similar, but on the whole defectively • “A man from
aramawt and one from
transmitted, versions: I
j., Fat, VI, pp. 399 f; Kinda came to the Prophet. Pointing to the
idem, Lisn al-mzn, V, pp. 376 f1; Ibn
ibbn, other the
aram said: ‘This man here
Kitb al-majr n mina ’l-muaddithn, ed. Azz has taken possession of a piece of land that
Bey, Hyderabad 1970, II, pp. 302 f. belonged to me and to my father before
In one version it was the Prophet who asked the me.’ Then the man from Kinda said: ‘No,
donkey: ‘What is your name?’ ‘Yazd b. Shihb’, this land is mine, I cultivate it and he there
the donkey is said to have answered. Thereupon the has no right to it.’ The Prophet asked the
Prophet said: ‘But I shall call you Yafr2.’ When it
aram: ‘Have you got proof (for your
was offered a she-ass, it declined. In another ver- claim)?’ ‘No,’ the man said. ‘Then you
sion it was the donkey that began the conversation,
(may substantiate your claim by having)
telling the Prophet that it was once owned by a Jew.
the Kind swear an oath,’ the Prophet went
Since it made a habit of stumbling on purpose, so
that its master fell off, it was refused food and it on, but the
aram said: ‘Messenger of
was regularly given the stick. As the last surviving God, the man is a scoundrel, he does not
donkey of his grandfather’s sixty offspring, which care about any oath imposed upon him,
had all been used in the past by prophets as rid- he is in no way God-fearing.’ Then the
ing animals3, it was now prepared to serve him, the Prophet said: ‘You have no other way (to
Prophet of Islam, the seal of the prophets. Muam- obtain your due) than by having him swear
mad used to ride it, and when he was in need of an oath.’ The Kind left to swear that oath
supplies, he used to release it and send it away to and when he had gone, the Prophet mused:
the shop of a merchant on whose door it would ‘If he swears a false oath that he is the
knock with its head. In a variant: ‘… and when the rightful owner of a possession in order to
owner of the store came outside, the donkey would
benefit from it unjustly, he will certainly
give him a token with its head that he was to love
see how God turns away from him’”,
the Messenger of God: ‘Aibba ras la ’llh!’ In a
variant we read here: ‘Ajib ras la ’llh!, respond cf. Mz., IX, no. 11768 (m, I, pp. 123 f, d, Awn al-
to the Messenger of God!’ When the Prophet died, mab d, IX, pp. 51 f, t, s). Ab ’l-Awa is (S)CL.
the donkey went to the well of Ab ’l-Haytham b. He is flanked by various SSs among which there is
at-Tayyihn and threw itself down therein out of one with a ‘Wsi connection’.
grief, and thus that well became its grave. But, as He is SCL in a bundle which supports a version
all versions assert, there was no truth in the story of from a well-known composite on honouring guests
course and its isnd strand was no good anyhow. and neighbours, cf. Mz., IX, no. 12843, for which
In I
j., Lisn, ibidem, Ibn al-Jawz is quoted as see Mlik under no. 12056*.
saying laana ’llhu w
iahu!, i.e. may God curse
the fabricator of this tradition! For a very detailed Ab ’l-liya Rufay b. Mihrn ar-Riy, a
study of the asses and mules which are associated Baran successor, faqh and Qurn expert, and
with the Prophet, see H. Eisenstein’s paper in Der mawl of the Ban Riy, a branch of the Tamm
Islam, LXII, 1985, pp. 98-107. tribe (cf. Dhahab, Tadhkira, I, p. 61). He was
With a strand on the authority of Simk b. manumitted sibatan (for this term cf. Lane, and
abar, Tafsr, ed. Shkir, III, p. 386). He is said to
1. A certain Muammad b. Mazyad in whose tarjama have been born in the Jhiliyya, but this seems apoc-
the story found a place in I
j., Lisn, and Ibn
ibbn is ryphal; it is in any case contradicted by his state-
called Muammad b. Marthad in I
j.’s Fat. This per- ment that he was a young man (shbb4) at the time
mits the conclusion that the manuscript or earlier edition of the conflict between Al and Muwiya, i.e. the
on which the Mu af Bb al-
alab edition of the Fat early 40-s/660-s (cf. Ibn Sad, VII, p. 82, 18, ilya,
(used in this book) is based is at fault. II, p. 219). So he is probably not one of the muam-
2. This is the word for a young gazelle, but it also indi- mar n; in any case he is not listed among them in
cates a fleet-footed ass.
3. Ji ( ayawn, VII, p. 204) enumerates s b. Mar-
yam, Uzayr (= Ezra) and Balam (= Bilam b. Beor, cf. 4. The words shbb and fat are used indicating the same
Numbers, XXII) as examples of prophets who made their young person in Ibn al-Mubrak’s tarjama in TB, X, p.
way on donkeys. 159.
42 AB ‘L-LIYA RUFAY B. MIHRN AR-RIY


Dhahab’s Ahl al-mia fa-id. The year he is said Ab ’l-liya, who had the nisba ar-Riy, ‘mere
to have died is variously given as 90/709 or 93/712, wind’ (riy, cf. Dhahab, Mzn, II, p. 54). But
but also 106/724 and 111/729 are mentioned. It is most interesting of all is that it is this very tradi-
reported that he embraced Islam a few years after tion which prompted Abd ar-Ramn b. Mahd (d.
Muammad’s death, and that he acquired a repu- 198/814) in his description of it to use a derivative
tation as knowledgeable. He occurs fairly often of the verb dra / yad ru: this tradition ‘rotates’ on
in isnds and the traditions he is recorded to have Ab ’l-liya (cf. Ibn Ad3, III, p. 170, Draqu n,
transmitted are labelled mustaqm, i.e. upright, or I, p. 166, 2), the earliest context found so far in
li, i.e. ‘pious’1. which the word seems to be used in a adth-techni-
Ab ’l-liya is, however, particularly well cal connotation. Ibn Ad then analyses all its occur-
known for one tradition which is generally held to rences introducing on several occasions the word
be questionable in contradistinction to all the other madr, apparently employing it as a technical term.
ones with which he is associated. This tradition is a Since this is the earliest recorded transmission for
mursal and does not occur in the canonical collec- which a Muslim tradition expert uses a term, which
tions, but it is listed in Ab Dwd’s Marsl. Ab is in all likelihood to be put on a par with our term
’l-liya once related (paraphrase encompassing (seeming) common link, Ibn Ad’s concluding
its numerous variant wordings, forming together a remark deserves to be given in extenso:
large MC): Wa-li-Ab ’l-liyati ‘r-Riy adthu lia-
tun ghayra m dhakartu wa-aktharu m nuqima
• “A man with poor eyesight entered the alayhi min hdh ’l-adthi adthu ‘
-
aiki f
mosque at a time when the Messenger of ‘-alti wa-kulli man rawhu ghayrahu fa-innam
God was performing a alt with his com- madruhum wa-ruj uhum il Ab ’l-liyati wa’l-
panions. The man fell into a hole in the adthu lahu wa-bihi yurafu wa-min ajli hdh
ground, whereupon several companions ’l-adthi takallam f Ab ’l-liyati wa-siru
burst out laughing. After the Prophet had adthihi mustaqmatun liatun, i.e. ‘Ab ’l-
finished his alt, he ordered those who liya is associated with ‘pious’ traditions other
had laughed to repeat the alt preceded than the ones I mentioned but of all these traditions
he is censored most for the tradition dealing with
by a proper wu
 ”,
laughter during the alt; all those who transmitted
cf. Mz., XIII, no. 18642 (d, Marsl, p. 75, con- it also are likewise censored, but their ‘pivot’
firmed in IASh., I, p. 388, Azq., II, pp. 376 f, and (madruhum) and their authority (ruj uhum) is Ab
especially Draqu n, I, pp. 162-71, who lists a long ’l-liya; the tradition is his, it is known through
series of several dozens of variants supported by him and because of this tradition experts have criti-
as many PCLs as well as numerous attempts at cized (takallam f) Ab ’l-liya, whereas all other
the hands of later transmitters to provide the matn traditions he transmitted are straightforward and
with marf  strands). Ab ’l-liya’s mursal tra- ‘pious’ (III, p. 170, 19-22). That the
aik tradition
dition became controversial because some of his remained nonetheless of vital importance, also in
contemporaries, Jbir2, Shab, Zuhr, al-Qsim later years, may be proved by a remark Awz is
b. Muammad (Azq., ibidem) did not stipulate alleged to have made. Not knowing what to think,
as compensation for laughter during the alt the he once asked the jurist Thawr, who was at the
repeat of the wu
, but only the alt itself.
asan time sharing a house with him in Mecca, what the
al-Bar is also occasionally mentioned in con- final verdict was on laughter in the alt. ‘It neces-
nection with this mursal but many adth experts sitates a repeat of the alt as well as of a preceding
agree that he had it from Ab ’l-liya. The most wu
,’ Thawr is said to have answered, cf. TB, IX,
extensive analysis of its uruq is found in Ibn Ad3, p. 162, 18 ff.
III, pp. 166-70. The tradition also figures in the
early discussion on whether or not mursal tradi- Ab ’l-Ashhab Jafar b.
ayyn, an Arab tradi-
tions can be adduced as arguments, cf. Ibn Rajab, tionist of Bara who is said to have died in 165/782.
pp. 238 f. With a pun on his nisba Shfi is even He seems to have been confused at times (cf. no.
recorded at this point as having called the adth of 9895 below) with one Jafar b. al-
rith from Wsi
with whom he also shared his kunya Ab ’l-Ash-
hab. In Dhahab, Siyar, VII, pp. 286 f, amazement
1. For a study of the term li, cf. our lemma in EI 2. is expressed that he apparently never transmitted
2. Cf. I
j., Fat, I, p. 291, line 3. adths from Anas, although he was allegedly born
AB ‘L-ASHHAB JAFAR B.
AYYN 43

more than twenty years before Anas’ demise and God who is vested with guarding the peo-
had his domicile in the same city! Thus we read here ple through good counsel (and who does
for once an otherwise rarely voiced wonderment not fulfil this duty properly) will smell the
at the non-occurrence of adth contacts between aroma of Paradise’”,
transmitters living in Bara whose lifetimes showed
sufficient overlap with Anas’ to enable them to hear cf. Mz., no. 11466 (kh, 93/8, m, I, p. 125, confirmed
traditions with him. The most striking ‘non-occur- in ay., no. 924, Bagh., II, p. 440, Drim, II, p.
rences’ of this sort pertains, of course, to
asan 417, Bay., IX, p. 41). Ab ’l-Ashhab is (S)CL.
al-Bar’s and Ibn Srn’s supposed contacts with
Anas which never resulted in anything remotely Ab Awna al-Wa  b. Abd Allh (d.
reminiscent of bundles with these famous mawl 176/792), a mawl of Yazd b. A  from Wsi .
as (S)CLs, or even SCLs. A thorough scrutiny of Later in life he moved to Bara. Once asked who
those Anas spiders and SSs in Mz., I, nos. 523-43 his father was, Ab Awna answered that he was
and 1453-71, leads to that inevitable conclusion1. the son of nobody (cf. TB, XIII, p. 464, -4), hence
With a strand on the authority of Abd ar- the, in those days, near-automatic insert of a ficti-
Ramn b. arafa: tious Abd Allh figure as his father. He had been
captured when Jurjn was conquered. An amusing
• “His grandfather Arfaja b. Asad at- anecdote has it that his patron, Yazd b. A , once
Tamm had his nose cut off on the Day of offered him the choice between acquiring his free-
al-Kulb, thus he fashioned one for him- dom and becoming a clerk who was to write down
self made of silver but that started to fester. adth. Ab Awna chose the latter option. Never-
Then the Prophet ordered him to fashion a theless his patron entrusted him with his trade in
nose made of gold”, garments made of the fabric called bazz. One day a
beggar came to Ab Awna and asked him for two
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9895 (d, Awn al-mab d, XI, p. dirham in exchange for a ‘good turn’. ‘What ‘good
197, t, s, confirmed in I
., IV, p. 342, V, p. 23##, turn’ do you mean?’, asked Ab Awna. ‘You
Bagh., II, p. 440, Ab Yal, III, pp. 69 ff). Ab will see,’ the beggar said. Having pocketed his
’l-Ashhab is (S)CL. The tradition ties in with the two dirham, the beggar then went by all the major
question of whether or not, under certain excep- citizens of Bara and told them to assemble at the
tional circumstances, the use of gold was permis- place of Yazd b. A  in order to congratulate him
sible also for men. Thus men were enabled to plate on the occasion of Ab Awna’s manumission.
their teeth with gold, if that seemed to be called for. Thereupon, loth to own up that he had not manu-
Inadvertently, I
j. (Tahdhb, II, p. 88, -3) listed mitted anyone, Yazd in fact gave Ab Awna his
Abd ar-Ramn b. arafa among the spokesmen of freedom, cf. Mz., Tahdhb, XXX, pp. 447 f.
Ab ’l-Ashhab’s namesake, Ab ’l- Ashhab Jafar It appears that Ab Awna often is key figure
b. al-
rith al-Wsi . The Day of al-Kulb is the in spiders superimposed upon bundles in which
name of two pre-Islamic battles. It is impossible Shuba is the CL2. Next to these spiders, one also
to say which of the two is meant here, cf. Yqt, finds superimposed SSs featuring him. Ab Awna
Buldn, IV, pp. 293 ff, and C.J. Lyall in festschrift is often found in strands with Wsi  transmitters, a
Nöldeke, 1906, I, pp. 127-54. phenomenon which is called in this book the ‘Wsi
With a strand on the authority of
asan al- connection’3. I
. seems to have been keen to intro-
Bar: duce these, often imitated by kh and perhaps others.
• “Ubayd Allh b. Ziyd went to visit Maqil In this manner Ab Awna SSs developed into spi-
ders, some of which may eventually deserve to be
b. Yasr when he was stricken by the dis-
called bundles with Ab Awna as CL. No. 5447
ease which eventually killed him. Maqil
from Shuba’s tarjama is a case in point.
said: ‘I’ll relate to you a tradition which With a strand on the authority of Qatda—Anas,
I heard from the Prophet; if I had known who transmitted the Prophet’s words:
that I would live (for some more time), I
would not have related it to you. I heard
the Messenger of God say: ‘No servant of
2. Cf. I
j., Tahdhb, XI, p. 119.
3. One typical example of a ‘Wsi connection’ SS and
1. For an analysis of Anas isnds, see Muséon (II), pp. featuring another such ‘connection’, the fictitious Bayn
206-11. b. Bishr, is listed in kh, Fat, VIII, pp. 148 ff.
44 AB AWNA AL-WA 
B. ABD ALLH

• “He who plants and sows crops whereby we believe in it: we will not attribute to our
(he allows) birds, people, and animals (to) Lord any partner.’ Thus God sent down
eat from them, will have practised char- upon His Prophet Muammad (LXXII:
ity”, 1): ‘Say, it was revealed to me that certain
jinns listened (to Qurnic recitation)’”,
cf. Mz., I, no. 1431 (kh, 78/27, 5, m, III, p. 1189,
s, confirmed in ay., no. 1998, I
., III, pp. 228, cf. Mz., IV, no. 5452 (kh, 10/105, m, I, pp. 331, t, s,
243, Ab Yal, V, p. 238). Ab Awna is (S)CL. confirmed in I
., I, p. 252, abar, Tafsr, XXIX,
On the one hand the tradition favours agriculture as p. 102, Ab Yal, IV, pp. 255 f). Ab Awna is
against those who tend to reproach agriculturalists (S)CL. The shay ns mentioned are to be identi-
for not giving enough of their time to the religion fied with jinn. The episode described is assumed to
or to the defence of the Islamic lands against their have taken place some two years before the Hijra
enemies. And, on the other hand, it draws the believ- on the Prophet’s return journey from if. Seeing
ers’ attention to the plight of birds and animals that the shower of shooting stars, the people on earth
would perish if they were prevented from foraging feared for the well-being of the heavenly creatures;
in cultivated fields. Cf. I
j., Fat, V, pp. 400 f, and the inhabitants of if were said to be terrified to
XIII, pp. 44 ff. For a tradition describing how a dog the point that they let their camels and slaves go
which was dying of thirst was given water by some- free, cf. I
., Fat, X, pp. 296 ff. The falling star
one who was subsequently recommended for his episode is also referred to in Ibn Isq, Sra, I, p.
compassion, see Mlik b. Anas under no. 12574. 219, II, p. 63; a man from Thaqf, Amr b. Umayya
With a strand on the authority of Ab Bishr b. Wahb, is reported to have been consulted on the
Jafar b. Iys—Sad b. Jubayr—Ibn Abbs: phenomenon, cf. IS, I 1, p. 107.
• “The Prophet had not recited (the Qurn) With a strand on the authority of Bukayr b. al-
to the jinns, nor had he seen them. (One Akhnas—Mujhid—Ibn Abbs:
day) he left with a group of companions for • “Through the mouth of your Prophet God
the fair of Uk . (In the meantime) certain determined (the number of rakas of) the
shay ns had been barred from heaven1 and alt performed when one is at home3 at
had (a shower of) falling stars sent down four, when one is on a journey at two and
upon them. They returned to their ilk who in case of danger at one”,
said: ‘What is the matter with you?’ ‘We
have been barred from heaven and we cf. Mz., V, no. 6380 (m, I, p. 479, d, s, q, confirmed
in IASh., II, p. 464, I
., I, pp. 254, 355). Ab
were showered with falling stars.’ The oth-
Awna is the believable CL. For more on the alt
ers said: ‘Something must have happened
in case of danger, the so-called alt al-khawf, see
then, so run all over the eastern and west-
Yay b. Sad al-Anr under no. 4645.
ern regions of the earth and see what it is With a strand on the authority of Ab Bishr Jafar
that might have barred you from heaven.’ b. Iys—Ysuf b. Mhik—Abd Allh b. Amr:
Thus they did. Some of them had taken the
direction of Tihma, via Nakhla2, a local- • “On a certain journey the Prophet had fallen
ity in the direction of the Uk fair, where behind somewhat and when he caught
at that moment the Prophet with his com- up with us, the time for the ar alt had
panions was performing the early morning come. (While performing the wu
) we
alt. There they heard Qurn recitation began to wipe our feet, so then he called
and stopped to listen to it. ‘This is what out: ‘Woe to the heels of Hellfire4!’”,
caused us to be barred from heaven,’ they cf. Mz., VI, no. 8954 (kh, 3/3, m, I, p. 214, s, con-
concluded and, having returned to their
ilk, they said: ‘Listen! We heard some mar- 3. The Arabic expression is a
ar for which there is in
vellous recitation that leads to rectitude and English no adequate, short equivalent other than ‘region
of towns, villages, and cultivated land’. Its opposite is
badw or bdiya, desert.
1. Literally it says: from heavenly affairs (khabar as- 4. For this expression, see Lane, p. 2100, middle column;
sam). it is a warning for those people who neglect the washing
2. In m it says erroneously Nakhl. of their heels in the wu
.
AB AWNA AL-WA 
B. ABD ALLH 45

firmed in I
., II, pp. 211, 226). Ab Awna is allegedly transmitted traditions from only one com-
found here as ‘Wsi connection’ in a version from panion, Sahl b. Sad, who was the last of his genera-
a MC on the correct observation of the wu
 rules. tion to die in Medina in the year 91/710 at the age
It was probably copied from Manr, cf. his tarjama of one hundred years3. Among the 127 numbers in
under no. 8936, and/or Shuba, under no. 14381. Mz. according to which he related traditions from
With a strand on the authority of Ab Bishr Jafar that companion, there is at least one for the gist of
b. Ab Washiyya—
umayd b. Abd ar-Ramn— which he may be held responsible:
Ab Hurayra, who reported the Prophet’s words: With a strand on the authority of the muammar
companion Sahl b. Sad, who related the Prophet’s
• “The most meritorious fast after that of words (paraphrase incorporating various variants):
Raman is that of God’s Muarram
month, and the most meritorious alt after • “With the exclusion of others those who
the obligatory ones is the night alt”, observed their obligation to fast will be
made to enter Paradise on the day of
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12292 (m, II, p. 821, d, t, s, con-
Resurrection by one of its gates called ar-
firmed in I
., II, pp. 342, 344). With only one PCL
Rayyn (i.e. the thirst quencher). When the
Ab Awna is no more that SCL of this tradition.
last person has entered by it, that gate will
Ab Bakr b. Ayysh, a mawl from Kfa who be bolted”,
died in 192-4/808-10. He was a ib sunna wa- cf. Mz., IV, nos. 4679, 4695, 4766, 4771, 4791 (kh,
ibda, cf. I
j., Tahdhb, XII, p. 36. 30/4, m, II, p. 808, t, s, q, confirmed in I
., V, pp.
With a strand on the authority of Ab
an 333##, 335, Ab Yal, XIII, pp. 525 f, ilya, III,
Uthmn b. im—Ab li Dhakwn—Ab p. 251).
Hurayra:

• “Of every Raman month the Prophet Ab Hurayra, the famous companion, was called
by the kunya ‘Father of the kitten’, because, as he
used to spend the last ten days in pious
said according to a SS-supported tradition in t, V,
seclusion (itikf), but in the year that he
p. 686 = Mz., X, no. 13560, he used to own a small
was to die he spent twenty days in this kitten which he placed at night in a tree and with
manner”, which he played in the daytime when he tended the
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12844 (kh, 66/7, 2, Fat, X, p. 421, sheep of his family4. Ab Hurayra owes a few of
d, Awn al-mab d, VII, p. 100, s, q, confirmed in his personal characteristics to t who, as will appear
I
., II, pp. 355, 401). Ab Bakr b. Ayysh is (S)CL. down below, circulated several SS-supported tradi-
The commentators explain the Prophet’s penchant tions describing his miraculous capacity for trans-
for itikf by pointing out that he felt that he was mitting large numbers of Prophetic traditions. The
soon to reach the end of his life. Consequently, he oldest isnds featuring Ab Hurayra emerge in
tried to increase his pious deeds in order to serve as support of akhbr of which Zuhr may ultimately
example for his followers that they also should try be considered to be the chronicler. The oldest pro-
to meet their Lord in the most favourable frame of lific CL who made use of strands ending in Ab
mind. Moreover, it was during Raman that Jibrl Hurayra was probably Amash. His example was
used to collate with the Prophet the revelations sent followed soon by most of the CLs of his time
down that year, cf. Awn al-mab d, VII, pp. 100 f. and later. The veritable surge of Ab Hurayra-
supported traditions dates to the time of Mlik.
Ab
zim Salama b. Dnr, a mawl of the And Ab Hurayra’s name was innumerable times
Makhzm, was a storyteller (q) in Medina, who inserted in isnd strands that were initially only
died after 140/757. The sources contain many pious mursal, i.e. without the mention of a companion.
and wise sayings to which he treated his audience in
the mosque1. Due to confusion of the Arabic conso- ahl al-madna as well as q
 ahl al-madna. It is other-
nants d and d his position in the mosque turns wise perfectly feasible that the storyteller in early Islam
up in the sources occasionally as that of q
2. He occasionally had to act as arbiter in disputes brought to
his attention by members of the congregation.
3. Cf. Ibn Qutayba, Marif, p. 391.
1. Cf. especially ilya, III, pp. 229-59. 4. Occasionally we also find him referred to as Ab Hirr,
2. E.g. compare I
j., Tahdhb, IV, p. 144 (yaq
), with and even as Ab Sinnawr (cf. Ibn al-Athr, Kmil, ed.
IS, qm, p. 332 (yaquu). Thus we find that he was q Tornberg, III, p. 323).
46 AB HURAYRA

It is no wonder that that time coincides with the never used to rattle off traditions (sard al-
increasing awareness that wholesale invention of adth) the way you do!’”.
traditions was rapidly getting out of hand as is alleg-
For more reports on Ab Hurayra transmitting inor-
edly documented in the description of altercations
dinately large numbers of traditions, all meant to
at the court of Hrn, cf. MT, chapter V. Needless
underline his skills and expertise in this matter, see
to stress that the historical figure of Ab Hurayra
Mlik under no. 13957°.
can in no way be held responsible for the traditions
Another SS-supported tradition from t (Mz., X,
brought into circulation under his name. But since
no. 14885, t, V, p. 683) about Ab Hurayra runs as
the swell of Ab Hurayra traditions gave rise to the
follows:
generally felt uneasiness that some sort of explana-
tion was in order to clarify his purported extensive • “When I came once to the Prophet, I spread
dealing with them, several traditions were brought out my garment in his place. He picked it
into circulation that were meant to provide the back- up and wrapped it around my heart. Never
ground against which the ‘isnd Ab Hurayra’ had since that time did I forget one adth.”
to be inserted and integrated in the personal circum-
stances of the historical figure. A spider-supported tradition of similar tenor is
Thus we find in m, III, p. 1660, the preamble: found in Mz., IX, no. 13015 (kh, 3/42, 2, t, V, p.
684).
• Ab Hurayra came outside to us and slap- Yet another SS-supported tradition from t (Mz.,
ping his hand against his forehead he said: VI, no. 8557, t, V. p. 684) contains a remark that Ibn
‘You are saying that I tell lies about the Umar is supposed to have made to Ab Hurayra:
Messenger of God so that you may be • “You stayed in the vicinity of the Mes-
guided right and I go astray. But I testify senger of God and memorized more tradi-
that I heard him say … tions from him than anyone of us.”
(follows a rukha tradition for which see Amash A very elaborate version of the above, full of narra-
under no. 14608). tive frills, is tentatively ascribed by t to Ibn Isq,
The controversy concerning the prohibition vis- but could not be found among the latter’s writings
à-vis the rukha is then made more poignant by and is probably t’s own handiwork, cf. Mz., IV, no.
the statement attributed to isha that, while walk-
5010, t, V, pp. 684 f.
ing with only one shoe on, she is reported to have
A SS-supported fa
il tradition describes a con-
said:
versation between the Prophet and Ab Hurayra:
• “Thus I want to instil fright in Ab Hu-
• “’Where do you come from?’, the Prophet
rayra”,
asked. ‘From (the tribe of) Daws,’ Ab Hu-
cf. IASh., VIII, p. 229, I
j., Fat, XII, pp. 427 f, rayra answered. ‘I used to think that there
a reference to the alleged rivalry between isha was nobody in that tribe who had any
and Ab Hurayra. This rivalry is then granted extra merit,’ the Prophet said,”
emphasis by a spider-supported late tradition (Mz.,
XII, no. 16698, m, IV, p. 1940, d) with Ibn Wahb cf. Mz., IX, no. 12894 (t, V, p. 685).
as key figure in which isha is purported to have And supported by a spider the account of a mir-
said: acle; Ab Hurayra related:

• “Does Ab Hurayra not amaze you!? He • “I went to the Prophet with a certain quan-
came to sit next to my living quarters, tity of dates and asked him: ‘Messenger
transmitting traditions on the authority of of God, would you please pray to God
the Messenger of God (in such a pervasive that He bless them.’ The Prophet gathered
manner that) I heard him, in spite of the them (in his hands) and prayed over them.
fact that I was engaged in performing a Then he said: ‘Take them and put them
supererogatory alt. He got up before I in your knapsack. Every time you want
had finished my prayer, however; if I had to eat some, put your hand in your knap-
caught up with him in time, I would have sack and take out what you want but never
snapped at him: ‘The Messenger of God spill them outside your knapsack.’ I have
AB HURAYRA 47

taken from this supply whole camel loads more profitable than one performed by a
of dates in the path of God and we used to man with only one other man. The more
eat them and feed others with them. The people perform a alt together, the more
knapsack never left my side until the day God appreciates that’”,
Uthmn was murdered. Then the supply
cf. Mz., I, no. 36 (d, Awn al-mab d, II, p. 182, s,
was cut off,” q, confirmed in ay., no. 554, Azq., I, pp. 523 f,
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12893 (t, V, pp. 685 f, I
., II, p. I
., V, pp. 140 f##). Ab Isq is in any case (S)CL.
352). He has one eminently believable PCL, Shuba, and
In short, t displayed a particular interest in bring- there are further eight seeming PCLs and SSs, all
ing Ab Hurayra-promoting traditions into circula- listed in Mz., I, pp. 21 f, all imitating Shuba—the
tion, an art which he may have copied from, inter term used is tbaa— and all converging in him2.
alia, I
. To conclude that these are all simple dives seems
too facile. The reason why the morning and the late
Ab Isq Amr b. Abd Allh as-Sab, an Arab evening alt are thought to be extra demanding
from Kfa who is said to have died in 127/745. For for the hypocrites lies in the respective times that
his political leanings and an overview of his alleged they have to be performed: for the morning alt
adth masters, see Studies on the First Century of people have to overcome their laziness (kasl), and
Islamic Society, Carbondale/Edwardsville 1982, indulging in some ostentation during a morning
pp. 161-75. He appears a particularly popular tar- alt at the crack of dawn and a late evening alt,
get for dives by later transmitters, which resulted usually performed when it is fully dark, is of neces-
in numerous otherwise undatable spiders. In view sity less easy to achieve than at other times of the
of the frequent occurrences in SSs and spiders of day. Ostentation (riy) is deemed one of the indel-
Ab Isq, the number of times that he is found to ible characteristics of the hypocrites. For a study
be sitting in a bundle which produces at least some of the merits of the congregational alt, cf. a later
tangible and practical data for historical analysis is tradition for which Mlik may be responsible, see
unexpectedly low. there under no. 8367°.
With a strand on the authority of Abd Allh With a strand on the authority of Abd Allh b.
b. Ab Bar1—(his father Ab Bar al-Abd)— Yazd—al-Bar b. zib:
Ubayy b. Kab:
• “They used to perform the alt behind the
• “One day the Prophet performed with us Prophet, and when he raised his head from
the morning alt and asked: ‘Is so-and-so the bow, I saw no one bend his back (sc.
present?’ ‘No,’ the people said. ‘And is so- for the bow) until the Prophet had placed
and-so present?’, he asked again. ‘No,’ the his forehead on the ground. Only then did
people said. The Prophet said: ‘These two they kneel down behind him for the pros-
alts (sc. the morning and late evening tration”,
alts) are the most exacting for the hypo- cf. Mz., II, no. 1772 (kh, 10/52, Fat, II, pp. 322
crites. If you only knew what extra reward ff, m, I, p. 345, d, t, s, confirmed in ay., no. 718,
is attached to them, you would come to a IASh., II, p. 328, I
., IV, pp. 300, 304, Bagh., I,
performance of them even if you had to p. 150, ilya, VII, p. 202). Ab Isq is in any
crawl to it on your hands and knees. The case (S)CL. After the name of the companion al-
first row is on a par with the row of angels, Bar we read the notice: and that is not a liar. The
and if you knew its merit you would has- commentators have done their utmost to exonerate
ten to it. A alt performed by one man al-Bar. Hints at mendacity in companions, espe-
together with someone else is more profit- cially in adth transmission, had become anathema
able than one on his own, and a alt per- in Islam after the adage of the collective reliability
of all companions had been formulated3. One solu-
formed by one man with two other men is
tion that presented itself was to connect the words

1. Ab Isq is reckoned to be the only transmitter who


ever circulated a tradition from this otherwise totally 2. This is expressed in so many words in I
j., Tahdhb,
obscure figure and his equally obscure father, cf. I
j., V, p. 161.
Tahdhb, V, p. 161. 3. Cf. Authenticity, pp. 12 f.
48 AB IS
Q AMR B. ABD ALLH AS-SAB

with someone other than al-Bar, such as Abd probably related version from within this MC, cf.
Allh b. Yazd, but that was comparably dubious, his tarjama under no. 1839. One may therefore be
for he was considered by some to have belonged to inclined to hold Ab Isq responsible for having
the generation of companions too. Another inter- brought a physical description of Muammad into
pretation of the words ventured by Nawaw was to circulation, which he may or may not have heard
read: al-Bar related this to me and that man is not from al-Bar. How this description fared at the
suspect, so you have to trust his words. A host of hands of his purported pupils can be looked up in
other solutions are conveniently brought together the tarjamas of these under the numbers indicated.
by I
j., Fat, II, p. 323, cf. Awn al-mab d, II, pp. With a strand on the authority of Sulaymn b.
230 f. urad—Jubayr b. Mu im:
With a strand on the authority of al-Bar b.
zib: • “In the presence of the Prophet we argued
with one another on the (quantity of) water
• “The Prophet had been presented with a
to be used for the major ritual ablution
mantle of silk. His companions touched the
(ghusl). Someone said: ‘As for me, I wash
fabric and marvelled at its softness. But he
my head the following way,’ whereupon
said: ‘Do you marvel at its softness? The
the Prophet said: ‘I pour three handfuls of
napkins at the disposal of Sad b. Mudh
water over my head’”,
in Paradise are even better and softer than
this!’”, cf. Mz., II, no. 3186 (kh, 5/4, m, I, p. 258, d, s, q,
confirmed in ay., no. 948, Azq., I, p. 260, IASh.,
cf. Mz., II, nos. 1878, 1810, 1850, 1861 (kh, 63/12, I, p. 64, I
., IV, pp. 84, 85). With his three PCLs,
m, IV, p. 1916, confirmed in ay., no. 710, I
., IV, Shuba, Thawr and Ab Khaythama Zuhayr, Ab
pp. 289, 301, 306, Ab Yal, III, pp. 273 f, VI, Isq may be taken in any case to be the (S)CL of
p. 8, ilya, IV, pp. 342 f). In these bundles which this tradition.
support a fa
il of the companion Sad b. Mudh, With a strand on the authority of
ritha b.
a leading member of the tribe of Aws who suc- Wahb:
cumbed to his injuries sustained at the battle of the
Ditch in the year 5/627, Ab Isq is in any case • “While we were with more people and
the (S)CL, if not the CL, with Shuba (no. 1878), under safer circumstances than ever before,
whose position is strengthened by Mz., I, no. 1282 I performed a alt of (only) two rakas
(m and ay., no. 1990), Thawr (no. 1850) and Ab with the Prophet at Min”,
’l-Awa Sallm b. Sulaym (no. 1861) as believa-
ble PCLs. If it is not Ab Isq who is to be cred- cf. Mz., III, no. 3284 (kh, 25/84, 2, m, I, pp. 483 f,
ited with it, it may tentatively be ascribed instead to d, s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 1240, IASh., II, p.
Shuba who is well-known for his fa
il traditions 450, I
., IV, p. 306, ilya, VII, p. 188). Ab Isq
singing the praises of the Anr1. is probably no more than the SCL of this bundle,
On the authority of al-Bar b. zib, Ab Isq which looks like a bunch of superimposed spiders
is also recorded to have brought into circulation rather than one with a discernible CL. But the issue
a description of various features in the outward of shortening the alt at Min to two rakas is an
appearance of the Prophet. His best-attested pupil ancient one and could conceivably have originated
is again Shuba, whose matn is dealt with in his tar- even before the lifetime of Ab Isq. That is why
jama under no. 1869. Two grandsons of Ab Isq, it is listed here in his tarjama.
Isrl b. Ynus and Ysuf b. Isq, allegedly also With a strand on the authority of Ab Burda
transmitted versions of this, what may be called a b. Ab Ms—his father Ab Ms Abd Allh b.
ifat an-nab MC, cf. their spidery bundles under Qays al-Ashar, who related the Prophet’s maxim:
nos. 1802 and 1893 respectively. Moreover, Wak
b. al-Jarr is in a bundle supporting his version • “No marriage (is valid) except through (the
which may be looked up in his tarjama under no. agency of) a guardian (wal)”,
1847. And then there is finally another spidery bun-
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9115 (d, Awn al-mab d, VI, p. 72,
dle with Ab Khaythama Zuhayr b. Muwiya as
t, q, confirmed in ay., no. 523, Azq., VI, p. 196,
key-figure, which supports a slightly different but
Sad b. Manr, I, p. 148, IASh., IV, p. 131, I
., IV,
pp. 394, 413, 418, Drim, II, pp. 184# f, Ab Yal,
1. Cf. Muséon (II), pp. 211 f. XIII, p. 195). In this complex bundle Ab Isq
AB IS
Q AMR B. ABD ALLH AS-SAB 49

is the believable CL, but the maxim is probably cf. Mz., VII, no. 10135 (d, Awn al-mab d, IV, p.
somewhat older, for numerous first/seventh cen- 205, t, II, p. 316, s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 88,
tury companions and successors-cum-fuqah have Azq., III, p. 3, I
., I, pp. 86, 144, 145, Bay., II, p.
expressed themselves in the same way, cf. Azq., 468). Ab Isq is CL. His marf  isnd strand may
Sad b. Manr and IASh., ibidem. It is conceiv- be the earliest to replace the numerous mursal and
able that the issue was already a point of discussion mawq f strands found to support the saying in the
during the Prophet’s lifetime, but that is not borne pre-canonical collections. For more details about
out by the time of origin of any traditions from the the prayer, the discussion on whether it is obliga-
available collections, or by the Qurn for that mat- tory or just recommended and the times during the
ter. It is curious that, in spite of the high number night when the performance thereof is most merito-
of aqwl, mursalt, and mawq ft dealing with the rious, see EI 2, s.v. (Wensinck).
issue, Prophetic traditions containing the maxim With a strand on the authority of Amr b.
are relatively rare. For one more well-attested tra- Maymn al-Awd, who reported that when, at the
dition on the issue, see Ibn Jurayj under no. 16462. end of the ajj ceremonies, he performed the morn-
In this connection it is to be noted, by the way, that ing alt at Jam1, Umar said:
a woman who gets married without the agency of
a guardian, who, as it says, ‘marries herself off’, is • “The unbelievers did not use to rush back
considered a prostitute, cf. the SS-supported tradi- (sc. to Mecca) until the sun had risen,
tion in t, III, p. 411, and Sad b. Manr, I, pp. 149 whereby they used to exclaim: ‘Shine,
f, nos. 532 f. Thabr, (in order that we press forward
With strands on the authority of al-Aswad b. quickly)!’ But the Prophet opted for a
Yazd, Alqama b. Qays and Ab ’l-Awa Awf b. course of action that differed from theirs
Mlik—Ibn Masd: and (after the pilgrimage on his way back
• “In the final salutation of the alt (taslm) to Mecca) he set out already before sun-
the Prophet used to turn his head to the rise”,
right and then to the left (so far) that you Mz., VIII, no. 10616 (kh, 25/100, d, t, s, q, con-
could see the whiteness of his cheek”, firmed in ay., no. 63, I
., I, pp. 14, 42, 50#, 54,
Ibn
ibbn, VI, p. 64). With his two PCLs, Shuba
cf. Mz., VII, nos. 9182, 9471, 9504 (d, Awn al-
and Thawr, Ab Isq may be the (S)CL. Thabr
mab d, III, p. 202, t, s, q, confirmed in ay., no.
is the name of a mountain near Mecca, named after
308, Azq., II, p. 219, I
., I, pp. 386, 390, 394, 406,
a man from Hudhayl who had died on it. When the
408, 409, 444, 448). Ab Isq is in any case the
sun had risen far enough to start shining upon its
(S)CL of the gist of this tradition which is trans-
slope, the pre-Islamic pilgrims departed from Min
mitted in a range of different wordings. However,
on their journey home, uttering the rhyming excla-
among his PCLs it is Thawr who is the best-attested
mation ashriq Thabr, kaym nughr. For details on
and the commentator in d, by using the technical
this procedure, see Yqt, Buldn, I, pp. 917 f.
term tbaa, mentions several transmitters from
With a strand on the authority of Amr b. al-
Ab Isq who ‘followed’ or ‘copied’ Thawr.

rith:
The wording of this salutation consists of uttering
the formula as-salmu alaykum wa-ramatu ’llh • “At his death the Prophet did not leave
twice. one dnr or one dirham, not a slave or a
With a strand on the authority of im b. slave girl, nothing in fact except his white
amra—Al b. Ab lib on the supererogatory
mule (or: his mule called al-Bay2), his
nightly prayer, which ‘oddifies’, i.e. makes the total
weapons and a piece of land which he des-
number of rakas performed by an individual that
day odd (i.e. witr): ignated for charity”,
cf. Mz., VIII, no. 10713 (kh, 55/1, 2, tm, s, con-
• “The witr prayer is not a duty like your
firmed in I
., IV, p. 279, ilya, IV, p. 345). Ab
prescribed alts but a commendable prac-
Isq is no more than SCL of this tradition. For
tice (sunna) instituted by the Prophet; he
has said: ‘People of the Qurn, perform
1. Another name for Muzdalifa between Araft and
the witr prayer, for God Himself is odd and Min, but it may also indicate the entire tract of land be-
that is why He prefers odd numbers’”, tween those two places, cf. Lane, s.v.
2. Cf. H. Eisenstein in Der Islam, LXII, 1985, p. 102.
50 AB IS
Q AMR B. ABD ALLH AS-SAB

another later tradition on the same subject, see Ab p. 429, lists a SS of his own. m gives one tradition
Muwiya under no. 17610. The tradition is occa- which states that the alt of him who consults a
sionally cited as evidence in the issue of whether or soothsayer will not be accepted for forty days, cf.
not the Prophet left a will. Mz., XIII, no. 18384 (m, IV, p. 1751, I
., IV, p. 68,
With a strand on the authority of Ab
abba V, p. 380). The strands in m and I
. share Yay
a - —Ab ‘d-Dard, who related the Prophet’s b. Sad al-Qa n as key figure. But the above
words: attempts at identifying the person responsible for
the tradition in its different guises are no more than
• “He who only gives a slave his freedom at tentative.
his death is comparable with someone who
only gives away presents when he himself Ab Isq Sulaymn b. Ab Sulaymn ash-Shay-
lives in satisfactory circumstances”, bn (d. sometime between 138/756 and 142/760).
He was a mawl and successor from Kfa. The only
cf. Mz., VIII, no. 10970 (d, Awn al-mab d, X, p.
companion he is said to have transmitted traditions
365, t, s, confirmed in ay., no. 980, Azq., IX, p.
from was Abd Allh b. Ab Awf.
157, I
., V, p. 197, VI, p. 448, Bay., IV, p. 190).
With a strand on the authority of Abd Allh b.
Ab Isq is (S)CL of this saying, which is in fact
Ab Awf (in a selection from a range of different
a proverb.
wordings):
With a strand on the authority of al-Aswad b.
Yazd an-Nakha—isha: • “Once in the month of Raman we were
• “The Prophet used to go to sleep in a state on a campaign with the Prophet, who was
of major ritual pollution without having observing the fast. When the sun began
touched water”, to sink, he called out: ‘Bill (v.l. Fuln),
step down and start mixing!’ He said: ‘But
cf. Mz., XI, nos. 16018, 16023, 16024, 16038 (d, Messenger of God, it is still light.’ ‘Step
Awn al-mab d, I, p. 260, t, s, q, confirmed in
down,’ he said again, ‘and start mixing.’
ay., no. 1397, I
., VI, pp. 146, 171). This highly
So the man alighted (from his animal).
controversial tradition from the MC on the cleans-
ing prescriptions for someone who is in a state of
He mixed the sawq (i.e. parched barley
major ritual pollution (junub) and wants to go to or wheat) with water (or milk, ghee or fat,
sleep is generally labelled by commentators as a etc.) and brought it to the Prophet, who
mistake on the part of Ab Isq. He has only two drank from it. Then he gave a sign with his
believable PCLs, Amash and Thawr, but the com- hand saying: ‘When the sun is sinking and
ments the tradition evoked are sufficient to identify darkness is about to set in, one has to break
it with him, cf. Awn al-mab d, I, pp. 261 f, where his fast’”,
an ingenious attempt at harmonization is also men-
cf. Mz., IV, no. 5163 (kh, 30/44, m, II, pp. 772 f, d,
tioned. For other versions from this MC, see Zuhr
s, confirmed in
um., no. 714, I
., IV, pp. 380, 381,
under 17769, Abd Allh b. Dnr under no. 7224
Ibn
ibbn, V, p. 209). Ab Isq ash-Shaybn is
and Shuba under 15926.
(S)CL. I
j. identifies the campaign as the march
With a strand on the authority of Hubayra b.
upon Mecca1. The underlying message of the tradi-
Yarm ash-Shaybn—Abd Allh b. Masd, or as
tion is thought to have lain in its emphasis on the
a mawq f on the authority of Hubayra:
advisability of breaking one’s fast (ifr) as soon as
• “He who goes to consult a soothsayer, a the time therefore has come; there was no merit in
fortune-teller (or a diviner) and he grants procrastinating beyond the time prescribed.
credence to what that man says, he shows
himself as an unbeliever in what has been 1. There were only two campaigns during which a fast
revealed to the Prophet”, was allegedly observed, Badr and the conquest of Mecca.
But since the companion of the isnd, Abd Allh b. Ab
cf. Bagh., I, p. 148, II, pp. 47-50. This tradition,
Awf, was too young to have been present at Badr, the
which never made it to one of the canonical collec-
conclusion presents itself that the latter was meant. Ibn
tions, has Ab Isq as (S)CL. There are, further- Ab Awf, who is said to have died in 86, 87 or 88/705-7,
more, a number of SSs through Shuba, who is also was supposedly the last companion to die in Kfa, cf. Ibn
among Ab Isq’s pupils, and others which are all Qutayba, Marif, p. 341. Although his age at death is not
dives to Ibn Masd, cf. ibidem, pp. 51 f. I
., II, recorded, he must have been ca. one hundred years old.
AB IS
Q SULAYMN B. AB SULAYMN ASH-SHAYBN 51

With the same strand: ings that his assertion that all versions had one all-
encompassing meaning (man), can only point
• “Once when we were accompanying the to the vague feature common in all that a funeral
Prophet during his assault on Khaybar we necessitates a alt to be performed over the bier;
were overcome with hunger. We had caught here follows PCL Shuba’s wording (paraphrase):
some domesticated donkeys belonging to
the local people that had come out of the • “The Prophet passed by a freshly dug
settlement, so we slaughtered these. But grave that was situated apart from the other
when our cooking pots were boiling, we graves (al qabrin manb dhin or, read-
suddenly heard a messenger of the Prophet ing al qabri manb dhin: the grave of a
who proclaimed: ‘Empty the cooking pots; foundling2) and with the people gathered
do not eat any of this donkey meat.’ I won- behind him he performed a alt over it”,
dered how stringent this prohibition was, cf. Mz., V, no. 5766 (the Six, kh, 23/67, m, II, p.
so we deliberated among ourselves and 658, confirmed in ay., no. 2647, Azq., III, p. 518,
came to the conclusion that it was meant as IASh., III, p. 359, I
., I, pp. 224, 283, 338, ilya,
a definite ban; he issued it inasmuch as the IV, p. 330). Ab Isq ash-Shaybn is the (S)CL
meat had not been included in the (booty of the gist and he is as such identified in ilya; m
that was to be divided up into) five parts adds two diving SSs of his own as shawhid, the
(variant: because these donkeys eat human isnd strands mentioned in ibidem, no. 69.
With a strand on the authority of Abd ar-Ramn
excrement1)”,
b. al-Aswad—his father al-Aswad b. Yazd an-
cf. Mz., IV, no. 5164 (kh, 57/20, 3, m, III, p. 1538, Nakha—isha:
s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 816,
um., no. 716,
Azq., IV, p. 524, IASh., VIII, p. 75, I
., IV, pp.
• “The Prophet allowed us to utter charms
354-7 with four different strands). Ab Isq ash- against everything poisonous”,
Shaybn has four PCLs, so he can safely be con- cf. Mz., XI, no. 16011 (kh, 76/3, m, IV, p. 1724, s,
sidered the CL of this bundle, which is part of a confirmed in IASh., VII, p. 392, I
., VI, pp. 61,
MC. What is more, he may tentatively be seen as 190#, 208, 254). Ab Isq ash-Shaybn is (S)CL
the oldest and earliest within this MC, responsible of this tradition. One of his PCLs, Thawr, is him-
for linking the prohibition to a Khaybar backdrop. self (S)CL in a tradition permitting the uttering
This may have inspired Ibn Isq who included of charms against the evil eye, cf. there under no.
the ban in his account of that raid. One of Ab 16199.
Isq’s PCLs is Shuba who is himself responsible With a strand on the authority of Abd Allh
for another simplified version of this tradition, cf. b. Shaddd b. al-Hd, who related about his aunt
his tarjama under no. 1795. All the other versions Maymna bt. al-
rith, a wife of the Prophet:
are supported by spidery bundles and SSs which do
not permit the drawing of conclusions as to who
• “When she had her period and lay stretched
precisely has brought each of them into circulation. out beside the place where the Prophet used
For a survey of these versions, several of which to prostrate himself on his mat made of
enumerate different reasons prompting the prohi- palm leaves (khumra), it happened some-
bition, see m, III, pp. 1537-40, q, II, pp. 1064 ff. times that his garment touched her”,
With a strand on the authority of Shab—Ibn
cf. Mz., XII, nos. 18060, 18062 (kh, 6/30, m, I, p.
Abbs a tradition on the performance of a alt at
367, d, s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 1626,
um., no.
a funeral, which Mz. lists under one number, but
311, I
., VI, p. 330). Ab Isq ash-Shaybn is
which was transmitted in so many different word-
the (S)CL. The text above is the longer version, the
tradition is also transmitted in a shorter version.
1. Among the reasons for the prohibition listed in the
Ab Khaythama Zuhayr b. Muwiya (d. between
commentaries was that there were perhaps not enough
animals for transporting warriors and goods, but that rea- 172/789 and 177/794) was an Arab transmitter from
son appears to have been invalidated by the consideration Kfa. He left the city in 164 to settle eventually in
that in tandem with the prohibition of donkey meat the
meat of horses was declared permissible in alternative
traditions, cf. I
j., Fat, XII, p. 77. 2. Cf. Lane, p. 2757, middle column.
52 AB KHAYTHAMA ZUHAYR B. MUWIYA

the Jazra. He was a ib sunna. Occasionally he not eat with his left hand and he may not
is the key figure in isnds of historical akhbr, but wrap himself in one single garment thereby
these have not been incorporated in this book. running the risk (when he sits down) of
With a strand on the authority of Ab Isq as- exposing his genitals”,
Sab:
cf. Mz., II, no. 2717 (m, III, p. 1661, d, s, confirmed
• “When asked whether the face of the in Bagh., II, p. 274, I
., III, pp. 273#, 327). Ab
Prophet was (radiant) like a sword, (the Khaythama has no less than seven SSs converging
companion) al-Bar b. zib answered: in him in this bundle but he has no PCLs, that is why
‘No, it rather shone like the moon’”, he can only be considered the SCL of this tradition.
It is in fact a composite. The first part is found with
cf. Mz., II, no. 1839 (kh, 61/23, 11, t, V, p. 598, con-
Amash as CL (see there under no. 14608), while
firmed in ay., no. 727, Bagh., II, p. 253, I
., IV, p.
the final part is extensively dealt with in the tar-
281, Drim, I, 45). This is Ab Khaythama’s con-
jama of Mlik (see there under no. 13822°).
tribution to the description of the outward appear-
With a strand on the authority of Urwa b. Abd
ance of the Prophet laid down in the so-called ifat
Allh—Ab Mahal Ibn Nufayl b. Qushayr al-
an-nab cluster. For other, similar descriptions for
Juf—Muwiya b. Qurra—his father Qurra b. Iys
whose origins Ab Isq seems responsible, see
al-Muzan:
Shuba under no. 1869, Wak under no. 1847 and
Isrl b. Ynus under 1802. • “Amidst a group of Muzayna tribesmen
He copied Shuba in a tradition on the divine I went to the Prophet in order to pledge
tranquility, restfulness (sakna) that is sent down allegiance to him. (We found him) with
from heaven when the Qurn is recited, see Shu-
his shirt undone. We pledged allegiance
ba’s tarjama under no. 1872.
to him and then I inserted my hand in the
With a strand on the authority of Ab ‘z-Zubayr
Muammad b. Muslim b. Tadrus—Jbir b. Abd opening of his shirt and felt the Prophetic
Allh, who related the Prophet’s words: seal. (Urwa went on and said: ‘and I never
saw Muwiya or his father without their
• “(As part of the pilgrimage ceremonies) shirts having been left unbuttoned through-
slaughter only full-grown victims, except out winter or summer)”,
when that is inconvenient for you, in which
case sheep that have not yet completed cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11079 (d, Awn Al-mab d, XI,
twelve months”, p. 91, tm, q, confirmed in Bagh., II, p. 293, I
.,
# #
III, p. 434 , IV, p. 19, V, p. 35 ). Ab Khaythama
cf. Mz., II, no. 2715 (m, III, p. 1555, d, VII, p. 352, is (S)CL. For the Prophet’s seal, see im b.
s, q, confirmed in Bagh., II, p. 269, I
., III, pp. 312, Sulaymn al-Awal under no. 5321.
327, Ab Yal, IV, p. 210, Bay., IX, p. 269). Ab With a strand on the authority of Ubayd Allh b.
Khaythama is (S)CL. A ‘full-grown’ animal is five Umar—Sad b. Ab Sad—(or his father Ab Sad
years or older for camels, two years for cattle and Kaysn al-Maqbur)—Ab Hurayra, who related
in the case of sheep and goats, those that are more the Prophet’s words (incorporating most variants):
than one year old. All this may sound straightfor-
ward enough. But the different interpretations of
• “When you go to bed, dust it with the
these ages are manifold and partly contradictory inside of your cloak (in some versions: for
depending on the legal school. For a survey of the you do not know, v.l. nobody except God
possibilities, see Awn al-mab d, VII, pp. 353 ff, knows, what happened to it, v.l. what dirt
where the
anaf jurist al-Qudr (d. 428/1037) is or vermin fell onto it, after you left it, then
extensively quoted. Furthermore, the tradition is lie down on your right side) and say: ‘God,
studied in depth by Kamaruddin Amin in ILS, XI, in Your name I have laid down my body
2004, pp. 149-76. (lit. side) and in Your name I shall raise it.
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: If You take away my soul, pardon it and if
You let it go, protect it the same way you
• “When the thong of someone’s sandal
protect Your pious servants’”,
breaks, he may not walk further with only
one sandal on, but must first repair it. He cf. Mz., X, no. 14306 (kh, 80/13, Fat, pp. 374 f, d,
may not walk in one shoe either, he should Awn al-mab d, XIII, p. 266, s, confirmed in I
.,
AB KHAYTHAMA ZUHAYR B. MUWIYA 53

II, pp. 432 f). This tradition belongs to the exten- said. ‘And what about mutton?’, he was
sive MC on bedtime prayers and is listed here in asked. ‘(There is) no (need to) perform a
Ab Khaythama’s tarjama for the sake of conven- wu
 then.’ Next he was asked about (per-
ience, since he is allegedly Ubayd Allh b. Umar’s forming) a alt in the spot (e.g. around a
best-attested transmitter. Spread over several bun-
waterhole) where the camels rested. ‘Do
dles, there are so many different SSs and spider-
not perform your alt there, for that (spot)
like formations coming together in Ubayd Allh
that one is at first sight inclined to ascribe it to him.
is (the playground of) devils.’ Finally he
But considering him at all is untenable, as was ten- was asked about (performing) a alt in a
tatively demonstrated elsewhere1 and, in fact, I
j. sheep pen. ‘By all means perform it in a
identifies him in this tradition as one of Mlik b. sheep pen,’ the Prophet said, ‘for there bles-
Anas’ imitators, using the appropriate verb tbaa- sing abounds”,
hu. Cf. Fat, XVII, p. 149, -8, and Mz., IX, no.
cf. Mz., II, no. 1783 (d, Awn al-mab d, I, pp. 217 f,
13012. Mlik’s version is otherwise nowhere else
t, q, confirmed in IASh., I, p. 384, I
., IV, p. 288).
attested, not even in the currently available edition
Ab Muwiya is no more than SCL, but his posi-
of his Gharib2, and that is why the tradition was
tion in this bundle is at least the only one deserv-
not dealt with in his tarjama, but it is probably his.
ing of that qualification within the large MC on
the subject. There are masses of spiders and SSs in
Ab Muwiya Muammad b. Khzim, a mawl
which the sheep pen is preferred to the resting place
from Kfa. Born in 113/731 he became blind early
of camels for performing the alt, but none of its
in life. He is said to have died in 194-5/810-1. In
multiple strands allows for a more precise dating or
transmitting traditions he was among the most
even a hint at an originator. The issue is old though,
important PCLs of Amash and also Hishm b.
as is reflected in numerous mawq ft and marsl
Urwa. He was notorious for his Murjiite leanings.
listed in Azq., I, pp. 407-11, and IASh., I, pp. 384
Hrn ar-Rashd treated him with great respect, cf.
ff. Devils infesting the resting places of camels is
Dhahab, Siyar, IX, pp. 73-8, Mz., Tahdhb, XXV,
thought to be a reference to how devils and jinn
pp. 123-33. He knew the Qurn by heart: many tra-
cause camels to wander off against the will of their
ditions in whose isnds he figures deal with Qur-
riders. Camels were considered vicious animals
nic quotations and Qurn-related matters.
(kathr ash-sharr), notorious for their treachery and
A particularly frequently used strand with Ab
refractoriness, but they also occasionally interrupt
Muwiya as CL, (S)CL or SCL is the one via
the concentration of persons performing alts in
Amash / Ab li Dhakwn / Ab Hurayra as
their vicinity and cause them to cut short their acts
well as dozens of SSs, cf. Mz., nos. 12502-12552.
of devotion. Sheep, however, were thought of as
He may be responsible for a version of a tra-
peaceful and harmless. Camel meat, furthermore,
dition (Mz., II, no. 1771) on punishing fornicators
was deemed to have a disagreeable odour, cf. I
j.,
among the Jews, a tradition based upon an example
Fat, I, p. 322, -5. For details on the question of
of Mlik b. Anas, see there under no. 8324*.
whether or not preparing and eating the meat of
With a strand on the authority of Amash—Abd
certain domestic animals required a (partial) wu
,
Allh b. Abd Allh ar-Rz—Abd ar-Ramn b.
see Zuhr under no. 10700, and Mlik under no.
Ab Layl—al-Bar b. zib:
5979°.
• “The Prophet was asked about (the obli- With a strand on the authority of Amash—Amr
gation of) an ablution after (eating) camel b. Murra—Sad b. Jubayr—Ibn Abbs:
meat. ‘Yes, perform a wu
 then3,’ he • “When the verse was revealed: ‘Warn your
nearest of kin (XXVI: 214)’ and your rela-
1. Cf. Islam (I), pp. 231-4, and in the introduction to the tives that are virtuous4, the Prophet came
tarjama of Mlik b. Anas.
2. For the other SS and spider-supported versions, with
or without Ubayd Allh in the strand, cf. Mz., IX, nos. rinse of the mouth (ma
ma
a). It is, however, also taken
12984, 13037, Azq., IX, p. 34, IASh., X, pp. 248 f, Ibn by others as referring to the complete minor ritual ablu-

ibbn, VII, pp. 425 f, I


., II, pp. 295, 422, 432. tion, since the touching of raw meat and subsequent cook-
3. A commentator emphasizes that this use of the term ing and eating thereof invalidates the state of ritual purity
wu
 is to be taken in a non-technical sense: it does achieved by the wu
 in the technical sense.
not entail a complete minor ritual ablution including the 4. … and your relatives that are virtuous (wa-rahaka
washing of the feet, but just a washing of the hands and a minhum al-mukhlan), constitutes a curious addition to
54 AB MUWIYA MU
AMMAD B. KHZIM

outside, climbed (the hill of) a-af and traditions which companions must have heard from
called out: ‘Comrades!’ … Then they1 each other without the younger companion specify-
gathered around him … and he said: ‘What ing which senior companion told him something
would you think if I were to tell you that from the Prophet, cf. I
j., Fat, X, p. 118, -144.
horsemen will come forth from the bottom But he lists also a number of different harmoniza-
tion attempts.
of this hill (v.l.: will suddenly attack you)?
Mz., no. 5611, in which Ab Muwiya seems
Would you believe me?’ ‘We have never the CL, supports a tradition copied from elsewhere
caught you in a lie,’ they said. ‘I warn on divine help for the Prophet against his enemies,
you against a vehement punishment,’ the cf. Shuba under no. 6386.
Prophet said. Thereupon Ab Lahab said: With a strand on the authority of Amash—Ab
‘May you perish yourself! Have you only ‘s-Safar Sad b. Yumid—Abd Allh b. Amr:
summoned us together here for that?’ He
stood up to go. Then the s ra was revealed
• “While my mother and I were restoring
a reed hut which had begun to crumble,
(CXI: 1): ‘May the hands of Ab Lahab
the Prophet passed by us and said: ‘What
perish, may he perish himself!’”,
is this?’ ‘This is a ramshackle hut of ours
cf. Mz., IV, no. 5594 (kh, 65/34, 2, m, I, pp. 193 f, which we are repairing’, we replied. ‘I
t, s, confirmed in I
., I, pp. 281, 307, ab., Tafsr, think that death (will overtake you) before
XIX, p. 120). Amash is probably no more than the (your hut will collapse),’ he said”,
SCL of this bundle and that is why it is placed in the
tarjama of his best-attested PCL, Ab Muwiya. cf. Mz., VI, no. 8650 (d, Awn al-mab d, XIV, p.
The story about Ab Lahab is hinted at in the Sra, 100, t, q, confirmed in I
., II, p. 161). In this spi-
I, p. 380, but the introductory passage around Q. dery bundle Ab Muwiya is the SCL.
XXVI: 214 is not yet part of it and only turns up With a strand on the authority of Burayd b. Abd
in IS, I 1, p. 133, on the authority of Wqid, who Allh b. Ab Burda—his grandfather Ab Burda—
is Ab Muwiya’s contemporary. This version of his father Ab Ms al-Ashar, who related the
a sabab an-nuz l tradition is one of several which Prophet’s words:
together form a MC showing a considerable num-
ber of variants, all supported by different strands,
• “Verily, God grants respite to the evil doer,
cf. abar, Tafsr, XIX, pp. 118-21. Ab Muwiya
until the time when He seizes him without
may in due course have been copied by Ab Usma letting him go. Then he recited: ‘Likewise
and Abd Allh b. Numayr. The tradition is a contro- your God punishes the villages of offend-
versial one, for Ibn Abbs was either a small boy, or ers: His punishment is painful and vehe-
not yet even born, when this altercation is supposed ment (XI: 102)’”,
to have taken place. Other companions showing
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9037 (kh, 65, 11, 4, m, IV, pp.
up in strands supporting similar versions from this
1997 f, t, s, q, confirmed in Ab Yal, XIII, p. 307,
MC, such as Ab Hurayra2, did not fit either in the
abar, Tafsr, XII, p. 114). Ab Muwiya is the
supposed historical backdrop situated some seven
CL. The evil and the offences referred to amount
years before the Hijra3. That is why I
j. classifies it
to shirk, i.e. polytheism. It could not be ascertained
under the mursal traditions of the companions, i.e.
whether Ab Muwiya is the earliest, or the first, to
make use of this family isnd. For an introduction
the Qurnic verse of which Nawaw said (III, pp. 82 f): to this isnd and the use made of it by other CLs, cf.
‘(These words) were a qurn the recitation of which was the tarjama of Burayd b. Abd Allh below.
repealed after its revelation (kna qurnan unzila thum- For his putative role in a tradition, which is
ma nusikhat tilwatuhu) and this addition did not find a partly a adth quds, see the tarjama of Amash
place in the versions transmitted by kh.’ This last state- under no. 9570.
ment of Nawaw is erroneous, in actual fact, for kh did With a strand on the authority of Amash—Amr
include it in his tafsr chapter dealing with s ra CXI.
b. Murra—Yay b. al-Jazzr—Ibn Akh Zaynab—
1. In this variant they are specified as the clans of Abd
his aunt Zaynab, Ibn Masd’s wife:
Manf and Abd al-Mu alib, in another (kh) as the Ban
Fihr and the Ban Ad, all clans of Quraysh.
2. Cf. two spiders: Mz., X, no. 14623, which defies anal- 4. Since the formulation of the doctrine of the collective
ysis, and no. 13348 with Ibn Wahb as key figure. reliability of all the Prophet’s companions, this type of
3. Compare IS, I 1, p. 132, line 25. tradition was deemed perfectly acceptable.
AB MUWIYA MU
AMMAD B. KHZIM 55

• “Ibn Masd told me that the Prophet once by seventy thousand angels until the morn-
said: ‘Charms (either uttered or written), ing”,
amulets1 and (uttering) enchantments in cf. Mz., VII, no. 10211 (d, s, Kubr, IV, p. 354, q,
order to arouse the desire in a husband for I, pp. 463 f, confirmed in IASh., III, p. 234, I
., I,
his wife are (tantamount to) polytheism.’ p. 81, Ab Yal, I, p. 227, Bay., III, p. 380). Ab
I told Ibn Masd: ‘Why do you say that? Muwiya is CL. This is one of many traditions
By God, my eye used to trouble me2 and from the MC on the merit of visiting the sick.
I used to visit a certain Jew who uttered With a strand on the authority of Amash—Amr
b. Murra—Slim b. Ab ’l-Jad—Umm ‘d-Dard—
charms over me; for when he did so, the
Ab ‘d-Dard, who related that the Prophet asked
eye ceased to hurt.’ Then Ibn Masd said: his companions:
‘That (affliction) is the work of the devil
inflicted by his hand; when (the Jew) utters • “‘Shall I tell you about (an act) which is
the charm, the devil withdraws his hand. even more excellent than fasting, praying
It would have been sufficient for you to or the giving of alms?’ ‘Yes please,’ they
utter the words of the Messenger of God: said. ‘Resolving dissension (among peo-
‘Lord of men, remove the harm, cure him ple) for dissension corrupts (our faith) and
with a cure that will not abandon him, for utterly destroys (it)’”,
You are the healer, there is no cure except cf. Mz., VIII, no. 10981 (d, Awn al-mab d, XIII,
Yours’”, p. 178, t, confirmed in I
., VI, pp. 444 f). Ab
Muwiya is at most the SCL of this concisely
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9643 (d, Awn al-mab d, X, pp.
worded tradition.
262 f, confirmed in I
., I, p. 381, Ab Yal, IX,
With a strand on the authority of Amash—Ab
p. 133, Bayhaq, IX, p. 350). Ab Muwiya is
Wil Shaqq b. Salama—Qays b. Ab Gharaza:
no more than the SCL of this spidery bundle. For
an earlier occurrence of this healing formula, see • “In the time of the Prophet, we used to be
Manr b. al-Mutamir under no. 17603. called brokers (samsira), but (one day) the
For his SCL position in a tradition (cf. Mz., VII, Messenger of God came by and addressed
no. 9992) describing a meritorious practice when us with a far more appropriate term: ‘Hey,
approaching one’s debtors, see Shuba under no.
you merchants (tujjr), that trade you ply
3310.
is marked with nonsensical talk and false
With a strand on the authority of Amash—al-

akam b. Utayba—Abd ar-Ramn b. Ab Lay-


oaths, so mix it with almsgiving’”,
l—Al b. Ab lib, who related the Prophet’s cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11103 (d, Awn al-mab d, IX,
words (after a preamble in some versions): p. 124, t, q, confirmed in I
., IV, p. 6). The order
to practise charity instead of brokering for oth-
• “When someone pays a visit to his brother
ers in transactions was thought of as extinguish-
on his sickbed, (it is as if) he walks in ing the wrath of the Lord. Ab Wil is SCL. Ab
Paradise at the time when the fruits are Muwiya is the best-attested key figure in this heap
gathered in and then sits down. When he of superimposed spiders and SSs and he is also
is seated, he will be flooded by mercy, clearly identified with it in Mz., Tahdhb, XXIV,
and at daybreak he will be blessed by sev- p. 75. Samsira is the plural of simsr, a Persian
enty thousand angels until the evening and word which was arabicized. In early Islam, with the
when evening has come, he will be blessed emergence of the Prophet Muammad, brokering
was thought of as susceptible to cheating. The clas-
sic example of this brokering is found in the activi-
1. Described as beads hung around the necks of children ties of townspeople who regularly dupe guileless
in order to ward off the evil eye, cf. Awn al-mab d, X, nomads approaching a market town in order to sell
pp. 262 f. their animals3. This gave rise to the maxim l yabu
2. A commentator mentions two afflictions, one caused (or yabi) 
irun li-bdin, i.e. the sedentary person
by dry white filth collected in the inner corner of the eye,
shall not sell (goods or animals) on behalf of the
cf. Lane, s.v. rama, and the other is described as an (ex-
cessive) flow of tears caused by an ailment, cf. Awn al-
mab d, X, p. 263. 3. Cf. Arabica (II), esp. pp. 302 ff.
56 AB MUWIYA MU
AMMAD B. KHZIM

nomad. For more on the issue of brokerage, cf. the brought before him and he referred it to a
tarjama of Abd Allh b. Abbs under no. 5706. kinsman of the victim who had the right
With a strand on the authority of Amash—Ab to demand retaliation (wal ‘d-dam). The
li Dhakwn—Ab Hurayra, who related the killer said: ‘By God, Messenger of God,
Prophet’s words:
it was not my intention to kill the man.’
• “He who performs a wu
 and does it Thereupon the Prophet said to the wal
well, then goes to the Friday alt and ‘d-dam: ‘If the killer speaks the truth and
listens attentively, will be pardoned for then you demand his death in retaliation,
everything from that moment until the fol- you will go to Hell.’ Then the wal ‘d-dam
lowing Friday plus three days. But he who let him go. The man, who had his hands
straightens (or toys with) the pebbles (on bound behind his back with a fore girth of
which he performs his alt in a way which a camel2, went on his way, dragging forth
makes too much noise and which prevents the girth, and that is why he was called ‘he
him from listening to the sermon), he (is with the girth’”,
like someone who) talks (rather than pay-
ing proper attention1)”, cf. Mz., IX, no. 12507 (d, Awn al-mab d, XII, p.
136, t, s, q, confirmed in IASh., IX, p. 442). Ab
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12504 (m, II, p. 588, d, t, q, con-
Muwiya is the (S)CL of this poorly attested tradi-
firmed in I
., II, p. 424, Ibn
ibbn, II, p. 266, IV, tion. A seeming parallel to this story, describing a
p. 195). Ab Muwiya is (S)CL. killer also associated with a camel girth and sup-
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: ported by a late spider, is found in Mz., IX, no.
• “God says: ‘I am in My servant (‘s thoughts) 11769.
when he thinks of Me and I am with him With the same strand:
when he remembers (or: mentions) Me. If • “The Prophet once said: ‘Between two
he remembers Me in himself, I remember (trumpet) blasts (on the Day of Judgement)
him in Myself. If he remembers Me in the there are forty.’ He was asked: ‘Ab
midst of other people, I remember him in Hurayra, forty days?’ ‘I refuse to say,’ he
the midst of people who are better than he. said. ‘Forty months then?’ people asked
When he draws nearer to Me by a hands- again. ‘I refuse to say,’ he said again.
breadth, I draw closer to him by an arm’s ‘Forty years?’ they insisted. ‘I refuse to
length, and when he draws nearer to Me say … The Prophet went on saying: ‘Then
by an arm’s length, I draw closer to him God will send down rain from heaven and
by a fathom. When he walks to Me, I rush the people will sprout like vegetables. But
to him’”, everything of man will waste away, except
the bone at the lower part of his spine from
cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12505 (m, IV, pp. 2067 f, t, s, q,
which he will be created again on the Day
confirmed in I
., II, p. 251). Ab Muwiya is the
of Resurrection3’”
(S)CL of this composite adth quds. It consists of
several elements which are variously combined in cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12508 (kh, 65/78, m, IV, pp. 2270
the collections. For an outline of the different forms f, s). Ab Muwiya is in any case the SCL of this
in which this quds is found, see Graham, pp. 127- tafsr tradition connected with Q. LXXVIII: 18.
30. With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
With the same strand (paraphrase):
• “God says: ‘I have prepared for my pious
• “At the time when the Prophet was still servants what no eye has seen and no ear
alive a man was killed. The matter was

2. Made of plaited strips of skin, cf. Lane, p. 3032.


1. This last sentence is the admittedly ponderous render- 3. That bone was allegedly the first to be formed at his
ing of the ultra-concise original man massa ’l-a fa- creation, cf. I
j., Fat, X, p. 172; I
j. adds that a variant
qad lagh, cf. Ibn al-Athr, IV, p. 258, Awn al-mab d, of this tradition, in which the time span is indeed speci-
III, pp. 263 f. fied as forty years, is weak.
AB MUWIYA MU
AMMAD B. KHZIM 57

has heard and what has not occurred to the sky, then those who come after them will
heart of man …’”, be (bright in various) degrees; they will no
longer defecate, urinate, blow their noses
cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12509, 12428, 12487 (kh, 65/32, 1,
m, IV, p. 2175, q, confirmed in IASh., XIII, p. 109, or expectorate; their combs will be made
I
., II, pp. 466, 495). Ab Muwiya is no more of gold, in their censers aloe wood will
than the (S)CL of this adth quds, a clear allu- be burnt, their perspiration will smell of
sion to Paradise, for which see Graham, pp. 117 ff. musk, their features will be like those of
Azq. lists the saying with his Mamar / Hammm / a man who is as tall as their father dam,
Ab Hurayra strand (XI, p. 416), but it did not find sixty cubits in height”,
a place with this strand in Mz. As for the statement,
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12525 (m, IV, pp. 2179 f, q, con-
one may be reminded of Isaiah 64, 4. The tradi-
firmed in IASh., XIII, pp. 109 f, I
., II, p. 253).
tion is concluded in the sources by several different
This tradition, which describes the denizens of Par-
sequels which are here left unmentioned.
adise, is part of a large MC in which this version
For his participation (cf. no. 12512) in the issue
is the only one whose isnd strands show up a key
of the Prophet’s mediation (shafa) on the Day of
figure who might conceivably be considered its
Judgement, see Mlik b. Anas under no. 13845°.
CL. None of the other SSs and late spider-like for-
With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
mations permits conclusions to be drawn as to CLs.
• “May God curse the thief: when he steals a However, if anything, Ab Muwiya can only be
helmet, his hand is to be cut off, and when assumed to have been responsible for its wording:
he steals a rope, his hand should be cut the overall ideas expressed may be due to an anon-
off”, ymous older storyteller whose identity can as yet
not be established. For a survey of the numerous
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12515 (m, III, p. 1314, s, q, con- SSs and spiders supporting similar versions, see
firmed in I
., II, p. 253). Ab Muwiya is SCL, Ab Yal, X, pp. 471 f, and also Azq. above under
if not the (S)CL, of this tradition. The diving SSs no. 14702.
converging in his master Amash (cf. nos. 12374, With a strand on the authority of Hishm b.
12438, 12448) fail to convince. The tradition con- Urwa—his father Urwa b. az-Zubayr—isha:
stitutes an argument in the debate on the minimum
value (nib) of goods stolen to which the add • “(In the Jhiliyya in the course of the pil-
punishment for theft is applicable. Curiously, the grimage rituals) the Quraysh and those
word used for helmet here is bay
a, which also who followed their religion would halt at
means ‘egg’, and the word for rope, which is al-Muzdalifa. They were called the
ums.
interpreted in the present context as referring to The other Arabs used to halt at Arafa2.
a ‘mooring cable’, also has the meaning ‘piece of With the advent of Islam, God ordered His
string’. Helmet and mooring cable are both worth Prophet to go to Araft and halt there, and
far more than a quarter of a dnr, the usual approx- to set out from there with all haste. That is
imation of the nib in
ijz circles, for which see
reflected in His statement: ‘Then rush for-
Zuhr under no. 17920. The interpretations ‘egg’
ward from where the people rush forward
and ‘piece of string’ are preferred by some schol-
ars1, because the tradition is meant to convey: how (II: 199)’”,
can a thief be so reckless in respect of something cf. Mz., XII, no. 17195 (kh, 65/2, 35, m, II, pp. 893
precious like his own hand, when he risks losing it f, d, s). Ab Muwiya is the (S)CL of this word-
in exchange for something as paltry as an egg or a ing. The issue of the if
a, the ‘rush’ (cf. EI 2, Eng.
piece of string?! ed. III, p. 36, left col.) can be traced back to the
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: Jhiliyya and was broached anew in the Qurn.
The ‘halting’ (wuq f) at Arafa constitutes one of
• “The first group of people from my com-
the cornerstones of the pilgrimage ritual. The
ums
munity to enter Paradise will be shining
belonged to the tribe of Quraysh and included mem-
like the moon when it is full, those who bers of other tribes who had married into Quraysh,
follow will be as bright as any star in the e.g. Thaqf, Layth, Khuza, Kinna, mir b.

1. Cf. Nawaw, XI, p. 183, I


j., Fat, XV, pp. 87 ff, and 2. The names Arafa and Araft are here used alterna-
also MT, pp. 172 f. tively for the same locality in the same context.
58 AB MUWIYA MU
AMMAD B. KHZIM

aaa, Ghazwn and others. The Quraysh had the It is reported that he took refuge in Syria when the
custom to impose their religious beliefs upon any authorities in Bara wanted to make him q
. He
stranger from another tribe who wished to marry a was allegedly anti-Al. He strongly warned against
woman from Quraysh, stipulating at the same time associating with people who advocated innovations
that the descendants be raised in those beliefs too, (ahl al-ahw) because, as he said, they are heading
cf. I
j., Fat, IV, p. 264. For more on the
ums for Hell, allowing swords to be drawn, ibidem, p.
and the quaint pre-Islamic customs connected with 134. He is described as being wary of transmitting
them, see EI 2, s.n. (W. M. Watt). too many traditions: three was already a lot in his
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: eyes, cf. IS, ibidem. His position as common link
is in general difficult to assess, because he very
• “If it had not been for the fact that your often occurs in a triangular isnd formation with
people (i.e. the Quraysh) were only re- two PCLs who outshine all others, his younger
cently still living in unbelief, I would have Baran contemporaries Ayyb b. Ab Tamma as-
taken the Kaba to pieces and I would Sakhtiyn (his spiritual heir) and Khlid al-
adh-
have rebuilt it on the foundations laid by dh. Every time this formation supports a tradition,
Ibrhm, for Quraysh, when they restored determining who exactly was responsible for it and
the House, did that on foundations falling who copied whom, is tentative and based upon
within (those of Ibrhm). And I would mostly circumstantial data, if any. To remain on the
also have built a rear door in it”, safe side a few traditions, which may in actual fact
be due to Ab Qilba but for which the necessary
cf. Mz., XII, no. 17197 (m, II, p. 968, s). Ab isnd evidence was too meagre have been dealt
Muwiya is SCL and in his supposed informant with in the tarjamas of those two rather than in that
Hishm so many SSs come together (cf. I
j., Fat, of Ab Qilba.
IV, p. 189) that one is almost inclined to consider On the authority of Anas b. Mlik (paraphrase):
him the (S)CL. But that is not a safe solution. This
tradition bears a resemblance to one of Mlik, see • “(The people were reminded of the fact that
there under no. 16287*. the time for a alt had to be announced in
With a strand on the authority of Amash—Ab an easily recognizable manner, either by
Wil Shaqq b. Salama—Masrq—isha: lighting a fire or striking wooden boards
(nq s)). Then Bill was ordered to call
• “(At his death) the Prophet left no dnr,
out the adhn formula twice and the iqma
no dirham, no sheep, no camel, and he did
formula only once”,
not bequeath anything”,
cf. Mz., I, no. 943 (the Six, kh, 10/1, m, I, p. 286,
cf. Mz., XII, no. 17610 (m, III, p. 1256, d, s, q, con-
confirmed in ay., no. 2095, Azq., I, p. 464, IASh.,
firmed in IS, II 2, p. 49, 15, I
., VI, p. 44#). Amash
I, p. 205#, I
., III, pp. 103, 189, Drim, I, p. 290).
is no more than the SCL of this tradition that is why
The first sentence of this tradition in brackets con-
it is here attributed to Ab Muwiya. It also occurs
with a strand down to isha via the muammar stitutes a later addition by a PCL; the final sentence
Zirr b.
ubaysh supported by a spidery bundle in constitutes the original matn. This complex bundle
which im b. Bahdala is SCL, cf. no. 16085 (tm, shows up a number of key figures. In the first place
ay., no. 1565,
um., no. 271, I
., VI, pp. 136, there is Ab Qilba who has Khlid al-
adhdh
185, 187, Ibn
ibbn, VIII, p. 205). An older con- and Ayyb as PCLs. Each of these has himself a
temporary, Mlik b. Mighwal (d. 157 or 159/774 couple of believable PCLs,
ammd b. Zayd, Ibn
or 776), is (S)CL in another bundle dealing with Ulayya, Abd al-Writh b. Sad, Shuba, Wuhayb
the same issue, see his tarjama under no. 5170. For b. Khlid and finally Abd al-Wahhb ath-Thaqaf
another, conceivably older, tradition on the same who is conceivably responsible for the addition
subject, see Ab Isq as-Sab under no. 10713. of the first sentence. This deluge of PCLs in one
bundle, a regrettably rare phenomenon in the canon-
Ab Qilba Abd Allh b. Zayd, well-known ical collections, points inevitably to a very old CL,
Baran expert in legal matters who is said to have sc. Ab Qilba. But at this point the question is jus-
died sometime between 104 and 107 (722-5). If tified: why do we not simply attribute it to Anas
he had been of Persian extraction, it is believed he himself? In trying to find a suitable solution for this
would have been a mbedh-e mbedhn, i.e. the problem we are helped by the wording of one of the
equivalent of q
 ’l-qu
t, cf. IS, VII 1, p. 133. strands listed in IASh., I, p. 205, line 6. It has pre-
AB QILBA ABD ALLH B. ZAYD 59

served a significant term between Ab Qilba and and spidery isnd formations—most of which are
Anas, qualifying the alleged transmission between due to s!—supporting the maxim, with or without
the two: a unnuhu, i.e. ‘as far as I know’. This term the name of one or two companions being inserted
seems to imply that ascribing the tradition to Ab between themselves and the Prophet, cf. also Azq.,
Qilba is safer. But we can never be sure. Strictly IV, pp. 209 ff, IASh., III, pp. 49 ff. The names
speaking we have here a mawq f tradition, since the most frequently occurring in those strands are Ab
Prophet is not mentioned in it. And such traditions Qilba,
asan al-Bar, A  b. Ab Rab, Qatda
reportedly transmitted by Anas have a greater claim and Makl, but for lack of believable PCLs they
to being considered historically tenable than those cannot be considered as more than SCLs. Even so,
in which Muammad is said to figure1. in view of the fact that Ab Qilba was the first
On the authority of Anas b. Mlik (paraphrase): of these fuqah to die, and that he is also a key
figure in another spider ending in the companion
• “When someone marries a virgin as sec-
Thawbn which supports the same maxim (cf. Mz.,
ond wife he must stay with her for seven
II, no. 2104, d, s, q, ay., no. 989), it is listed here
days after the wedding, and when he mar-
in his tarjama, but that is just for convenience’s
ries a mature woman as second wife2 he sake. To identify it definitively with him, and not
must stay three days with her after the for instance with
asan al-Bar, is hazardous: the
wedding”, other fuqah mentioned are, after all, his contem-
cf. Mz., I, no. 944 (kh, 67/101, m, II, p. 1084, d, t, q, poraries and the discussion of cupping while fast-
confirmed in Azq., VI, p. p. 235, Drim, II, p. 194, ing is surely older than the maxim. It is conceivable
ilya, II, p. 288). Ab Qilba is SCL. For more on that it originated in the lifetime of the Prophet. But
this, which is in fact an ancient issue, see Yay b. the rukha (= ‘concession’) tradition which alleges
Sad al-Qa n under no. 18229. that Muammad had himself cupped while he was
With a strand on the authority of (Ab ’l- observing a fast is probably of somewhat later date,
Ashath Sharl b. da a-ann—Ab Asm cf. the tarjama of Ayyb as-Sakhtiyn under no.
ar-Rab—) Shaddd b. Aws, who related that the 5989 below. Finally, both the maxim as well as the
Prophet said: rukha are found supported by untold numbers of
mostly late SSs4. Judging by those the issue must
• “(When a fast is observed), the cupper as have been subject of a lively debate.
well as his client both break their fast (sc. With a strand on the authority of Mlik b. al-
when the operation is carried out during
uwayrith5:
the day)”,
• “We were a group of young men of the
cf. Mz., IV, 4818, 4823, 4826 (d, Awn al-mab d, same age. We went to the Prophet and
VI, pp. 354 f, s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 418, I
., stayed some twenty days with him. He
IV, pp. 123#, 124#, 125#). This maxim in its Arabic
was a tender-hearted and merciful man and
original wording is very concise: afara ’l-jim wa
he thought that we missed our folk, so he
’l-maj m, lit. the cupper and the cupped break their
fast3. It is probably very old and may date well back
asked about those whom we had left behind
to the mid-first/seventh century. It constitutes the and we told him. ‘Return to your folk,’ he
final verdict in an early discussion among compan- said, go and stay with them and acquaint
ions. This discussion may have been motivated by them (with the ways of Islam) and order
the consideration that loss of blood unduly weakens them when the time for a alt has come to
someone who observes a fast. The person who first perform it with one of you announcing the
brought the maxim into circulation could not be prayer and with the oldest among you as
determined with a measure of certainty. Several of
Islam’s oldest fuqah emerge time and again in SSs
4. For example, Amash is SCL in the strands Mz., IX,
nos. 12331 and 12417 supporting the maxim.
1. Cf. Muséon (II), pp. 205-11. 5. This companion belongs to that class of people who
2. Presumably, love of parallelism or rather chiasmal lived to a ripe old age and were therefore sought after by
symmetry dictated here the use of the word ‘virgin’ rather CLs who used their names in ultra-short isnd strands;
than ‘another mature woman’. he is reported to have died in 74/693 or even as it says
3. For more on the practice of cupping, see EI 2, suppl., erroneously in another source 94/713, cf. I
j., Iba, V,
s.v. fad (M.A.J. Beg). pp. 719 f.
60 AB QILBA ABD ALLH B. ZAYD

leader (imm)’” ation altogether.


According to the drawn-out version (cf. e.g.
cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11182 (the Six, kh, 10/18, 3, m,
kh, 91/48) the Prophet is visited in his sleep by
I, pp. 465 f, confirmed in I
., III, p. 436#, Drim,
two figures who turn out to be none other than the
I, p. 318). Ab Qilba is no more than SCL. It is
archangels Jibrl and Mkl. Before finally ending
impossible to say with certainty who can be held
up in Paradise, they lead him along various spots,
responsible for this tradition. Ab Qilba has only
where he sets eyes on figures who are tormented
two well-attested PCLs, Khlid al-
adhdh and
in different ways. Thus they pass by a man who
Ayyb, and among their PCLs there are a few
gets his head bashed in by another and someone
equally well-attested transmissions. Any of those
else whose face is torn in halves by a man wield-
fits the bill. The reason why it was decided to list
ing a meat hook. The victims are miraculously
the tradition in Ab Qilba’s tarjama lies in the
restored to health and their injuries disappear after
observation that its text is a great deal simpler and
a short time. When the Prophet asks what those
less elaborate than traditions from the same chap-
scenes mean, the angels ignore his questions but
ter on alat ritual that are datable and appear to be
hurry him along. They pass by some sort of oven
somewhat later, cf. Amash under no. 9976.
in which naked men and women are plagued by
flames creeping upwards. Next they come to a
Ab Raj al-Urid, a Baran muammar who is
river in which a man is swimming; his open mouth
said to have died at the age of 120, 127, 128 or 135
is stuffed by someone else with stones he has col-
in 107/725 or 109/7271. The tarjama IS devotes to
lected on the riverbank. Then they pass by a loath-
him reads as if he took pains to keep the rumour
some person who vigorously stokes up a fire. And
about his early birth alive, cf. VII 1, pp. 100 ff.
so they go on, until they reach a beautiful meadow
With a strand on the authority of Samura b.
where an exceedingly tall man is standing with his
Jundab:
head high in heaven; around his feet there swarm
• “When the Prophet had performed the numerous children. Via an enormous garden they
morning alt, he used to turn around (fac- arrive at the gate of a city built of golden and sil-
ing the congregation) and he would ask: ‘Is ver tiles. In the city they encounter people with one
side of their bodies handsome and the other side of
there anyone among you who had a dream
their bodies disfigured. The two companions order
last night?’”,
those people to throw themselves in a river nearby
cf. Mz., IV, no. 4630 (kh, 23/93, m, IV, p. 1781, with clear water from which after some time they
t, s, confirmed in I
., V, pp. 8, 14, Ibn
ibbn, emerge with their entire bodies intact. ‘This is the
II, pp. 24 f). The key figure in this bundle is Ab Garden of Adn,’ the two companions explain. The
Raj. He has two conceivable PCLs who seem to place where the Prophet himself is destined to stay
have themselves conceivable PCLs, so ascribing is pointed out to him and also the place to which
the gist of this tradition—the Prophet relating his the martyrs are assigned. When the Prophet asks
dreams to his companions—is therefore tentatively to be left therein, the angels tell him that it is not
ascribed to Ab Raj. Inasmuch as he appears to be yet time for that. But they explain to him what the
involved in other dream-related traditions as well, person who had his head bashed in means: that is
the association with this admittedly very early CL the man who had committed the Qurn to memory
seems tenable. The above tradition occurs in sev- without ever reciting it and sleeping all the times
eral forms, in this concise way as well as followed the prescribed alts had to be performed. The man
by lengthy accounts describing dreamlike scenes who had half of his face destroyed by the meat
that run into several pages. The accounts of those hook had been spreading lies which reached as far
scenes are, however, not to be ascribed to Ab Raj as the horizons. The naked men and women had
himself, as they are probably due to a number of been fornicators. The swimming man who had his
later transmitters in this bundle. The actual author- mouth stuffed with stones had been profiting from
ship of the accounts cannot be established with any usury (rib). As for the hideous man who was pok-
measure of certainty. Even so, the contents of these ing up the fire, that was Mlik, the custodian of
protracted dream sequences, set against a backdrop Hell. The tall man is Ibrhm (Abraham) and the
strongly reminiscent of the isr and structured as children swarming around his feet are all those
such, are too interesting to leave out of consider- children, including those of the unbelievers, who
are born al ’l-fira, i.e. destined to become good
1. Cf. WZKM (I), pp. 170 f. Muslims. As is his wont, kh reiterates snippets
AB RAJ AL-U RID 61

from this dream sequence in a number of different the man who drinks something and then
chapters of his a in order to draw special atten- praises Him”,
tion to various legal issues, cf. his treatment of the
cf. Mz., I, no. 857 (m, IV, p. 2095, t, s, confirmed
Ban Urayna story in his tarjama. For the Ban
in IASh., VIII, p. 119, X, 344, I
., III, p. 117, Ab
Urayna story itself, see the tarjama of Muqtil b.
Yal, VII, pp. 298 f). Next to Ab Usma, who
Sulaymn.
may be responsible for this wording, we find div-
With a strand on the authority of Imrn b.
ing strands featuring Muammad b. Bishr onto

uayn and a strand on the authority of Abd Allh


Zakariyy.
b. Abbs who said that the Prophet once related a
With a strand on the authority of Hshim b.
dream he had had:
Hshim (b. Hshim) b. Utba—mir b. Sad—
• “(In a dream) I looked into Paradise and his father Sad b. Ab Waqq, who related the
saw that most of its denizens were paupers; Prophet’s words:
then I looked into Hell and saw that most • “He who breakfasts on seven dates of the
of its inhabitants were women”, ajwa variety will that whole day not be
cf. Mz., VIII, no. 10873 and V, no. 6317 (kh, 81/16, harmed until the evening by any poison or
3, and 81/51, m, IV, p. 2096, t, s, confirmed in ay., enchantment”,
no. 833, I
., I, pp. 234, 359, IV, p. 429). Ab Raj cf. Mz., III, no. 3895 (kh, 76/52, 2, m, III, p. 1618,
is in any case the (S)CL. For extensive comments on d, s, confirmed in IASh., VII, p. 376). This must
this probably ancient, woman-unfriendly Prophetic have been a popular tradition when we look at the
tradition, see elsewhere1. Moreover, in ilya, II, p. numerous strands supporting it. Ab Usma is the
308, he seems to be identified with this tradition. only key figure in this conglomerate of SSs and spi-
ders who can be qualified as (S)CL. Until today the
Ab Usma
ammd b. Usma, (d. 201/816-7) ajwa date2 seems to be available in the market of
mawl of the Ban Hshim, but also other affilia- Medina3. Hshim b. Hshim (b. Hshim) b. Utba
tions are mentioned, cf. Mz., Tahdhb, VII, p. 218. (d. 144/761) is a spectacular SCL, but it is on the
He was accused of tadls and one man, Sufyn whole safer to attribute the wording of this tradition
b. Wak (d. 247), himself a highly untrustworthy to his best-attested PCL Ab Usma. Moreover,
transmitter, qualified Ab Usma as one of the this kind of ibb traditions is mostly relatively late.
most notorious pilferers of reliable traditions, cf. Assigning it therefore to Ab Usma seems the
Mz., Tahdhb, VII, p. 224, note, Dhahab, Mzn most plausible solution. For more on the enchant-
al-itidl, ed. Bajw, I, p. 588. He appears to have ment (sir) against which the dates are believed to
had a knack for circulating similes, cf. further constitute an antidote, see Hishm b. Urwa under
down. His most frequently mentioned pupil is Ab no. 16928. The miraculous effect of the ajwa date
Kurayb Muammad b. al-Al from Kfa who is otherwise thought not to lie in a special property
died in 248/862). It is often difficult to determine of the fruit itself, but it is caused therein through
whether the wording of a tradition is to be ascribed the Prophet’s plea to God to bless this particular
to the master, Ab Usma, or to the pupil, Ab date from Medina in this manner, cf. al-Kha b (d.
Kurayb. But in the case of Ab Usma’s hobbies, 388/998) quoted in I
j., Fat, XII, p. 352.
like his obvious penchant for similes, it is relatively With a strand on the authority of al-Wald b.
safe to attribute those to him. With Raw b. Ubda Kathr—Muammad b. Kab—Ubayd Allh b.
he was apparently the first to show his books to Abd Allh b. Rfi—Ab Sad al-Khudr:
adth students, TB, VIII, p. 402, -3f. • “The Prophet was asked: ‘May we per-
With a strand on the authority of Zakariyy b.
form our ablutions from the well of
Ab Zida—Sad b. Ab Burda b. Ab Ms al-
Bua4 although sanitary napkins, cadav-
Ashar—Anas b. Mlik, who related the Prophet’s
words:

• “Verily, God is satisfied with the man who 2. For modern discussions about traditions dealing with
this date, see Authenticity, pp. 143 f.
eats a meal and then praises God, and with
3. Cf. http://www.arab.net/saudi/sa_madinahlife.htm.
4. This is either the name of the owner of the well or the
1. Cf. Qanara (I), pp. 362-9, where also various dia- name of the place in Medina where it is located, accord-
grams are provided of these bundles. ing to the commentator in s. Other commentators associ-
62 AB USMA
AMMD B. USMA

ers1 of dogs and evil-smelling substances words) ‘… and those with whom you are
are found in it?’ The Prophet said: ‘By all united in contracts …’, referring to succor
means, that water is clean, it is not polluted (in times of danger), food supply (at the
by anything’”, time of the pilgrimage) and good counsel,
cf. Mz., III, no. 4144 (d, Awn al-mab d, I, pp. 88 in those cases inheritance rules are no lon-
f, t, s, I, p. 174, confirmed in I
., III, p. 31, Bay., I, ger applicable, but bequests (beyond the
p. 257). In this tangle of spidery formations and SSs inheritance rules) can be made”,
Ab Usma is the only key figure who deserves the cf. Mz., IV, no. 5523 (kh, 65/4, 7, Fat, IX, pp. 316
qualification of (S)CL. All those spiders and SSs f, d, Awn al-mab d, VIII, pp. 97 f, s, confirmed in
are neatly presented in Ab Yal, II, pp. 476 ff. abar, Tafsr, V, p. 50). Ab Usma is (S)CL of
The commentaries emphasize that it is not people this important inheritance tradition.
who threw the polluting substances into the water, With a strand on the authority of Ubayd Allh b.
but that these were swept there by the wind or run- Umar b.
af—Nfi—Ibn Umar:
nels of rainwater. Besides, the volume of water of
this well was simply so large, the Prophet is said to • “The Prophet as well as Ab Bakr and
have stated, that its purity did not become affected Umar b. al-Kha b used to perform the
by the impurities mentioned. Furthermore, the alts on feast days before (delivering) the
Prophet was once seen spitting in its bucket, which sermon”,
prompted others to wash their sick relatives with
cf. Mz., VI, no. 7823 (kh, 13/8, 2, m, II, p. 605, t, q,
its water, whereupon they were quickly cured, cf.
confirmed in IASh., I, p. 169). Ab Usma is (S)CL
Yqt, Buldn, I, pp. 656 f.
of this wording. The tradition is part of a large MC
For Ab Usma’s involvement in a tradition on the issue.
on various prohibited sales, see Yay b. Sad al- For Mz., VI, no. 7827, a tradition with Ab
Anr under Mz., IV, no. 4646 (kh, 42/17, 5, m, III, Usma as (S)CL on the excellence of the date palm,
pp. 1170 f, t, s). as compared in a popular simile with a believing
With a strand on the authority of Idrs b. Yazd person, is dealt with in Mlik b. Anas under no.
al-Awd— ala b. Muarrif—Sad b. Jubayr—Ibn 7234°.
Abbs: For his involvement in a tradition (no. 7838) on
sahw, i.e. momentary forgetfulness in the alt, see
• “(In the verse IV: 33:) ‘And to everybody
Ibrhm an-Nakha under no. 9451.
We have assigned mawl …’, that word
Ab Usma’s contribution to the MC on the fast
means: ‘… persons entitled to inherit of shr is listed in Mz., VI, no. 9009. For more
(what parents and other relatives have left. on this fast, see Shuba under no. 5450 and Sufyn
And the words) ‘… and those with whom b. Uyayna under no. 5866.
you are united in contracts …’, those Ab Usma plays a distinct role in circulating
words refer to the Muhjirs. When they traditions traced back to the Prophet supported
had arrived in Medina, the Muhjir inher- by bundles ending in a well-known family isnd:
ited from the Anr, beside the fraternal Burayd b. Abd Allh b. Ab Burda / his grandfather
Ab Burda b. Ab Ms al-Ashar / his father Ab
link through the ‘brothering’ procedure2
Ms al-Ashar. Sometimes those bundles consist
which the Prophet instituted between them
of superimposed spiders decked out with deep dives
(sc. Muhjirs and Anrs). (The words:) onto Thawr and others onto Sufyn b. Uyayna and
‘… And to everybody We have assigned others. But Ab Usma is the most prolific user by
mawl …’ have been abrogated. (And the far of this family isnd; we could say that he ‘mono-
polized’3 it. Significantly, he is also the undeniable
ate the well with a clan from the Ban Sida, cf. Yqt, CL of several fa
il traditions eulogizing various
Buldn, I, 656. members of the Ban ’l-Ashar, see below no. 9046
1. For lu m kilb, cf. WKAS, II 1, p. 363, left column, and others. As from Mz., VI, nos. 9036-76, Ab
line 8. This connotation was suggested too by the occur-
rence of the word jiyaf = ‘corpses’ in Yqt, Buldn, I,
p. 657, -7. It is also conceivable that simply ’leftovers of 3. This is indicated in Arabic by the words akthara
dogs’ meals’ are meant. anhu, which we occasionally find in certain master/pupil
2. For this, cf. EI 2, s.v. mukht (W. M. Watt). ‘relationships’.
AB USMA
AMMD B. USMA 63

Usma figures virtually in every bundle and spider that God brought about. I also saw cows2
supported by this strand as well as in a number of being slaughtered, and that God is good-
SSs. Where in the following enumeration certain ness. The cows referred to some casualties
numbers are missing, he was not the clear-cut CL among the believers at Uud, and the good-
or (S)CL: those numbers were either dealt with in
ness3 referred to God’s benefaction and the
the tarjamas of others or simply skipped for lack of
reward for the bravery which God bestowed
relevant data.
Thus with some other transmitters, Ab Usma
upon us after the battle of Badr”,
is (S)CL in a bundle (no. 9038) of superimposed cf. Mz., VI, no. 9043 (kh, 91/39, m, IV, pp. 1779 f, s,
spiders supporting a version from a MC on the per- q, confirmed in Ab Yal, XIII, pp. 283 f, Drim,
missibility of spending on charity from goods given II, 173). Ab Usma is the CL. The matn translated
in trust. For an older version, see Amash under no. here is the one from m. The transmission of this
17608. dream tradition appeared fraught with difficulties.
For a tradition (no. 9039) on the prohibition The order in which the different elements of the
of carrying pointed weapons in the mosque or the Prophet’s dream are listed is confused. For exam-
market, see Sufyn b. Uyayna under no. 2527. ple, mentioning Badr after Uud led to two inter-
On the authority of this strand the Prophet’s pretations, in which the so-called second (failed)
words, in some versions with the added information encounter at Badr, Badr al-mawid a-afr4, is
that he clasped the fingers of both hands together thought to have been referred to. Especially I
j.,
when he spoke them: Fat, XVI, pp. 80 ff, bent over backwards in an
attempt to reason the seeming contradictions in this
• “The believer is for his fellow believer like
tradition away, but the solutions he ventured were
a built-up structure: one part strengthens far from clear-cut, not to say confusing.
the other”, With the same strand the Prophet’s dictum
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9040 (kh, 46/5, 2, m, IV, p. 1999, (paraphrase incorporating various variants):
t, confirmed in Ab Yal, XIII, pp. 279, 307). Ab
• “The guidance and wisdom God has sent
Usma is the best-attested key figure in this tangle
me with can be compared with rain that falls
of superimposed spiders with various key figures:
Ibn al-Mubrak, Abd Allh b. Idrs, Thawr and
on earth. Part of the soil thrives by it, absorb-
Sufyn b. Uyayna ( ay., no. 503,
um., no. 772, ing the water and causing many plants and
I
., IV, pp. 404 f). In I
. the tradition is combined shrubs to flourish. Other—rocky—parts of
with other brief texts resulting in a composite. the soil retain the water in pools and are
For his role in a tradition on the carrying of arms thus beneficial for those who drink from
against Muslims, Mz., VI, no. 9042, see Mlik it, water (sc. their animals) from it or use
under no. 8364°. it for irrigation. But part of the rain falls
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: on plains which do not retain the water and
• “I once dreamt that I moved from Mecca herbage for camels does not sprout from it.
to a region with palm groves. At first I had Thus the simile refers to those who grasp
the impression that it was al-Yamma or God’s religion, absorb (v.l. scrutinize) it
Hajar1, but it turned out to be the city of and benefit from what God sent me with:
Yathrib. I saw in that same dream how I they learn it and subsequently teach it. But
brandished a sword, whereupon its point others do not even raise their heads at it
broke off. That referred to the losses among and are not receptive of the guidance with
the believers sustained at the battle of which I was sent5”,
Uud. Then I dreamt that I brandished the
sword again and it resumed its old splendid 2. In one variant the word for cows, baqar, is read as
shape. That referred to the conquest (sc. of baqr, an infinitive of the verb: slitting open (e.g. of bel-
Mecca) and the fellowship of the believers lies), cf. I
j., Fat, XVI, p. 81, line 15.
3. Goodness, khayr, is also occasionally interpreted as
‘booty’, cf. I
j., Fat, XVI, p. 81, ult.
4. Cf. Wqid, Maghz, I, p. 327.
1. Al-Yamma is the name of the region in the peninsula 5. One may vaguely be reminded of the parable of the
east of Medina in which the city of Hajar is located. sower in Matthew 13: 1-9.
64 AB USMA
AMMD B. USMA
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9044 (kh, 3/20, m, IV, pp. 1787 f, asked: ‘Uncle, who shot you?’ Ab mir
s, confirmed in I
., IV, p. 399, Ab Yal, XIII, pp. pointed someone out to me and said: ‘That
295 f, Rmahurmuz, Amthl, p. 24). Ab Usma man there is my killer. So I set out after
is (S)CL. He appeared fond of similes, cf. the nos. him and when I was about to catch up with
9059, 9064, 9065 and 9070.
him, he turned around and fled. I raced
With the same strand:
after him shouting: ‘Have you no shame?
• “In the lifetime of the Prophet the sun was Are you not an Arab? Will you not stand
darkened by an eclipse. He stood nailed your ground?’ So he stopped running. We
to the ground, terrified that the Hour of exchanged blows and I killed him with
Reckoning had come. Finally he went to a sword thrust. Then I returned to Ab
the mosque and performed the most pro- mir and said: ‘God has killed your man!’
tracted alt I ever saw him performing. Ab mir said: ‘Pull out this arrow.’ So
Thereupon he said: ‘These signs which I pulled it out whereupon fluid4 started
God sends do not portend anyone’s death streaming from the wound. Ab mir said
or birth, but He sends them in order to to me: ‘Nephew, go now to the Messenger
frighten His servants with them. When you of God, greet him from me and say: ‘Thus
see such a sign, seek refuge in mentioning speaks Ab mir to you: ‘Ask forgiveness
God, pray to Him and ask Him for forgive- for me.’ Ab mir placed me at the head
ness’”, of the troops and not long after that he died.
Having returned to the Prophet, I entered his
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9045 (kh, 16/14, m, II, pp. 628 f,
s, confirmed in Ab Yal, XIII, pp. 287 f, Ibn
ib-
quarters. He was lying under a blanket on
bn, IV, pp. 215, 220 f). Ab Usma is the CL of a mattress woven together of palm leaves
this version from the large MC on eclipses. For which had left their marks on his back and
an introduction to this MC, see Yay b. Sad al- sides. I gave him an account of what had
Anr under no. 17936. happened and also about Ab mir and
With the same strand (a slightly abbreviated his message. The Prophet ordered water
account of a battle scene right after the battle at to be brought, he performed a wu
 from

unayn): it and raising his hands so high that I saw


• “When the Prophet had concluded his his white armpits he said: ‘God, pardon
campaign in
unayn, he sent Ab mir1 Ubayd Ab mir. Place him above many
with a contingent of troops to Aw s2 (sc. of Your creatures on the Day of Resurrec-
in pursuit of those who had fled). Having tion.’ Then I spoke: ‘Messenger of God,
arrived there he found that Durayd b. a- ask also forgiveness for me.’ Thereupon he
imma3 had been killed and that God had said: ‘God, forgive Abd Allh b. Qays (i.e.
defeated his comrades. (Ab Ms went Ab Ms al-Ashar) his sins and make
on:) The Prophet had sent me along with him take up a lofty position on the Day of
Ab mir. Ab mir had been wounded Resurrection’”,
with an arrow in his knee by a man from cf. Mz., VI, no. 9046 (kh, 64/55, Fat, IX, pp. 103
the Ban Jusham and the arrow had stuck ff, m, IV, pp. 1943 f, s, confirmed in Ab Yal,
in his knee. I went up to Ab mir and XIII, pp. 299 ff). Here we see Ab Usma as the CL
of the wording of a historical report, which serves
at the same time as a fa
il tradition concerning
1. Ab mir Ubayd b. Sulaym al-Ashar was an uncle
the family members of its narrator, Ab Ms al-
of Ab Ms, the narrator of this story.
2. The name of a wadi leading away from
unayn where Ashar. See for other examples of Ab Usma’s
the Hawzin, one of the warring parties at the
unayn fa
il singing the praises of this clan the nos. 9047,
battle, normally resided, cf. Yqt, Buldn, I, p. 405. 9055 and 9061 below. Why he had this marked pref-
3. He was an ancient poet of the Ban Jusham, who had erence for the Ban ’l-Ashar could not be distilled
been present at the battle hidden in a camel litter, being
120, or as others have it, 160 years old. He had been
brought along by his people because of his wisdom and 4. Literally it says m = water. The commentaries do not
war experience. mention blood in this context.
AB USMA
AMMD B. USMA 65

from data in the rijl lexicons. With many simi- by kh, m and/or Ab Kurayb, why would kh and
lar features the episode is already covered in the m choose so often the same key figure as target of
Sra, IV, pp. 97 ff, Wqid, III, pp. 914 ff, as well their diving strands? Among the dozens of other
as abar, Annales, I, pp. 1655 ff. For background targets they had at their disposal? In other words,
information, cf. EI 2, s. n.
unayn (Lammens, do all these constellations have to be interpreted as
etc.). spiders, as the results of dives pointing downwards,
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: or should these constellations be read rather as
upwards, as bundles, issuing forth from a (S)CL or
• “When the Ban ’l-Ashar have run out of a CL1? Because of the overall high number of kh+m
provisions on campaign or when the avail- / Ab Kurayb / Ab Usma strands, it is surely
able food for their children in Medina is more apposite to interpret the phenomenon in this
scanty, they gather together all they have case as representing bundles rather than as spiders.
left in one garment and then they divide it Various numbers not listed in the following found a
in equal portions among themselves in one place elsewhere in the treatment of textually closely
receptacle. They are truly on a par with me related traditions circulated by other (S)CLs.
and I am truly on a par with them”, With the same strand:

cf. Mz., VI, no. 9047 (kh, 47/1, 4, m, IV, pp. 1944 f, • “When we were in Yemen, news reached
s, confirmed in Ab Yal, XIII, p. 293, Bay., X, p. us that the Messenger of God had come
132). Ab Usma is the CL of this fa
il tradition. into the open embarking upon his Prophetic
See no. 9046 above. mission. So I and two elder brothers of
With the same strand: mine, Ab Burda and Ab Ruhm, went
• “One night a house burnt down with its forth to join him, together with some fifty-
people inside. After this had been reported two or fifty-three members of my clan.
to the Prophet he said: ‘Think of fire as We went aboard a ship which transported
your enemy. When you go to sleep, extin- us to the Najsh in Abyssinia. There we
guish your fires’”, caught up with Jafar b. Ab lib and his
men. Jafar said: ‘The Messenger of God
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9048 (kh, 79/49, 2, m, III, pp. 1596
f, q, confirmed in IASh., VIII, pp. 480 f, I
., IV, has sent us hither and he ordered us to stay
p. 399, Ab Yal, XIII, p. 277, Ibn
ibbn, VII, here, so you stay here too. We did until we
p. 421). Ab Usma is the undeniable CL of this went to join the Messenger of God at the
wording. The tradition is part of the large MC urg- time he had just conquered Khaybar. He let
ing caution for fire and containing suggestions us share in the distribution of the booty2.
how to ward off satanic interference by covering Otherwise those who had not been pres-
vessels and receptacles during the night. For vari- ent at the conquest of Khaybar received
ous themes from this MC, see the tarjama of Ibn nothing. But the people who had travelled
Jurayj under no. 2446 and Mlik b. Anas under no.
with Jafar on the ship did receive a share.
2934*. The fear of fires is centred also in the ‘little
transgressor’ (fuwaysiq), i.e. the mouse that upsets
However, some warriors said to the people
a lamp or gnaws at a candle causing it to crash to who had arrived by ship: ‘We made the
the floor and scurrying away with the smouldering Hijra earlier than you3;’”
wick, cf. Zuhr’s tarjama under no. 16629. Attached to this account which has Ab Usma as
N.B. Nos. 9051-9067 are traditions supported (S)CL, we encounter a second report featuring an
by spidery bundles the majority of which have
only two strands, from kh and m, mostly via Ab
Kurayb Muammad b. al-Al (d. 248/862), com- 1. For the adverbs ‘downwards’ and ‘upwards’, which
ing together in the key figure, Ab Usma. Strictly are crucial in this context, see for example Islam (I), esp.
pp. 208-15.
speaking, considering him to be the (S)CL or the
2. The implication being that the others who had fought
CL in every number cannot be maintained, but an
at the conquest did not mind that those who had not been
argument could be formulated that it was indeed engaged in combat received a portion too, cf. m, IV, p.
Ab Usma who had a hand in many of those tradi- 1946, note 2.
tions: if he is not to be held responsible for their 3. The implication being that they did resent having to
wording and if their strands are all merely dives share in the division of the loot.
66 AB USMA
AMMD B. USMA

argument Jafar’s wife Asm bint Umays is alleged • “The Prophet was asked many questions
to have had with Umar b. al-Kha b concerning which sometimes irritated him, and when
the delicate point of whether or not Jafar and his that went on and on he would become
group had preceded the first Muhjirs in making
angry. Thus (one day) he said to the peo-
the Hijra. This argument caused tempers to flare up
ple: ‘Ask me whatever you want.’ A man
but was finally settled by the Prophet, who decided
approached and asked: ‘Who is my father?’
that those companions of his who had made the
Hijra had made one Hijra and those companions
‘Your father is
udhfa,’ the Prophet
who had been with Jafar in Abyssinia before join- answered. Then someone else approached
ing the Prophet at Khaybar had in fact made two him and asked: ‘Messenger of God, who
Hijras. The issue of sbiqa, that is the question of is my father?’ ‘Your father,’ he answered,
who outstripped whom in paying allegiance to the ‘is Slim, the mawl of Shayba.’ When
Prophet of Islam, gave rise to heated debates which Umar b. al-Kha b saw the expression on
were still carried on among later generations. the Prophet’s face, he said: ‘Messenger of
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9051 (kh, 64/38, 33, I
j., Fat, God, we turn to God in repentance’”,
IX, pp. 24 ff, m, IV, pp. 1946 f, confirmed in Ab
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9052 (kh, 3/28, 3, Fat, I, p. 197,
Yal, XIII, pp. 303 ff). Ab Usma is the (S)CL
m, IV, pp. 1834 f, confirmed in Ab Yal, XIII,
of the first half, but he is probably not in the first
pp. 288 f). Ab Usma is the late (S)CL of the
instance responsible for the precise wording of the
wording of this tradition which belongs to the MC
second half, which has to be considered rather as a
on the reprehensibility of asking (too) many ques-
later considerably enriched and embroidered ver- tions, especially those that have no direct bearing
sion attributed at the hands of kh and m to Ab on important matters of jurisprudence or ritual, or
Usma. For the original wording of this second are posed out of hypocrisy or affectation (takalluf).
half, see IS, VIII, p. 205. Who can be held respon- For an introduction to this MC, see Zuhr under no.
sible for the wording of the IS version could not be 3892. In his commentary, I
j. points to Muqtil’s
ascertained: its isnd is just a mursal with a Sufyn Tafsr (cf. I, p. 508, apud V: 100), where the per-
b. Uyayna / Isml b. Ab Khlid / Shab strand. sons from this tradition asking the Prophet about
N.B. After resigning herself to widowhood for their ancestors are also mentioned: Muammad is
three months1, Asm got married to Ab Bakr. described there as an expert in genealogy.
She bore him a son, Muammad. After Ab Bakr’s With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
demise, Al b. Ab lib took her as his wife. She
bore him two sons, Yay and Awn. When all • “Verily, I recognize the voices of a group
these sons, including the one she had born Jafar, of Ashars reciting the Qurn when they
vied with one another as to who could boast of a return at night and I know from their
more noble birth, Asm is reported to have solved voices reciting the Qurn where they have
the controversy by stating that she had never set alighted, even if I did not see in daylight
eyes on a nobler Arab youth than Jafar, and not where they stepped down. Among them
on a more meritorious elderly man (kahl) than Ab there is a particularly cunning man. When
Bakr. Mockingly, Al said: ‘You have not left us he encounters a cavalry contingent (v.l. the
anything, but if you had said something else, I enemy), he tells them: ‘My comrades com-
would have hated you for it.’ Then Asm is alleged mand you to wait for them’”,
to have said testily: ‘All three2, of whom you are
the most modest, are excellent men!’ Cf. IS, VIII, cf. Mz., VI, no. 9055 (kh, 64/38, 33, Fat, IX, p.
pp. 207 f. 27, m, IV, p. 1944, confirmed in Ab Yal, XIII,
With the same strand: pp. 305 f). This is another of Ab Usma’s fa
il
traditions singing the praises of the Ban ’l-Ashar.
The identity of the cunning man could not be ascer-
tained. Literally the man is described as ‘wise’,
1. Apparently, the prescribed waiting period (idda, cf. akm, but it is tempting to render that in this con-
Qurn II: 234) for widows, fixed at four months and ten text as cunning. The ancient ruse used by a single
days, does not yet appear here to have found implementa-
individual to befuddle an unexpectedly large enemy
tion.
2. To wit Jafar b. Ab lib, Ab Bakr, and Al b. Ab
force by pretending that ‘you are closely followed
lib. by your own comrades’ appears to be depicted in
AB USMA
AMMD B. USMA 67

this early Islamic context. In m the tradition stands With the same strand (free paraphrase):
by itself, while in kh it constitutes the final part of
the discussion Asm bt. Umays had with Umar • “Seeking pious company as compared
concerning the respective merits of one or two Hij- with seeking the company of someone
ras, cf. above under no. 9051. evil is like comparing someone who car-
With the same strand: ries or sells musk with a man who works
the blacksmith’s bellows: the former either
• “A baby boy had been born to me. I went gives or sells some of his musk to you or3
with it to the Prophet who named him you may catch a whiff of its fragrance,
Ibrhm. He chewed some dates and rubbed whereas the bellows-blower may make
with them the soft palate of the child. Then your clothes catch fire4 or you inhale an
he said a prayer over it and gave it back to acrid odour”,
me”,
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9059 (kh, 34/38, m, IV, p. 2026,
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9057 (kh, 71/1, m, III, p. 1690, confirmed in
um., no. 770, I
., IV, pp. 404 f, Ab
confirmed in I
., IV, p. 399, Ab Yal, XIII, p. Yal, XIII, p. 293, Rmahurmuz, Amthl, p. 119).
302, Bay., IX, 305). Ab Usma is CL. The last Either Ab Usma or Sufyn b. Uyayna is (S)CL.
sentence of the tradition does not occur in all the Who copied whom could not be determined.
sources listed here. With the same strand:
With the same strand (paraphrase):
• “We marched out with the Prophet on a
• “I and my mates who had come with me on campaign. We were with six men but we
the ship1 had settled in wadi Bu n2. The had only one camel, which we rode alter-
Messenger of God was residing at the time nately. We got blisters on our feet, mine
in Medina. Every night people came one got blisters too and my nails fell off. Then
after the other for the late evening alt we bound rags around our feet and hence
(to the mosque to be led by the Prophet). that campaign was called the Campaign of
Thus (one night) I and my mates went to the Rags (ghazwat ar-riq) on account of
join the Prophet (for that alt), (but he the rags we wrapped around our feet”,
was not there) being occupied elsewhere
with something or other. Finally, when cf. Mz., VI, no. 9060 (kh, 64/30, m, III, p. 1449, con-
more than half of the night had gone by, firmed in Ab Yal, XIII, pp. 289 f). There is great
he emerged and performed the alt with confusion as to the exact month and year in which
this campaign is supposed to have taken place. For
them. After concluding it, he said to those
a run-down of some of the suggested data, after
present: ‘Stay here a while, I would like to
Khaybar or before, after the campaign to the Ban
tell you something that might gladden you. ‘n-Nar or before Khandaq, etc., cf. I
j., Fat,
By God’s grace, there is nobody else who VIII, p. 421. The campaign of Dht ar-Riq is duly
performs this alt (sc. at this late hour) covered in the earliest sources (cf. Sra, III, pp.
except you.’ So we went home, glad at 213 ff, Wqid, I, pp. 395 f, IS, II 1, pp. 43 f), but
what we had heard from him”, without the details found in the tradition translated
here for which Ab Usma may be responsible.
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9058 (kh, 9/21, 2, m, I, pp. 443 f,
One feature often mentioned in connection with
confirmed in Ab Awna, I, pp. 363 f, Ab Yal,
this campaign is allegedly the very first time that a
XIII, pp. 285 f). Ab Usma is CL of this tradition.
alt al-khawf, a alt in times of danger, was per-
It emphasizes the special merit of the late evening
formed; for an introduction and a description of this
alt, the alt al-ish. The moment when the
type of alt, see Yay b. Sad al-Anr under
performance thereof has to begin has given rise
no. 4645. However, the identification of the danger
to some confusion, as is evidenced in a number of
alt with the Dht ar-Riq campaign remains a
partly conflicting traditions.

1. Presumably a reference to the ship mentioned in no. 3. In a variant: ‘… and even if he does not give you any-
9051 above. thing …’
2. This is with al-Aqq and Qant one of the three wadis 4. In a variant: ‘… and even if the sparks do not rain
in Medina, cf. Yqt, Buldn, I, p. 662. down on you …’
68 AB USMA
AMMD B. USMA
controversial issue, to the point that the commen- then goes to sleep again, until he can per-
tators resorted to the age-old device of suggesting form it with the imm in the mosque”,
that there must have been two campaigns known
by the same name, one with that alt and one with cf. Mz., VI, no. 9063 (kh10/31, 3, m, I, p. 460, con-
different features, cf. I
j., Fat, VIII, pp. 427 ff. firmed in Ab Yal, XIII, p. 278, Bay., III, p. 64).
With the same strand: Ab Ms is (S)CL. In the commentary of I
j.
(Fat, II, p. 281) we read that the more steps one
• “I was with the Prophet when he alighted has to take to reach the mosque, the more benefit
with Bill at (a place called) al-Jirna that engenders. But expressly moving house to a
between Mecca and Medina. Then a nomad far away place in order to reap more benefit by
came to him and said: ‘Will you not carry being forced to walk distances for congregational
out what you promised me1?’ ‘Rejoice,’ the alts is disapproved, as it is also frowned upon to
Prophet said (meaning thereby that fulfil- overstretch oneself by walking such distances or to
ment of a particular promise that he could choose on purpose a faraway mosque when there
share in the booty of the
unayn battle is is one just around the corner of one’s home. The
near). ‘You have told me often enough that term for ostentation (riy), which is frowned upon
I should be of good cheer!’, the man said. in Islam, is not mentioned in this context, but it is
clearly implied in the commentary.
Angrily the Prophet approached Ab Ms
With the same strand:
and Bill and said: ‘This man rejects my
reassurance, therefore you two must show • “Comparing the house in which God’s
him kindness.’ ‘We will, Messenger of name is mentioned with the house in which
God’, they said. Then the Prophet ordered that is not the case is like comparing a liv-
a jar of water to be brought. He washed his ing person with a dead one”,
hands and face in it and spat in it. Then he
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9064 (kh, 80/66, m, I, p. 539, con-
said: ‘You two, drink from it and pour it
firmed in Ab Yal, XIII, p. 291, Ibn
ibbn, II, p.
over your faces and your chests and then 108). Ab Usma is (S)CL.
rejoice.’ They took the jar and did what With the same strand another simile:
they were told to do. Umm Salama (the
Prophet’s wife) called out to them from • “Comparing that with which God has sent
behind the entrance curtain (sc. of her me (to you) is like comparing a man who
tent): ‘Let your mother take from what is comes to his people and says: ‘People, lis-
left in the jar.’ So they poured part of it out ten. With my own eyes I saw the army2. I
for her”, am the naked warner, therefore save your-
selves, save yourselves!’ Some people
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9061 (kh, 64/56, 5, m, IV, p. 1943,
responded and, leisurely taking their time,
confirmed in Ab Yal, XIII, pp. 301 f). Again
they moved out in the middle of the night
Ab Usma is seen here as probably responsible
for the wording of a khabar-like report.
and thus saved themselves. But another
With the same strand the Prophet’s words (para- group of people thought he was lying (and
phrase): stayed where they were), so the army sur-
prised them at daybreak and wiped them
• “Those people receive the highest reward out”,
in their alt who are farthest away, that is
to say: who have to walk the greatest dis- cf. Mz., VI, no. 9065 (kh, 81/26, m, IV, pp. 1788
tance (sc. to the mosque). He who waits f, confirmed in Ab Yal, XIII, pp. 294 f, Ibn

ibbn, I, p. 103, Rmahurmuz, Amthl, p. 20).
with the imm (in the mosque) until he can
Ab Usma is again the CL of this simile. The con-
perform it (sc. the early morning alt) in
congregation receives a higher reward than
he who performs that alt (at home) and 2. The use of the definite article of ‘army’ is interpreted
by Ibn
ajar as indicating that it is used here ‘… to dis-
tinguish a noun as known to the hearer, or reader, in a
1. Apparently a share from the booty acquired at the bat- particular sense’, in Arabic li’l-ahd, cf. Lane, p. 2183,
tle of
unayn was meant. middle column.
AB USMA
AMMD B. USMA 69

cept of the ‘naked warner’ has given rise to some cf. Mz., X, no. 14294 (kh, 49/7, 2, Fat, VI, p. 88,
ingenious interpretations. First it was thought to be confirmed in IS IV 2, p. 53, I
., II, p. 286, ilya,
a reference to a member of the Khatham tribe who I, p. 379). Ab Usma is in any case the (S)CL.
had been assaulted and, together with his wife, had Initially, Ab Usma’s position in the above bun-
his hand chopped off on the day the pagan temple dle appeared not secure enough to attribute the tra-
of Dh ’l-Khalaa was conquered; he escaped and dition to him, and it was for that reason that I
.
warned his tribe. Thus the metaphor is said to have was tentatively held responsible for it1. However,
originated. Another explanation of the ‘naked war- since an enumeration of a variety of other sources
ner’ is thought to be a reference to someone who which all indicate Ab Usma as a key figure in
doffed his clothes in order to run faster to warn his this bundle was later found in I
j., Fat, VI, p. 89,
people for an approaching enemy. These are two it is now, with due caution of course, ranged among
interpretations among a number of more fanciful Ab Usma’s contributions to tradition literature.
ones, for which see I
j., Fat, XIV, pp. 98 f. With a strand on the authority of Hishm b.
For his position in no. 9066, see
ammd b. Urwa—his father Urwa b. az-Zubayr—Asm bt.
Zayd under no. 9122. Ab Bakr (a story incorporating various variants):
With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
• “When az-Zubayr (b. al-Awwm) mar-
• “There will come a time for mankind that ried me, he had no property, no slaves nor
someone goes around with alms consisting anything except one camel and his horse.
of gold for which he nevertheless will not I used to tend his horse and give it its fod-
find anyone who is willing to accept it. The der and water. The camel I gave date pits
single man will see himself pursued by as which I had grounded as well as fodder and
many as forty women wanting to seek ref- water. I also sewed az-Zubayr’s leather
uge with him because of the paucity of men water bucket and I kneaded his dough. I
and the abundance of women”, was not very good at baking bread, but my
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9067 (kh, 24/8, 4, m, II, p. 700, con- Anr neighbours, all trustworthy women,
firmed in Ab Yal, XIII, p. 285, Ibn
ibbn, VIII, helped me with that. I myself used to carry
p. 270). Ab Usma is (S)CL. For an older tradition on my head the date pits from az-Zubayr’s
on this subject, see Shuba under no. 1240. land, which the Prophet had assigned to
For his position in no. 9069, see Shuba under him2 to our home, a distance of two thirds
no. 9086. of a parasang3. One day when I was carry-
Nos. 9070 - 9076 of Mz. are all supported by ing another load of date pits on my head,
SSs and although Ab Usma figures in some of I met the Messenger of God who had
these also, they have here been left out of consid-
several companions with him. He called
eration.
me and saying ‘ich ich ‘4 to his camel in
With a strand on the authority of Isml b. Ab
Khlid—Qays b. Ab
zim (paraphrase): order to make it kneel, he invited me to
ride it behind him. But I was (too) shy to
• “Wanting to embrace Islam, Ab Hurayra ride with those men and I remembered az-
arrived in Medina. On the way he lost sight Zubayr and his jealousy, for he was the
of a slave of his who had set out with him.
When after some time the slave also came
to Medina, he found Ab Hurayra sitting 1. Cf. Festschrift Wagner, pp. 201 ff.
2. The land assigned to az-Zubayr (iq) was formerly
with the Prophet, who said: ‘Hey Ab Hu-
the property of the Jewish tribe of an-Nar. The owner-
rayra, look, your slave has arrived.’ Ab ship as such rested with the Muslim community, only its
Hurayra said: ‘I hereby swear that he is yield was for az-Zubayr to keep that is why there is no
free.’ It was during that journey that he re- contradiction in this account. The camel and the horse
cited (awl): constituted his only possessions, as stated in the first sen-
tence.
‘O long and haunting night, how much it 3. A parasang is three miles, each mile is one thousand
tired me, cubits and a cubit measures twenty-four fingers, cf. m,
IV, p. 1716, note 4.
But from the land of unbelief it wrenched 4. The ch is pronounced as ch in the Scottish word
me!’”, ’loch’.
70 AB USMA
AMMD B. USMA

most suspicious of men. The Messenger of 16951. The latter may also have a hand in circulat-
God realized that I was too shy and rode ing the wording of the above report, but this is not
on. I went to az-Zubayr and said: ‘The clearly borne out in the collections1; that is why it
Prophet together with several men just is listed here with Ab Usma. I
j., Fat, XIV, p.
59, lines 12 f, quotes the commentator Ibn Ba l
met me carrying the date pits on my head.
(d. 449/1057, cf. GAS, I, p. 118), who said that as
He made his camel kneel for me to ride it
soon as food is weighed, one can guess when it will
behind his back, but I was bashful, aware be exhausted. It is better therefore not to weigh it,
of your suspicious mind.’ Az-Zubayr said: unless the weighing is prescribed in a commercial
‘By God, you having to carry the date pits transaction. Food that is not weighed contains a
on your head weighs more heavily on my blessing (baraka), on account of its quantity being
conscience than your riding with him.’ In unknown. But I
j. adds that the above case applies
the end Ab Bakr (my father) sent me a only to this particular occasion concerning isha.
servant to help me in tending the horse; it Other companions, whose blessed food miracu-
felt as if I had been emancipated”, lously did not run out, such as the dates in the
knapsack (mizwad) of Ab Hurayra2, saw the sup-
cf. Mz., XI, no. 15725 (kh, 67/108, 6, Fat, XI, pp. ply discontinued for different reasons. One of those
234 ff, m, IV, pp. 1716 f, s, confirmed in I
., VI, p. was thought to be the sudden covetousness (ir)
347). Ab Usma is (S)CL. The commentator has- a person experiences when he is confronted with
tens to point out that this incident occurred before God’s bounty, for which he is moreover negligent
the ijb verse (XXXIII: 53) had been revealed, for in expressing his gratitude to Him. For all this, see
which see
ammd b. Zayd under Mz., I, no. 287, I
j., Fat, XIV, pp. 59 f.
and Yaqb b. Ibrhm under Mz., I no. 1505. The With the same strand:
Prophet offering her a ride is furthermore interpreted
either as a seat behind him on his camel or a ride • “Ab Bakr entered my quarters, when two
on a camel from the group of riders accompanying Anr slave girls were there with me, sing-
him. A wife occupying herself with the chores enu- ing songs the Anr used to recite to one
merated is, furthermore, not to be interpreted as her another about (the battle of) Buth. They
natural duty, but rather as born out of necessity in were not professional singers. Ab Bakr
the current circumstances characterizing the house- said: ‘(What is) this flutelike singing (maz-
hold of az-Zubayr and his wife at the time. m r, mizmr) of the devil in the quarters
Ab Usma is the CL in an elaborate version of the Messenger of God! And on a feast
of the so-called honey-prohibiting issue, cf. Mz.,
day!’ But the Prophet said: ‘Ab Bakr,
XII, no. 16796, for which see
ajjj b. Muammad
under no. 16322.
each people has its feast days and today is
With a strand on the authority of Hishm b. our feast day’”,
Urwa—his father Urwa b. az-Zubayr—isha cf. Mz., XII, no. 16801 (kh, 13/3, 2, Fat, III, p. 98,
(paraphrase): m, II, pp. 607 f, q). Ab Usma is (S)CL among
a few SSs. This is one of two late traditions con-
• “When the Prophet had died, there was in
cerning singing. Neither is well established. They
my house (v.l. on my shelf) nothing for a
belong to the category of rukha, i.e. ‘concessions’.
living being to eat other than some bar- For the other one, which is closely related but has
ley, so I ate from it until it dawned upon a different wording, see Abd Allh b. Wahb under
me that it lasted an incredibly long time. no. 16391. The battle of Buth in 617 A.D. con-
I weighed it, and after that the barley was stituted the final confrontation of the Aws and the
soon exhausted”, Khazraj, in fact the last altercation in a series of bat-
tles, before the arrival of the Prophet after his Hijra
cf. Mz., XII, no. 16800 (kh, 81/16, 5, Fat, XIV,
from Mecca, cf. EI 2, s.n. (Bosworth). The conflicts
pp. 58 f, m, IV, pp. 2282, q, confirmed in IASh.,
gave rise to hij (i.e. lampooning verses) and fakhr
XIII, p. 362, Bay., VII, p. 47). Ab Usma is the
(self-glorifying verses) brought into circulation by
(S)CL. The matn was eventually added to other ele-
both tribes, and these verses apparently lay at the
ments together forming a composite, for which see
basis of the slave girls’ singing.
I
., VI, p. 108 (no. 24759). The other elements of
this composite were dealt with individually in the
tarjamas of Abd ar-Ramn b. Ab Zind under 1. But see a SS in t, cf. no. 17227.
no. 17019, and Hishm b. Urwa under nos. 16823, 2. Cf. Mz., IX, no. 12893 (t, V, pp. 685 f, I
., II, p. 352).
AB WIL SHAQQ B. SALAMA 71

Ab Wil Shaqq b. Salama, the muammar, from


amza—Zuhr—Slim b. Abd Allh b. Umar—
Kfa. He is reported to have died at the age of one his father, who related the Prophet’s words (abbre-
hundred in 82/701, the year in which several of viated paraphrase of the ‘tradition of the cave’
the muammar n are said to have died: Suwayd b. incorporating in brackets various readings distilled
Ghafala, Zirr b.
ubaysh, Rib b.
irsh and Zayd from several versions which all tell the same story,
b. Wahb, cf. Khalfa, Tarkh, ed. Umar, p. 288, although in quite different wordings):
and a paper in WZKM, LXXXI, 1991, pp. 155-75.
The extensive tarjama devoted to him in IS, VI, pp. • “Three men sought refuge in a cave in
64-9 is crammed with references to the early years order to spend the night. A rock sud-
of his life, something which may be construed denly came down from the mountain and
as oblique attempts at substantiating his claim as blocked the entrance to the cave. The men
to the advanced age he claimed to have reached. said to each other: ‘Nothing will save us
His alleged contacts with companions such as from this situation except praying to God,

udhayfa, who died already in 36/656, are other- (so remind Him of) the most pious deeds
wise open to doubt. The number of traditions with (we performed in our lives, maybe He will
which he is associated is considerable. However, open the cave for us again).’
they are almost always transmitted by Amash, and
only rarely by others. Amash is occasionally cop- The first man prayed: ‘God, (next to a wife
ied by his peers through dives onto Ab Wil, but and young children,) I have two elderly
that is what they are: dives. And when Shuba is parents. When in the evening I have milked
once or twice paraded as inserting someone other my beasts, I always go to my parents first
than Amash between himself and Ab Wil, that with the milk. One evening I was late and
is instantly dismissed by experts in matters of rijl they had already gone to sleep. Loth to
who state that Shuba had it in reality from Amash, rouse them, I waited with the vessel in my
and not from his ‘insert’, see ilya, IV, p. 112.
hand until they would wake up. I did not
This source is otherwise replete with Ab Wil
like to feed my wife and children before
traditions almost without exception transmitted by
Amash. That is not to say that they were due to
feeding my parents, (although they were
Amash as CL, on the contrary, more often than not clamouring with hunger around my feet).
they were just supported through Amash via SSs This lasted until morning. God, (You know
constructed by later traditionists. that) I acted thus in order to invoke Your
Ab Wil is a seemingly undeniable CL in a beneficence, so please open up the cave
tradition on the tooth stick (siwk), cf. Mz., III, no. for us, (that we can see the sky).’ So God
3336. However, it is safer to ascribe it to Amash in caused a crack to appear (and they could
whose tarjama it is dealt with under the same number see the sky), but they could not yet get out.
and where also a diagram of the bundle is presented.
Ab Wil is SCL and no more than that in a Then the second man prayed: ‘God, I have
spidery bundle supporting a khabar on the
uday- a cousin, the daughter of my uncle, whom I
biya treaty, cf. Mz., IV, no. 4661 (kh, 96/7, 2, m, love passionately. I tempted her to lie with
III, pp. 1411 f, s,
um., no. 404, I
., III, p. 485, cf. me, but she refused, until she was struck
Wqid, II, p. 606, ab., Annales, I, pp. 1545 f). by a period of drought. She came to me for
Ab Wil is also SCL in a tradition on trade help and I promised her one hundred and
ethics, Mz., VIII, no. 11103, for which see Ab twenty dnr on condition that she would
Muwiya under that number. offer herself to me. She accepted. So I
toiled and laboured, until I had scraped the
Ab ’l-Yamn al-
akam b. Nfi, a mawl from money together. (I brought the money to

im. He is said to have died in 221/836. His her and when I was about to lie with her,)
alleged transmission from Shuayb b. Ab
amza is
she exclaimed: ‘(Fear God,) do not break
fraught with unanswered questions and controver-
my seal unless you have the right thereto
sial (is that what is meant with the adjective asir,
used to describe that relationship?), cf. Mz., Tah- (by marrying me1).’ So I refrained from
dhb, VII, pp. 149 ff. During a visit to Medina, he
was initially perplexed by the luxury surrounding 1. In one particular version she was allegedly married
Mlik b. Anas, cf. Dhahab, Siyar, X, p. 324. already, but she had obtained her husband’s permission
With a strand on the authority of Shuayb b. Ab to sleep with the man in order to alleviate the hunger
72 AB ‘L-YAMN AL-
AKAM B. NFI

making love to her. I stood up and, leav- chose to precede his remarks by a digest of the other
ing the money behind, I went on my way. cave story, which is the subject of the above tradi-
God, (You know that) I acted thus in order tion (cf. his Anwr at-tanzl, ed. H.O. Fleischer, pp.
to invoke Your favour, so please, rescue us 555 f). It received at the hands of a generation of
from this situation.’ Then the entrance to late adth collectors a duly Islamic flavour.
For his role as conceivable CL in Mz., V, no.
the cave opened up some more, but they
6840, a tradition on the maximum life span of the
could not yet get out.
companions, see Azq. under no. 6934.
Thereupon the third man prayed: ‘God, With a strand on the authority of Shuayb b. Ab
I hired labourers and I gave them their
amza—Abd Allh b. Abd ar-Ramn b. Ab
wages (consisting of three  of rice), ex-
usayn—Nfi b. Jubayr—Ibn Abbs:
cept for one man, who left (leaving the rice • “Once during the life of the Prophet,
behind). Then I took that rice, (I used it Musaylima the Liar came to Medina. One
for cultivation) producing a bumper crop time he had proclaimed: ‘If, upon his death,
with it, which enriched me greatly. After Muammad transfers his authority to me,
some time that man came to me and asked I shall follow him.’ He arrived in Medina
for his wages. I said to him: ‘All that you amidst a large entourage. With Thbit b.
see, camels, cows, sheep and slaves, are Qays b. Shamms (the spokesman of the
yours.’ The man said: ‘Do not mock me.’ Anr), the Prophet went to him with a
But I said: ‘I am not mocking you.’ The stripped palm branch in his hand and,
man led all the beasts (v.l. one cow) away. when he was directly facing him and his
God, You know, I acted like this only to men, he said: ‘Even if you had asked me
seek Your beneficence, so please rescue us to give you this palm branch, I would not
from this situation.’ have given it to you. You will never trans-
Then the rock was removed, and the men gress what God has commanded concern-
could get out”, ing you and (even) if you withdraw, God
will certainly destroy you. Verily, I realize
cf. Mz., V, no. 6839 (kh, 37/12, Fat, V, pp. 356
that what I saw in my dream pertained to
f, m, IV, pp. 2100 f). This spider is an isnd for-
mation which indicates someone who conceivably you. Thbit here will further deal with you
might have been involved in the circulation of the in my place.’ And then he left.”
wording it supports, Ab ’l-Yamn. The tradition Ibn Abbs went on: “Thereupon I asked
of the cave was apparently popular and a number Ab Hurayra about the Prophet’s words:
of spiders and SSs were devised by otherwise non-
‘I realize that it was you whom I saw in
identifiable adth collectors in order to bring into
circulation an equal number of wordings, some
my dream.’ Ab Hurayra told me that the
verbally similar, some others indeed widely dif- Prophet had said: ‘While I was asleep I
fering. Most of those versions were labelled asan saw that I had two golden bracelets on my
as well as
af, clear indications that they did not arms. I was worrying about them, when it
meet with general acceptance at the hands of medi- was revealed in my dream: ‘Blow upon
eval Muslim adth critics either1. Also the order in them!’ I did and they vanished (lit. flew
which the three prayers are narrated varies in some away). I interpreted the bracelets as (refer-
versions. The legend was conceivably of Christian ring to) two false pretenders (lit. liars) who
origin, for which assumption there are a few argu- would come to the fore after my death, the
ments. Thus it was occasionally mentioned in tan-
first of those would be al-Ans and the
dem with another, this time undoubtedly, Christian
other would be Musaylima’”,
legend, also situated in a cave, that of the Seven
Sleepers of Ephesus. While commenting on s ra cf. Mz., X, no. 13574 (kh, 64/70, 2, m, IV, pp.
XVIII, the Cave, containing that legend, Bayw 1780 f, t, s). Ab ’l-Yamn is the CL of this word-
ing. The first false prophet mentioned here was
of her children, cf. I
j., Fat, VII, p. 321, lines 11 ff. al-Aswad b. Kab al-Ans, an Arab chieftain of
1. Cf. I
j., Fat, VII, p. 322 f, Ab Yal, V, pp. 313-6, an. Musaylima (lit. the little Muslim), the son
for a run-down of all the SSs this popular tradition is sup- of Thumma b. Kabr b.
abb b. al-
rith, was
ported by in several non-canonical collections. a leader of the Ban
anfa, a tribe that resided
AB ‘L-YAMN AL-
AKAM B. NFI 73

in the Yamma east of Medina. Musaylima was ble for the wording of the report, under no. 16126.
called the Ramn of al-Yamma because of his Many very different traditions are traced back
high standing among his people (I
j., Fat, IX, to her by a number of fuqah, resulting in bundles
p. 152, 121). Wash b.
arb al-
abash, the man with a host of different CLs, each with his own
who allegedly killed
amza, the Prophet’s uncle, at report, of the day that there occurred an eclipse of
Uud, is recorded to have finished off Musaylima the sun. The persons who occur in isha isnd
at the battle of al-Yamma: in Muqtil, Tafsr, III, strands in the slot of the fuqah are her nephew
p. 241, we read that he is supposed to have said: ‘I Urwa, her protégée Amra bt. Abd ar-Ramn, and
am the killer of the best of men (i.e.
amza) and the the Meccan storyteller Ubayd b. Umayr. For an
killer of the most wicked of men, Musaylima.’ The introduction to this what is in fact a huge MC and
story about Musaylima’s contacting the Prophet is the numerous CLs figuring in it, see Yay b. Sad
already alluded to in Ibn Isq’s Sra, cf. IV, pp. al-Anr under no. 17936, and furthermore Mlik
246 f. The story is often followed by the account under no. 17148°, Ibn Wahb under no. 16692, and
of the dream concerning the two golden bracelets. Wald b. Muslim under no. 16528.
For a detailed study of the alleged role played For CLs from this MC tracing their versions back
by Musaylima during the life of the Prophet and to companions other than isha, see Mlik under
after his death, see a paper by D. F. Eickelman in no. 5977°, Hishm b. Urwa under no. 15750, Ab
JESHO, X, 1967, pp. 17-52, and also EI 2, s.n. (W. Usma under no. 9045, Zida b. Qudma under no.
M. Watt). Azq. lists the story with his Hammm / 11499 and Yay b. Ab Kathr under no. 8963.
Ab Hurayra isnd, cf. Mz., X, no. 14707 (kh, m, isha is found in a striking number of SS and
but not in Azq.’s Muannaf). spider-supported tafsr traditions. CLs herein are
few and far between. Only Hishm b. Urwa occa-
Afla b.
umayd, a mawl whose year of death sionally takes that position.
is variously given as 156/775, 158/773 or 165/782. isha figures also in many accounts (of certain
He is a typical example of an artificial CL like features) of the farewell pilgrimage. On the whole,
Muammad b. Amr b. Alqama: he occurs in bun- she plays a pivotal role in the canonical adth
dles in which he is a spectacular SCL, but he has collections in MCs on certain matters supposedly
no believable PCLs and all the strands coming depicting the Prophet’s private customs in his
together in him are SSs. This is evidenced in his observation of the ibdt. Most isha traditions
tarjama in Mz., Tahdhb, III, pp. 321 f. For a few of will be listed in the tarjamas of the said fuqah
such bundles, see Mz., XII, nos. 17433 ff. or of the CLs. But a few exceptions, in which the
events may historically be maintained as pertaining
isha bt. Ab Bakr, a woman who is widely to a facet of the life of isha or one of her daily
reported in the early sources as the Prophet’s habits, will be dealt with here in her tarjama. One
favourite wife. She was only eighteen years old of these exceptions is isha’s accompanying the
when he died. She was born eight years before the Prophet on the farewell pilgrimage and perfuming
Hijra and she died in 58/678 or 59/679. Her name him while he is in a state of consecration, or plait-
is often found in isnd strands supporting accounts ing the ceremonial necklaces for his sacrificial ani-
that are supposedly transmitted by several first/sev- mals. Because of the plausibility of isha’s role in
enth century fuqah. The vast majority of tradi- these matters, the matns dealing with those, as well
tions supported by isha strands, with or without as their respective bundles, will be dealt with here2.
those fuqah, deals with points of law and ritual, The strands supporting traditions from these huge
and I
j. alleges that they comprise one fourth of clusters in the canonical collections are replete
all akm shariyya (cf. Fat, VIII, p. 107). But with first/seventh century fuqah, from the
ijz
amidst the material supposedly transmitted in her as well as Iraq. And it is the fanning out to vari-
name are also several akhbr, historical accounts. ous fuqah that is the binding principle for these
A prominent example is the adth al-ifk which is
assumed to describe a well-known, conceivably
historical, episode from her life, for which see the 2. It is astounding that the issue of sending a sacrificial
tarjama of Zuhr, the man most probably responsi- animal with or without its ceremonial necklace ahead in
order to slaughter it on the day of the Great Feast is not
found in either Azq. or IASh. A thorough search has re-
1. In Muqtil, Tafsr, III, p. 79, the identification of vealed that the issues are simply not dealt with in their
Ramn with Musaylima is attributed to Ab Jahl, one Muannafs in one chapter, although there are scattered
of Muammad’s fiercest adversaries in Mecca. Cf. also references to the practice of adorning with necklaces,
idem, II, p. 575. such as in IASh., IV, p. 56.
74 ISHA BT. AB BAKR

matters to be dealt with here in Aisha’s tarjama. dles with Urwa as (S)CL in Mz., XII, no. 16582, in
For isha’s account of how she accompanied which Layth is responsible for the wording which
the Prophet on the farewell pilgrimage, and how he traced back to isha via Zuhr. Urwa is also
matters were complicated for her because of the (S)CL in no. 16447 in which we find Ibn Uyayna
sudden onset of her period, which is transmitted in that position. And Urwa’s son Hishm crops up
through the early fuqah Urwa b. az-Zubayr, al- as his PCL in I
., VI, pp. 191, 212 f. Another faqh,
Qsim b. Muammad b. Ab Bakr, Amra bt. Abd a grandson of Ab Bakr, Qsim b. Muammad, is
ar-Ramn and Ibrhm an-Nakha on the authority (S)CL in no. 17433 with Afla b.
umayd as PCL2,
of his uncle Aswad, in a variety of different word- in no. 17466 with Abd Allh b. Awn as PCL3,
ings and for the main features of which we may and in 17530 (+ I
., VI, pp. 85, 183) with Abd
hold isha herself responsible, see the following ar-Ramn b. Qsim as PCL. With a strand back
(S)CLs each of whom is responsible for his own to isha via Masrq, Shab is (S)CL in no. 17616
particular matn: Yay b. Sad b. Qays al-Anr with Isml b. Ab Khlid, Dwd b. Ab Hind
under no. 17933; Mlik under the nos. 16389°, and Zakariyy b. Ab Zida as PCLs. Finally, in
16591° and 17517°; Abd Allh b. Awn under no. no. 17899 (kh, 40/14, m, II, p. 959, s, confirmed in
15971; Sufyn b. Uyayna under nos. 9687 and Mlik°, I, pp. 340 f, I
., VI, p. 180) there is a com-
17482;
ammd b. Salama under no. 17477 and parable matn for which Mlik was responsible. He
Jarr b. Abd al-
amd under no. 15984. traced it back via a strand with Abd Allh b. Ab
isha may be assumed to have declared in Bakr b. Muammad b. Amr b.
azm and Amra bt.
respect of the farewell pilgrimage (paraphrase): Abd ar-Ramn to isha. In his matn we also find
an allusion to the controversy to which isha’s
• “It is as if I still see1 the perfume glistening initial statement had eventually given rise: anyone
in the parting of the Prophet’s hair while he who has prepared his sacrificial animal and sent it
was in a state of consecration”, along in order to have it slaughtered after the ajj is
no longer allowed to have sexual intercourse until
cf. Mz., XI, no. 15925, 15928, 15954, 15975, 15988 after the sacrifice. ‘No,’ isha is reported to have
16026 (kh, 5/14, 2, m, II, p. 848, d, s, q, confirmed said … (follows the tradition mentioned above).
in ay., nos. 1378, 1385,
um., no. 215, Bagh., I, And also (paraphrase):
pp. 89, 265, I
., VI, pp. 38, 109, 245). Ibrhm an-
Nakha is the best-attested faqh. This is one ver- • “The Prophet used to kiss me and touch
sion from the MC on the permissibility of the use me while he was observing a fast; he could
of perfume for a person who is about to embark on restrain his sexual urge better than any
the ajj and who assumes a state of consecration man”,
(irm). See Shuba under Mz., XII, no. 17598 for
a SCL. Mlik is yet another in this MC, see there cf. Mz., XI, nos. 15950 (m, II, p. 777, d, t, s) and
15972 (m, s, q) with Aswad, Ibrhm, Manr, Abd
under no. 17518*.
Allh b. Awn and Amash as (S)CL and PCLs, no.
And also:
16164 (d, s) with ala b. Abd Allh b. Uthmn4,
• “I plaited the ceremonial necklaces for XII, no. 16379 (m, s) with Urwa b. az-Zubayr and
the sacrificial victims of the Prophet. Umar b. Abd al-Azz, no. 17313 (m, s) again with
He adorned them and sent them away to Urwa, his son Hishm and Yay b. Sad al-Qa n,
no. 17407 (m, s) with Alqama, no. 17414 (m, s)
Mecca; he stayed at home without any-
with Al b. al-
usayn b. Al, no. 17423 (m, d, t, s,
thing being forbidden to him”, q) with Amr b. Maymn and Ab ’l-Awa as CL,
cf. Mz., XI, nos. 15947, 15931, 15985, 16036 (kh, no. 17486 (m, s) with Qsim b. Muammad and his
25/111, m, II, p. 958, s, q, confirmed in ay., no. son Abd ar-Ramn, no. 17644 (m, s) with Masrq
1388,
um., no. 218, I
., VI, pp. 171, 213 f). Al-
Aswad b. Yazd is the oldest (S)CL in these bun-
2. The wording of this particular version contains the ad-
dles. In later tiers we find Ibrhm an-Nakha, Ab
ditional information that the Prophet made a ceremonial
Isq, Manr and Amash as PCLs. This matn is incision in the right side of the animal (asharah).
found in a number of different wordings which all 3. Ibn Awn’s matn differs from all the others in that it
amount to the same thing, supported by other bun- mentions that isha made the necklaces out of multicol-
oured woolen threads.
4. He is even identified with this tradition from isha in
1. This expression is also used to indicate dreaming. I
j., Tahdhb, V, p. 18.
ISHA BT. AB BAKR 75

and Ab ‘- u Muslim b. ubay, nos. 17369, head and beard. Some say that before assuming the
17723, 17773 and 17789 with Ab Salama. Apart irm status perfuming oneself was especially rec-
from these we find a large number of SSs with vari- ommended (mustaabb) when the wish thereto was
ous fuqah all supporting the same statement. For formulated, but applying it in such quantity that its
a survey of these, see IASh., III, pp. 59-64, Azq., colour as well as its scent lasted for some time was
IV, pp. 182-8. Furthermore, for an interesting vari- felt to interfere with that sacred state. Not all schol-
ant, see Mlik under no. 17170*. ars agreed on this point, however, and it remained a
isha may also be assumed to have said (para- matter of controversy, cf. I
j., Fat, apud ajj 18.
phrase): N.B. Although its fame is inversely proportional
• “The Prophet married me when I was six to its meagre support in isnd strands, in this con-
years old and he consummated the mar- nection a relatively late tradition deserves to be
included:
riage when I was nine”,
With a Thbit / Anas strand the Prophet’s
cf. Mz., XI, no. 15956, XII, nos. 16809, 16871, words:
16881, 17066, 17106, 17249, 17751 (kh, 63/44,
m, II, pp. 1038 f, d, s, q, ay., no. 1454, IS VIII, • “Of this world it is women and perfume
pp. 40-3#,
um., no. 231, I
., VI, pp. 118, 280). that have become especially dear to me,
isha’s statement is transmitted in a great variety but my solace lies in prayer”,
of different wordings for which the early fuqah
cf. Mz., I, nos. 279, 435 (n, VII, p. 61, Ishrat an-
and their respective PCLs may be held responsi-
nis, pp. 34 f, confirmed in IS, I 2, p. 112, I
., III,
ble. For a survey of these wordings, see IS and m.
In the MC dealing with isha’s marriage to the pp. 128, 199, 285, Ab Yal, VI, p. 199, no. 3482,
Prophet there is one tradition in which the month in p. 237, no. 3530). One Ab ’l-Mundhir Sallm b.
which the marriage was concluded is mentioned as Sulaymn turns up once or twice in the SSs and spi-
Shawwl, see Thawr under no. 16355. ders supporting this text but claiming that he is any-
And also (a paraphrase incorporating most vari- thing other than a fortuitous key figure is already
ant wordings): too risky. But Ibn Ad3, III, p. 303, ‘identifies’ this
tradition with another person called Sallm, one
• “In the course of the farewell pilgrimage Sallm b. Ab Khubza, and when he comes to deal
I used to perfume the Prophet with my with yet another Sallm, Ab ’l-Mundhir Sallm
own hands with the best perfume1 I could b. Ab ‘-ahb (p. 305), he just enumerates those
find while he was in a state of consecra- two as its purveyors. A reconstruction of the order
tion. Then he would visit his wives2. I also in which these (near) namesakes came into being,
perfumed him after he had quit the state of appeared impossible.
consecration before he circumambulated
the Kaba”, Al b.
ujr (154/771-244/858), a transmitter who
moved early in life from Baghdad to Marw, where
cf. Mz., XI, no. 16010, XII, nos. 16365, 16446,
he settled and spread traditions. The traditions from
17485, 17518, 17526, 17538, 17598 (kh, 77/74,
one of his spokesmen, Isml b. Jafar (see his tar-
m, II, pp. 846-50, d, s, q, confirmed in Mlik*, I,
jama under the numbers 13974 ff), were favoured
p. 328, ay., no. 1394,
um., nos. 210, 211, 213,
in particular by m.
214, 216, I
., VI, pp. 39, 175, 186, 250)3. isha
For his position in bundles supporting a tradi-
has three believable fuqah transmitting this from
tion on exchanging (false) greeting with Jews, see
her, and these in turn, have a range of believable
Thawr under no. 7151.
PCLs. Men are not allowed to perfume their faces
Mz., XII, nos. 16354 (kh, 67/82, Fat, XI, pp.
as women do, it says in the commentaries, since
164-85, m, IV, pp. 1896-1901, tm, no. 261) and
that would mean adopting a strictly feminine cus-
tom, something which is forbidden in Islam. Per- the SSs at nos. 16378, 16965, 17102 and 17360 (s,
fume for men is solely applied to the top of the Kubr, pp. 354-6, idem, Ishrat an-nis, ed. Amr
Al Umar, Cairo [1987], pp. 204-10) form together
an isnd bundle of which the diagram is given below.
1. Among these are mentioned dharra (see Lane, s.v.)
and musk.
It supports the so-called Umm Zar tradition, which
2. This last sentence only occurs in no. 17598. is a probably fictional account of eleven women
3. In this enumeration only veritable bundles and some who, sitting together, compare their respective hus-
spiders have been listed; all the SSs have been left out. bands with one another, using highly literary and
76 AL B.
UJR

sophisticated, partially rhyming language, chock- A perfunctory inspection of this bundle points to
full of rare words. F. Rosenthal once subjected this two candidates as possible CLs, Hishm b. Urwa
tradition to an extensive, many-sided analysis and and Al b.
ujr. However, Hishm should not be
supplied an English translation, so there is no need seen as its CL, as Rosenthal seems to do, for the
to repeat that here. One is referred to his paper in strands issuing forth from him are, with the excep-
Oriens, ISSN 0078-6527, vol. XXXIV, 1994, pp. tion of the one through s b. Ynus, all simple
31-56. Only his—admittedly tentative—conclu- SSs. On the other hand, Al b.
ujr has no less than
sion as to who might be considered responsible for four plausible PCLs, Bukhr, Muslim, Tirmidh
bringing the tradition into circulation prompted a (i.e. his Shamil collection) and Nas. All the
scrutiny of its strands in more detail. An analysis other strands from the diagram are diving SSs. (The
goes hereby. strand Hishm b. Urwa / Yazd b. Rmn / Urwa /

NAS

Ibr. b.
Yaqb
Ar. b. M. TIRMIDH Khlid b.
b. Salm Uqba
Abd al-Malik
b. Ibr.
Rayhn Uqba b.
BUKHR b. Sad MUSLIM Khlid


asan al-
M. b. M.
ulwn
b. N
Amad b.
Al b.
ujr Janb
Sul. Ms b. Isml
b. Ar.
al-Qsim b. Abbd
Abd al-Wid b. Manr
Is b. Ynus Sad b.
Salama
Umar b. Al.
b. Urwa Hishm b. Urwa

Abd Allh b. Urwa Yazd b. Rmn

Urwa b. az-Zubayr

isha

PROPHET: The Umm Zar tradition

isha is the one that reaches eventually Nas Al b. Zayd b. Judn1 was a very controversial
through the SS Uqba b. Khlid / Khlid b. Uqba.) transmitter from Bara. He was born blind from an
To conclude that its third/ninth century circulation umm walad and he died in 129/747 or 131/749. He
in Khursn is due therefore to Al b.
ujr is ten- was notorious for his raf, i.e. his ‘raising’ of tra-
able, but only that: the rijl sources do not contain ditions with isnd strands ending in a companion
a clue as to whether Al b.
ujr had any affinity to the level of Prophetic traditions. His reputation
with literary texts of this nature. But his tarjama in with his peers is summed up by the term fhi ln, i.e.
Dhahab, Siyar, XI, pp. 511 f, does contain several there is weakness in him. Judging by his lengthy
poetic fragments he is reported to have composed. It tarjama in Ibn Ad3, V, pp. 195-201, he is a con-
is therefore far safer to limit his role in this affair to ceivably historical figure.
the spreading of the tradition; the authorship of this With a strand on the authority of Umar (or
popular piece of adab prose is a hitherto unsolved Amr) b. (Ab)
armala—Abd Allh b. Abbs
problem, as is also opined by Rosenthal.

1. Judn is not Al b. Zayd’s grandfather but a distant


ancestor.
AL B. ZAYD B. JUDN 77

(paraphrase of a—partially—composite tradition • “Manslaughter with quasi-deliberate intent


whose different elements are numbered): by means of a whip or a stick requires the
• “While I was one day in the living quar- paying of ‘heavy blood-money’: one hun-
ters of Maymna bt. al-
rith, the Prophet dred camels of which forty are with young.
entered together with Khlid b. al-Wald (All cases involving retaliation and/or the
(1). Two fried lizards were served skew- paying of blood-money that date back to
ered on sticks from the thumm plant1, the Jhiliyya are (to be considered hence-
whereupon the Prophet spat. ‘Am I right in forth as) under my two feet)”,
assuming that you do not like it, Messenger cf. Mz., VI, no. 7372 (d, Awn al-mab d, XII, pp.
of God?’ Khlid asked. ‘Yes,’ the Prophet 190 f, s, VIII, 42, q, II, p. 878, confirmed in Azq.,
said (2). Then he was brought some milk IX, pp. 281 f, IASh., IX, pp. 129 f,
um., no. 702,
and he drank from it (3). I stood on his I
., II, p. 11). The second sentence is in brackets
right and Khlid on his left. The Prophet because it is lacking in some versions2. Al b. Zayd
said to me: ‘You may have what is left, b. Judn is no more than SCL but he does occur
but perhaps you prefer that it be offered to in another strand down to the Prophet, cf. I
., II,
Khlid?’ ‘No,’ I said, ‘I prefer that no one p. 103. A well-attested PCL is Ibn Uyayna, so he
precedes me in partaking of a share which I may conceivably be held responsible for this word-
ing. Traditions on retaliation and the paying of
received from the Messenger of God.’ (So
blood-money are on the whole very old and may be
I drank from the milk and then passed it on
dated to the lifetime of the Prophet, but he himself
to Khlid (4).) Then the Prophet said: ‘He is hardly ever mentioned in them. The most strik-
whom God gives something to eat should ing feature in these traditions is namely that there
say: ‘O God, bless us in this and give us are so few marf t, i.e Prophetic traditions, among
even tastier food than this’, and he whom them; the vast majority are aqwl attributed to the
God has given milk to drink should say: ‘O khulaf rshid n and the early fuqah with only
God, bless us in this and give us more, for the occasional mursal thrown in. As for the few
I do not know any food or drink that could marf t, most are very late and they are supported
replace milk (5)’”, by just a few isnd bundles next to dozens of spi-
ders and SSs, all having been superimposed upon
cf. Mz., V, no. 6298 (d, Awn al-mab d, X, p. 141, t, one another to the extent that CLs are not readily
V, pp. 506 f, s, Kubr, VI, p. 79, confirmed in ay., discernible. Their texts display a certain develop-
no. 2723, Azq., IV, p. 511,
um., no. 482, I
., I, ment through numerous accretions, from concise
pp. 222, 225, 284). Al b. Zayd has several believa- maxims to more elaborate, narrative traditions. How-
ble PCLs, Shuba, Thawr,
ammd b. Salama, Ibn ever, several names pop up more often than others
Ulayya and Ibn Uyayna, so he could be consid- in the strands of the marf t. Among these is Al
ered as having been involved in the circulation of b. Zayd b. Judn and that is why the above tradition
(parts of) this composite. In d element (4) is lacking has found a place here in his tarjama. Another such
and in t element (2), while s presents only element SCL is Khlid al-
adhdh, cf. Mz., no. 8889 (d, s,
(5). The sentence in brackets is absent from some q). Also the famous family strand Amr b. Shuayb
of the sources listed and looks like a late interpo- b. Muammad / Shuayb b. Muammad / his grand-
lation. ay.’s version is the only one in which we father Abd Allh b. Amr b. al- is found support-
find the added remark that the request for tastier ing dozens of suchlike diyt-related marf t. The
food pertains to the lizards, all the other versions juridical terms used are amd for ‘deliberate’, that
fail to make that link. For traditions comprising ele- amounts to murder, shibh al-amd for ‘quasi-delib-
ments (3) and (4), see Mlik under nos. 1528* and erate’, that amounts to involuntary manslaughter
4744°. but with the intent to afflict grievous bodily harm,
With a strand on the authority al-Qsim b. and ‘heavy blood-money’ is diya mughalla a, for
Raba—Ibn Umar, who related the Prophet’s legal which see J. Schacht, Introduction, pp. 182-5. The
rule (paraphrase after a preamble):

1. Lane gives a variety of grassy desert plants from 2. Cf. the account of the farewell pilgrimage attributed to
which it is impossible to select one that fits the present Jafar b. Muammad a-diq under Mz., II, no. 2593, in
context best. which the same prescriptions have found a place.
78 AL B. ZAYD B. JUDN

so-called ‘heavy’ diya is variously defined, see reached at death, well over one hundred years2.
Lane, p. 2283, middle column; it amounts mostly to Amash’s reputation with the early rijl experts
one hundred camels of which thirty are of the type appeared to be a chequered one3. When Yay b.
called iqqa, i.e. three years old, fit to be laden or Man was once asked to compare him with Zuhr,
covered, thirty of the type called jadhaa, i.e. four Yay preferred Amash because he observed more
years old, and forty of the type called khalfa, i.e. strict transmission procedures than Zuhr4 and he
with young, but also other divisions are found with did not let himself be used by the authorities as
different types of camels, cf. Azq., IX, pp. 282-5, Zuhr had been used by the Umayyads5. Between
and IASh., IX, pp. 129 f, 136 f. him and another transmitter, his fellow-Kfan
Manr b. al-Mutamir, something resembling
Amash. Sulaymn b. Mihrn al-Amash (i.e. the rivalry can be deemed to have existed. They occur
bleary-eyed), was a mawl of the Ban Khil, a very often together in the same isnd bundle, each
clan of the Ban Asad, who was brought as a cap- with a comparable, sometimes partially overlap-
tive from abaristn to Kfa where he was bought ping, set of PCLs, so the authorship of the tradition
and subsequently set free. He was born in 59/679 or which that bundle is supposed to authenticate can-
61/681 and died in 147 or 148/764-5. He is described not be established in terms less vague than saying
as an ill-natured man with a difficult disposition. that the one may have copied the tradition from the
He occurs in isnds as al-Amash, Sulaymn al- other by means of a dive6. Where their transmission
Amash or simply as-Sulaymn1. Shuba called of a certain tradition from the same master is plau-
him al-Muaf because of his vast expertise in sible, that tradition can of course be ascribed to that
the Qurn. Amash became one of Kfa’s recog- master, Amash and Manr both occupying slots
nized masters of adth, especially the ones traced of PCLs. But where that is not plausible, and that is
back to Abd Allh b. Masd. His most celebrated more often than not the case, the authorship of that
isnd strand to that companion was via Ibrhm an- tradition has been attributed in this book to either
Nakha to Alqama, alongside others via this Ibr- of the two on the basis of a quantification of their
hm to other ‘members’ from the so-called ‘school respective sets of PCL strands as well as on intui-
of Ibn Masd’. But these strands may have been tive grounds. Distinguishing within the hundreds
a bit too laborious in his eyes: it struck him that of Kfan bundles between whose is Amash’s and
they could effectively be shortened by one person, whose is Manr’s is no sinecure. Moreover, both
if an especially longeval one were to be inserted key figures were regularly used by transmitters
at some place. Amash was in all likelihood an from a following generation as targets of diving
inventive imitator of Shab in the latter’s use of a strands. To discern certain patterns in these diving
reputedly very old adth master, the companion techniques—e.g. Jarr b. Abd al-
amd seems to
Ad b.
tim (cf. Shab’s tarjama under Mz., VII, dive particularly often via Manr to the alleged
nos. 9855-69). Inspired by this, Amash created the master of Amash—is hazardous, though, and
personalities of some more of these longeval mas- there will always remain elements of uncertainty.
ters supposedly blessed by God with exceptionally This supposed Amash / Manr rivalry is subtly
advanced ages, the so-called muammar n. It is fair reflected in the words attributed to a younger Kfan
to assume that Amash may be held responsible for colleague: it is reported that Thawr once said that
the launching of the obscure—probably fictitious— every time he related a tradition to Amash on
Zayd b. Wahb and Marr b. Suwayd, and he made the authority of a certain Kfan master, he would
extensive use of traditions allegedly transmitted by refuse to accept it: only in the case when I men-
Ab Wil Shaqq b. Salama, a muammar whose
historicity—albeit not his alleged age at death—is
at least tenable. Each of these three imaginary or
real figures bridged the time gap between Amash’s 2. For a study of the muammar n phenomenon, see
own time all the way to that of Ibn Masd because WZKM (I), pp. 155-75.
3. For a survey, see MT, pp. 171-5, and I
j., Tahdhb,
of the advanced ages they were reported to have
IV, pp. 222-6, TB, IX, pp. 3-13.
4. I
j., Tahdhb, IV, p. 225, 12 ff.
1. This last possibility has occasionally led the unwary 5. E.g. cf. a paper by Lecker in JSS, XLI, 1996, 21-63.
to confuse Amash with another Sulaymn: Sulaymn 6. Perhaps a rare glimpse of Amash diving for a tradition
b. arkhn at-Taym, a Baran transmitter who died in of Manr is contained in a report in Fasaw, II, p. 647,
143/760. lines 2 ff.
AMASH 79

tioned Manr, would he remain silent1. Is this to these words to me to the point that I wished
be interpreted as meaning that Amash realized that I had only embraced Islam that very
that in Manr he had a fellow-traditionist to be day5”,
reckoned with, albeit grudgingly? And Yay b.
Man openly preferred Manr’s traditions, which cf. Mz., I, no. 88 (m, I, p. 96, d, s, confirmed in
he claimed to have heard from Ibrhm an-Nakha IASh., X, p. 122, XII, p. 375, I
., V, p. 207). With
to those Amash claimed to have heard from him2. only two PCLs, Amash is the little-convincing CL
One is almost inclined to think that the transmitters of this bundle. With a dive through
uayn b. Abd
after Amash and Manr chose to side with the one ar-Ramn to Ab abyn, Hushaym is the key
rather than the other, thus illustrating the purported figure in a spider superimposed upon this bundle.
rivalry between the two. He was also praised for Whether or not the (wording of) this story is due
his knowledge of fari
, the Qurnic inheritance to Amash is hard to say, it is in any case early,
portions. Moreover, he was a ib sunna, i.e. an for it already found a place in the Sra, IV, p. 271,
early member of the sunna party as Islam’s ortho- and Wqid, II, p. 725, and it is also hinted at in
dox were later known by3. IS, II 1, p. 86, but in none of these sources is there
Among the many anecdotes relating something an isnd strand which might help in establishing
about Amash we find a few striking ones. When Amash’s CL-ship with more certainty. See Sufyn
his memory of a certain adth failed him momenta- b. Uyayna under no. 5940, for more stories suppo-
rily, he went to sit in the sun and rubbed his eyes sedly connected with this incident.
until it came back to him (cf. ilya, V p. 47). He With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
angrily uses the expression: hanging pearls on Shaqq b. Salama (paraphrase):
the necks of swine, or scattering pearls under the • “Someone said to Usma b. Zayd: ‘Won’t
hooves of swine (ibidem, p. 52, Bagh., I, p. p. 238)
you go to Uthmn (b. Affn; v.l. that man)
when it is suggested to him to share his traditions
and talk to him?’ Usma answered: ‘I did
with some paupers. Furthermore, judging by the
number of traditions in which something is said talk to him in private without other people
about the devil, one may be inclined to think that being present. I am not the sort of person
he was fascinated by that subject. to tell a man who is my commander that
Amash is found to occupy CL, (S)CL and SCL he is the best, for I heard the Prophet say:
positions in the following bundles: ‘(On the Day of Resurrection) a man (who
With a strand on the authority of Ab abyn was a governor during his lifetime) will

uayn b. Jundab—Usma b. Zayd: be brought forward and will be thrown in


• “The Prophet sent us on a raid and early Hell, with his entrails spilling out of his
one morning we launched a surprise attack belly, running around in it like a donkey
on the
urqa (division) of the Juhayna turning the mill stone. The people in Hell
tribe. I got hold of a man who exclaimed: gather around him and say: ‘Were’nt you
‘There is no god but God’, then I ran (my the one who ordered what is appropriate
spear) through him. But I had misgivings and who forbade what is objectionable?’,
about the affair, so I told the Prophet, who whereupon he will answer: ‘I did indeed
said: ‘Did he say: ‘There is no god but order what is appropriate but without car-
God’ and then you killed him?’ ‘Yes’, I rying it out myself and I did indeed forbid
answered, ‘but he only said it out of fear of the objectionable without abstaining from
my weapon.’ Then the Prophet said: ‘Did it’”,
you not cleave his heart to see whether or cf. Mz., I, no. 91 (kh, 92/17, m, IV, pp. 2290 f, con-
not he meant it4?’ And he kept on repeating firmed in
um., no. 547, I
., V, pp. 205, 207, 209).
Amash is the believable CL for the gist of this tra-
1. Cf. IHj., Tahdhb, X, p. 313, 11 f. dition, but every PCL transmitting it from him has
2. Ibidem, p. 314, 8, 10 f. his own distinct wording, which is especially appar-
3. For more on the sunna party, see Shuba under no.
9976.
4. This means that since you do not know what is in a 5. This means that if that had been the case, the killing of
man’s heart, you should have taken his word for it, cf. the man would not have counted as a crime, since embrac-
I
j., Fat, XV, p. 214. ing Islam wipes someone’s slate clean, cf. I
j., ibidem.
80 AMASH

ent in the introductory description of the alleged Ibn Masd relate to you?’ “Such and such
dialogue between the companion Usma and his stories (including the one on swearing a
interlocutor(s). These different wordings are all false oath)’, they answered. ‘He spoke the
enumerated in detail in I
j., Fat, XVI, pp. 161-4. truth,’ Ashath said (and related the follow-
The latter part of the tradition depicting the lot of a ing story):
controversial ruler on Judgement Day is a thinly dis-
guised reference to the fate of the third caliph Uth- ‘On account of me (a Qurn verse) was
mn, whose murder was justified in the eyes of his sent down. A certain Jewish man (v.l.
killers because of certain administrative measures a cousin of mine3) and I (had a conflict)
of his which had roused their anger. According to concerning (a well in) a piece of land in
them, he had not followed the guideline laid down Yemen. I presented my case to the Prophet
in the well-known Qurnic phrase: ordering what who asked: ‘Have you got proof (of the
is appropriate and forbidding what is objectionable, truthfulness of your claim)?’ ‘No,’ I said.
cf. e.g. Q. III: 104, 110, 114. For more on the his- ‘(Then you must produce your witnesses
torical background, see a paper by Martin Hinds or) he must swear an oath,’ he said, where-
in IJMES, III, 1972, pp. 450-69. Moreover, in upon I said: ‘But in that case the other
Fat, XVI, p. 163, 4 f, I
j. mentions that Usma
man will swear an oath.’ At this point
was asked to question the caliph on the matter of
the Prophet said: ‘He who swears a false
Uthmn’s half-brother al-Wald b. Uqba, who was
oath wrongfully cutting off thereby for
suspected of having drunk the forbidden beverage
of nabdh (a kind of wine). I
j. concludes his exten-
himself the property of a Muslim brother
sive commentary on this tradition by pointing out will encounter God’s wrath.’ After that the
(p. 164, 5 f) that the overall message of it is that one verse was revealed: ‘Those who sell their
must respect one’s commander and that one must pact with God and their oaths for a paltry
observe rules of polite behaviour when one informs sum (will not have a share in the Hereafter
him of special wishes of subjects. This tradition …, III: 77)’”,
of Amash, who was notorious for his tashayyu,
cf. Mz., I, no. 158 (the Six, kh, 83/17, Fat, XIV,
puts Uthmn in a distinctly unfavourable light, p. 370, m, I, pp. 122, confirmed in ay., no. 1050,
something which may be construed as reflecting I
., I, p. 442, V, pp. 211, 212, Ibn
ibbn, VII,
his pro-Shite leanings. But it must be stated here p. 271). Amash is the convincing CL of this bun-
that traditions of this tenor are on the whole rare dle. Superimposed upon it a spider with Manr is
in the canonical collections, for it is virtually only discernible, but that constitutes most likely a dive
traditions devoid of political tendencies that were from Jarr b. Abd al-
amd. And there are a couple
generally felt to be acceptable from confirmed Sha of SSs.
sympathizers such as Amash. With a strand on the authority of
akam b.
With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil Utayba—Abd ar-Ramn b. Ab Layl—Kab b.
Shaqq b. Salama: Ujra—Bill b. Rab:
• “Abd Allh b. Masd said (one day): • “(In the course of his wu
) the Prophet
‘The Prophet once said: He who swears by used to wipe over his shoes and his tur-
Me a binding1 (v.l. false) oath in order to ban”,
wrongfully cut off2 thereby for himself the
cf. Mz., II, no. 2047 (m, I, p. 231, t, s, q, confirmed
property of a Muslim brother will encounter
in ay., no. 1116, Azq., I, p. 188, I
., VI, pp. 12,
God’s wrath on the Day of Resurrection.’ 14, 15). In the huge MC on wiping over the shoes
And God then sent down as proof thereof and/or other coverings of parts of the human body
the revelation of III: 77. (Some time later) as component of the wu
, this particular word-
al-Ashath b. Qays entered (upon the scene) ing may be associated with Amash with his five
and asked (the people present): ‘What did
3. I
j. points out (Fat, XIV, p. 369) that there is no
1. In Arabic yamn abr, lit. an oath which restrains the contradiction here, since most people from Yemen had
swearer. For the background of this expression, see Lane, embraced Judaism. The name of this man is given as al-
p. 1644, right column, -14 ff, Ibn al-Athr, III, p. 8. Jafshsh or al-Khafshsh b. Madn b. Madkarib, cf. I
j.,
2. I.e. to take illegal possession of … Iba, I, pp. 491 ff.
AMASH 81

reliable PCLs, but he is certainly not the only dis- which might have been included in this composite
cernible CL in this MC, nor is he the oldest one. because of textual and isnd similarities, is listed
Cf. furthermore no. 2032 (s, I
., VI, p. 15) which separately by the collectors but is frequently men-
shows up Amash again with a sixth PCL and a dif- tioned in tandem with elements (1-3):
ferent strand back to Bill. In no. 2043 (s, ay., With the same strand:
no. 1116, I
., VI, pp. 13#, 16) we see Shuba as
key figure diving for Amash’s master
akam. It is • “(Once while the people were performing
really impossible to say when, and at the hands of the alt, the Prophet noticed how they
whom, the custom of wiping over coverings rather were looking upward, whereupon he said:)
than washing the bare flesh originated. But in view ‘Let the people refrain from raising their
of man’s innate reluctance to go to much trouble eyes to heaven during their alt, or they
for hygienic purposes, the debate must have started (i.e. their eyes) will not return to them3’”,
shortly after the wu
 verse (V: 6) became known,
cf. Mz., II, no. 2130 (m, I, p. 321, q, confirmed in
and its correct interpretation, accompanied by the
IASh., II, p. 239, I
., V, pp. 93, 101, 108, Drim,
search for convenient shortcuts in ritual cleansing
I, p. 339). Amash is in any case the SCL, if not the
practices, had begun. For a general introduction on
(S)CL, of this tradition.
this issue (mas al ’l-khuffayn), see Shab under
With a strand on the authority of Ab li
no. 11514.
Dhakwn—Jbir b. Abd Allh:
With a strand on the authority of al-Musayyab b.
Rfi—Tamm b. arafa—Jbir b. Samura: • “When we were (one day) with the
• “(While we were once performing a alt Prophet, he asked for something to drink.
in the mosque) the Prophet came to us and A man said: ‘Messenger of God, shall we
said: ‘Do I see you raising your hands like give you some nabdh4?’ ‘Alright,’ the
the tails of refractory horses? Keep still in Prophet said. The man left in a hurry and
your alt! (1)’ (On another occasion) he came back with a jar of nabdh. Then the
came to us and saw how we were sitting Prophet said: ‘Have you not covered the
together in circles. He exclaimed: ‘Do I see jar, not even (by placing) a stick (over it)5!’
you sitting in groups1(2)?’ (Then on a third Then he drank from it”,
occasion) he came to us and said: ‘Won’t cf. Mz., II, no. 2233 (kh, 74/12, m, III, p. 1593, d,
you arrange yourselves in rows like the confirmed in IASh., VII, p. 497, I
., III, pp. 313
angels do in the presence of their Lord?’ f). Amash is not a very convincing CL in this bun-
‘How do the angels arrange themselves dle, but his position is bolstered by another closely
in the presence of their Lord?’, we asked. related tradition whose spidery bundle also pres-
‘The first rows they make perfectly straight ents Amash as key figure with another PCL. In
this tradition, perhaps an embellished variant, the
and they place themselves close together,’
man who brought the Prophet his drink is named as
he answered (3)”,
Ab
umayd as-Sid, who came forward with a
cf. Mz., II, no. 2127, 2128, 2129 (m, I, p. 322, d, s, jug of milk from animals pastured in the protected
q, confirmed in Azq., II, p. 2522, IASh., I, p. 353, area (im6) of Naq, an oasis at some twenty para-
II, p. 486, I
., V, pp. 93, 101, 107). Amash is the sangs (ca. sixty miles) from Medina, cf. Mz., II, no.
believable CL of the separate components of this
composite tradition. Not every tradition collector
groups them together in one tradition as m and I
. 3. I.e. they will be smitten with blindness.
did, but present them in separate chapters of their 4. Water in which certain fruits were left to soak, some-
collections. It is not often that Mz. lists separately times resulting in some fermentation. Whether or not this
beverage was allowed became a matter of wide-ranging
the three elements of a composite, each under its
debate, cf. Shuba under no. 6716.
own number, 2127 supports (3), 2128 supports
5. This action was supposed to indicate that God’s name
(1) and 2129 supports (2). An additional element, was mentioned when the stick was placed over the jar’s
opening in order to keep the Devil away, cf. I
j., Fat,
XII, p. 173.
1. In Arabic: ilaq, cf. Lane, s.v., a practice frowned 6. For this institution, which has its origins in the
upon. Jhiliyya, cf. EI 2, s.v. (J. Chelhod). Cf. Wqid, II, p.
2. With a munqai isnd strand. 425, for an account of how this im was created.
82 AMASH

2234 (kh, 74/12, m, III, p. 1593, I


., III, p. 370). favourable while being full of hope for His mercy,
With a strand on the authority of Ab Sufyn and anyone whose actions are reprehensible does
ala b. Nfi—Jbir b. Abd Allh: not have such thoughts about God. The tradition is
interpreted as an exhortation to perform meritori-
• “On a certain Friday (a man called) Sulayk
ous works, something which will automatically
(b. Amr or b. Hudba) al-Gha afn came lead to a premonition about God’s forgiveness. It
to the juma alt while the Prophet had is viewed in connection with a adth quds: ana
already started his sermon, so he sat down. inda ann abd b, rendered by Graham, p. 127 as:
But the Prophet said: ‘Hey Sulayk, stand up ‘I fulfil My servant’s expectation of Me’. There is
and perform first your two rakas and keep also a Qurn verse quoted in this context: ‘And that
it brief.’ Then he spoke: ‘When someone idea of yours which you have about your Lord has
comes to the juma alt when the imm ruined you so that you belong to the losers (XLI:
has already started preaching, he must first 23)’. Two other traditions conveying the idea that
perform two rakas keeping them brief’”, everyone will be judged on the Day of Resurrection
according to the state he was in when he died have
cf. Mz., II, no. 2294, cf. also no. 12368 (m, II, 597,
Amash in their strands too, cf. II, no. 2306, but he
d, q, confirmed in Azq., III, p. 244, IASh., II, p.
is probably not responsible for these.
110, I
., III, pp. 316, 389). Although this bundle
With the same strand:
does not show up a convincing number of PCLs,
Amash may be assumed to have brought into • “The Prophet sent a physician to Ubayy b.
circulation this point of view on what apparently Kab2. He cut his vein and then cauterized
was a controversial matter. The man mentioned, him”,
Sulayk, is only noted for his appearance in this one
tradition, cf I
j., Iba, III, p. 165. On the point cf. Mz., II, no. 2296 (m, IV, p. 1730, d, q, confirmed
of whether juma in the expression alt al-juma in I
., III, pp. 303, 304, 315). If Amash is not the
means ‘Friday’ or ‘assembly’, see Goitein, Studies, CL, he is in any case the (S)CL of this tradition.
pp. 117 ff. With the same strand relating the Prophet’s
With the same strand: words:

• “I heard the Prophet say three (days1) • “He who fears that he won’t be able to get
before his death: ‘Surely, nobody will die up at the end of the night (in order to per-
without harbouring excellent thoughts form a witr alt), let him perform the witr
about God’”, at the beginning of the night. And he who
prefers to get up at the end of the night, let
cf. Mz., II, no. 2295 (m, IV, p. 2205, d, q, confirmed
him perform the witr alt at that time, for
in Ibn al-Mubrak, Zuhd, p. 366, no. 1034, ay., no.
a alt performed at the end of the night
1779, IS, II 2, p. 45, 8, I
., III, pp. 293, 315, 330,
Ab Yal, III, p. 419, IV, pp. 45, 193, Ibn
ibbn, is witnessed (sc. by the angels) and that is
II, pp. 15 f, ilya, V, p. 87). Amash is the believ- more meritorious”,
able CL of this tradition. The saying has evoked a cf. Mz., II, no. 2297 (m, I, p. 520, t, q, confirmed
number of comments neatly surveyed in Awn al- in Azq., III, p. 16, IASh., II, p. 282, I
., III, pp.
mab d, VIII, p. 265: Anyone whose actions are 315, 389, Ab Yal, III, p. 417, IV, pp, 81 f, 189,
meritorious cannot have ideas about God other than Ibn
ibbn, IV, pp. 117 f). Amash is in any case
the (S)CL of this tradition, if not the CL. The witr
alt is the prayer with which the believer makes
1. The Arabic text does not specify what time unit is
odd the number of rakas performed during the day;
counted as three: days, months, or years. The numeral
it consists of an odd number of rakas, preferably
mentioned is thalth, which is used for counting only
feminine nouns. The context with the allegedly very three or more. The preference for odd numbers in
young companion Jbir and the usual backdrop of the Islam is believed to be inspired by the dogma of
Prophet’s final moments, however, require the word God’s oneness.
‘days’ (ayym) as the only feasible insert after the nu-
meral, so that should have read thalthat. That ‘days’ is
meant rather than any other time unit is stated in a variant 2. From a variant of this tradition it becomes clear that
of this tradition supported by a spider found in m, IV, p. Ubayy had allegedly been shot in the battle against the
2206, and I
., III, p. 325. Confederates, cf. m, IV, p. 1730, no. 74.
AMASH 83

With the same strand relating the Prophet’s MC on dreams is perhaps Yay b. Sad b. Qays;
words: see there under no. 12135.
With a strand on the authority of Zayd b. Wahb
• “The devil has given up hope that those (plus Ab abyn
uayn b. Jundab)—Jarr b.
who perform the alt will worship him in Abd Allh, who related the Prophet’s words:
Arabia, but he does seek to sow animosity
among them”, • “God will not show mercy to anyone who
does not show mercy to others”,
cf. Mz., II, no. 2302 (m, IV, p. 2166, t, confirmed
in I
., III, p. 313, Ab Yal, IV, p. 194). Amash is cf. Mz., II, no. 3211 (kh, 78/27, 6, m, IV, p. 1809,
(S)CL and possibly CL. If not, then Ab Muwiya, I
., IV, pp. 358#, 362). With only two PCLs, Amash
his best-attested PCL, might be credited with it. But is in any case the (S)CL, if not the CL, of this say-
this solution is tentative. ing. Another spider-like bundle with Isml b. Ab
With the same strand relating the Prophet’s Khlid as key figure supports the same saying, cf.
words: Mz., no. 3228 (m, t,
um., no. 802, I
., IV, p. 360).
If we assume that both Amash and Isml were
• “The devil is present at everything you do, indeed responsible for this tradition, the one copy-
even when you are eating. When a morsel ing the other, it is striking to see how each of them
falls on the ground, you must wipe off any made use of his own muammar: Amash inserted
dirt that sticks to it and then you must eat Zayd b. Wahb in his strand back to the Prophet,
it; do not leave it to the devil. When you whereas Isml put Qays b. Ab
zim there. Is
have finished eating, lick your fingers, for this a case of rivalry between these two Kfan CLs?
you do not know in what part of your food Another later CL who is much better attested is
there is blessing”, responsible for a more elaborate tradition in which
the saying is included; see Sufyn b. Uyayna under
cf. Mz., II, no. 2305 (m, III, p. 1607, q, confirmed in no. 15146. Among the ‘others’ mentioned in the
IASh., VIII, p. 109, I
., III, p. 315, Ab Yal, III, tradition also animals, domestic animals as well
p. 441, IV, pp. 121, 190 f). Amash is the believable as wild, are believed to have been meant. He who
CL of this tradition. Licking the fingers after eat- is not respectful towards others in whatever way
ing is an issue which has given rise to a MC. The this is achieved cannot expect respectful behaviour
best-attested tradition from this MC has Sufyn b. from others. The issue is seen in direct association
Uyayna as CL, see there under no. 5942. Another with Q. LV: 60, cf. I
j., Fat, XIII, p. 47. Cf. also
key figure discernible in a bundle supporting a tra- no. 3219, immediately below.
dition from this MC is Thawr, cf. no. 2745 (m, III, With a strand on the authority of Tamm b.
p. 1606, s, q, I
., III, pp. 301#1, 331, 337, 365 f, Salama—Abd ar-Ramn b. Hill—Jarr b. Abd
Ab Yal, III, p. 367). Allh, who related the Prophet’s words:
With the same strand:
• “He who is denied gentleness is denied
• “A nomad came to the Prophet and said: goodness”,
‘I dreamt that my head was cut off!’ The
cf. Mz., II, no. 3219 (m, IV, p. 2003, d, q, confirmed
Prophet laughed and said: ‘Do not tell the
in ay., no. 666, IASh., VIII, p. 322, I
., IV, p.
people about the tricks the devil plays on
366). With his three PCLs, Amash is the believable
you in your dreams’”, CL of this tradition. From a related tradition sup-
cf. Mz., II, no. 2308 (m, IV, pp. 1776 f, q, confirmed ported by a SS ending in isha ‘gentleness’ (rifq),
in IASh., XI, p. 57, I
., III, p. 315, Ab Yal, IV, is especially associated with gentleness towards rid-
p. 186). Amash is the SCL of this bundle and prob- ing animals, see the tarjama of Shuba under Mz.,
ably no more than that. Traditions about dreams are XI, nos. 16149.
on the whole relatively late. The earliest discernible With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm an-
CL whose position seems secure in the extensive Nakha—Hammm b. al-
rith an-Nakha:

• “Jarr b. Abd Allh urinated. He performed


a wu
 and wiped over his shoes. Someone
1. Again I
. mentions a Azq. isnd which could not be
found in the Muannaf, where it would have fitted seam-
asked: ‘Do you (always) do that?’ ‘Yes,’
lessly in X, p. 416. he answered, ‘I once saw the Prophet pass-
84 AMASH

ing water; he performed the wu


 and then ongoing discussions on whether the Prophet intro-
he wiped over his shoes’”, duced the mas al ’l-khuffayn concession before
or after the wu
 supposedly became generally
cf. Mz., II, no. 3235 (kh, 8/25, m, I, pp. 227 f, t, known. Thus a terminus post quem was created
s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 668, Azq., I, p. 194, for the chronology of the alleged introduction of

um., no. 797, IASh., I, p. 176, I


., IV, pp. 358, the mas concession to the somewhat more severe
361, 364). With no less than five convincing PCLs, wu
 rules, namely after the Qurnic rules had
Amash is the undeniable CL of this crucial tradi- been sent down and before his death. Those against
tion from the huge cluster on mas al ’l-khuffayn, the concession held the view that mas became the
the wiping over the shoes instead of washing the rule before the wu
 verse was revealed and that,
bare feet as part of the wu
. It is a particularly subsequently, the verse abrogated the concession,
important tradition in that it contains an appendix, whereas those timing the introduction of mas after
variously attributed to Ibrhm an-Nakha or to a the wu
 verse revelation maintained that it was a
group of anonymous companions, in which won- genuine and valid concession. This is, by the way,
derment is expressed at Jarr’s actually having not Amash’s only contribution to the mas debate.
seen Muammad resorting to mas, a significant For another tradition on mas, see below under no.
detail, since Jarr is only reported to have embraced 3335. For a general introduction to the mas issue,
Islam after the revelation of the Qurnic verse on see Shab under no. 11514.
the wu
. With this tradition Amash may well be With a strand on the authority of Zayd b. Wahb
visualized as attempting to put a definite stop to (the muammar)—
udhayfa b. al-Yamn:

MUSLIM NAS


UMAYD IBN
ANBAL
Mu. b.
Minjb b. Abd al-Al
al-
rith IBN MJA
ABD ar-
Ibn Ab RAZZQ
Yay b. Umar Affn
Yay
Qutayba TIRMIDH
b. Sad
Ali b. AB BAKR b.
Ab Kurayb Mushir AB SHAYBA Ali b.
Mu.
Al b.
Khashram Khlid b.
al-
rith Hannd
BUKHR
Is b. Ibr.

dam b.
Ab ys Sufyn b.
AYLIS Uyayna
Ab Muwiya

af b.
Ghiyth s b. Ynus Ab Wak
Awna
Shuba

AL-AMASH

Ibrhm an-Nakha

Hammm b. al-
rith

Jarr b. Abd Allh

Prophet Mz. no. 3235


AMASH 85

• “The Prophet related to us … that trust1 Muwiya, Amash may be considered the CL of
had descended to the bottom of the hearts this tradition. Tay. lists two transmitters between
himself and Amash, Abd ar-Ramn b. Abd Allh
of men. Then the Qurn was sent down.
al-Masd and Qays b. ar-Rab, and the text of the
People acquired knowledge of it and also
tradition he transmits differs slightly from those of
of the sunna. Then the Prophet told us how the other collectors, which are remarkably similar.
that trust was taken away: ‘While man is With a strand on the authority of Khaythama
asleep, the trust is removed from his heart, b. Abd ar-Ramn—Ab
udhayfa al-Arab—
only a trace like a little mark remains. Then
udhayfa b. al-Yamn:
while he is asleep again, (what was left of)
the trust is taken away from his heart and • “When we were partaking of a meal in the
the only trace that remains thereof is a blis- presence of the Prophet, we never lowered
ter, like when an ember bounces off your our hands to the food until he lowered his
foot which swells up so that you notice a hand and began to eat. On one such occa-
blister although there is nothing there any- sion a bedouin suddenly burst in as if he
more.’ Then he2 picked up a pebble and was pushed and stretched out his hand to
let it bounce off his foot, (whereupon he the food. But the Prophet took hold of his
went on): ‘The people will engage in trad- hand. Then, suddenly, a girl burst in as if
ing with one another with hardly anyone she was pushed and stretched out her hand
fulfilling the trust (put in him) in a way that to the food. But again the Prophet took
might prompt the remark: ‘In that clan there hold of it and said: ‘Verily, the devil is in
truly is a trustworthy person’, or that it is the position to partake of food over which
said of some other person: ‘What a stead- the name of God has not been uttered, so
fast, accomplished and intelligent man that he caused this bedouin to enter to make this
is!’ while (in reality) there is not a mustard food available to him, but I stopped him.
seed of faith in his heart!’ (
udhayfa went Then he caused this girl to burst in to make
on:) I have known days when I did not pay the food available to him, but I stopped her
special heed to whom I conducted busi- too. By Him in Whose hand lies my soul,
ness with: if he was a Muslim, his religion verily, the devil’s hand lies together with
would certainly bring him back to me (sc. the hands of these two in my hand’”,
to pay what was agreed) and if he was a cf. Mz., III, no. 3333 (m, III, p. 1597, d, s, con-
Christian or a Jew, his local poll tax col- firmed in I
., V, pp. 382 f, 397 f). Amash is its
lector would certainly pay up his tax. But (S)CL, but this tradition is not very well attested.
today I do not engage in trade with anyone With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
except a few individuals”, Shaqq b. Salama—
udhayfa b. al-Yamn:

cf. Mz., III, no. 3328 (kh, 81/35, 2, m, I, pp. 126 f, t, • “I was walking with the Prophet and we
q, confirmed in Ab Isq al-Fazr, Siyar, no. 575, came to a rubbish heap3 of some people.
ay., no. 424,
um., no. 446, I
., V, p. 383#). With While standing upright he urinated. I moved
three believable PCLs, Wak, Ibn Uyayna and Ab to the side, but he said: ‘Come near.’ So I
drew near until I stood right behind him.
1. In Arabic amna. The word gave rise to a number of
He performed a wu
 and wiped over his
interpretations most of which are enumerated by Lane, p. shoes”,
395, right column: reason, intellect, conscience, each of
cf. Mz., III, no. 3335 (m, I, p. 228, confirmed in
which is a trust committed by God to man, and a faculty
ay., no. 406, Azq., I, p. 193,
um., no. 442, I
.,
which renders him responsible for his faith and works,
and idem, p. 102, left column: obedience, imposition of a V, pp. 382#, 402, Drim, I, p. 179). With four PCLs
task, obligatory statutes imposed by God upon His serv- and lots of SSs, Amash is the convincing CL of
ants. It is also simply equated with faith (mn), cf. I
j.,
Fat, XVI, p. 149, infra.
2. The context does not make clear who the subject is, 3. This is a place somewhere in the courtyard of a com-
the Prophet or the narrator; only in q is he identified as pound onto which people collect their sweepings and

udhayfa. which they use as their latrine.


86 AMASH

this tradition from the MC on mas al ’l-khuf- seems inevitable that Ab Wil is responsible for
fayn, for which see no. 3235 above. Analysing this this siwk tradition. But his position in Muslim
bundle is no sinecure because of the occurrence of tradition, complete with reports claiming his early
an alternative CL, Amash’s old rival Manr b. birth and advanced age at death, is due to Amash2,
al-Mutamir. Mizz superimposed Amash’s and and in virtually all the bundles in which he occurs
Manr’s strands upon each other, rolling as it were in the canonical collections, it is Amash who is CL.
two bundles into one. Both share in the strand back It is therefore safer to see Ab Wil just as SCL,
to
udhayfa, as well as in a few PCLs, and each has and one of his PCLs, Amash in fact, should be
some other PCLs of his own. Manr’s matn differs credited with it. By means of dives onto his ‘infor-
in one crucial point from that of Amash in that it mant’ Ab Wil, Amash was then in due course
does not contain the reference to mas. Matters are copied by the two others,
uayn and Manr. The
made even more complicated by the fact that three two SSs converging in Ab
an Uthmn b. im
strands in Amash’s bundle support texts which are are presumably both the handiwork of Nas. The
equally without a reference to mas: one occurrence one beginning with Abd Allh (or Ubayd Allh)
in kh, the one in Drim and one in I
., V, p. 382. b. Sad supports a mawq f tradition attributed to
But since the majority of Amash’s strands support
udhayfa: ‘When we got up from the night, we
texts with it, whereas Manr’s text never has it, were ordered to use the siwk.’ And the other with
the conclusion seems to present itself that the non- Amad b. Sulaymn supports a report attributed
occurrence of mas in those Amash strands is due to Ab Wil himself: ‘When we got up from the
to the deliberate, or possibly inadvertent, omission night, we were ordered to cleanse our mouths with
at the hands of younger transmitters above Amash. the siwk.’ The practice of using the siwk is an
The matter is extensively dealt with by I
j. in Fat, ancient one on which all the early fuqah have
I, pp. 340-3, but he does not come up with a suita- expressed opinions and whose origins may well go
ble solution. One thing is clear from his comments: back to the Jhiliyya. The commentaries have pre-
kh concentrated in his versions on the issue of uri- served allusions to pious Muslims who habitually
nating while in a standing or sitting position and put their siwks behind their ears in the same spot
he therefore omitted the mas reference altogether. where a clerk would keep his pen.
Amash’s and Manr’s respective versions are With the same strand:
perhaps most concisely summed up in ay., nos.
406 and 407. For a general introduction to the mas • “We were one day with Umar b. al-
issue, see Shab under no. 11514. Kha b who asked: ‘Who has memorized
With the same strand: the Prophet’s account of the temptation
(fitna) exactly the way he said it?’ ‘I do,’
• “When the Prophet awoke in the morning, I said. ‘You have courage’, Umar said,
he used to cleanse his mouth with the tooth ‘how did it go?’ Then I said: ‘I heard the
stick, the siwk1”, Prophet say: ‘The fitna of man lies in his
cf. Mz., III, no. 3336 (m, I, pp. 220 f, d, s, q, con- wife, his wealth, his soul, his child and
firmed in ay., no. 409, IASh., I, pp. 168 f,
um., his neighbour, and fasting, performing the
no. 441, I
., V, pp. 382, 390, 397#, 402#, 407#, alt, practising charity, ordering what is
ilya, VII, p. 180). At first sight (see the diagram good and forbidding what is objectionable,
further down) this bundle has a clear CL, Ab Wil all these can atone for fitna.’ Then Umar
with three undeniable PCLs, Amash, Manr and said: ‘This is not what I mean. I wanted

uayn b. Abd ar-Ramn and each of these has to hear about the fitna that rages like the
his own believable PCLs. Therefore the conclusion waves of the sea.’ ‘Commander of the
faithful,’ I answered, ‘that (sort of) fitna
need not concern you. Between you and
1. This implement should not be identified with a simple
toothpick, but rather with another cleansing device. Lane that fitna there is a locked door.’ ‘Will that
says that it is a twig of the rk tree with which the teeth door be broken open or will it simply be
are rubbed and cleaned, the end having been made fluffy opened?’, Umar asked. ‘No,’ I replied, ‘it
or like a brush by beating or chewing it so as to separate will be smashed in.’ ‘In that case,’ Umar
the fibres. In Encyclopédie des sciences de la nature of
Edouard Ghaleb, 2nd edition, Beirut 1988, I, p. 46, the
rk (not ark) tree is identified as salvadora persica. 2. See also WZKM (I).
AMASH 87
NAS
AYLIS
AB DWD

Amr
IBN
ANBAL IBN b. Al M. b. Abd Al. b.

UMAYD MJA al-Al Sad A. b.
Khlid b. Sul.
MUSLIM al-
rith
Ghundar
Muw.
b. Amr
M. b. al-
Muthann
Ali
BUKHR b. M. Bundr
Ibn R- M. b. Al.
hawayh b. Numayr
Is. b.
Ar. b. Sul.
Qut. b. Shuba Mahd
IASh
Sad
Uthmn b. Mu. b. Al b.
Ab Shayba Kathr
af b. Numayr
Wak Umar
us. b.
Al
Suf. b.
Uyayna
Jarir b. Zida
Abd al-
amd Thawr Khlid Ubayd
b. Al. Ab Allh
Ubayda Hushaym Muw. b. Ms
b.
umayd


ushayn Amash
Manr Isrl
b. Ar.

Ab
an

Ab Wil Shaqq b. Salama


udhayfa b. al-Yamn

Prophet Mz. no. 3336

concluded, ‘it is more appropriate to leave to be seen as originating in envy, boasting, com-
the door unlocked’ (…)”, petition, and neglect to fulfil promises in which a
neighbour is involved. Secondly, the usage of fitna
cf. Mz., III, no. 3337 (kh, 61/25, 14, m, IV, p. 2218, as compared with a locked door is taken to point
t, s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 408,
um., no. 447, at the non-occurrence of civil strife in the Islamic
IASh., XV, pp. 15 f, I
., V, pp. 401#, cf. Azq., XI, community during Umar’s lifetime.
p. 365). With no less than six PCLs Amash is the With the same strand:
convincing CL of this tradition. Its matn neatly dis-
tinguishes between the two main connotations of the • “Once upon a time we were with the
concept fitna: temptation and civil strife. The usage Prophet when he said: ‘Tell me how many
of fitna in the first half of the tradition is glossed in people have embraced Islam.’ We said: ‘Do
I
j., Fat, VII, p. 417, and Nawaw, I, pp. 170 f, you fear for us, Messenger of God, we who
as man’s committing a sin for the sake of his wife number between six and seven hundred?’
and child etc., or failing to fulfil what is incumbent He said: ‘You do not know, whether you(r
upon him on their account. The fitna in his wife or faith) will be tested.’ Eventually we were
his child is man’s inclination to favour one wife or
afflicted to the point that nobody would
child above another wife or child in denying each
perform the alt except in secret”,
her/his due. As for the fitna that lies in his wealth,
that is his inclination to occupy himself with it too cf. Mz., III, no. 3338 (kh, 56/181, m, I, pp. 131 f, s,
much so that his performance of religious duties q, confirmed in I
., V, p. 384, Ibn
ibbn, VIII, p.
is impaired. For the fitna that lies in his soul there 57). Amash has only one firm PCL and two SSs,
does not seem to be any particular interpretation. but in Fat, VI, p. 519, I
j. asserts that Amash
The fitna, finally, that lies in one’s neighbour is is the madr of this tradition, a declaration which
88 AMASH

may not be ignored. He sees the tradition as a rec- intricate and shows up a host of little variants due
ommendation to register the Muslim fighting forces to the PCLs. The translation follows closely Nawa-
in dwns. The text as presented here is that trans- w’s commentary in VI, pp. 61 f, without which this
mitted by Ab Muwiya. The matns preserved in concisely worded text almost defies rendition. Here
kh supported by the two SSs give different figures: it is also stated that the reciter need not observe the
1,500 according to the Thawr SS and the one order of s ras as laid down in the Uthmn version
allegedly transmitted by Ab
amza Muammad and that, before that version was made, the com-
b. Maymn as-Sukkar has only 500. I
j. (ibidem) panions, such as Ibn Masd, had made their own
quotes a few clever harmonizations of the differ- tartb, i.e. their own preferred sequence of s ras.
ent figures given: 1,500 include women, children For more on the Uthmn version, see the tarjama
and slaves, or according to another interpretation: of Ibrhm b. Sad under no. 9783.
including villagers and nomads; 600-700 only men; With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
500 only fighting men. Shaqq b. Salama—Khabbb b. al-Aratt:
With a strand on the authority of Sad b.
Ubayda—al-Mustawrid b. al-Anaf—ila b. • “Together with the Prophet we made the
Zufar—
udhayfa: hijra in the cause of God, desirous of His
recompense1, for at His discretion we
• “One night I performed the alt with the were to receive our reward. Some of us
Prophet. He commenced his Qurn rec- perished without acquiring any reward,
itation with s rat al-baqara. I thought by among whom was Muab b. Umayr. He
myself: ‘He will finish his raka when he got killed in the battle of Uud. (When we
has recited hundred verses.’ But he went were about to inter him and we looked for
on and I thought: ‘He is going to conclude something that could serve as a shroud),
(only) his (first) raka with this s ra.’ But he had nothing but a bedouin garment2.
again he went on and I thought: ‘Now he When we wrapped it over his head, his feet
will conclude his raka.’ Then he began stuck out from underneath and when we
s rat an-nis and finished it. Then he wrapped his feet in it, his head stuck out.
began s rat l Imrn and recited all of Then the Prophet said: ‘Place it over his
it in a leisurely manner. Every time he head then and array (sweet smelling) idh-
reached a verse with a glorification of God, khir3 over his feet.’ However, some others
he added a(n extra) glorification, every from among us did acquire the fruit of our
time he reached a verse in which God(‘s reward in quantity”,
pardon) was sought, he asked for God(‘s
cf. Mz., III, no. 3514 (kh, 23/27, m, II, p. 649, d, t,
pardon) and every time he reached a verse
s, confirmed in Azq., III, pp. 427 f,
um., no. 155,
in which God’s protection was implored, IASh., III, p. 260, I
., V, p. 109, VI, p. 395). With
he sought God’s protection (an additional five believable PCLs, Amash is the convincing CL
time). Then he made the bow saying: of this tradition.
‘Glorified be my Lord, the Exalted.’ His With a strand on the authority of Umra b.
bow took just as long as his standing in an Umayr—Ab Mamar Abd Allh b. Sakhbara:
upright position. Then he said: ‘May God
listen to whoever praises Him.’ Then he
• “We asked Khabbb b. al-Aratt: ‘Did the
Prophet recite from the Qurn in the uhr
stood upright for a long time, almost as
and ar alts?’ ‘Yes,’ he said. ‘How could
long as it took him to make the bow. Then
you tell,’ we asked again. ‘By the move-
he prostrated himself and said: ‘Glorified
ment of his beard,’ was the answer”,
be my Lord, the Most High,’ and his pros-
tration lasted almost as long as his standing 1. Lit. His face, cf. Lane, p. 3050, left column.
in an upright position”, 2. A simple woollen mantle with black and white
stripes.
cf. Mz., III, no. 3351 (m, I, pp. 536 f, d, t, s, q, con-
3. A kind of sweet rush, juncus odoratus or schoenan-
firmed in ay., no. 415, IASh., I, pp. 248 f, II, p. 211,
thum, according to Lane. The idhkhir is also mentioned
I
., V, pp. 384, 397). With four firm PCLs Amash in connection with the burial of
amza, Muammad’s
is the convincing CL of this tradition. The text is uncle, cf. IS, III 1, p. 117. It is probably a topos.
AMASH 89

cf. Mz., III, no. 3517 (kh, 10/91, 1, d, Awn al- an isnd, but IS shares in two of Amash’s PCLs.
mab d, III, pp. 12 f, s, q, confirmed in Azq., II, With a strand on the authority of Ab Sufyn
p. 105,
um., no. 156, I
., V, p. 109#, 112, VI, ala b. Nfi—Jbir b. Abd Allh—Ab Sad al-
p. 395). With four believable PCLs, Thawr, Ab Khudr:
Muwiya, Wak and Sufyn b. Uyayna, Amash
is the clear CL of this tradition. In Fat, II, p. 388,
• “When I entered the house of the Prophet, I
saw him performing a alt on a mat woven
I
j. presents some additional information: the mov-
ing of Muammad’s beard is per se no proof that he of palm leaves on which he prostrated him-
actually recited from the Qurn, it could equally self, and I saw that he was dressed in only
well have been a private prayer. But we must there- one garment in which he had wrapped3 him-
fore conclude, I
j. continues, that Khabbb and the self”,
others present must have witnessed a public prayer cf. Mz., III, no. 3982 (m, I, p. 369, t, q, confirmed in
ritual during which they could also hear that what IASh., I, pp. 311, 398, I
., III, pp. 10, 52, 59, Ab
the Prophet actually uttered was recitation. The Yal, II, p. 365, 444, 519). This tradition consists
issue is complicated by the question addressed in of two halves, which are either mentioned together
other traditions of how little audible, or how clearly or separately in the sources listed here. With two
audible, recitation in a public alt was supposed to PCLs and five SSs converging in Amash he may
be: in any case one had to be able to hear oneself be considered the CL of the wording of this tradi-
and that was only achieved, it was thought, by mov- tion. Performing the alt clad in only one garment
ing the tongue and lips. is an issue that has led to debates from early on. For
With a strand on the authority of Ab ‘- u a general introduction to the problem, see Thawr
Muslim b. ubay—Masrq b. al-Ajda—Khabbb under no. 4681, and also Hishm b. Urwa under
b. al-Aratt: no. 10684, Mlik under no. 13231°, and Sufyn b.
Uyayna under no. 13678.
• “I was a blacksmith in the Jhiliyya. Al- With a strand on the authority of Ab li
 b. Wil1 owed me a debt, so (one day) Dhakwn—Ab Sad al-Khudr, who related the
I went to him to ask for payment. But Prophet’s words (after a preamble):
he said: ‘I won’t pay you until you deny
Muammad.’ Then I said: ‘I won’t deny • “Do not vilify my companions, for by Him
him until you die and are resurrected2.’ He in whose hand lies my soul, if anyone of
exclaimed: ‘Shall I verily be resurrected you were to spend a quantity of gold as
after my death? I shall certainly pay what large as the mountain of Uud, he would
I owe you when I return to wealth and off- not equal the mudd4 of any one of them,
spring.’ (…) Then the verse was revealed not even half a mudd”,
(XIX: 77): ‘Did you see the one who cf. Mz., III, no. 4001 (the Six, kh, 62/5, 13, m, IV,
denied Our signs and said: ‘Verily, wealth pp. 1967 f, ay., no 2183, Bagh., I, p. 232, II, pp.
and offspring will be brought to me’”, 209 f, I
., III, pp. 11, 54#, 63 f, Ibn
ibbn, IX, pp.
68, 188#, TB, VII, p. 147). With four firm PCLs and
cf. Mz., III, no. 3520 (kh, 65/19, 5, m, IV, p. 2153,
a host of SSs, Amash is the clear CL of this impor-
t, s, confirmed in ay., no. 1054,, IS, III 1, p. 116,
tant tradition. It constitutes one of the best-known
I
., V, pp. 110, 111, abar, Tafsr, XVI, pp. 120
sayings generally adduced to corroborate the lofty
f, cf. Sra, I, p. 383). Amash is the undeniable CL
position of the Prophet’s companions among all
of this khabar which served at the same time as a
the other Muslims of the first hour, and it played
piece of tafsr for XIX: 77. Inserting a few details
a crucial role in the discussions on the succession
lacking in other accounts, Ibn Isq fails to mention
issue, who among the khulaf rshid n really had

1. The father of Amr b. al-, the conqueror of Egypt


and the right hand man of Muwiya. This father is 3. This verb (tawashshaa) is defined in Lane as follows:
said to have died before the Hijra. He belonged to the to throw a portion of one’s garment over the left shoulder
mustahzi n, those who ridiculed Muammad when he and draw its extremity under one’s right arm and tie the
began his preaching in Mecca. two extremities together in a knot across the chest.
2. Which is to say: never. In a variant (cf. I
j., Fat, X, 4. A certain measure of grain filling the two hands of a
p. 44) we read: ‘…until God causes you to die and resur- man = a little more than a litre, see Lane, s.v., and Hinz,
rects you.’ pp. 45 f.
90 AMASH

been, or had not been, entitled to assume power. him, for it found mention in the Tafsr of Muqtil b.
Arguments of the early Rfiites that Ab Bakr, Sulaymn (d. 150/767, cf. II, p. 628). It might even
Umar and Uthmn were usurpers, robbing Al be much older, when we, for the sake of argument,
of that what was assumed by them to be his right lend weight to a remark attributed to Ubayd b.
bestowed upon him by the Prophet, were substanti- Umayr, the early Meccan q (d. 68/687-8) who
ated by sayings that placed the first three caliphs is reported in abar’s Tafsr, XVI, p. 88, to have
in a negative light. Curiously, the moderate sym- related among his stories: ‘Death is brought in the
pathizer with Shite political ideas (mutashayyi), shape of an animal (dbba) which is slaughtered
as Amash was generally known to be, is seen here while the people look on.’ But a better-attested CL
as the proclaimer, if not also as the originator, of a is not to be found among the few spiders and SSs
famous anti-Rfiite slogan1. Later the l tasubb that support (versions of) this story in the sources.
saying may well have been adduced as one of the I
j. lists a number of comments ascribed to vari-
principal arguments in favour of considering all ous theologians (mutakallim n) concerning a suit-
companions as entirely reliable in transmitting able interpretation of this controversial tradition, cf.
Prophetic traditions, but that discussion may be Fat, XIV, pp. 210 ff.
dated to a time late in the second/eighth century2. With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
Another tradition on this issue is found in Shuba’s
tarjama under no. 9243. • “On the Day of Resurrection N will be
With the same strand: called forward. He will say: ‘Lord, I wait
intent upon obedience to Thee (labbayka
• “The Prophet spoke the following words:
wa-sadayka).’ He will be asked: ‘Have you
‘On the Day of Resurrection death will
delivered (My message)?’ ‘Yes.’ he will
be brought forth in the shape of a ram
say. Then his people will be asked: ‘Has he
that is white with some black mixed in.
delivered (my Message)?’ ‘No warner has
It will be placed between Paradise and
come to us,’ they will answer. ‘Then who
Hell and then a voice will say: ‘Denizens
will testify on your behalf?’ ‘Muammad
of Paradise, do you know what this is?’
and his community, they will testify that
Straining their necks they will say: ‘Yes,
he has delivered (the divine message) and
surely that is death.’ Then the voice will
(reciting from the Qurn): ‘The messenger
say: ‘Denizens of Hell, do you know what
will be your witness (II: 143).’ and ‘Thus
this is?’ Straining their necks they will say:
We have made you a community in the
‘Surely that is death.’ Then the order will
middle in order that you bear witness for
be given to slaughter it and the voice will
mankind (II: 143)’”,
say: ‘Denizens of Paradise, eternity (will
be your lot), not death. Denizens of Hell, cf. Mz., III, no. 4003 (kh, 65/2, 13, Fat, IX, pp.
eternity (will be your lot), not death.’ Then 238, t, s, q, confirmed in I
., III, pp. 32, 58, ab.,
the Prophet recited: ‘And warn them for Tafsr, ed. Shkir, III, pp. 142 f, Ab Yal, II, pp.
the Day of Grief when the matter will be 397, 416). Although this bundle is somewhat spi-
decided while they do not pay heed and do dery, Amash may be its (S)CL. His best-attested
not believe (XIX: 39)’, and he pointed with PCL, Ab Muwiya, seems responsible for an
his hand (to the unbelieving Meccans) in important variant in which several otherwise
anonymous prophets, accompanied by one, a few
this world”,
or more followers, are mentioned instead of N.
cf. Mz., III, no. 4002 (kh, 65/19, 1, m, IV, p. 2188, t, This variant is found for example in s, Kubr, VI,
s, confirmed in I
., III, p. 9, abar, Tafsr, XVI, p, p. 292. Though not expressis verbis, the tradition is
88). With only one PCL and just four SSs, Amash hinted at also in Muqtil’s Tafsr, I, p. 145, and in a
can only be considered to be the (S)CL of this tra- still more vague manner in Mujhid, p. 215, where
dition. However, the concept of death being led to we find a remark attributed to the q Ubayd b.
his slaughter is in any case contemporaneous with Umayr.
For Amash’s SCL position in a tradition (Mz.,
1. See also our review of J. van Ess, Theologie und Ges-
III, no. 4004) on the issue of whether women who
ellschaft, I, in Der Islam, LXXI, 1994, p. 367. want to travel should be accompanied by a male rel-
2. Cf. Authenticity, pp. 78 f. ative, see Mlik under no. 14317°.
AMASH 91

With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm an- the stoned devil.’ Then the man said: ‘Do
Nakha—Abd ar-Ramn b. Yazd an-Nakha: you think I am mad?’”,
• “Someone asked Salmn al-Fris: ‘Did cf. Mz., IV, no. 4566 (kh, 78/44, 5, m, IV. p. 2015,
your Prophet teach you everything in life, d, s, confirmed in IASh., VIII, p. 345, I
., VI, p.
even how to defecate?’ ‘Yes,’ Salmn 394). Amash is (S)CL of this tradition. A related
answered, ‘he forbade people to relieve matn is supported by a bundle with Abd al-Malik
themselves in the direction of the qibla or b. Umayr as (S)CL, see there under no. 11342. The
to wipe (istinj1) one’s anal cleft with the man’s reaction is to be interpreted as an impolite
one. In Awn al-mab d, XIII, p. 97, the suggestion
right hand or to do that with less than three
is made that the man was not aware that anger is a
stones, or with camel dung or bones’”,
trick played on humans by the devil. It is also ven-
cf. Mz., IV, no. 4505 (m, I, p. 223, d, t, s, q, con- tured that he was one of the hypocrites, or that he
firmed in ay., no. 654, IASh., I, p. 150, I
., V, was an uncouth bedouin.
pp. 437-8#). With three firm PCLs and several SSs With a strand on the authority of Ubayd b. al-
Amash is the CL of this tradition. In some strands
asan—Abd Allh b. Ab Awf:
Manr’s name occurs alongside that of Amash.
The latter may be responsible for this wording, but
• “When the Prophet straightened his back
the issue is an ancient one on which several early after the bow (ruk ), he said: ‘May God
fuqah have given their opinions, see IASh., I, pp. hear those who praise Him. Our Lord, to
150 f. Manr is the CL of a closely related tra- You belongs the praise of all the heavens
dition, see there under no. 4556. Ab Khaythama and the earth and of everything else You
Zuhayr b. Muwiya is (S)CL in a bundle support- want’”,
ing a closely related tradition, cf. Mz., VII, no. 9170
cf. Mz., IV, no. 5173 (m, I, p. 346, d, q, confirmed
(kh, s, q, ay., no. 287).
in IASh., I, p. 247, I
., IV, pp. 353, 381). It is dif-
The ban on relieving oneself in the direction of
ficult to decide whether Amash is the (S)CL of this
the qibla gave rise to some ‘concessions’, rukha.
tradition which is part of a MC on solemn formu-
Eventually it seems to have been realized that deter-
lae uttered after various movements in the alt, or
mining exactly the direction of Mecca, or that of
whether he is just a SCL in a spider superimposed
Bayt al-Maqdis for that matter, was not always
feasible, especially when one found oneself in the upon a bundle in which Shuba seems the CL, see
middle of nowhere. Thus we encounter a tradi- his tarjama under no. 5181.
tion with Sufyn b. Uyayna as CL in which one With a strand on the authority of
abb b. Ab
is enjoined not to face the qibla or turn one’s back Thbit—Sad b. Jubayr—Ibn Abbs:
towards it, but rather to adopt a direction to the • “Also when he was in town, without there
right or left, cf. his tarjama under no. 3478. And
being a dangerous situation or a rainstorm
then we finally find a rukha which is even broader
blowing, the Prophet used to combine the
with Bundr as CL, who traces a tradition to Jbir
b. Abd Allh in which he allegedly asserted that
performance of the uhr and ar alts and
he had witnessed how the Prophet, one year before that of the maghrib and ish alts”,
his demise, relieved himself in the direction of the cf. Mz., IV, no. 5474 (m, I, pp. 490 f, d, t, s, con-
qibla, cf. Mz., II, no. 2574 (d, Awn al-mab d, I, p. firmed in IASh., I, p. 490, I
., I, p. 354). Amash
17, t, I, p. 15, q, I, p. 117). is (S)CL. For other traditions from what is in fact
With a strand on the authority of Ad b. Thbit— a MC, see Amr b. Dnr under no. 5377, Mlik
Sulaymn b. urad: under no. 5608° and no. 11320°. From several
• “I sat one day with the Prophet, when two opinions attributed to first/seventh century fuqah
men began to abuse each other. The face of (cf. Azq., II, pp. 544-57, IASh., II, pp. 442-59) it
one became red and his veins became swol- appears that the issue is an early one. The overall
len. The Prophet spoke: ‘I know a phrase impression to be distilled from these aqwl is that
combining alts was at first frowned upon after
which would take away his anger, if he
which it became a generally recognized rukha,
said it: ‘I seek my refuge with God from
‘concession’.
For Amash’s SCL position in a sabab an-nuz l
1. Also called istiba or istikhmr. tradition, see Ab Muwiya under no. 5594.
92 AMASH

With a strand on the authority of Muslim b. (Ab) I


j., Fat, III, p. 111, presents the following
Imrn al-Ba n—Sad b. Jubayr—Ibn Abbs: comments on performing pious deeds on the so-
called tashrq days, i.e. the last three days of the
• “Once a man came to the Prophet and said: ajj, 11-13 of Dh ’l-
ijja1. Performing pious
‘Messenger of God, my mother died while deeds on those days is more meritorious than per-
she still had one whole month of fasting to forming such on ordinary days, because tashrq
perform. Shall I perform it in her place?’ days are meant to be devoted to eating, drinking
The Prophet replied: ‘If your mother had and other pleasures, and are therefore thought to
owed a debt, would you not have paid it for lead to laxness with people who otherwise do not
her?’ ‘’Yes,’ he said. ‘Well,’ the Prophet fail to observe religious duties. Worshiping God
said, ‘settling a debt one owes to God is on days of general relaxation (awqt al-ghafla) is
even more apposite’”, therefore believed to be deserving of extra praise.
Furthermore, those days are memorable, because
cf. Mz., IV, no. 5612 (the Six, kh, 30/42, 2, m, II, p. it was then that Ibrhm’s faith was allegedly put
804, confirmed in I
., I, pp. 224, 227, 362). Amash to the test through the divine order to sacrifice his
has four believable PCLs, so he may safely be con- son Isq. The question of whether or not it was
sidered to be the CL of this tradition. The strand Isq, the son Ibrhm had with Sra, rather than
between him and Ibn Abbs shows up alternative Isml, the son he had fathered with Sra’s slave
transmitters: al-
akam b. Utayba and Salama b. girl, whom he was ordered to sacrifice was never
Kuhayl are mentioned together with Muslim al- settled2.
Ba n, while A  b. Ab Rab and Mujhid are With a strand on the authority of Mujhid—
alternatives for Sad b. Jubayr. Superimposed upon ws—Ibn Abbs:
this bundle we find another bundle with Shuba as
CL who seems to have made a dive via Ab Bishr • “The Prophet once passed by two graves
Jafar b. Iys down to Sad. This bundle supports a and said: ‘Both the interred are being pun-
similar matn with a man asking whether he should ished, but not for a serious offence. One of
carry out an unfulfilled promise of his recently these used to go around spreading slander-
deceased sister to perform a ajj, cf. Mz., IV, no. ous gossip and the other did not observe
5457 (kh, 83/30, 2, s, V, p. 116, confirmed in ay., the proper practice while urinating.’ Then
no. 2621, I
., I, pp. 239 f, 345, with a Wsi strand he called for a fresh palm branch, broke it
via Hushaym on p. 216). into two pieces and planted these on each
With the same strand:
grave saying: ‘Perhaps (their punishment)
• “The Prophet once said: ‘No pious deeds is somewhat alleviated as long as these
(performed) on certain days please God have not withered’”,
more than those (performed) on the first cf. Mz., V, no. 5747 (the Six, kh, 23/81, m, IV, pp.
ten days (of Dh ’l-
ijja).’ Then he was 240 f, confirmed in Ibn al-Mubrak, Zuhd, p. 433,
asked: ‘Not even fighting in the path of no. 1220, IASh., I, p. 122, I
., I, p. 225). Amash is
God, Messenger of God?’ ‘Not even fight- probably the CL of the wording of this tradition, but
ing in the path of God,’ he answered, the issue of the proper customs to be observed while
‘except when someone goes to war ready urinating is surely much older as is reflected in sev-
to sacrifice his life and goods and he does eral aqwl from early fuqah. Manr is found to
not come home safely’”, be the key figure in a spider on the same subject, cf.

cf. Mz., IV, no. 5614 (kh, 13/11, d, Awn al-mab d,


1. Other appellatives of those days are ayym al-ashr or
VII, p. 74, t, q, confirmed in ay., no. 2631, Azq., al-ayym al-mad dt.
IV, p. 376, I
., I, pp. 224, 338 f, Drim, II, p. 41, 2. For a survey of the discussions on the issue, see EI 2,
Bay., IV, p. 284). Amash has two firm PCLs and s.n. Isml (Paret), and abar, Tafsr, XXIII, pp. 81 ff.
several SSs, so he may be assumed to be the CL As is his wont, Muqtil b. Sulaymn, Tafsr, III, pp. 614
of this tradition. If he is, however, taken to be just f, supplies some extra information on the animal that al-
a (S)CL, it is Shuba, his best-attested PCL, who legedly constituted a way out for Ibrhm in his dilemma:
is the most likely candidate and who may in due its name was Razn, it was a mountain goat (wal) that had
course have been copied by the other PCL Ab been grazing in paradise for forty years before it was sent
to earth to be sacrificed. But abar also identifies it as a
Muwiya.
white ram with black spots, wide in the eyes.
AMASH 93

Mz., V, no. 6424. Slanderous gossip (namma) is to cuted … Obey him (sc. the first leader) as
be distinguished from ghba, for which see Isml you obey God and disobey him whenever
b. Jafar under no. 13985. The proper practice while he rebels against God”,
urinating requires some comments, a variety of verbs
is used in the different versions of this tradition1. In cf. Mz., VI, no. 8881 (m, III, pp. 1472 f, d, s, q, con-
Fat, I, pp. 329 f, I
j. also offers some thoughts firmed in IASh., XII, p. 214, I
., II, pp. 161, 191,
about the supposed severity of the offences. In vari- 193). With two PCLs and a few SSs, Amash is in
ants the Prophet is namely supposed to have stated any case the (S)CL of this tradition, if not the CL. It
that the offences mentioned belong indeed to the belongs to the large sam wa-a cluster. The exten-
serious ones (kabir), but not as such. Offenders, sive narrative digressions in preamble, insert and
namely, never give up their bad habits: constantly sequel of this tradition are purely topical embellish-
committing the same lesser offence (aghra) con- ments and have therefore been left untranslated. It
stitutes a major offence (kabra). I
j.’s casuistry is could not be established if the (S)CL or one or more
altogether extensive. of his PCLs can be held responsible for these.
With a strand on the authority of Mujhid: With a strand on the authority of Abd Allh b.
Murra—Masrq b. al-Ajda—Abd Allh b. Amr,
• “Ibn Umar related the Prophet’s words:’Do
who related the Prophet’s words:
not prevent your women from going out in
the night to the mosque.’ Then a son of • “He who has (the following) four charac-
Ibn Umar said: ‘We will not let them go teristics is a genuine hypocrite and he who
out to defile the place.’ Whereupon Ibn has one of these is in that respect a hypo-
Umar scolded him and said: ‘I said that the crite until he outgrows it: when he con-
Messenger of God said this, and you say: verses he lies, when he makes a covenant
We won’t let them?!’”, he reneges, when he gives a promise he
goes back on his word and when he brings
cf. Mz., VI, no. 7385 (kh, 10/162, 2, m, I, p. 327, d,
legal action he swears a false oath”,
t, confirmed in ay., nos. 1892, 1894, Azq., III, p.
147, I
., II, pp. 49, 127, 143, 145). Amash is the cf. Mz., VI, no. 8931 (kh, 2/24, 2, m, I, p. 78, d, t, s,
CL of this tradition, which is part of the large MC confirmed in IASh., VIII, pp. 405 f, I
., II, pp. 189,
on the issue of whether or not women are allowed 198, Ibn
ibbn, I, p. 236, cf. ilya, VII, p. 204,
into the mosque to pray together with the men. For where the name of Amash may inadvertently have
two
ijz traditions from this MC, see Yay b. been dropped from the isnd strand). With his three
Sad al-Anr under no. 17934, and Ibn Uyayna believable PCLs Amash is probably the CL of this
under no. 6823. saying. Isml b. Jafar is CL in a similar saying, cf.
With a strand on the authority of Zayd b. Wahb, Mz., X, no. 14341 (kh, m, t, s, Ibn
ujr, p. 515).
the muammar—Abd ar-Ramn b. Abd Rabb al- With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil—
Kaba—Abd Allh b. Amr who after an elaborate Masrq b. al-Ajda3:
preamble related the Prophet’s words:
• “When Ibn Masd was mentioned to Abd
• “He who pledges allegiance to a leader Allh b. Amr, he said: ‘I have always
(imm) and shakes his hand in all sincer- loved him after I heard the Prophet say
ity2, let him obey that leader wherever he to us: ‘Learn to recite the Qurn from
can, and if another leader comes and chal- four men, Ibn Umm Abd, i.e. Abd Allh
lenges the first, let the challenger be exe- b. Masd—he mentioned him first! —,
Mudh b. Jabal, Ubayy b. Kab and Slim,
1. I
j. comments extensively on the exact connota- Ab
udhayfa’s mawl’”,
tions of the verbs used and these are istitr, lit. screen-
ing oneself off, sc. being cautious not to spatter oneself, cf. Mz., VI, no. 8932 (kh, 62/27, m, IV, pp. 1913 f,
also interpreted as making sure not to expose the genitals t, s, confirmed in ay., nos. 2245, 2247, IASh., X,
(awra) in public; istibr, cleaning the orifice of the pe- p. 518, I
., II, pp. 163, 189, 190). Amash has three
nis from the remnants of urine by shaking and the like
(Lane); istinzh, avoiding sullying oneself, cf. Fat, I, pp.
329-34, and Ibn al-Athr, V, p. 43. 3. He is a member of the Ab Ibn Masd, the circle of
2. Lit. with a handshake and the fruit of his heart, cf. special disciples of Ibn Masd. For other members of this
Lane, p. 353, middle column, infra. circle, cf. EI 2, s.n. Ibn Masd (J.-C. Vadet).
94 AMASH

believable PCLs, Ab Muwiya, Wak and Shuba, him we find several SSs led through Manr (kh, m,
and may therefore be considered to be the CL of this I
., IV, pp. 392, 417) as well as a superimposed
tradition. Moreover, one of these PCLs, Shuba, is bundle with Shuba as CL who has his own strand
also found as CL in a bundle with a different strand down to Ab Ms through Amr b. Murra bypass-
back to the Prophet supporting a similar text. This ing Amash (kh, m, d, s, I
., IV, p. 402). But Shuba
bundle was superimposed upon that of Amash by is also recorded as having received this tradition
Mz. It is, furthermore, striking that in all the variant directly from Amash ( ay., no. 487).
wordings of this fa
il tradition, for which various With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
PCLs of Amash or Shuba may be held responsible,
the order of the last three of the four Qurn experts • “Shortly before the Hour of Judgement
is different, but Ibn Masd is always mentioned there will be a few days in which knowl-
first. Around Ibn Masd’s expertise in the Qurn edge is taken away2, ignorance is sent
an extensive fa
il MC developed. Most promi- down and in which there is harj, that means
nent among the key figures in the spiders support- slaughter”,
ing versions from this MC is again Amash (cf. no.
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9000 (kh, 92/5, 2, m, IV, p. 2056,
9257), but the tradition quoted above is supported
t, q, confirmed in I
., IV, pp. 392, 405). Amash is
by a bundle with the most easily believable CL. For
(S)CL of this tradition. The term harj used here is a
more of these spiders, cf. Mz., VII, nos. 9427 (key
word from the language of Abyssinia. It means also
figure: Al b. Mushir (d. 179/795) who transmits it
civil strife, conflict, diffusion, disorder at the end
from Amash), Mz., VI, nos. 8979, 9022 (key fig-
of time, etc. In general it is a term for vehemence
ure: Yay b. dam d. 203/818-9).
in everything confusing and disturbing. Among the
With the same strand after a preamble:
phenomena of those last days we find listed exces-
• “Ibn Masd mentioned the Prophet and sive killing and manslaughter3, widespread lascivi-
said: ‘He was not wont to use excessive ousness and mendacity, sleep paralysis aggravated
language nor did he ever affect it1. He said by disconcerting dreams, in short: universal incerti-
one day: ‘The best people among you are tude, cf. I
j., Fat, XVI, p. 125.
With the same strand:
those with the highest morals’”,
cf. Mz., VI, no. 8933 (kh, 78/38, m, IV, p. 1810, t, • “A man came to the Prophet and asked
confirmed in ay., no. 2246, IASh., VIII, p. 326, him: ‘What will happen to someone who
I
., II, pp. 161, 189, 193). With no less than five loves certain people but has not yet caught
PCLs Amash is the convincing CL of this tradi- up with them4?’ ‘Man will be together (sc.
tion. in the Hereafter) with whom he loves,’ the
With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil Prophet answered”,
Shaqq b. Salama—Ab Ms al-Ashar:
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9002 (kh, 78/96, 3, m, IV, p. 2034,
• “A man came to the Prophet and asked: confirmed in I
., IV, pp. 392, 395, 398, 405).
‘Who is the man who actually fights in the Amash is the believable CL of this tradition. His
path of God, he who fights for the spoils position in this bundle gains in strength by the exis-
(v.l. out of courage), he who fights in order tence of another bundle with a different companion,
to be remembered (v.l. out of self-aggran- Ibn Masd, supporting the same tradition in which
he is also CL, cf. Mz., VII, no. 9262 (kh, 78/96, 2,
dizement), or he who fights in order to be
m, ay., p. 371, which is an appended correction
praised?’ Then the Prophet answered: ‘He
to no. 252, I
., I, p. 392). The issue broached in
who fights in order that the word of God the tradition gave rise to an extensive MC (cf. m,
be exalted is the true fighter in the path of
the Lord’”,
2. I.e. by the death of the (religious) scholars.
cf. Mz., VI, no. 8999 (kh, 97/28, 6, m, III, pp. 1512 3. This is interpreted not as Muslims killing polytheists,
f, t, q, confirmed in ay., no. 486, I
., IV, pp. 397, but rather as Muslims killing each other.
405). Amash is the (S)CL of this bundle. Apart from 4. This is the literal translation of the phrase lamm
yalaq bi-him. Commentaries and related matns make
clear that with these words is implied that the man has not
1. In Arabic: fish wa-mutafaish; in this translation yet succeeded in emulating the pious deeds of the people
IHj.’s interpretation was followed, cf. Fat, VII, p. 385. he mentions, see I
j., Fat, XIII, p. 178.
AMASH 95

IV, pp. 2032 ff) in the isnds of the various ver- Umayr—al-Aswad b. Yazd an-Nakha—Ibn
sions of which there are, however, no earlier CLs Masd:
discernible, so Amash is in all likelihood the first
to have thought of it. In the more elaborate matns of • “Let no one grant the devil a part of his
this MC the anonymous expression ‘certain people’ alt by thinking that he can only quit the
is replaced by precise references to God and His alt by taking a right turn when leaving.
Prophet, and also to Ab Bakr and Umar. Often enough I have seen the Prophet tak-
With a strand on the authority of Sad b. ing a left turn after finishing his alt”,
Jubayr—Abd Allh b.
abb—Ab Ms al-
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9177 (kh, 10/159, m, I, p. 492, d,
Ashar, who related the Prophet’s words:
s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 284, Azq., II, p. 240,
• “No one shows more forbearance with
um., no. 127, I
., I, pp. 383, 429). With a num-
respect to insults he hears than God: ber of convincing PCLs Amash is the clear CL of
copartners and children are attributed to this tradition, which one more time bespeaks his
Him, while He forgives man and gives him ‘expertise’ concerning the behaviour of the devil.
subsistence”, In Fat, II, p. 483, I
j. mentions that the Prophet
turned often to the left after his alt because the
cf. Mz., VI, no. 9015 (kh, 97/3, m, IV, p. 2160, s, location of his private quarters in the mosque was
confirmed in
um., no. 774, I
., IV, pp. 395, 401, to the left.
405, Ibn
ibbn, II, p. 17). With three believable With a strand on the authority of Umra b.
PCLs Amash may be seen as the CL of this tradi- Umayr (or Ibrhm at-Taym)—al-
rith b.
tion. Suwayd (or al-Aswad b. Yazd):
With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm an-
Nakha—al-Aswad b. Yazd—Ibn Masd: • “Ibn Masd was ill and I entered his quar-
ters in order to pay him a visit. He related
• “We were with the Prophet in a cave near to us two traditions, one of his own and one
Min when wa ’l-mursalti urfan (Q: on the authority of the Prophet. The first
LXXVII1) was revealed. We recorded it one: ‘The believer sees his sins as if he is
fresh from his mouth, when suddenly a sitting at the foot of a mountain while being
snake appeared. ‘Kill it,’ he said, where- afraid that it might fall on top of him. But
upon we ran towards it in order to kill it. the sinner compares his sins with a fly that
But it got away. The Messenger of God lands on (v.l. flies past) his nose; he says:
said: ‘God protected it against your harm- ‘Hey you there,’ and whisks it away with
ing it as He protected you against its harm- his hand.’ And the second from the Prophet:
ing you’”, ‘God is more satisfied2 with someone who
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9163 (kh, 65/4, m, IV, p. 1755, s, repents than the joy experienced by a man
confirmed in I
., I, pp. 422, 428, 456, ). Amash who alights at a perilous spot in the des-
has three PCLs so he may be the CL in this bun- ert. With his camel loaded with food and
dle. It supports one of several snake-related tradi- drink at his side he goes to sleep. When
tions forming together a MC. Amash is also CL he awakes, the camel has gone. The man
in another bundle with a different strand down to
wanders around to search for it. Finally he
Ibn Masd supporting the same text, cf. Mz., VII,
is overcome by thirst and he says to him-
no. 9430 (kh, s, I
., I, p. 428), and there are a few
self: ‘I’ll go back to the spot where I first
strands supporting the same tradition which show
up Manr as CL, cf. Mz., VII, no. 9455 (kh, 65/77, alighted and I’ll go to sleep there until I
1, 2, s, I
., I, p. 427). Since Amash’s position is die.’ (Having arrived there) he places his
so much stronger in his bundles, this tradition was head on his arm, waiting for death. But then
recorded in his tarjama. For another tradition on he awakes and finds his camel standing at
snakes, see Mlik under no. 4413*.
With a strand on the authority of Umra b.
2. Literally it says ‘more pleased’, but commentators
point out that the human emotion ‘being pleased’ may
1. ‘By those that are sent successively’, taken to refer to not be made applicable to God, cf. I
j., Fat, XIII, p.
clouds or winds. 351, -7f.
96 AMASH

his head with all his provisions, food and in infancy2.’ He went on: ‘What do you
water. God is indeed even more satisfied think is meant by uraa?’ ‘That is some-
with someone’s repentance than this man one whom no other man can strike down,’
is with his camel and provisions’”, we replied. ‘No,’ the Prophet said, ‘that is
not a uraa, a uraa is someone who is
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9190 (kh, 80/4, m, IV, p. 2103, t,
s, confirmed in I
., I, p. 383#). With his believable forbearing when he is angered’”,
PCLs Amash may be the CL of this tradition. For cf. Mz., VII, nos. 9192 and 9193 (A: kh, 81/12, s,
Ibn Masd’s own tradition, see I
j., Fat, XIII, pp. VI, pp. 237 f, B: m, IV, p. 2014, d; both A and B
350 f. form one single tradition in I
., I, pp. 382 f, and
With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm b. Yazd according to I
j., Fat, XIV, p. 36, -3, also in Sad
at-Taym—al-
rith b. Suwayd—Ibn Masd: b. Manr in whose presently available edition of
his Sunan it could however not be located). In all
• “I entered the Prophet’s living quarters
the strands supporting A and B Amash is the SCL,
when he had a fever. I touched him with
if not the (S)CL. With respect to tradition (A), some
my hand and said: ‘Messenger of God, commentators point out (cf. I
j., Fat, XIV, p. 37)
you run a very high temperature.’ He said: that with this is implied that it is better to spend as
‘Yes, when I have a fever, it is twice as much money during one’s life as possible on pious
bad with me as with other people.’ Then I works. Nothing one leaves to his heir, be it spent by
said: ‘But will your reward not be doubled the latter on pious works or not, will be of benefit
then?’ ‘Yes,’ the Prophet said and he con- to the testator in the Hereafter. Finally, it is stated
cluded: ‘No Muslim will be struck down that this tradition does not contradict the tradition
by a dangerous disease or the like without in which it is reported that the Prophet told Sad
God decreasing thereby his evil deeds like b. Ab Waqq that it is better to leave one’s heirs
a tree sheds its foliage’”, well-off than destitute because in Sad’s case his
heirs were to spend the inheritance invariably on
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9191 (kh, 75/2, 2,m, IV, p. 1991, charity. For this tradition, see Zuhr under Mz., III,
s, confirmed in ay., no. 370, I
., I, pp. 381#, 441, no. 3890.
455, Drim, II, p. 408). With four believable PCLs With a strand on the authority of Zayd b. Wahb,
Amash is the clear CL of this tradition. the muammar—Ibn Masd, who related the
With the same strand two traditions, A and B: Prophet’s words:
• (A) “The Prophet said (to those present): • “At first everyone conceived in the belly
‘Who prefers his heir (to inherit) his money of his mother will stay there for forty days,
rather than (spending it) himself?’ ‘There then during a second period of forty days
is no one among us who does not prefer he will become a blood clot, then during
(to spend) his own money rather than (to a third period of forty days a chunk of
leave it all to) his heir,’ (those addressed) flesh. After that an angel is sent down who
said. Then the Prophet said: ‘Know that will breathe the breath of life therein. He
everyone among you1 prefers his heir to is ordered to write down four decrees: the
inherit his money. Your own money is sustenance (of the foetus), its term of death,
what you spend and the money of your heir its deeds and (the degree of its) hardship or
is that what you retain.’” (B) “One day the happiness (in life). By Him beside Whom
Prophet asked (us): ‘What do you think is there is no other god, someone will perform
meant by raq b?’ We said: ‘Someone who works (comparable with those) of the deni-
has no children.’ ‘No,’ the Prophet said,
‘that is not its meaning. Raq b is some- 2. Lit. he who has not sent before him (to Paradise, be-
one who did not see any child of his die cause of its dying in infancy,) any of his children, cf.
Lane, p. 1133, right column, citing Ab Ubayd, III, p.
108. Raqaba, ‘to look or to wait for’ forms the adjective
raq b, which is applicable to both a man and a woman
1. Suy  states in his commentary on s that only those who ’looks for the death of his/her offspring or of his/her
present are addressed here, not the entire Muslim com- spouse in order that he/she may have offspring by anoth-
munity, VI, p. 238. er’, cf. Lane, ibidem.
AMASH 97

zens of Paradise to the point that he is only With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
one cubit away from it until he is finally Shaqq b. Salama—Ibn Masd, who related the
overtaken by his writ after which he will Prophet’s words:
perform works (comparable with those) of • “The first cases that will be judged on the
the people of Hell whereupon he enters it. Day of Resurrection are those in which
But someone else will perform works (com- blood was shed (sc. among people)”,
parable with those) of the people of Hell
to the point that he is only one cubit away cf. Mz., VII, no. 9246 (kh, 87/1, 4, m, III, p. 1304,
t, s, q, confirmed in Ibn al-Mubrak, Zuhd, p. 478,
from it until he is finally overtaken by his
no. 1358, and ibidem, in the appendix of Nuaym,
writ after which he will perform works
p. 116, no. 390, ay., no. 269, IASh., IX, p. 426,
(comparable with those) of the people of mawq f in Azq., X, p. 464). Amash is CL.
Paradise whereupon he enters Paradise”, With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9228 (the Six, kh, 82/1, m, IV, p. Shaqq b. Salama:
2036, confirmed in Ab Isq al-Fazr, Siyar, no.
574, ay., no. 298,
um., no. 126, I
., I, pp. 382,
• “A man called Nahk b. Sinn2 came to Ibn
Masd and said: ‘Ab Abd ar-Ramn,
430). With at least five believable PCLs Amash
is the CL of this important tradition, which harks
how do you recite correctly this passage
back to some verses from the Qurn in which the from the Qurn: min min ghayri sinin
stages of the development of the human embryo are or min min ghayri ysinin (XLVII: 15),
described in similar terms, cf. XXII: 5, XXIII: 14. with an alif or a y (in the last word)?’
The tradition and its isnd bundle, complete with Ibn Masd said: ‘Have you committed
diving strands, was subjected to an extensive analy- the entire Qurn to memory except this
sis by J. van Ess1. passage?’ The man replied: ‘I recite the
With the same strand: mufaal3 in every raka.’ Then Ibn Masd
• “Once the Prophet said: ‘Upon my death, said: ‘(Do you recite the Qurn) as fast as
there will be misappropriation (of funds poetry? Certain people recite it without
by the ruler from the treasury) and other their recitation reaching below their collar
goings-on you will abhor.’ Those present bones4, but when recitation falls into the
said: ‘Messenger of God, so what do you heart and is allowed to sink in, it benefits the
order those of us to do who will live to reciter. The best part of the alt is the bow
see this?’ ‘You will carry out those duties
which are incumbent upon you and you
2. A totally obscure figure who is not listed in any of
will ask God’s succour in (those situations the early sources, including I
j.’s Iba, a clear case of
in) which you have the right on your side,’ contrived tabyn al-mubham, the ubiquitous compulsion
he answered”, apparent with many authors of early Islamic sources to
supply the names and particulars of all sorts of otherwise
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9229 (kh, 92/2, m, III, p. 1472, t, entirely obscure figures turning up in often irrelevant
confirmed in ay., no. 297, I
., I, pp. 386 f, 428, contexts.
433). With four PCLs Amash is the clear CL of this 3. Mufaal is the name of a portion of the Qurn ap-
tradition. It is part of the large sam wa-a cluster proximately comprising the final fifth or the final sixth
and it is not yet worded in the harsh terms appar- part, cf. Lane, p. 2407, right column, and I
j., Fat, II,
ent in other traditions from this MC in which open p. 392, - 10 ff. In Fat, II, p. 401, -8 ff, we read I
j.’s
rebellion against the unjust ruler is preached, cf. no. shortest definition of mufaal: it comprises all the s ras
from L (Qf) to the end of the Qurn; it is called mufaal
8881 above.
because of the usual division (fal) between the separate
For Amash’s CL position in a tashahhud tradi-
s ras by means of the basmala. According to a poorly
tion (no. 9245), see Manr under no. 9296. attested and probably late tradition, in this subdivision
(tazb) of the Qurn the part preceding the mufaal is
divided up into six portions of respectively three, five,
1. Zwischen ad und Theologie, Berlin/New York, seven, nine, eleven and thirteen s ras, cf. Mz., I, no. 1737
1975, pp. 1-20. The author may seem to appear a bit gul- (d, Awn al-mab d, IV, p. 190, q, I
., IV, pp. 9, 343).
lible, when he assesses the role of the muammar Zayd b. 4. This is supposed to convey that the Qurn recited too
Wahb from the strand down to Ibn Masd. hurriedly does not make contact with the reciter’s heart.
98 AMASH

and the prostration. I know the equal1 s ras in Amash in this bundle, he is in any case its (S)CL,
(sc. of the mufaal) which the Prophet if not its CL.
used to recite together (sc. in pairs), two With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
s ras in every raka, (in a variant:) twenty Shaqq b. Salama—Ibn Masd, who related the
s ras (sc. of the mufaal) in ten rakas.’ Prophet’s words:
(Then follows an appended confirmation • “No woman shall touch the skin of another
of Ibn Masd’s statement attributed to woman or describe her to her husband as if
Alqama b. Qays an-Nakha)”, he himself were looking at her”,
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9248 (kh, 66/6, 4, m, I, p. 563, t, s, cf. Mz., VII, no. 9252 (kh, 67/118, 2, Fat, XI, p.
confirmed in ay., nos. 259, 273, IASh., II, p. 520, 252, d, Awn al-mab d, VI, pp. 131 f, t, s, Kubr,
I
., I, pp. 380, 455). Amash is the believable CL. V, p. 390, confirmed in ay., no. 268, I
., I, pp.
In several versions the preamble with the dialogue 380, 387, 440, 443, 462, 464). In this bundle
between Ibn Masd and his interlocutor is omitted Amash is the CL. Next to him we find Manr as
and the tradition is limited to the final statement ‘I CL, but he is less well attested, cf. no. 9305 (kh,
know the equal s ras …’ Next to the variant order- 67/118, 1, s, IASh., IV, p. 397, I
., I, pp. 438, 440).
ing the recitation of twenty s ras in ten rakas there It is hard to say who copied whom. The tradition
is another variant which mentions eighteen s ras is closely related to another one on the prohibition
from the mufaal plus two from the l mm, the to look at other people of the same sex when they
appellative for s ras XL-XLVI2. The bundle shows are in the nude or entering the private quarters of
up a SS via Manr and a spider with the Kurdish another person of the same sex when clad only
mawl Mahd b. Maymn (d. 171-2/787-8) as key in undergarments. This is followed by the after-
figure. Finally, Shuba is the believable CL in a thought: acting like that is to be punished by judicial
bundle supporting a tradition apparently modelled discretion (tazr), cf. IASh., IV, p. 398. The tradi-
on this Amash tradition, cf. Mz., VII, no. 9288 (kh, tion is supported by a spidery bundle which does
10/106, 2, m, I, p. 565, s, confirmed in ay., no. not permit the drawing of conclusions as to whom
267, Bagh., I, p. 29, I
., I, p. 346). the matn may be ascribed, cf. Mz., III, no. 4115 (m,
With the same strand: I, p. 266, d, s, q, IASh., I, p. 106, IV, p. 397, I
., III,
p. 63, Ab Yal, II, 373 f, cf. Azq., I, p. 287, where
• “Ibn Masd said: ‘One night when I per- the tradition is listed with a mursal strand). The key
formed the night alt together with the figures discernible in this bundle are a- ak b.
Prophet, he took so long (in his recitation) Uthmn (d. 153/770), Muammad b. Isml ibn
that an evil thought crossed my mind.’ Ab Fudayk (d. 199-201/814-6) and Zayd b.
ubb
When he was asked what that evil thought (d. 203/818-9), but attributing the tradition to any-
was, he answered: ‘I was thinking that I’d one of these three is hazardous.
In early muslim society people mingling with
better sit down and leave him be’”,
one another in the nude is frowned upon. In this
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9249 (kh, 19/9, m, I, p. 537, tm, context another issue originated which is even
q, confirmed in I
., I, pp. 385, 396, 415, 440, Ibn more taboo in Islam: that of male and female homo-

ibbn, III, p. 289, Ab Yal, IX, p. 100, Ibn Khu- sexuality, in Arabic liw and siq or saq3. In the
zayma, II, p. 186). With many SSs coming together canonical collections there are no traditions listed

1. In Arabic: an-na ir; the term is used here for s ras 3. For general introductions to the issues, see in EI 2 the
resembling one another in contents, such as exhortation, lemma liw (Ch. Pellat) and our lemma siq. Saq and
judgement or legend, rather than in number of yas. The siq are also used for female masturbation. This is emi-
various pairs of ‘equal’ s ras are the following (I
j., nently clear from reports belonging to adab literature de-
Fat, II, p. 402): LV & LIII, LIV & LXIX, LI & LII, LVI scribing single women resorting to it, e.g. Ibn Ab Awn,
& LXVIII, LXX & LXXIX, LXXXIII & LXXX, LXX- Al-ajwiba al-muskita, ed. May A. Yousef, Berlin 1988,
IV & LXXIII, LXXVI & LXXV, LXXVIII & LXXVII, nos. 1026-7. And in adth there is a rukha tradition al-
LXXXI & XLIV (strictly speaking this last s ra (s. ad- lowing masturbation (istimn) for young men as well as
dukhn) does not belong to the mufaal but is one of the for women ‘ … who insert (something), i.e. saq’, cf.
l mm being introduced by the mysterious letters  Azq., VII, p. 392 (read as-saq for the nonsensical as-
and mm). saq). Masturbation was thought to constitute a means to
2. I
j., Fat, II, p. 402, 6 ff, cf. m, I, p. 564. avoid lapsing into fornication.
AMASH 99

in which this is openly discussed and subsequently with one another) the one riding as well as
there is no way in which traditions belonging to the one being ridden”,
the issue can be traced (with the help of Mz.) to
cf. Azq., VII, p. 334.
the originators of wording and/or gist by means of
(4) … Ibn Jurayj and Mamar—Zuhr (a private
isnd bundle analysis. But since the phenomenon
opinion):
presumably already towards the end of the first/sev-
enth century led to traditions of varying sorts, it is • “Those people expert in these matters
proposed here to mention the better-known ones in whom I met used to say in respect of a
order to enable the researcher into sexual morals of woman who makes love with another
early Islam how the taboo subject was addressed
woman in the region of the vulva as well
in adth, if it happened to be addressed at all. Of
as women performing comparable acts:
necessity the following six, mostly SS-supported,
flog them each with one hundred lashes,
pre-canonical and some post-canonical traditions
are translated here without an attempt having been the one who performs this act as well as
made to identify their originators or to put them in the one upon whom it is performed”,
some sort of chronological order. cf. Azq., VII, pp. 334 f.
(1) … Zayd b.
ubb—Yay b. Ayyb al- (5) … Khlid al-
adhdh—Ibn Srn—Ab
Mir—Ayysh b. Abbs al-
imyar—Ab ’l- Ms al-Ashar, who related the Prophet’s words:

uayn al-Haytham b. Shaf al-


ajr—[Ab] mir
al-
ajr—Ab Rayna: • “When a man makes love with another
man, both are guilty of zin, and when a
• “The Prophet used to forbid mukama, that woman makes love with another woman,
is two men or two women mingling with both are guilty of zin”,
each other while naked, or mukama, that
is two persons of the same gender pressing cf. Bay., VIII, p. 233. NB. In this context we often
the lips upon each other’s mouth”; encounter the tradition that when a man copulates
with an animal, both man and beast must be killed.
cf. IASh., IV, p. 397, I
., IV, p. 134. In I
., IV, For more on that, see Amr b. Ab Amr under no.
135, there is a saying supported by a partially simi- 6176.
lar isnd strand with a seemingly cognate term (6) … Baqiyya b. al-Wald—Uthmn b. Abd
mukmaa, that is two people lying under one blan- ar-Ramn—Anbasa b. Sad—Makl—Wthila
ket, but it is here used for two men or two women b. al-Asqa, who related the Prophet’s words:
lying in the same bed without something, a garment
or blanket, keeping their bodies apart. • “Tribadism (siq) among women consti-
(2) …
ammd b. Khlid—Muammad b. Abd tutes zin”,
ar-Ramn ibn Ab Dhib—Zuhr (a private opin- cf. Ab Yal, XIII, p. 476, Haytham, Majma az-
ion): zawid, VI, p. 256.
• “When a woman makes love with another After this digression on lesbianism the musnad
woman, each should undergo the appropri- of Amash is now resumed.
ate add punishment”, With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
Shaqq b. Salama—Ibn Masd, who related the
cf. IASh., X, p. 146. This tradition refers to a time Prophet’s words:
in which male or female homosexuality used to be
considered as an offence equal to zin, fornication, • “When three persons are together, two
entailing a add punishment. See below. should not converse in a whisper excluding
(3) … Ibrhm b. Muammad—
irm b. the third, because that may grieve him”,
Uthmn—Sad b. Thbit1—Abd Allh b. Kab b.
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9253 (m, IV, p. 1718, d, t, q, con-
Mlik (mursal):
firmed in ay., no. 257,
um., no. 109, I
., I, pp.
• “The Prophet cursed (women making love 375, 425, 430, 438, 440, 462, 464). With his five
firm PCLs Amash is the undeniable CL of this tra-
dition which has a number of non-committal vari-
1. A strictly obscure figure not found in the rijl hand- ants. It appeared very popular for it has given rise
books. Is he an invention of Azq.? to a horde of SSs and spiders one of which shows
100 AMASH

up Manr as key figure, cf. Mz., VII, no. 9302. enter Hell,’ whereupon I said: ‘And he
Iraq may thus have been the place of origin of this who dies while not associating a copartner
rule of social etiquette, but in the
ijz it seemed with God will enter Paradise’”,
to have been no less popular. Mlik is CL in a bun-
dle supporting the saying with his time-honoured
strand down to the Prophet via Nfi and Ibn Umar, cf. Mz., VII, no. 9255 (kh, 22/1, 2, m, I, p. 94, s,
cf. Mz., VI, no. 8372* (kh, 79/45, m, IV, p. 1717, confirmed in ay., no. 256, I
., I, pp. 382, 425,
Mlik, II, p. 989), and this Mlik version was then 443, 462, 464, Ab Yal, IX, p. 126). If Amash is
copied by later traditionists supporting their ver- not the CL of this tradition, he is its (S)CL. In the
sions with the usual SS dives converging in Nfi, cluster of traditions with similar contents Amash
cf. m, ibidem, and the index of I
. s.v. idh kuntum is in any case by far the oldest key figure in the
/ kn thalthatan fa-l … bundles supporting its different versions.
With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil With the same strand relating the Prophet’s
Shaqq b. Salama: words:

• “We were seated at the door of Ibn Masd • “No one likes being praised more than
waiting for him (to appear). Then Yazd God, that is why He praises Himself, and
b. Muwiya an-Nakha1 passed by and no one is more jealous than God, that is
we asked him to tell Ibn Masd that we why He has forbidden adultery/fornication
were there. Yazd entered the house of Ibn (in a variant: what occurs thereof openly or
Masd who, after a short while, came out- in secret, cf. Q. VI: 151)”,
side to meet us. ‘I had been informed that
you are here,’ he said. ‘But what prevents cf. Mz., VII, no. 9256 (kh, 67/107, 1, m, IV, p.
me from coming to you (sooner) is my fear 2113, s, confirmed in Azq., X, p. 410, IASh., IV, p.
that I might bore you. Frequently the Mes- 419, I
., I, pp. 325 f, 381, Drim, II, p. 200, Ab
senger of God used to take special care in Yal, IX, p. 103, Ibn
ibbn, I, p. 256). Amash is
the manner he delivered exhortations to the believable CL of this tradition. He was copied
us2, fearing that he might otherwise bore in this by Shuba who is CL in a bundle, cf. no.
us’”, 9287 (kh, 65/6, 7, m, IV, p. 2114, t, s, ay., no. 266,
I
., I, p. 436), with a strand down to the Prophet
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9254 (kh, 3/11, m, IV, p. 2172, t, through a dive bypassing Amash via Amr b. Murra
confirmed in ay., no. 255,
um., no. 107, IASh., to Ab Wil, who is therefore labelled by I
. as its
IX p. 70, I
., I, pp. 377, 378, 425, 440, 443, 462). madr, cf. Fat, XVII, p. 155. Jealousy was gener-
Amash is the convincing CL of this bundle. Next to ally assumed to flare up most vehemently among
him we find Manr in a slightly less well-attested married couples, hence God’s total ban on adultery,
bundle supporting a related version, cf. no. 9298 cf. also Q. IV: 15 ff.
(kh, 3/12, m, IV, p. 2173, s, I
., I, pp. 427, 465). With the same strand:
With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
Shaqq b. Salama—Ibn Masd: • “Someone asked the Prophet: ‘Messenger
• “The Prophet once said: ‘He who dies of God, shall we be punished for what we
while attributing a copartner to God will did in the Jhiliyya?’ He answered: ‘He
who performs good deeds in Islam will not
be punished for what he did in the Jhiliyya,
1. He receives a brief mention in abar, Annales, I, pp.
but he who does not do well in Islam will
2891 ff.
2. In Arabic: kna yatakhawwalun bi ’l-mawi a f ’l- be punished for what he did before and
ayym, the overall idea being that the Prophet, tactfully, after the advent of Islam’”,
used to admonish his people only sparingly. A variant has
yatakhawwanun which has the same meaning. A third cf. Mz., VII, no. 9258 (kh, 88/1, 4, m, I, p. 111, q,
variant has yataawwalun which conveys the idea that confirmed in ay., no. 260,
um., no. 108, I
., I,
he appraised the mood of the congregation he addressed pp. 379, 431#, Drim, I, p. 13). Amash is the CL.
whether or not it showed enough alacrity to listen to ex- Manr is either an alternative CL or the target of
hortatory sermons without getting bored, cf. Ab Ubayd, two dives, cf. no. 9303.
I, p. 121, I
j., Fat, I, p. 172, Qas alln, I, p. 196. For With the same strand:
five more interpretations, see Nawaw, XVII, p. 164.
AMASH 101

• “I saw (v.l. I still remember) how the divided the spoils,) the Prophet especially
Prophet told us once about a certain prophet favoured certain people. A man said: ‘That
who was so badly beaten by his people that is a division with which God’s blessing
he bled, whereupon he said, wiping the cannot be sought.’ So I went to the Prophet
blood from his face: ‘O God, forgive my and told him what that man had said. He
people for they do not know’”, became very angry, his face reddened
so that I wished I had not told him, but
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9260 (kh, 88/5, m, III, p. 1417, q, he said: ‘Ms was offended even more
confirmed in I
., I, pp. 380, 432, 441). In this spi- grossly by his people and he preserved his
dery bundle Amash is in any case the SCL. Muslim
composure’”,
commentators have done their best to identify the
prophet mentioned in this tradition. I
j. (Fat, VII, cf. Mz., VII, no. 9264 (kh, 78/71, 2, m, II, p. 739,
p. 330 f) quotes from Ibn Ab
tim’s tafsr of s ra
um., no. 110, I
., I, pp. 380, 411, 435, 441).
XXVI a remark from Ibn Isq’s K. al- mubtada Amash is the conceivable CL of this tradition. A
which the latter traced back to the famous Meccan spider with dives via Jarr to Manr as key fig-
storyteller Ubayd b. Umayr al-Layth (d. 68/687- ure is found superimposed upon this bundle, cf.
8) that the prophet in question was N. But no. 9300. The ‘people’ favoured in the tradition
Muammad’s having been injured in the course is a reference to al-muallafatu qul buhum, ‘those
of the battle at Uud has also been adduced in this whose hearts have to be mollified’, some of whom
context: in other words, the Prophet is both the nar- are mentioned by name in the matn supported by
rator of the story as well as its main object. The the Manr spider (m, ibidem): al-Aqra b.
bis,
last sentence of the matn may bring Luke 23, 34 Uyayna b.
in and several noble Arab chieftains.
to mind. In Fat, XIII, p. 127, I
j. mentions three reasons
With the same strand relating the Prophet’s for Ms’s anger at his people, when he was told
words: what they had said behind his back: (1) that they
suspected he was suffering from scrotal hernia (cf.
• “Speak the truth, for veracity leads to piety the tarjama of Azq. under no. 14708); (2) on the
and piety leads to Paradise. A man who occasion of his brother Hrn’s death (cf. EI 2,
constantly speaks the truth and is only con- s.n. Hrn (Eisenberg/Vajda); and (3) the episode
cerned with the truth will finally be tabu- when Qrn (a minister of Pharaoh) had persuaded
lated with God as veracious. But beware a prostitute to seduce Ms so that Ms would be
of mendacity, for that leads to wickedness liable to stoning after that had become public (cf.
EI 2, s.n. Qrn (Macdonald).
and wickedness leads to Hell. A man who
With a strand on the authority of Ab Mamar
constantly speaks in falsehood and is only
Abd Allh b. Sakhbara—Abd Allh b. Masd:
concerned with lies will finally be tabu-
lated with God as a liar”, • “In respect of the verse (XVII: 57): ‘Those
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9261 (m, IV, p. 2013, d, t, IASh., whom they worship are themselves search-
VIII, pp. 402 f, I
., I, pp. 384, 432). Amash is not ing to draw near to their Lord’, (that
the only transmitter to whom this tradition may be pertained to) a group of people who wor-
ascribed. Next to him we find Manr who may shiped a group of jinn. The jinn embraced
be held responsible for a very similar matn, cf. no. Islam but the people clung to their jinn
9301 (kh, 78/69, 1, m, pp. 2012 f, confirmed in ay., worship”,
no. 247, I
., I, p. 440). Both have two convincing
PCLs, so either key figure may have copied the cf. Mz., VII, no. 9337 (kh, 65/17, 8, m, IV, p. 2321,
other. Mlik°, II, p. 989, lists the tradition with an s, confirmed in Thawr, Tafsr al-Qurn al-karm,
appendix in the form of a private statement attrib- p. 132, abar, Tafsr, XV, pp. 104 f). Amash is the
uted to Ibn Masd without mentioning transmitters (S)CL, if not the CL, of this tradition.
through whom he might have received it. The final With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm an-
statement of the matn also forms part of a tradition Nakha (a paraphrase containing a number of vari-
prohibiting slander, cf. Shuba under no. 9514. ant readings):
With the same strand:
• “Abd ar-Ramn b. Yazd an-Nakha
• “(After the battle of
unayn, when he performed a ajj with Abd Allh b. Mas-
102 AMASH

d who, at the stone throwing ceremony the alt entailed the performance of two rakas, e.g.
(in the bottom of the wadi), threw seven in uhr and ar. When the qar or taqr a-alt,
pebbles (saying Allhu akbar with every i.e. the shortening ‘concession’, was introduced, the
pebble), keeping the Kaba on his left hand obligation of two rakas remained the rule for alts
performed on a journey, while the number of rakas
and Min on his right hand side. Then he
to be performed while one is at home was doubled.
said: ‘This is the spot concerning which
Halving the number of rakas constituted a ‘conces-
(a verse from1) the Sra of the Cow was sion’ (rukha) rather than that it was deemed to be
revealed’”, obligatory. People who felt capable of performing
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9382 (kh, 25/135, m, II, pp. 942 the full four rakas while on a journey were free
f, d, s, confirmed in ay., no. 319,
um., no. 111, to do so. This tradition added the shortening of the
I
., I, pp. 408, 415#). In this very complex bun- alt while journeying to and from Min as part of
dle Shuba is the best-attested key figure and, by the ajj ceremonies to the shortening of the alt
claiming he heard it from al-
akam b. Utayba, in general. What supposedly prompted Uthmn
he bypasses the other key figure Amash, whose to break with the customs introduced by his prede-
position is less securely attested. It is difficult to cessors is extensively dealt with by I
j. in Fat, III,
decide to whom the tradition should be attributed. pp. 218 f, and 224 ff. For numerous aqwl, mawq -
Amash’s position as such is obscured by various ft, and mursalt attributed to first/seventh century
dives and spiders. Apart from some SSs bypassing authorities on the issue, most of which are reflected
either key figure there is also a Wsi connection in I
j.’s commentary, see Azq., II, pp. 515-23,
featuring Hushaym. IASh., II, pp. 446-52.
With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm an- With a strand on the authority of Umra b.
Umayr—Abd ar-Ramn b. Yazd an-Nakha—
Nakha—Abd ar-Ramn b. Yazd an-Nakha:
Ibn Masd:
• “(While we were) in Min, Uthmn per-
formed a alt of four rakas. When Ibn
• “I never saw the Prophet performing a
alt except at the prescribed time; only in
Masd was informed about that, he said:
two cases did he not do so: the early and
‘To God we belong and to Him we shall
late evening alts at Jam (i.e. a stage in
return2. (While we were) in Min with the
the ajj ceremonies). On that day he per-
Prophet, I performed a alt of (only) two
formed the daybreak alt at an earlier
rakas, and with Ab Bakr a-iddq also a
hour than the prescribed time”
alt of two rakas, and with Umar b. al-
Kha b also a alt of two rakas. I much cf. Mz., VII, no. 9384 (kh, 25/99, 1, m, II, p. 938, d,
rather earn (the merit of) two rakas (which s, confirmed in
um., no. 114, I
., I, pp. 384, 426,
are) accepted than (that of) four rakas’”, 434). Amash is the believable CL.
With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9383 (kh, 25/84, 3, m, I, p. 483, d,
s, confirmed in ay., no. 318, IASh., II, p. 450, I
., • “(After a preamble) Listen, young men, he
I, pp. 378, 416, 422, 425). Amash is the believable who is able to marry3, let him marry, for
CL of this tradition, which is part of the early, much that makes him more inclined to lower his
debated issue of halving the required number of eyes and restrain his sexual appetite, and
rakas of the four-raka alts, while one is at a cer- he who cannot, let him fast, for that is for
tain distance from home, e.g. on a journey. It was him (like) emasculation4”,
generally believed that, originally, the obligation of
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9385 (kh, 67/3, m, II, pp. 1018
f, t, q, confirmed in
um., no. 115, I
., pp. 424,
1. Which verse is meant could not be ascertained. I
j., 425, 432, Drim, II, p. 177, and with a different
Fat, IV, p. 331, does not know either, but he offers vari- strand back to Ibn Masd via Ibrhm—Alqama,
ous solutions that tend to be symbolic rather than straight- cf. Mz., VII, no. 9417: the Six, kh, 30/10, ay., no.
forward.
2. The reason why Ibn Masd is reported to have uttered
this formula of despair is said to have lain in his disgust 3. The term used here is ba, which conveys sexual ma-
with the difference of opinion emerging among Muslims turity as well as the wherewithal to sustain a family.
concerning the question at hand, cf. e.g. Azq., II, no. 4. The term used is wij, i.e. crushing the testicles or
4269. crushing the veins in the scrotum.
AMASH 103

272, Drim, II, p. 178, I


., I, pp. 378, 447). With this is a version which may be attributed to Amash.
no less than eight PCLs Amash is the undeniable In another version we find im b. Ab ‘n-Najd
CL in these bundles. Later CLs figure in bundles as SCL in the bundle supporting it, cf. no. 9272 (d,
supporting a simple ban on sexual abstinence (tab- Awn al-mab d, III, p. 136, s, confirmed in ay.,
attul), cf. Mudh b. Hishm ad-Dastuw (d. 200) no. 245,
um., no. 94, I
., I, pp. 377, 435, 463).
in Mz., IV, no. 4590 (t, s, q, IASh., IV, p. 128). For a third version, see Isml b. Ab Khlid under
With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm an- no. 3661.
Nakha—Abda b. Amr—Ibn Masd: With the same strand:

• “One day the Prophet said to me: ‘Recite • “I was walking with the Prophet, who
for me something from the Qurn.’ I said: leaned on a palm branch, somewhere in
‘Should I recite for you what has been a ploughed field (v.l. open space, palm
revealed to you?’ ‘I would like to hear grove) of Medina. We passed by a group of
some recitation from someone other than Jews. One of them said to another: ‘Let us
myself,’ he said. So I recited s rat an-nis ask him about the spirit (r ).’ The others
until, when I had reached the passage (IV: said: ‘What induces you to ask him2?’ And
41): ‘How will it be when We bring for- someone else said: ‘He will not confront
ward a witness from every community and you with something you disapprove (v.l.
We bring you forward as a witness for all ‘Do not ask him, then he will not give you an
these [sc. your community] …’, I raised answer you dislike.’) Then they said: ‘Let
my head, or someone at my side winked us ask him.’ So one of them approached
at me so that I raised my head, and I saw the Prophet and asked him about the spirit.
that the Prophet wept (v.l.: his tears were The Prophet was silent (or: turned away, or
flowing down)”, lowered his eyes) and did not reply. Then
I knew that he was about to receive a rev-
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9402 (kh, 66/33, m, I, p. 551, d,
t, s, confirmed in Ibn al-Mubrak, no. 110, I
., I, elation, so I stayed where I was. When the
pp. 380, 433, Ab Yal, IX, pp. 5, 147). Amash revelation had come down on him, he said:
is (S)CL, if not the CL. For a superimposed spider ‘They will ask you about the spirit; say:
with Amash as key figure, see no. 9428. the spirit is your Lord’s concern, you have
On the authority of Ibrhm an-Nakha—Al- been granted only little knowledge (XVII:
qama—Ibn Masd: 85)’”,
• “We used to greet the Prophet while he was cf. Mz., VII, no. 9419 (kh, 3/47, m, IV, p. 2152, t, s,
performing a alt and he always returned confirmed in I
., I, pp. 389, 444 f, abar, Tafsr,
the greeting. But when we had come XV, p. 155), and with a different strand back to
home from our sojourn with the Najsh, Ibn Masd no. 9571 (m, I
., I, p. 410). Amash is
we greeted him without him returning the the believable CL of this sabab an-nuz l tradition.
In the rendering above some of the numerous var-
greeting. We said: ‘Messenger of God,
iants have been incorporated. The interpretations
we used to greet you while you were per-
of the word r  are manifold, I
j. quotes among
forming a alt and you always returned others3 Ibn at-Tn who lists the following: (1) it is
the greeting.’ The Prophet answered: ‘The the spirit of man; (2) the spirit of any living being
alt prescribes concentration1’”, (ayawn); (3) Jibrl; (4) s b. Maryam; (5) the
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9418 (kh, 21/2, m, I, p. 382, d, s, Qurn; (6) the revelation; (7) an angel who stands
confirmed in IASh., II, pp. 73 f, I
., I, p. 376, Ab alone on guard on the Day of Resurrection; (8) an
Yal, IX, pp. 118 f, and without Alqama’s name angel with 11,000 wings and faces or with 70,000
being inserted between Ibn Masd and Ibrhm in
Azq., II, p. 335, I
., I, p. 419). The issue of talking
2. Or: ‘What makes you doubt about him that you want to
during the alt gave rise to a large MC in which
ask him?’ In another variant we read: ‘What do you need
him for?’, cf. I
j., Fat, X, p. 16, 18.
1. Ar: inna f ‘-alt la-shughlan, which means literally: 3. Even a tafsr work of Ibn Isq is listed, ibidem, p. 17,
‘In the alt there is an occupation that diverts, sc. from 5; Jews asking about the r  verse are mentioned in Sra,
other matters.’ I, pp. 329 f.
104 AMASH

tongues, or with 70,000 faces each of which has one said: ‘By God, that is not how it was
70,000 tongues, all of which speak 1,000 words revealed!’ I said: ‘Woe unto you! (Once) I
praising God, etc.; (9) creatures like human beings recited it in this manner to the Prophet and
who are called r , who eat and drink; any time he said: ‘You have done well!’ When I was
an angel descends from heaven, a creature like that
thus talking to the man, I caught a whiff of
descends with him; or, simply, r  stands for a cat-
wine and I said: ‘Do you drink wine while
egory of angels that eat and drink, cf. I
j., Fat, X,
p. 16, -8 ff.
at the same time displaying your ignorance
With the same strand: of the Qurn2! You will stay here until I
have flogged you.’ So I meted out the
• “When the verse was revealed: ‘Those Qurnic punishment for wine drinking3 to
who believe and who have not confused him”,
their belief with wrongdoing (VI: 82)’, the
Prophet’s companions were distressed and cf. Mz., VII, no. 9423 (kh, 66/8, 3, m, I, pp. 551 f, s,
confirmed in
um., no. 112, I
., I, pp. 378, 424 f).
said: ‘Which one of us does wrong to him-
Amash is no more than the (S)CL of this tradition.
self?’ Then the Prophet said: ‘It is not as With the same strand:
you think; this is like when Luqmn said
to his son: ‘My child, do not attribute a • “(The verse:) ‘And he saw one of the great-
copartner to God for, verily, attributing a est signs of his Lord (LIII: 18)’ means: ‘He
copartner to God is a serious wrongdoing (i.e. the Prophet) saw a green curtain envel-
(XXXI: 13)’”, oping the horizon’”,
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9420 (kh, 2/23, m, I, pp. 114, t, cf. Mz., VII, no. 9429 (kh, 59/7, 10, Fat, X, p. 234,
s, confirmed in ay., no. 270, abar, Tafsr, ed. s, confirmed in ay., no. 278, I
., I, p. 449, abar,
Shkir, XI, pp. 494 ff, I
., I, pp. 378, 424, 444). Tafsr, XXVII, p. 57#). Amash is the (S)CL, if not
Amash is the convincing CL. the CL, of this tafsr tradition. The word for curtain
With the same strand relating the Prophet’s (rafraf) has various interpretations. On his night
words: journey, to which event this tradition is said to per-
tain, the Prophet is alleged to have seen Jibrl on a
• “No one will enter Hell in whose heart is carpet that filled all the space between heaven and
found the weight of a dust particle1 (v.l. a earth. But the green curtain or carpet is also taken
mustard seed) of faith and no one will enter to allude to Jibrl’s 600 wings or to his mantle. The
Paradise in whose heart is found the weight verb rafrafa said of a bird means ‘it expanded its
of a dust particle (v.l. a mustard seed) in wings’.
haughtiness”, For Amash’s position in a MC on sahw, see
Ibrhm b. Yazd an-Nakha under no. 9451.
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9421 (m, I, p. 93, d, t, q, confirmed With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
in I
., I, pp. 412, 416). With only one believable Shaqq b. Salama—(Ab Maysara Amr b.
PCL, Amash is definitely no more than the (S)CL Shurabl4)—Abd Allh b. Masd:
of this tradition. Supporting this text there is also a
spider with Shuba as key figure with a downward • “I5 asked the Prophet: ‘What sin is grav-
strand via two transmitters to Ibrhm an-Nakha, est in God’s eyes?’ ‘That you attribute a
cf. no. 9444. The weight of a dust particle or that
of a mustard seed are expressions borrowed from
the Qurn. 2. Literally it says: disbelieving or discrediting the
Qurn; the commentator Nawaw adds that that cannot
With the same strand:
be meant, for then the man would have deserved to be
• “When I was once in
im, someone killed as an apostate.
from those present asked me: ‘Recite for 3. Cf. V: 90 f; this punishment became fixed at forty lash-
es or double that number depending on the legal school.
us something from the Qurn, so I recited 4. His name is in brackets because he is sometimes omit-
s rat Y suf (XII) for them. Then some- ted from the strands as recorded in the sources, cf. Mz.
the nos. 9271, 9279, 9311.
5. In the version allegedly transmitted via Amash it is
1. Or ‘grub of an ant’, one hundred of which weigh one not Ibn Masd himself who asks the questions but an un-
barley corn, cf. Lane, p. 957. known man.
AMASH 105

copartner to Him whereas He has created cf. Mz., VII, nos. 9480, 9311 and the SSs 9271 and
you,’ he answered. (…) ‘And what is the 9279 (kh, 87/1, m, I, pp. 90 f, d, t, s, confirmed in
next gravest sin?’, I asked. ‘That you kill ay., no. 264, I
., I, pp. 380, 431, 434, 462, 464,
your child for fear that you must share your Ab Yal, IX, pp. 32 f, 64 f, 101, ilya, IV, pp. 145
f#). In this tangled complex of bundles, spiders and
food with it,’ he answered. ‘And what is the
SSs there is a range of key figures. The oldest is the
next gravest sin?’ I asked again. ‘That you
muammar Ab Wil but to pin the authorship of
commit adultery with the lawful spouse of
this crucial tradition on him is hazardous. Among
your neighbour,’ he answered”, his alleged pupils we may distinguish three PCLs,

NAS
AB DWD

TIRMIDH

IBN
ANBAL
Hannd Mu. b. al-
Muthann

BUKHR Affn
Abda
Ar. b. M. b. Al. Wak
b. Sallm
Musaddad Abd. b. Mahd
Bundr
Amr
umayd
b. Al Yazd b.
MUSLIM Ab sma
Hrn
M. b. Ar b. Ghundar
Ab Kathr Yay b. Mahd
Uthm. b. A. Said AYLIS
Shayba Muwiya
Sad b.
Qutayba Mlik b. ar-Rab
Is. b. Mighwal
Ibr. Thawr
Shuba
Jarr
Wil im b.
Manr Amash Bahdala

Ab Wil Shaqq

(Ab Maysara)

Al. b. Masd

Prophet Mz. no. 9480

Amash, Manr and Wil b.


ayyn al-Adab, Shuba’s own handiwork or that of one of his pupils,
with im b. Ab ‘n-Najd’s seeming PCL posi- Ghundar or ay. Thawr’s claim that he heard the
tion being open to doubt. What the diagram does tradition from the three masters listed is probably to
not show, but what can be gleaned from Mz. and the be interpreted as false: a more likely reconstruction
sources mentioned, is that Shuba does not occur in seems to be that he did receive it from Manr and
strands given by kh, m and d, only in strands listed later perhaps also from Amash. For good meas-
by t, s, ay. and I
. Shuba’s transmission line via ure Abd ar-Ramn b. Mahd added to that the
im to Ab Wil is, furthermore, to be discarded, transmission line through Thawr and Wil to Ab
for that is a mistake of Yazd b. Hrn, as s in Mz., Wil, as can be gleaned from Mz. This Wil b.
VII, nos. 9279 and 9311, asserts. In fact, im’s
ayyn al-Adab was a nondescript figure whose
name should be ignored altogether, including the year of death is recorded as 120/738 or 129/747. In
strand to Ab Muwiya. The tradition is dealt with other words, his role in this bundle complex is in all
here, because it seems most likely that Amash, likelihood fictitious.
eventually copied by Manr, is the originator. But The foregoing analysis is admittedly highly
this remains no more than a guess. The Shuba / speculative, but the tradition is too important to
Wil strand has the appearance of a dive, either dismiss its transmission as merely insoluble or its
106 AMASH

authorship as unknown. The second gravest sin is in one of three cases: when someone who
an oblique reference to wad, the burying of baby is or has been married commits adultery,
daughters alive for fear of running out of food sup- when retaliation for an unlawful killing
plies, a custom allegedly resorted to in the Jhiliyya is called for, or when someone abandons
and forbidden by the Qurnic verse LXXXI: 8.
his religion and secedes from the commu-
With a strand on the authority of Abd Allh b.
nity”,
Murra—Ab ‘l-Awa Awf b. Mlik—Ibn Masd,
who related the Prophet’s words: cf. Mz., VII, no. 9567 (the Six, kh, 87/6, m, III, pp.
1302 f, confirmed in Azq., X, pp. 167 f,
um., no.
• “Verily, I am free from responsibility 119, IASh., IX, p. 413, I
., I, pp. 382, 428, VI, p.
toward any friend as far as friendship for 181, Bay., VIII, p. 19). With half a dozen believ-
him is concerned, but if I were to choose able PCLs Amash is the undeniable CL of the
a sincere friend, I would choose Ab Bakr wording of this tradition. But the issue of executing
as my sincere friend. Your leader1 is the those who abandon their faith, the third instance for
sincere friend of God”, which a Muslim may be put to death and seemingly
the main reason for bringing this tradition into cir-
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9498 (m, IV, p. 1856, t, s, q, con- culation, predates Amash by a long time and may
firmed in IASh., XI, p. 473, XII, p. 5,
um., no. have been a matter of debate that originated in the
113, I
., I, pp. 377, 389, 409, Ab Yal, IX, pp. oldest times. There are a number of personal opin-
111 f). Amash is the CL. He was probably cop- ions on the issue attributed to several companions
ied by Shuba who is the key figure in two spidery and successors preserved in Azq., X, pp. 164 ff.
bundles with different diving strands back to Ibn Differently worded, the tradition functions also in
Masd which support the same text, but with a a khabar describing Uthmn b. Affn, as he was
variant reading of the final statement: ‘… but Ab besieged in his compound shortly before he was
Bakr is my brother and my comrade and God has murdered. He allegedly argued that since he did
chosen me as a sincere friend2.’ These bundles are not belong to any of the three categories of peo-
listed in Mz., VII under the nos. 9499 (m, IV, p. ple whose blood may legitimately be spilled, his
1855, s, ay., no. 314, I
., I, pp. 439, 463, Ab besiegers had no valid claim to demand his life, cf.
Yal, IX, p. 161) and 9513 (m, ibidem, ay., no. Mz., VII, no. 9782 (d, Awn al-mab d, XII, pp. 139
300, Azq., XI, p. 228, I
., I, pp. 408, 412, 437, f, t, s, q, I
., I, pp. 61, 70##) with
ammd b. Zayd
455, Ab Yal, IX, p. 208). For a few speculations as SCL in the spidery bundle.
as to how the concepts ‘sincere friendship’ (khilla), With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
‘love’ (maabba and mawadda) and ‘friendship’
(adqa) are related to one another, cf. I
j., Fat,
• “No man is killed wrongfully without the
VIII, pp. 18 f. For more on the controversial con- son of dam being partly guilty of his
cept khall, see Shuba under no. 13618. blood, for it was he who was the first who
With a strand on the authority of Abd Allh resorted to killing”,
b. Murra—Masrq b. al-Ajda—Ibn Masd, who cf. Mz., VII, no. 9568 (kh, 87/2, m, III, pp. 1303 f,
related the Prophet’s words: t, s, q, confirmed in Azq., X, p. 464,
um., no. 118,
• “Shedding the blood of a Muslim who tes- IASh., IX, p. 364, I
., I, pp. 383, 430, 433, Ab
Yal, IX, p. 110, abar, Annales, I, p. I, p. 145).
tifies that there is no god but God and that
With his six PCLs Amash is the clear CL of the
I am His messenger is not allowed except
wording. This important tradition is associated with
the famous saying, for the wording of which Shuba
1. Ar: ibukum; variant readings make clear that can be held responsible (see there under Mz., II,
Muammad is speaking here about himself in the third no. 3232), that he who introduces something good,
person. reaps the benefits thereof and the benefits of those
2. From a commentary in I
j., Fat, VIII, p. 19, 15, it who follow his example, and likewise that he who
appears how the words ‘brother’ and ‘comrade’ are to be
commits for the first time an evil action has to bear
interpreted: Ab Bakr is the Prophet’s brother in faith and
the burden thereof and that of those who commit
his comrade in the cave, this latter word being a reference
to an occurrence when, on their hijra, Muammad and this evil action after him. The historical background
Ab Bakr travelled together from Mecca to Medina and against which this tradition is set is Qbl’s killing
had to seek refuge for a time in a cave from people pursu- of Hbl, cf. the story of Cain and Able in Genesis,
ing them, Ibn Isq, Sra, II, pp. 130 f. IV, 1-16.
AMASH 107

With the same strand the Prophet’s words: cf. Mz., VII, no. 9570 (m, III, pp. 1502 f, t, q, con-
firmed in ay., no. 291, IASh., V, pp. 308 f,
um.,
• “He who (sc. at a funeral) lacerates his no. 120, Drim, II, pp. 271 f, abar, Tafsr, ed.
cheeks, tears his clothes, or prays in the Shkir, VII, pp. 387, 390). Amash is the believable
manner current in the Jhiliyya does not CL of the wording of this tradition, but the descrip-
belong to our community”, tion of the martyrs of the battle at Uud—those are
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9569 (kh, 23/38, m, I, p. 99, s, the dead alluded to here—is probably a legend that
q, confirmed in ay., no. 290, Azq., III, p. 5581, originated somewhat earlier than Amash in view of
IASh., III, p. 289, I
., I, pp. 432, 456, 465, Ab numerous variant versions (which are not included
Yal, IX, p. 127). Amash is the undeniable CL here) supported by a variety of defective strands.
of this tradition. He seems to have been copied by Amash’s position is corroborated by non-canonical
Thawr who, with a dive past Amash via Zubayd versions with a different strand down to Ibn Masd,
b. al-
rith al-Iym (or al-Ym) and Ibrhm an- cf. abar, Tafsr, ed. Shkir, VII, p. 386, nos. 8206
Nakha to Masrq, is CL in a bundle supporting f. Ibn Isq, also mentioned as PCL of Amash (cf.
the same saying, cf. no. 9559 (kh, 23/35, t, s, q, I
., ab., no. 8206), lists various related versions with
I, pp. 386, 432, 442, 465, Ab Yal, IX, p. 163). non-canonical strands, cf. Sra, III, pp. 126 f. The
The Jhiliyya prayer mentioned here is identified tradition was, furthermore, adopted in shortened
with lamentation (niya or naw), which became form by Mlik, cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11148° (s, q,
forbidden in Islm, cf. MT, chapter III, and Shuba Mlik, I, p. 240, eventually copied by Ibn Uyayna,
under no. 10536. Although the verbs used in the cf.
um., no. 873, I
., VI, p. 386).
tradition do not indicate this, the mourning prac- The second part of this tradition beginning with
tices prohibited here refer to those generally associ- the words: ‘Their Lord took a good look at them
ated with women. … etc.’ is strictly speaking a adth quds, a genre
With a strand on the authority of Abd Allh b. allegedly containing extra-Qurnic citations of
Murra—Masrq b. al-Ajda: God’s statements probably introduced into adth
by Mlik b. Anas, as was proposed in the introduc-
• “We asked Ibn Masd about the verse:
tion to his tarjama. This latter part is therefore most
‘… and do not think that those who were
likely to be attributed to a PCL of Amash, rather
killed in the path of God are dead, they are than to the CL himself. Deciding who is the most
alive in the presence of their Lord, receiv- likely candidate among those PCLs whom we can
ing sustenance (III: 169).’ Ibn Masd said: hold responsible for this quds addition, may not
‘We also asked (sc. the Prophet) about this be an insurmountable problem, when we consider
verse; he said: ‘Their souls reside inside the fact that Ab Muwiya is, next to his senior
green birds. Lamps are hanging down for contemporary Mlik, a prominent representative
them from the Throne. They pasture in of such tradition material, cf. his tarjama above.
Paradise wherever they want. Then they Besides, Ab Muwiya occurs a number of times
repair to those lamps. Their Lord took in SSs supporting quds traditions, so his persona
a good look at them and asked: ‘Do you appears to have attracted diving strands supporting
desire anything?’ They answered: ‘What such material invented by later traditionists.
should we desire, pasturing in Paradise With a strand on the authority of Ab ‘- u
wherever we want?’ He repeated the same Muslim b. ubay—Masrq—Ibn Masd (after a
question three times. When they saw that lengthy preamble in a paraphrase in which a num-
the questioning would not stop, they said: ber of textual variants have been incorporated):
‘Lord, we should like You to return our • “When the Prophet saw the people from
souls to our bodies in order that we be Quraysh turning away from him, refusing
killed in Your path again.’ When He saw to listen to him, he exclaimed: ‘God, visit
that they were not in need of anything, they them with seven plagues like the seven
were left alone2”, plagues brought to the Egyptians on the

1. Erroneously traced back to isha instead of Ibn


Masd and with Ab ‘- u instead of Abd Allh b. or some such sentence is characteristic of ancient adth
Murra. quds. More often than not one finds wa-qla … instead
2. ‘They were left alone’ instead of ‘God left them alone’ of wa-qla ‘llhu … See further down.
108 AMASH

instigation of Ysuf.’ So they were struck • “The people who will be most severely pun-
by a drought that destroyed everything ished on the Day of Resurrection are those
until they ate skins, bones and cadavers who made images of animate beings”,
out of hunger. People looking up at the sky
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9575 (kh, 77/89, m, III, p. 1670,
saw some sort of smoke1. Then Ab Sufyn
s, confirmed in IASh., VIII, p. 295,
um., no.
b.
arb2 came to the Prophet and said:
117, I
., I, p. 426#, Ab Yal, IX, pp. 134, 136 f).
‘Muammad, you ordered us to obey God This may be considered one of the earliest of the
and respect family ties; pray to God that numerous traditions making up the extensive MC
He send rain to Muar3, your people, for on the Islamic prohibition to make effigies, images,
they are about to perish.’ ‘You dare to ask statues, drawings or pictures after the likeness of
me to help Muar?’, the Prophet replied, any of God’s creatures, animate or inanimate, a
but he prayed for rain on their behalf. Then prohibition which is generally known under the
God revealed the verses: ‘And look out for convenient German term bilderverbot. The defini-
a day that heaven will bring you a clear tion given here is modelled on Lane, s.v.  ra. With
smoke that envelops the people: that is a three PCLs, Sufyn b. Uyayna, Ab Muwiya and
painful punishment (XLIV: 10 f)’” Wak, as well as one SS, Amash may be consid-
ered a plausible CL. But the issue is so widely
(then follows a narrative appendix containing a covered in the sources that the launching of the
mawq f of Ibn Masd4), prohibition may be assumed to date probably to an
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9574 (kh, 65/12, 4, 2, m, IV, earlier period. There are reports which state that the
2155 ff, t, s, confirmed in ay., nos. 293, 294, first Muslim conquerors allegedly performed their

um., no. 116, I


., I, pp. I, pp. 380 f, 431, 441, alt in halls, vacated by the vanquished Persians,
abar, Tafsr, XXV, pp. 111 f). This bundle has which were lined with statues. These reports seem
two clear CLs, Amash and Manr, who can both to suggest that a bilderverbot as referred to above,
be held responsible for their respective wordings of if it had been adhered to already at the time, did
the gist of this sabab an-nuz l tradition. Who copied not immediately prompt the conquerors to smash
from whom is hard to tell, but together they have a those statues5. For another key figure who is associ-
convincing number of PCLs, partly shared by both. ated with a bilderverbot-related tradition, see Zuhr
The origin of the sabab an-nuz l may however be under no. 3779.
sought in a somewhat earlier time, since Mujhid With a strand on the authority of Umra b.
already hints at it with a brief remark, cf. his Tafsr, Umayr—Wahb b. Raba—Ibn Masd:
p. 597. The number of variant readings in the story
is large, and I
j. gives a clear survey of these in • “(While I stood hidden near the Kaba,)
Fat, X, pp. 192-5. three men with little insight and gross bel-
With the same strand relating the Prophet’s lies assembled there, two from Quraysh
words: and one from Thaqf, or two from Thaqf
and one from Quraysh. Said one of them:
‘Do you think God hears what we say?’
1. This smoke (dukhn) is explained in I
j. as the quiv-
Said another: ‘He hears when we speak
ering of the air when the weather is extremely hot and
dry, but also as if the people suffering in the drought had
up, but not when we speak in our minds.’
caught a cold, cf. Fat, X, pp. 194 f. Said the third: ‘If He can hear us when we
2. Well-known leader of the pagan Meccans who were speak up, He can hear us when we speak in
hostile to the Prophet. our minds.’ (I told the Prophet about this.)
3. The name of a combination of ancient Arabian tribes, Then God sent down the verse: ‘You did
one of which was the Quraysh.
4. Apart from this reference to the ‘smoke’ of XLIV: 10,
not hide yourselves so that your hearing,
Ibn Masd enumerates herein other divine punishments your eyes or your skins could not bear wit-
and warnings: the thrashing (basha) the Quraysh sus- ness against you etc. (XLI: 22)’”,
tained in the battle of Badr alluded to in XLIV: 16, the
inescapable punishment of XXV: 77, the defeat of Rm cf. Mz., VII, no. 9599, and no. 9335 with a strand via
in XXX: 2, and the splitting of the moon in LIV: 1. This Mujhid—Ab Mamar Abd Allh b. Sakhbara—
mawq f is separately supported by a spidery bundle in
Mz., VII, no. 9576. Amash may be responsible for it but
his position in this bundle is at most dubious. 5. Cf. abar, Annales, I, pp. 2441 ff.
AMASH 109

Ibn Masd (kh, 65/41, 1, m, IV, pp. 2141 f, t, s, 377). Amash is (S)CL of this tradition. Shuba pro-
confirmed in ay., 363,
um., no. 87, I
., I, pp. duced a matn of his own with his own preamble
381, 408, 426, 442 f). These two bundles show and he is the CL in a bundle supporting it, cf. no.
up Amash and Manr as respective (S)CLs who 9853 (kh, 78/34, m, II, p. 704, s, confirmed in Ibn
share various PCLs. But to attribute the tradition to al-Mubrak, Zuhd, p. 227, no. 644, ay., no. 1035,
either one, with the other copying him, is hazard- I
., IV, pp. 256). Moreover, Shuba is practically
ous, because neither bundle allows its key figure identified with this tradition in Ab Nuaym, ilya,
to be viewed as its undeniable CL. In this matn VII, pp. 169 f. His position as CL is furthermore
the various sentences in brackets are only found strengthened by another bundle supporting a simi-
in Amash’s version, in other words, the matn ver- lar matn with a different strand back to Ad b.
sion supported by the Manr bundle is somewhat
tim, cf. Mz., VII, no. 9872 (kh, 24/10, 3, ay.,
shorter. no. 1036, I
., IV, pp. 258, 259, 377, 379). All bun-
With a strand on the authority of Zayd b. Wahb, dles reviewed here show up a number of SSs. For
the muammar—Abd ar-Ramn b.
asana: even more Shuba strands supporting the same text,
• “(One day) the Prophet appeared before cf. Mz., VII, no. 9874 (s, ay., no. 1039, I
., IV,
us with a (kind of) shield (made of skins) p. 256#). Shuba avoided mentioning the name of
in his hand. He placed it on the ground, Amash as his genuine source for this tradition by
means of a dive onto Amash’s alleged spokesman
crouched down behind it and urinated.
Khaythama, but Shuba’s spokesman Amr b. Murra
Someone1 present said: ‘Look, he urinates
does figure also in an Amash strand.
like a woman.’ The Prophet who had heard
For his position in no. 9976, a tradition promot-
this said: ‘(Woe unto you!) Don’t you ing the cause of the ahl as-sunna, see Shuba under
know what happened to that man from the that number.
Ban Isrl? When urine was spattered With a strand on the authority of Ab Amr Sad
on their clothes, they used to cut off that b. Iys ash-Shaybn—Ab Masd Uqba b. Amr:
(moist) piece with shears, but that man
forbade them to do that, so he received a
• “A man came to the Prophet and said: ‘My
riding animal has died, please find me
punishment in his grave2’”,
another.’ ‘I have no animal for you,’ the
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9693 (d, Awn al-mab d, I, p.27, s, Prophet answered. Then a (second) man
I, pp. 26 ff, q, confirmed in IASh., I, p. 122, I
., IV, said: ‘Messenger of God, I shall direct him
p. 196#, Ab Yal, II, p. 232, Bay., I, p. 104). With to someone who may have an animal for
only Ab Muwiya as firmly attested PCL, Amash him,’ whereupon the Prophet said: ‘He
is in any case the (S)CL of this bundle. who points to a beneficial (action) will
With a strand on the authority of (Amr b. have the same reward as he who actually
Murra)—Khaythama b. Abd ar-Ramn—Ad b.
performs that action”

tim, who related the Prophet’s words (after a var-


iously worded preamble): cf. Mz., VII, no. 9986 (m, III, p. 1506, d, t, con-
firmed in ay., no. 611, I
., IV, p. 120, V, pp. 272,
• “(Give alms and thus) protect yourselves 274). Ibn Ad3, II, pp. 330 f, identifies this tradi-
against hellfire, though it be with half a tion with Amash, who is the clear CL. It may be
date (v.l. and if you do not have even that, considered as a forerunner of the crucial tradition
then with a gentle word)”, brought into circulation by Shuba on the merit of
the man who initiates a good sunna, see there under
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9852 (kh, 81/49, 5, m, II, pp. 703 f,
no. 3232.
t, q, confirmed in ay., no. 1038, I
., IV, pp. 256,
With the same strand:

1. The suggestion that that man was a munfiq is rejected


• “A man with a haltered camel came to the
in the glosses of M. Abd al-Hd as-Sind (d. 1136/1724,
Prophet and said: ‘This one is destined
printed together with Suy ’s commentary in the Sunan to go forth in the path of God.’ Then the
of s, I, p. 27, ult.). Prophet said: ‘Because of this camel there
2. It is intimated in a commentary that this practice was will be 700 camels for you on the Day of
laid down in the religious law of the Jews, that was why
Resurrection, all haltered’”,
he was thus punished, cf. Awn al-mab d, I, p. 27.
110 AMASH

cf. Mz., VII, no. 9987 (m, III, p. 1505, s, confirmed Shkir, XIV, p. 388). Amash is no more than the
in ay., no. 610, IASh., V, p. 348, I
., IV, p. 121, (S)CL of this tayn al-mubham tradition, i.e. a
V, 274). With only Shuba as firm PCL and two SSs tradition in which a tentative identification of an
Amash is no more than the (S)CL of this tradition. anonymous person is offered3.
With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil With a strand on the authority of Umra b.
Shaqq b. Salama—Ab Masd Uqba b. Amr Umayr—Ab Mamar Abd Allh b. Sakhbara—
(paraphrase): Ab Masd Uqba b. Amr:

• “A man from the Anr called Ab Shuayb, • “The Prophet used to touch our shoulders
who was a butcher1, saw the Prophet one lightly in the alt saying: ‘Keep straight
day and suspected that he was hungry. He lines and not distorted ones, your hearts
called a servant boy of his and said: ‘Hurry, might otherwise disagree4. Let those of
prepare for us a meal for five persons! I you who have insight and intelligence
want to invite the Prophet as the fifth of form (the row directly) behind me, then
five guests.’ When the Prophet drew near, those who follow these (in insight and intel-
Ab Shuayb invited him together with ligence), then those who follow these (in
four other people. As the Prophet came to insight and intelligence).’ But nowadays,’
his door, someone else was about to fol- (Ab Masd says), ‘you disagree among
low him inside, but the Prophet said to his yourselves more widely than ever’”,
host: ‘This man has just followed us, if you
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9994 (m, I, p. 323, d, s, q, con-
like, you can invite him inside, but if not,
firmed in ay., no. 612,
um., no. 456, IASh., I,
he must go.’ Ab Shuayb said: ‘No, I shall
p. 351, I
., IV, p. 122). With four believable PCLs
let him in’”, Amash is the clear CL. This tradition was partly
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9990 (kh, 34/21, m, III, p. 1608, t, copied by Yazd b. Zuray, cf. Mz., VII, no. 9415
s, confirmed in ay., no. 608, I
., IV, pp. 120, 121, (m, I, p. 323, d, t, s).
Drim, II, pp. 143 f). Amash is the CL. With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
With the same strand:
• “A man will only have performed his alt
• “We were ordered to practise charity (at a satisfactorily, when he has straightened5
time when we were still so poor that) we his back in and after6 the bow and the
carried loads (for a living). Ab Aql2 gave prostration”,
half a  (of dates) as alms, and someone
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9995 (d, Awn al-mab d, III, p. 65,
else submitted more than this, whereupon
t, s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 613,
um., no. 454,
the hypocrites said: ‘God can do without
I
., IV, pp. 119, 122#). With four believable PCLs
the alms of the first, and the second prac-
Amash is the clear CL.
tised charity only to be noticed.’ Then the With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm b.
verse was revealed (IX: 79): ‘… those who Yazd at-Taym—his father Yazd b. Shark at-
make malicious remarks about believers Taym—Ab Masd Uqba b. Amr:
who voluntarily submit alms and who have
no more to offer (sc. in alms) than their • “I used to beat a servant of mine with a
strenuous effort …’”,
cf. Mz., VII, no. 9991 (kh, 24/10, m, III, 706, t, 3. For this genre of traditions, cf. Goldziher, Richtungen,
s, confirmed in ay., no. 609, abar, Tafsr, ed. pp. 289-97.
4. There is only one verb used here, ikhtalafa, which has
among other connotations the meanings ‘to be dissimilar,
1. Generally considered to be a lowly profession, cf. I
., irregular’ and ‘to disagree’. This play on words is exten-
Fat, XI, p. 492, 18. sively dealt with in Lane, p. 795, middle column.
2. Because of this tradition, this man is known as ‘the 5. With this is meant a moment of keeping absolutely still
owner of the  (ca. 4.2 litre) of dates’, cf. I
j., Iba, (umanna) in between the prescribed motions.
VII, pp. 279 f. His name is variously given as
abb, 6. The Arabic does not read ‘and after’ but these words

athth or Jathjth, cf. abar, Tafsr, ed. Shkir, XIV, were added here on the basis of the tradition in d follow-
pp. 384 f, note 1, where all the different opinions on this ing the one translated here, this for a better understand-
man are listed. ing.
AMASH 111

whip. (One day) I heard a voice behind me God say: ‘At the end of time certain people
saying: ‘Attention1, Ab Masd! (…) God will come forth, young and stupid, they use
is more powerful over you than you over seemingly elevated language5, they recite
that servant!’ I turned around and saw that the Qurn in a way which does not go
it was the Prophet (…). After that I never past their windpipes, they transpierce the
hit a servant again”, faith like an arrow pierces a prey6. When
you meet them, kill them, for killing them
cf. Mz., VII, no. 10009 (m, III, pp. 1280 f, d, t, con- will be rewarded by God on the Day of
firmed in I
., I, p. 120, V, p. 274). Amash is just Resurrection’”,
about a believable CL of this tradition. The final
sentence describing Ab Masd’s reaction is trans- cf. Mz., VII, no. 10121 (kh, 66/36, m, II, pp. 746 f,
mitted in a number of different versions only one of s, confirmed in IASh., XII, p. 530, I
., I, pp. 113,
which is mentioned here. 131). With three believable PCLs Amash seems
With a strand on the authority of Ad b. Thbit— a convincing CL of this tradition prophesying the
Zirr b.
ubaysh, the muammar—Al b. Ab lib: rebellion of the Khrijites. Of all such traditions
found in the canonical collections his seems to be
• “By Him who split the grain (by causing the oldest together with the one of which Yay
it to germinate) and who created man2, the b. Sad b. Qays al-Anr seems the CL, cf. there
illiterate Prophet made a promise in respect under no. 4421. A version supported by a spider
of me that nobody would love me (sc. Al) is found in Mz., VII, no. 9210 (t, q, IASh., XV, p.
without being a believer and nobody would 304).
Amash may be CL in no. 10123, copied by
hate me without being a hypocrite”,
Hishm b.
assn, but he may also have copied
cf. Mz., VII, no. 10092 (m, I, p. 86, t, s, q, confirmed Hishm, see there under no. 10232.
in
um., no. 58, I
., I, pp. 85, 95, 128). Amash is With a strand on the authority of Sad b.
the believable CL of this tradition which belongs to Ubayda—Ab Abd ar-Ramn Abd Allh b.
the genre of fa
il. Amash was well-known for his
abb as-Sulam—Al b. Ab lib (after a pre-
tashayyu, i.e. his Shite sympathies. amble):
With a strand on the authority of Khaythama b.
Abd ar-Ramn b. Ab Sabra—Suwayd b. Ghafala,
• “… The Prophet said: ‘There is no one
the muammar—Al, referring to the Khrijites:
among you, not a living soul, whose place
in Paradise or Hell is not recorded by God
• “When I tell you something from the and whose misery or happiness is not writ-
Prophet, I would rather fall from heaven ten down.’ Then a man asked: ‘Messenger
than that I tell you something from him of God, surely what is written will forever
that he has not said3. And when I tell you be our lot, may we therefore give up (the
something pertaining to what is between performance of) good works?’ The Prophet
you and me, well, war is a matter of deceit answered: ‘He who belongs to the category
(khida4). I once heard the Messenger of of happy people will ultimately direct him-
self to works associated with happy peo-
1. Literally it says ‘Know!’ (ilam). The anonymous edi-
tor of Awn al-mab d suggests reading ulum, i.e. ‘show the resorting to stratagems rather than open confronta-
forbearance’. tion. The first time the Prophet himself is supposed to
2. It says in Lane that this was a favourite oath of Al, p. have used the simile was at the battle of the Ditch, cf.
2441, left column. Nawaw, VII, p. 169, I
j., Fat, VI, pp. 498 f. This whole
3. To swear that one would rather fall from heaven than first part of the tradition is listed also in ay., no. 105,
utter a falsehood is a typically topical turn of phrase which supported by a SS.
is encountered frequently when someone tries to make a 5. ‘Seemingly elevated’ as if they quote from the Qurn;
point he thinks will meet with incredulity. The cliché was this is taken to be referring to such Khrijite slogans as
born out of the delicate but broad-ranging discussion on l ukma ill li ‘llh, i.e. no one may pass judgement but
kadhib, mendacity. God.
4. Interpreted as ‘I use my own judgement’ (ajtahidu 6. This intricate comparison is extensively dealt with in
ray). This expresses the permissibility of concealment the tarjama of Yay b. Sad b. Qays al-Anr under
and the making of ambiguous statements in times of war, no. 4421.
112 AMASH

ple, and he who belongs to the category under the command of a certain man4.
of miserable people will ultimately direct Angered by something (v.l. testing their
himself to works associated with miser- obedience in jest), this man lit a fire and told
able people.’ And he added: ‘Perform your his men: ‘Step into it.’ Some were about to
works, for everybody has been prepared: do so, but others said: ‘We refuse5.’ The
people of happiness are prepared for works event was related to the Prophet who said
associated with people of happiness, and to those who had been about to step into the
people of misery are prepared for works fire: ‘If you had done so, you would have
associated with people of misery.’ Then stayed in it until the Day of Resurrection.’
he recited (XCII: 5-10): ‘As for him who But to the others he spoke some friendly
gives in to God1 and fears Him and believes words and concluded (with the maxim):
in His oneness2, We shall prepare him for ‘No obedience is required in (matters
happiness, but as for him who is avaricious constituting) disobedience to God; obe-
and self-sufficient and who rejects God’s dience is only obligatory in that which is
oneness, We shall prepare him for mis- universally recognized as good’”,
ery’”,
cf. Mz., VII, no. 10168 (kh, 64/59, m, III, 1469, s,
cf. Mz., VII, no. 10167 (the Six, kh, 65/92, 7, m, confirmed in IASh., XII, p. 542, I
., I, pp. 82, 124).
IV, pp. 2039 f, confirmed in ay., no. 151, Azq., Amash is the CL of this bundle. On the authority
XI, p. 115, I
., I, pp. 82, 129, 132 f, 140). This of Zubayd b. al-
rith, Shuba is an alternative
important anti-Qadarite tradition is marked by CL bypassing Amash, but he is also recorded to
numerous, on the whole unsubstantial, textual varia- have heard the tradition from Amash himself, cf.
tions for which the PCLs are responsible. Amash ay., no. 89, where it only consists of the final,
and Manr are both believable CLs and they share maxim-like statement. The stages in the evolution
several of these PCLs. It is hard to determine who of the tradition might be reconstructed as follows:
of these two CLs copied the other. The variations Shuba hears a certain maxim introduced by a nar-
and the PCLs to whom these may be attributed are rative preamble from Amash and transmits it to
neatly listed in I
j., Fat, XIV, pp. 298 ff. Van Ess his PCLs with the Amash strand as well as a dive
has also analysed this tradition and its isnd bundle, onto Sad b. Ubayda, Amash’s alleged source. In
cf. Zwischen, pp. 39-47. He is perhaps somewhat addition, Shuba spreads some other traditions on
over-confident in crediting transmitters under the the same subject which eventually gave rise to a
CLs Amash and Manr with the transmission of large MC, the so-called sam wa-a cluster, on
(parts of) the theological ideas expressed in the tra- the general question of whether or not one should
dition. That does not mean that anti-qadar polemics obey ungodly rulers. For these see his tarjama
probably predate Amash and Manr, but they can under the nos. 1699, 11772, 11950, 15449 and
be held in any case responsible for the gist of the 18311. Finally, this tradition of Amash is said to
wording of this tradition3. have been a sabab nuz l, i.e. a reason why a certain
With the same strand (paraphrase): verse of the Qurn was revealed: IV: 59, cf.
ajjj
b. Muammad under no. 5651.
• “The Prophet dispatched a fighting force With the same strand:

• “I said to the Prophet: ‘Why do you seek


1. Lit. ‘who gives’; the early exegete Muqtil explains to marry a wife from Quraysh6 and do you
this as: ‘he who gives money for God’, cf. IV, p. 721, and shun us (sc. by not seeking a wife from
Bayw inserts an object: ‘obedience’.
the Ban Hshim)?’ He asked: ‘Do you
2. This is Bayw’s explanation of the concept al-usn,
lit. the most excellent. have someone in mind?’ ‘Yes,’ I said,
3. Van Ess’ identification (Zwischen, p. 43, line 10 ff) of ‘the daughter of
amza b. Abd al-Mu a-
the Sulaymn mentioned in the isnd strand supporting
a version of this tradition in I
., ed. Shkir, II, p. 278,
no. 1181, with Sulaymn b. arkhn at-Taym is wrong. 4. He is identified as one Abd Allh b.
udhfa as-Sahm
No, this Sulaymn is simply none other than Sulaymn or al-Anr, cf. I
j., Iba, IV, pp. 57 ff.
b. Mihrn al-Amash, the CL of this bundle. Qas alln, 5. Lit. we flee from the fire to the Prophet.
commenting on kh, tafsr XCII: 6-10, also states that 6. That is to say, from clans of Quraysh other than the
Amash is meant, cf. VII, p. 470, line 13. Ban Hshim.
AMASH 113

lib.’ ‘But she is not allowed for me,’ he highlight this association, see nos. 10079, 10156,
answered, ‘she is the daughter of my foster 10178, 10195, 10225 and 10241, together forming
brother (sc. my uncle
amza)’”, a large MC. However, we should perhaps not infer
that this association is therefore historical. The
cf. Mz., VII, no. 10171 (m, II, p. 1071, s, confirmed MC could be interpreted as rather belonging to the
in I
., I, pp. 82, 114, 132, 158, Ab Yal, I, p. fa
il genre, describing Al’s manliness on the one
310, cf. ay., no. 147, where it is listed with a SS). hand and, on the other, his pudency and his metic-
Amash is the (S)CL, if not the CL, of this tradition. ulous observation of religious prescriptions regard-
The name of the daughter is given as Umma or ing ritual purity3. Alongside these Al-centred
Umra1. The proposal to the Prophet to marry his traditions there is another report of similar contents
uncle’s daughter, which was made in the course of
pertaining to a different companion, who settled in
the ‘pilgrimage of fulfilment’ (umrat al-qa
iyya) in
Kfa, Sahl b.
unayf (d. 38/658), see Muammad
the year 7/629, is also recorded in the later akhbr
b. Isq under no. 4664. But in Fal Allh b. Al al-
sources, cf. Wqid, II, pp. 738 f, IS, VIII, p. 113,

usayn ar-Rwand, Tartb nawdir ar-Rwand,
but not yet in the Sra.
p. 45, the tradition is again mentioned with the
With a strand on the authority of Mundhir ath-
usual imm strand from Jafar a-diq / father / his
Thawr—Muammad b. Al b. Ab lib ibn al-
fathers / Al in a wholly non-committal context,

anafiyya—his father Al b. Ab lib:


nawqi
al-wu
 (invalidations of the wu
), with-
• “I suffered from spermatorrhea2 but, as I out a hint at its belonging to the fa
il genre.
was married to the Prophet’s daughter, I With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm b.
was too embarrassed to ask him about this. Yazd at-Taym—his father Yazd b. Shark at-
So I ordered al-Miqdd b. al-Aswad to ask Taym—Al b. Ab lib who preached from the
the Prophet’s advice what I should do. The pulpit:
Prophet replied: ‘Let him wash his penis
• “He who claims that I have something other
and then perform a wu
’”,
than the Book of God and this sheet (afa,
cf. Mz., VII, no. 10264 (kh, 3/51, m, I, p. 247, s, which was attached to the scabbard of his
confirmed in ay., no. 104, Azq., I, p. 159 f, IASh., sword) to recite from is a liar. On this sheet
I, p. 90, I
., I, pp. 80, 82, 124, 140). Amash is the are registered the ages of camels (that may
clear CL of this wording, so the tradition on Al’s serve as blood-wite) and regulations con-
alleged problems with spermatorrhea is his, but
cerning (the blood-wite for) wounds. And
the issue probably predates him, since there are
on this sheet (is written that) the Prophet
a number of aqwl attributed to companions and
first/seventh century fuqah on the matter centring
said: ‘All the territory of Medina between
in persons other than Al, see Azq., I, pp. 155-60, (the two mountains of) Ayr and Thawr is
IASh., I, pp. 90 ff. One (S)CL who is younger than sacred (aram)4. He who introduces there
Amash, namely Mlik, sits in a bundle supporting something unheard of (adath) or gives
a similar, Al-centred tradition, cf. Mz., VIII, no.
11544° (d, s, q, Mlik, I, p. 40, Azq., I, p. 156). 3. In Majlis’s Bir al-anwr, Dr iy at-turth al-
In view of the number of alternative bundles and arab, Beirut 1403/1983, LXXVII (in an alternative
spiders supporting traditions on the issue, all cen- volume numbering LXXX), p. 225, a fifth/eleventh cen-
tring in Al, none of which shows up a CL older tury author, Fal Allh b. Al al-
usayn ar-Rwand is
than Amash, one may be justified in assuming that mentioned who quotes the tradition supported by a Shite
isnd strand consisting of imms in a context void of
it was he who was the first to think of associating
fa
il elements.
the issue with Al and, secondly, that a vigorous 4. The identification of one of these two mountains has
attempt was made at the hands of traditionists to caused some controversy. The mountain of Ayr was
well-known and lies south of Medina, but the Thawr was
generally thought to be near Mecca, until a small round,
1. Cf. furthermore I
j., Iba, VII, pp. 499 ff. red hillock near the mountain of Uud, north of the city,
2. This is excessive and involuntary emission of semen became identified with the Thawr of Medina, thus pre-
(madhy) without orgasm, also called diurnal pollution, senting a feasible solution for the toponymical mix-up.
caused by intense sexual desire (shahwa). The Arabic The dispute even elicited bitter reproaches from m’s
language distinguishes between this semen and semen editor Muammad Fud Abd al-Bq directed at a col-
produced by orgasm, for which we find the term maniyy. league, cf. II, pp. 996 ff.
114 AMASH

shelter to such an innovator will be under Umar b. al-Kha b was not satisfied with
God’s curse and that of all the angels and what Ammr said?’”,
human beings. On the Day of Resurrection
cf. Mz., VII, no. 10360 (kh, 7/7, 1 f, 7/8, m, I, p.
God will neither accept (his) repentance 280, d, s, confirmed in I
., IV, pp. 264 f). This
nor (his) ransom1. The protection of any is Amash’s alternative version with a muammar
one Muslim suffices to safeguard (the strand of a story that circulated among the succes-
immunity of an unbeliever). He who traces sors of Kfa such as
akam b. Utayba and Salama
his ancestry to someone other than his b. Kuhayl. Probably inspired by Amash’s version,
father, or his clientship to someone other Shuba, one of his PCLs, produced his own ver-
than his patron, and he who violates his sion of the same story, see his tarjama under no.
pact with a fellow-Muslim will be under 10362. Tied in with this tradition was the contro-
God’s curse and that of all the angels and versial question of whether or not tayammum could
human beings. On the Day of Resurrection replace an entire ghusl, required after intercourse
as Ammr is described to have attempted, or only a
God will neither accept (his) repentance
wu
, required before a alt, as the description of
nor (his) ransom’”,
the Prophet’s tayammum suggests, cf. abar, Taf-
cf. Mz., VII, no. 10317 (kh, 58/17, 2, m, II, pp. 994- sr, VIII, pp. 420-3.
8, d, t, s, confirmed in I
., I, pp. 81, 126, and with a With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm b.
strand down to Al with, instead of Yazd b. Shark, Yazd an-Nakha—bis b. Raba:
Ab isha al-
rith b. Suwayd, cf. no. 10033, s,
ay., no. 184, I
., I, p. 151). Amash is the undeni-
• “I saw Umar b. al-Kha b kiss the Stone
saying: ‘I kiss you in spite of the fact that
able CL of this tradition, which shows up a number
I know that you are just a stone; if I had
of different wordings. Its final part in varying con-
texts found its way into certain collections provided not seen the Messenger of God kiss you, I
with different strands down to Al, but these ver- myself would not have kissed you’”,
sions are on the whole relatively late. cf. Mz., VIII, no. 10473 (kh, 25/50, m, II, pp. 925 f,
With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil d, t, s, confirmed in I
., I, pp. 16, 26, 46). If Amash
Shaqq—Ab Ms al-Ashar—Ammr b. Ysir is not SCL but (S)CL of this tradition which is part
(after an elaborate preamble): of a large MC, then he is with im al-Awal (cf.
no. 10486, m, s, q, ay., no. 50, Azq., V, p. 71,
• “The Prophet once sent me away on an

um., no. 9, I
., I, p. 50) the oldest (S)CL in this
errand. I was in a state of major ritual pollu- MC. For later (S)CLs, see no. 10460 under Thawr
tion and I had no water, so I rolled myself (m, II, p. 926, s, I
., I, p. 39, Fkih, I, no. 79) and
in the sand as an animal does and then I no. 10524 (Abd Allh b. Wahb).
went to the Prophet and told him about With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
what I had done. He said: ‘Making the fol- Shaqq and Ibrhm b. Yazd an-Nakha—Masrq
lowing gestures2 would have sufficed’, and b. al-Ajda—Mudh b. Jabal:
he struck the earth with both hands once, • “When the Prophet sent me to Yemen he
then he rubbed the left hand over the right ordered me to impose a tax of one calf,
hand, the palms of both hands and his face male or female, of not (yet) one year old
…’ Abd Allh b. Masd (who was pres- for every thirty cows, and one fully grown
ent) then added: ‘But did you not see that cow (i.e. of at least three years) for every
forty cows, and to levy one dnr or its
equivalent in Yemeni mantles of the type
1. The two terms, arf and adl, are interpreted in various
(identified with the) Mafir (tribe) from
ways: Lane (pp. 1681 f) also lists ‘art’, ‘artifice’, ‘cun-
ning’, ‘acquisition of gain’, vis-à-vis ‘ransom’; or ‘su-
every adult”,
pererogatory act’ vis-à-vis ‘obligatory act’, or ‘weight’ cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11363 and 11312 (d, Awn al-
vis-à-vis ‘measure’, or ‘deviation’ vis-à-vis ‘right course’, mab d, IV, pp. 319 f, t, s, q, confirmed in ay., no.
etc. Both terms, often used in tandem, refer to ancient
567—only the final sentence —, Azq., IV, pp. 21
customs relating to retaliation.
2. The Arabic reads literally an taq la bi-yadayka, i.e.
f, IASh., III, pp. 126 f, I
., V, p. 230, Drim, I, p.
that you say with your hands. 465). Amash is the clear CL of the wording of this
AMASH 115

zakt tradition, but the zakt portions had probably He was wearing a burd (i.e. a single gar-
been determined earlier in view of the numerous ment which one wraps around the body)
aqwl preserved attributed to authorities (much) and so was his servant. We said: ‘If you
older than Amash, for whom see Azq., IV, pp. 21- were to add the burd which your servant
6, IASh., III, pp. 126 ff.
is wearing to the one you are wearing, you
With a strand on the authority of Ab ‘- u
would be dressed in a ulla (i.e. an outfit
Muslim b. ubay—Masrq b. al-Ajda—Mughra
b. Shuba (paraphrase):
consisting of an upper garment (rid) and
a lower garment (izr3).’ Ab Dharr said:
• “I was with the Prophet on a journey. He ‘I had a quarrel with one of my brethren
went away from me in order to relieve whose mother was of foreign descent, so
himself. After he had returned, I went up I vilified him as a son of his mother4. He
to him with a water-skin1. He was dressed went to complain about me to the Prophet.
in a garment tailored in Syria with tight When the Prophet met me (one day), he
sleeves so he brought out his hands from said: ‘Ab Dharr, you are someone who
under its hem. I poured water for him with still displays (annoying habits from the)
which he performed the minor ablution for Jhiliyya.’ I said: ‘Messenger of God,
the alt, then he wiped over his shoes and cursing people means cursing their fathers
led us in a alt”, and mothers!’ But he said: ‘Ab Dharr,
cf. Mz., VIII, no. 11528 (kh, 56/90, m, I, p. 229, s, you are someone who displays (annoying
q, confirmed in Azq., I, p. 193, IASh., I, pp. 176 habits from the) Jhiliyya. They (v.l. your
f, I
., IV, pp. 247, 250). Amash is CL in this ver- servants) are your brethren whom God has
sion of a Mughra-related report which is part of the placed in a lower class (v.l. whom God has
mas al ‘l-khuffayn cluster. This is Amash’s third placed under your command). He who has
contribution to this cluster, for two others, see the a brother under his command should feed
nos. 3235 and 3335 above. For a general introduc- him from the food he eats himself and he
tion to the mas issue, see Shab under no. 11514. should clothe him in garments he himself
With a strand on the authority of Dharr b Abd uses. Do not order him to undertake what
Allh—Yusay b. Madn—an-Numn b. Bashr,
is beyond his power and when you do so,
who related the Prophet’s words:
help him (v.l. you must sell a servant who
• “Prayer constitutes (the essence of) wor- does not suit you, but do not harm God’s
ship and he recited: ‘Your Lord tells you: if creatures)’”,
you pray to Me, I shall answer your prayer cf. Mz., IX, no. 11980 (kh, 78/44, 7, m, III, pp. 1282
(XL: 60)’”, f, d, q). Amash is the (S)CL, if not the CL, of this
cf. Mz., IX, no. 11643 (t, V, p. 456, s, q, cf. d, Awn tradition. It contains a number of variants most of
al-mab d, IV 247, Ibn
ibbn, II, p. 124, con- which have been incorporated here. He seems to
firmed in ay., no. 801, IASh., X, p. 200, I
., IV, have been copied by Shuba who made use of a dive
pp. 267, 271##, 276, 277). The bundle shows up two through Wil b.
ayyn al-Adab down to al-Ma-
CLs, Amash and Manr, the former better attested rr (kh, 49/15, m, confirmed in I
., V, p. 161). It is
than the latter. It is otherwise impossible to decide hard to decide to whom of these two the tradition
who copied whom, if that is what happened. should be attributed, if at all.
With a strand on the authority of al-Marr b.
Suwayd, the muammar:
a three days journey north of Medina, where Ab Dharr
• “We passed by Ab Dharr in Rabadha2. spent the final years of his life.
3. The implication is that he then would be dressed prop-
erly rather than looking exactly like a mere servant. The
1. Helping someone with the performance of the wu
 matn of the tradition is made especially complex by a
looks like a topos: interrogating Umar on something con- variant in kh, cf. I
., Fat, VI, p. 100, in which the word
cerning the Prophet’s wives, Ibn Abbs overcomes his burd is replaced by ulla, a difficulty for which I
j. of-
bashfulness on a ajj and introduces his question while fered an ingenious harmonization, cf. ibidem, I, p. 93.
pouring water for Umar, IS, VIII, p. 131, line 12. 4. By calling him ‘you son of a black mother’, an exam-
2. Ar-Rabadha is a locality in the desert at a distance of ple of a racist remark.
116 AMASH

With a strand on the authority of al-Marr b. with several SSs coming together in Amash, he is
Suwayd, the muammar—Ab Dharr: at least the (S)CL, if not the CL, of this tradition.
With the same strand (after a preamble):
• “I approached the Prophet who was sitting
in the shade of the Kaba. When he saw me, • “I asked the Prophet: ‘Messenger of God,
he said: ‘They will be the greatest losers1, which prayer site on earth was built first?’
by the Lord of the Kaba!’ Not being able ‘That of Mecca (al-masjid al-arm),’ he
to remain standing2, I sat down and asked: answered. ‘Which was next?’, I asked.
‘May my father and mother be your ran- ‘The prayer site of Jerusalem (al-masjid al-
som, Messenger of God, who are these los- aq),’ he said. ‘How many years elapsed
ers?’ He answered: ‘Those people whose in between?’, I asked again. ‘Forty years,’
wealth is greatest, with the exception of he replied. ‘Wherever (the time for) a alt
those who do pay the alms tax everywhere finds you, you must perform it then and
where it is due, and they are few in num- there, for that is a prayer site (lit. a place
ber. Every owner of camels, cattle or sheep, for prostrating yourself, masjid, hence
from which he withheld the required zakt, ‘mosque’)’”,
will be met on the Day of Resurrection by cf. Mz., IX, no. 11994 (kh, 60/10, m, I, p. 370, s,
the biggest and fattest of his animals which q, confirmed in ay., no. 462,
um., no. 134, I
.,
butt him with their horns and trample him V, pp. 150, 156, 157, 166 f). Amash is the indisput-
beneath their hoofs. Every time the last of able CL of this tradition. It is remarkable for the
these animals retreats, the first will rush fact that it purportedly shows up an anachronism:
upon him again. (This will last), until he Ibn al-Jawz was quick to point out (cf. I
j., Fat,
will finally be judged among the people’”, VII, p. 218) that the Aq mosque was supposedly
built by king Sulaymn, the son of king Dwd,
cf. Mz., IX, no. 11981 (kh, 24/43, m, II, p. 686, t, s,
more than one thousand years after Ibrhm built
q, confirmed in
um., no. 140 I
., V, pp. 152, 157,
the Kaba, and not forty years as the tradition has
158). Amash is the convincing CL of this tradition.
it. However, I
j., ibidem, p. 219, quotes sources
Textual variants are numerous and are the obvious
that state that it was dam who laid the foundations
handiwork of his PCLs.
of both prayer sites, intimating that the period of
With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm b.
forty years could conceivably be taken as chrono-
Yazd at-Taym—his father Yazd b. Shark at-
logically correct.
Taym—Ab Dharr (paraphrase):
With a strand on the authority of Ab li
• “I entered the mosque where the Prophet Dhakwn—Ab Hurayra, who related the Prophet’s
was seated. When the sun set, he asked: words (paraphrase):
‘Ab Dharr, do you know where it goes?’
• “On the Day of Resurrection God will not
‘God and His Messenger know best,’ I
speak to three types of people, nor will He
answered. ‘The sun ends up in its resting
look upon them or purify them, and they
place under the Throne3’, he said, ‘where
will have a painful punishment4: the man
it asks permission and bows down until it
in the desert who has some water left but
is told to rise again and return to where it
withholds it from a fellow-traveller, the
came from …’”,
man who concludes a sale of goods after
cf. Mz., IX, no. 11993 (kh, 59/4, m, I, pp. 138 f, t, the mid-afternoon alt5 with some buyer
s, confirmed in I
., V, pp. 152, 158, 177, abar,
Tafsr, XXIII, p. p. 5). With only two PCLs but
4. An allusion to Q. II: 174.
5. There is an explanation for the time of mid-afternoon
1. The expression occurs in Q. XI: 22, but in a context being particularly appropriate for swearing binding oaths:
that has no bearing on zakt. it is then that the angels of the day and those of the night
2. In a variant in kh, cf. I
j., Fat, XIV, p. 332, it is sug- get together to witness such oaths. It is likewise particu-
gested that Ab Dharr feared that the Prophet had had an larly pernicious to swear false oaths at the ar: it is the
unfavourable revelation concerning him. time that a buyer, after all his transactions have been
3. An allusion to Q. XXXVI: 38: wa ‘sh-shamsu tajr li- concluded, returns to his folk, when the opportunity is
mustaqarrin lah. no longer open to him to alter conditions of sales or raise
AMASH 117

and swears a false oath that he was offered fasting, for that (pious deed) is Mine alone
a high amount for these goods without and I Myself will compensate for it1. (3)
this being true, resulting in the other being Man does not give in to lust and abstains
duped, and the man who pledges allegiance from food (v.l. and drink) for My sake.’
to a ruler for a remuneration: if the ruler (4) Fasting gives protection: when some-
pays up, the man abides by his pledge, one fasts, he should not use foul language
but if the ruler does not, the man does not or shout and when somebody else curses
abide”, him or picks a fight with him, he should
call out: ‘I observe a fast!’ (5) He who
cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12338, 12413, 12436, 12472,
12493, 12522 ( the Six, kh, 52/22, m, I, p. 103, con- fasts will enjoy two pleasures, one when he
firmed in IASh., VI, p. 257, I
., II, pp. 253, 480). breaks his fast and one when he will meet
Amash is the convincing CL of this tradition. For his Lord. (6) On the Day of Resurrection,
another version introduced by the same topical the bad breath of someone fasting is verily
phrase ‘three types of people …’ but with different more agreeable to God than the odour of
categories of people indicated, see below under no. musk2”,
13406.
cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12340, 12470, 12520 (m, II, p.
With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
807, s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 2413, Azq., IV,
• “Envy is not (allowed in Islam) except in pp. 306 f, IASh., III, p. 5, I
., II, pp. 266, 393, 443,
two cases: a man whom God has given 477, 480, Drim, II, p. 40). This tradition, which
the Qurn and who recites day and night, is in fact a composite, consists of various elements.
whereupon another man hears him and The oldest of these is probably number (6), and
says: ‘I wish I had been given what this that can safely be ascribed to Amash. But it cannot
be established whether he is also responsible for
man has been given, so that I could do
(1), (4) and (5), although this is feasible. The idea
what he does,’ and a man whom God has
expressed in (1) occurs in a different context, but
given wealth which he spends on matters not as a Prophetic tradition but as a adth quds
where it is due, whereupon another man with Sufyn b. Uyayna as CL, see there under no.
sighs: ‘I wish I would have been given this 13679. In any case, the second part of (4) begin-
wealth, so that I could do with it what this ning with the words ‘when someone fasts …’ is
man does’”, not Amash’s, because they do not occur in any of
the matns in whose isnd strands he figures. The
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12339, 12397 (kh, 94/5, I
j., Fat,
two adth quds elements (2-3), also extensively
X, p. 450, s, Kubr, III, p. 426, V, p. 27, I
., II, p.
dealt with by Graham (pp. 186-90), are in all like-
479). Amash is barely convincing as CL of this tra-
lihood later additions due to one or more of his
dition. The first part l asad, ‘there is no envy …’,
PCLs (Ab Muwiya perhaps?), but in the end it is
figures also in slightly different matns supported by
impossible to determine who can be credited with
bundles in which other key figures are discernible,
what. The tradition combining different numbers
see Sufyn b. Uyayna under no. 6815, which was
of elements and in varying order is found provided
probably modelled on Isml b. Ab Khlid’s ver-
with numerous SSs, for many of which I
. is solely
sion, see there under no. 9537.
responsible. Another, later SCL is Ibn Jurayj in
With the same strand the Prophet’s words
whose version the second part of (4) does occur,
(divided into separate statements two of which are
of the adth quds variety):
1. Fasting belonging to God alone appeared a particularly
• “(1) Every action of man will be multiplied, difficult concept, when the various interpretations offered
(for) every pious deed (he will receive a by medieval commentators are anything to go by. In all,
reward which) is (equal to) ten comparable ten different interpretations are listed in I
j., Fat, V, pp.
deeds up to seven hundred times. (2) God 8-11, Zurqn, II, pp. 199 f.
2. The consideration that God is of course far above (mu-
has said: ‘But this with the exception of nazzah) enjoying the smell of anything has prompted
medieval commentators, e.g. Suy , to formulate some
ingenious interpretations in order to explain the difficulty
protests, cf. Awn al-mab d, IX, p. 266, I
j., Fat, XVI, away, cf. s, IV, pp. 161 ff; and also Zurqn, II,
pp. 327 ff. pp. 198 f.
118 AMASH

but whether he can be credited with it is doubtful I, p. 231, I


., II, p. 480), is seen also to head as CL
because of the spidery aspect of the bundle which a bundle with his own SS to the Prophet supporting
supports it, cf. Mz., IX, no. 12853 (kh, 30/9, m, II, this saying, cf. Mz., III, no. 3919 (m, IV, p. 1769, t,
p. 807, s, I
., II, p. 273). A later CL in this cluster q, confirmed in ay., no. 202, IASh., VIII, p. 534,
of composites is Mlik who records the tradition I
., I, pp, 175, 177, 181): Shuba in an imitator’s
as a purely Prophetic one without adth quds fea- role. This tradition was adduced in the early Islamic
tures, see its analysis there under no. 13817*. One debate on the allegedly dubious role of poetry in
more CL is Muammad b. Fuayl (d. 194-5/810-1), society1.
cf. Mz., III, no. 4027, IX, no. 12805 (m, s, IASh., With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
III, p. 5, I
., II, p. 232, III, p. 5).
With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
• “Nobody may fast on a Friday except when
he also fasts on the days preceding and fol-
• “By Him in whose hand lies my soul. You lowing a Friday”,
will not enter Paradise until you believe
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12365, 12503 (the Six, kh, 30/63, 2,
and you will not believe until you love one m, II, p. 801, confirmed in IASh., III, p. 43, I
., II,
another. Shall I tell you about something p. 495). With one SS and two firm PCLs converg-
that will result in mutual love among you ing in this bundle in Amash, he may be assumed to
when you resort to it? Spread peace among have been responsible for the wording of this tradi-
you!”, tion. However, the issue is surely older for there are
two aqwl attributed to Shab and Ibrhm which
cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12349, 12381, 12431, 12469,
contain the same prohibition, and various mawq ft
12513 (m, I, p. 74, d, t, q, confirmed in IASh., VIII,
reflect the efforts of early traditionists to ‘raise’ the
p. 436 f, I
., II, pp. 391, 442, 477, 495). Amash is
issue to the level of a Prophetic prohibition (cf.
in any case the SCL of this tradition.
IASh., III, p. 44, Azq., IV, pp. 280 ff). Awarding
With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
to Friday some sort of exceptional position amidst
• “He who kills himself with a knife, will the other days of the week through supererogatory
have it for ever in his hand stabbing him- actions other than attending the juma alt was
self in the belly in the fire of Jahannam, frowned upon in Islam, cf. I
j., Fat, V, p. 137.
With the same strand:
and he who drinks poison and kills him-
self, will sip it for ever in the fire of Jahan- • “The adulterer does not commit adul-
nam, and he who flings himself down from tery while he is a believer, the thief does
a mountain and kills himself, will be cast not steal while he is a believer, someone
down for ever in the fire of Jahannam”, drinking wine does not drink wine while
he is a believer, repentance is still open for
cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12350, 12394, 12414, 12440,
12466, 12526 (the Six, kh, 76/65, m, I, pp. 103
him2”,
f, confirmed in ay., no. 2416, Azq., X, pp. 463 cf. Mz., IX, no. 12395 (kh, 86/20, 3, m, I, p. 77, s,
f, I
., II, pp. 254, 478, 488 f, Drim, II, p. 252). confirmed in Azq., VII, p. 416, Abd b.
umayd, no.
Amash is the convincing CL. The different ele- 919, Ab Isq al-Fazr, Siyar, no. 568, I
., II, pp.
ments of this tradition are given in varying order 376, 479, TB, II, p. 142). This at first sight enigmatic
in the sources. statement has elicited from Muslim commentators
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: some remarkably ingenious interpretations. These
boil down to saying3: Even if a Muslim toys with
• “It is better for someone to have his belly the idea of engaging in adultery, stealing something
filled with pus (in some versions: that con-
sumes him) than with poems”,
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12364, 12404, 12468, 12478, 1. See Festschrift Wagner, pp. 186 f.
2. God accepts someone’s repentance up to the last mo-
12523 (kh, 78/92, 2, m, IV, p. 1769, d, t, q, con-
ment of his life, as it says in a tradition which has Abd
firmed in IASh., VIII, pp. 531 f, I
., II, pp. 288,
ar-Ramn b. Thbit b. Thawbn as key figure; Ibn Ad3,
391, 478, 480). Amash is the clear CL of these IV, pp. 281 f, seems to identify this tradition with him, cf.
strands, the more so since Ab Nuaym (cf. ilya, Mz., V, no. 6674.
V, p. 60) identifies this saying with him. Shuba, 3. Cf. Nawaw, II, pp. 41-5, Qas alln, IV, pp. 311 f,
who is one of Amash’s PCLs, cf. 12404 (d, Bagh., I
j., Fat, XV, pp. 63-7.
AMASH 119

or drinking wine, the purity of his faith will in the expression al ‘l-fira, see Zuhr under no. 14212.
end prevent him from committing these offences With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
and will prompt him to repent of his evil intentions.
This is in line with a adth that seems to have orig-
• “Men should say subn Allh, i.e. glory
inated later: ‘Anyone of my community who dies be to God, (when they want to draw an
without having denied God’s oneness (i.e. without imm’s attention during the alt) and
having committed shirk) will enter Paradise, even if women should clap their hands”,
he has committed adultery or theft’, cf. the tarjama
cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12454, 12418, 12451, 12517 (m,
of Shuba under IX, no. 11915. In other words, God
I, p. 319, t, s, confirmed in ay., no. 2399, I
., II,
will forgive any sin except shirk. This reflects the
p. 479). With three PCLs and a SS Amash is the
ongoing theological discussion that even those who
believable CL. The tradition probably originated in
commit grave sins (with the exception of shirk)
the
ijz at the hands of Mlik b. Anas who envel-
are not automatically unbelievers but are just fail-
oped the concise rule in a wordy tradition, see there
ing in their faith; if they repent, their punishment
under no. 4743. Following Amash’s model, Sufyn
is lifted and if they die while still persisting in their
b. Uyayna brought the concise rule again into circu-
offences, they are at the mercy of God. If He wills,
lation, cf. Mz., XI, no. 15141 (kh, 21/5, m, I, p. 318,
He either forgives them and allows them to enter
d, s, q,
um., no. 948).
Paradise, or He punishes them and then allows them
With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
to enter Paradise. The tradition has given rise to a
veritable deluge of versions supported by late SSs • “Look at those people who are below you
and spiders which all but swamp the bundles from in status and do not look at those who are
which CLs could be distilled. Those SSs that are above you, because the (status of the) for-
clearly concocted by later transmitters who coveted mer disposes you more readily not to look
a share in the popularity this tradition engendered down upon (your share in) God’s grace”,
can be found in Ibn Ad3 and Ab Nuaym’s ilya,
cf. their fihrists of traditions under l yazn … In cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12467, 12354, 12514, (m, IV, p.
2275, t, q, confirmed in I
., II, pp. 254, 482). With
all the numerous references of the saying the old-
only two believable PCLs and one SS Amash is in
est discernible CL appears to be Amash. It would
any case the (S)CL of this tradition.
seem safer to say that he is its (S)CL, but he hap-
With the same strand the Prophet’s words (para-
pens to be identified with it twice in so many words
phrase):
in Ab Nuaym’s ilya, VIII, pp. 117, 257. For a
survey of all these SSs, see Ab Yal, XI, pp. 188- • “When someone performs his alt in a
91. Zuhr’s frequent occurrences in spiders and SSs group1, that increases (the merit of) his
supporting the saying may possibly be construed alt performed alone in his home or in
as
ijz and Syrian diving attempts at partici- (his stall in) the market twenty-five (v.l.
pating in a discussion which was originally Iraqi. more than twenty) times, that is because
See also Layth under no. 13209. In some versions he performs a wu
 correctly and leaves
a fourth sin is added, that of openly appropriating his house for the mosque with only one
something that does not belong to you, for which purpose in mind: to perform a alt. With
later (S)CLs seem responsible. For the theological every step he takes in the direction of the
discussion on this tradition, see Van Ess, TG, I, p. mosque, he raises himself one degree in
204, V, p. 118. rank and one sin will be stricken off (…).
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: All the time he performs his alt there the
• “Every child is born al ‘l-fira, its par- angels will pray on his behalf: ‘God, bless
ents determine whether it will grow up as him, God, forgive him and pardon him,
a Jew, a Christian or a polytheist … God God show him Your mercy, as long as he
knows best what children will do (later in does not break wind’”,
life)”, cf. Mz., IX, no. 12502, 12334, 12341, 12379,
cf. Mz., IX, no. 12406, 12353, 12424, 12433,
12476 (m, IV, p. 2048, t, confirmed in ay., no. 1. According to a report in Azq., I, p. 529, A  b. Ab
2433, I
., II, p. 410). Amash is just the SCL of this Rab,
asan al-Bar, Zuhr, and Qatda stated that a
poorly attested bundle. For an explanation of the group (jama) consisted of at least three persons.
120 AMASH

12401, 12415, 12437 (the Six, kh, 8/87, m, I, p. 459, the one hand it may be even older than Amash or,
confirmed in ay., no. 2412, I
., II, p. 252). With on the other hand, he may be just the target of some
his two PCLs Shuba and Ab Muwiya as well as diving strands. Other key figures such as Mlik, cf.
a host of SSs converging in him, Amash is in any Mz., X, no. 13840° (kh, 4/26, Mlik, I, 21, I
., II,
case the (S)CL of this tradition. The issue is part of p. 465#, Ibn
ibbn, II, p. 200), and Ibn Uyayna,
a MC in which another discernible CL is Mlik, cf. cf. Mz., XI, no. 15149 (m, s,
um., no. 951, I
., II,
there under no. 8367°. Ab Muwiya may in fact p. 241) found in spidery formations supporting the
be solely responsible for the latter part of this matn same tradition are neatly enumerated in Ab Yal,
beginning with the words ‘that is because …’ X, pp. 257 ff, to which Awz may be added, cf.
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: Mz., X, no. 13189 (t, s, q). Curiously, the tradition
• “He who clears away a worldly sorrow enjoyed such popularity that half a dozen or so other
from a believer will have one sorrow of the versions came into circulation, each supported by a
non-canonical SS, cf. the tradition indexes of the
Day of Resurrection removed from him
Kmil of Ibn Ad3 and TB by Kha b al-Baghdd
by God. He who eases life for someone
s.v. idh qma … and idh ‘stayqa a … For legal
in difficulties will have his life made easy
casuistry derived from this tradition, see Ab Yal,
by God in this world and the next. He who ibidem, p. 259, and Fat, I, p. 275.
shields a Muslim will be shielded by God With the same strand the Prophet’s words:
in this world and the next. God helps man
as he helps his brother. He who walks a • “When someone recites a sajda2 and pros-
path seeking (divine) knowledge will have trates himself, the devil withdraws weep-
his path to Paradise made smooth by God. ing and he says: ‘Woe unto me, man has
Any group of people gathering in one of been ordered to prostrate himself so he
God’s houses to recite God’s Book and to will enter Paradise but I was ordered to
study it will have the divine tranquillity prostrate myself and I refused, so I’ll go
(sakna) sent down upon it. God’s grace to Hell”,
will envelop it, the angels will surround it cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12524, 12473 (m, I, p. 87, q, con-
and God will mention them to those who firmed in I
., II, p. 443#). In this poorly attested
are with Him. He who is remiss in his duty bundle Amash is only the SCL. What speaks in
will not be helped by his noble lineage”, favour of crediting him with the wording of this
tradition is his widely attested predilection for
cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12510, 12359, 12426, 12462,
traditions describing certain habits and prevail-
12486, 12500, 12889, 12891 (m, IV, p. 2074, d, t, ing moods of the devil. The recitation of a sajda
s, q, IASh., IX, p. 85, I
., II, p. 252). Amash is the passage necessitating the reciter, as well as those
plausible CL of this tradition. who happen to hear his recitation, to perform a pros-
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: tration is an ancient issue going back to the earliest
times, if the multifaceted opinions expressed on the
• “He who wakes from his sleep should not
issue attributed to Islam’s oldest fuqah are any-
plunge his hand into a water vessel before
thing to go by, cf. Azq., III, pp. 335-51, IASh., II,
he has rinsed it three times, for he does pp. 1- 25. One of the many chapters devoted to the
not know where his hand was during the issue deals, for example, with the situation when
night1”, someone recites a sajda passage while riding an
animal: in that case he may limit the prostration to
cf. Mz., IX, nos. 12516, 12475, (m, I, p. 233, d,
just a nod.
confirmed in I
., II, p. 471). This very well known
With a strand on the authority of Ab
zim
tradition is listed here in Amash’ tarjama because
among the numerous spiders and SSs that are found
in the sources to support it, he is the oldest key 2. Sajda, lit. prostration, pl. suj d, is here a technical term
figure. But that is not to say that he may be held for certain passages from the Qurn which, when they are
responsible for its wording. It is in fact impossible recited, encourage or even oblige the reciter to perform a
to say who brought it originally into circulation. On prostration, cf. EI 2, s.v. sadjda (Rippin). The s ra al-
luded to here in which the sajda passage occurs is XXXII.
For a somewhat impressionistic survey of the sajda issue,
1. It says literally: ‘where it spent the night’. see R. Tottoli in ZDMG, CXLVII, 1997, pp. 371-93.
AMASH 121

Salmn al-Ashja or Ab Yay, the mawl of the breaks, he may not walk further with only
l Jada b. Hubayra—Ab Hurayra: one sandal on but he must first repair it2”,
• “The Prophet never expressed his dislike cf. Mz., X, no. 14608, 12443, 12459 (m, III, p.
for any food: when he fancied something, 1660, s, confirmed in Azq., XI, p. 166, IASh., VIII,
he ate it and when something did not appeal p. 228, I
., II, pp. 253, 424, 443, 477, 480, 528).
to him, he abstained from it”, With two PCLs and a number of SSs converging
in him, Amash may be held to be the CL of this
cf. Mz., X, nos. 13403, 15465 (kh, 70/21, m, III, tradition. The commentaries give all sorts of rea-
p. 1632, d, t, q, confirmed in Bagh., I, p. 232, I
., sons why walking in one sandal was frowned upon:
II, pp. 427, 474, 479, 481, 495). Amash is the con- the uneven gait may cause stumbling, it is unsightly
vincing CL. and ungraceful to look at, it does away with some-
With the same strand the Prophet’s words: one’s gravity, while it looks as if one is imitating
the devil. A later (S)CL supporting a similar text
• “When someone calls his wife to his bed,
is Ab Khaythama Zuhayr b. Muwiya, see there
but she refuses so that he spends the night
under Mz., II, no. 2717. In t there is a tradition of
in anger, that wife will be cursed by the the rukha genre in which walking in one sandal is
angels until the morning”, not disapproved of (IV, p. 244), but since it is not
cf. Mz., X, no. 13404 (kh, 67/85, m, II, p. 1060, attested anywhere else we may assume that it did
d, s, confirmed in IASh., IV, p. 306, I
., II, pp. not catch on. In IASh., VIII, p. 229, we find several
439, 480). Amash is the believable CL. One of his mawq ft supporting this rukha.
alleged pupils, Shuba, modelled on this matn a ver- With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
sion of his own, provided it with his own strand Shaqq b. Salama—Amr b. al-
rith—Zaynab bt.
back to Ab Hurayra and circulated it as his own, (Ab) Muwiya ath-Thaqafiyya, the wife of Ibn
see his tarjama under no. 12897. Masd (paraphrase):
For Amash’s position as SCL in a tradition
• “One day in the mosque the Prophet said:
from a MC on the obligation to accept invitations
‘Give alms, you women, even from your
to banquets, cf. Mz., X, no. 13405, see Mlik under
no. 8339*. jewelry.’ So I went to Abd Allh, my hus-
With a strand on the authority of Ab
zim band and I said: ‘You are a poor person, and
Salmn al-Ashja—Ab Hurayra, who related the the Prophet has ordered us to give alms. So
Prophet’s words: go to him and ask him whether it is suffi-
cient for me, when I give the required alms
• “Three types of people God will not speak
to you and to the orphans in my care; if
to on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He
not, I shall give them to other persons. ‘Go
look upon them or purify them: a man who
to the Prophet and ask him yourself,’ Abd
fornicates, a king who is mendacious and a
Allh said. So I went and I found a woman
pauper who is haughty”,
from the Anr standing at his door who
cf. Mz., X, no. 13406 (m, I, pp. 102 f, s, I
., II, wanted to ask the same question as I (…).
p. 480). With just two PCLs and one SS Amash Bill came outside (vl. passed by us) and
is in any case the SCL of this version from within
we asked him to inform the Prophet, how-
the large MC describing the people who will not
ever without disclosing our identities, that
be addressed by God. See above under no. 12338
for another version, and Shuba under no. 11909 for two women had come to his door in order
yet another. to ask him whether they were allowed to
With a strand on the authority of Ab Razn give their alms to their husbands and the
Masd b. Mlik and/or Ab li Dhakwn—Ab orphans in their care. Bill entered the
Hurayra who, after a preamble, related the Proph- Prophet’s house and put the question to
et’s words: him. ‘Who are they?’ the Prophet asked.
• “When the thong1 of someone’s sandal
sandal and whose upper end is attached to the ankle, cf.
1. The strap that passes between two toes whose lower Lane, s.v. shisa.
end is fastened through a hole in the fore part of the 2. Lit. until he repairs it.
122 AMASH

‘A woman from the Anr and Zaynab,’ of Jacob), order Ab Bakr to pray with the
he replied. ‘Which Zaynab do you mean?’, people.’ Ab Bakr was duly notified and
the Prophet asked. ‘’Abd Allh’s wife,’ he he entered (the prayer site). The Prophet
answered. ‘They (vl. she) will have a dou- who felt a temporary relief of his condi-
ble reward,’ the Prophet said, ‘the reward tion came to the prayer site too, supported
for having spent riches on their relatives between two men, while dragging his feet
and the reward for having practised char- along the ground … Sitting down left of
ity’”, Ab Bakr, he then performed the alt;
Ab Bakr, standing at his side, followed
cf. Mz., XI, no. 15887 (kh, 24/48, Fat, IV, pp. 70 f,
his movements, in due course imitated by
m, II, pp. 694 f, t, s, q, confirmed in ay., no. 1653,
the congregation”,
I
., III, pp. 502, 504, VI, p. 3631). The translation
incorporates most of the variant readings showing cf. Mz., XI, no. 15945 (kh, 10/39, m, I, pp. 313 f, s,
up in Fat and m. Amash is the convincing CL of q, confirmed in IASh., II, p. 329, I
., VI, pp. 210,
this tradition, which is part of a MC on the merit of 224). Amash is in any case the SCL of the word-
providing for needy relatives. It had arisen from Q. ing. The tradition is part of the large MC containing
III: 92: ‘You will not attain righteousness until you descriptions of the Prophet’s final illness and the
have spent from (the riches) that are dear to you’, events that are set off against that backdrop. For
which is interpreted as referring to someone’s duty a similar tradition supported by a different isnd
to take care of his relatives. Another tradition from strand, see 17153° which has Mlik for CL. For
this MC is found in the tarjama of Shuba under no. a general introduction to these events, see Zuhr
9996. For yet another tradition from it in which the under no. 16309.
verse from the Qurn duly figures, see Mlik under With the same strand (paraphrase):
Mz., I, no. 204*. • “The Prophet had bought food from a Jew
With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm an-
for payment at an appointed period and he
Nakha—al-Aswad b. Yazd—isha (para-
gave him a coat of mail (made of iron) as
phrase):
security”,
• “When the Prophet was suffering from
cf. Mz., XI, no. 15948 (kh, 34/14, m, III, p. 1226,
the illness which was to cause his death,
s, q, confirmed in IASh., VI, p. 16, I
., VI, pp. 42,
Bill came to remind him of the alt. The 230, 237, 260). Amash is the clear CL of the word-
Prophet said: ‘Order Ab Bakr to perform ing, but the issue of deferring payment and giving a
the alt with the people.’ I said to him: security instead is clearly older because of the many
‘But Ab Bakr is an emotional man: if aqwl pro and con attributed to the earliest fuqah,
he takes your place, (his voice will break see Azq., VIII, pp. 4-11, IASh VI 16-21.
and) he will not be able to make himself With the same strand:
heard by the people. It might be better to
ask Umar.’ I insisted, but he said: ‘Let
• “I have never seen that the Prophet fasted
on the ten days (i.e. the first ten days of
Ab Bakr do it … you women are (like)
Dh ‘l-
ijja)”,
the wives2 of Ysuf (i.e. Joseph, the son
cf. Mz., XI, no. 15949 (m, II, p. 833, d, t, s, con-
1. A diagram of this bundle is found in Qanara (I), p. firmed in IASh., III, p. 413, I
., VI, pp. 42, 124#).
377.
2. The plural is supposed to serve as a generalization
to encompass all women behaving in the same manner. as was allegedly the case with Zulaykha who invited her
Muammad’s comparing isha’s conduct with that of female companions to her house, not in order to shower
Ysuf’s wife Zulaykha is clarified extensively in the them with hospitality but to show off Ysuf’s physi-
commentaries. Although varying in detail, they amount to cal beauty. Cf. Zurqn, I, p. 349, Nawaw, IV, p. 140,
describing isha’s reluctance to call upon her father to Qas alln, II, p. 40, I
j., Fat, II, pp. 292 ff. Zulaykha is
act as imm as inspired by her fear that he might not con- the Islamic name of the wife of Pharaoh’s high official,
tain his tears while reciting the Qurn, something which who had tried to seduce Ysuf, cf. Genesis ch. XXXIX.
might be interpreted by the people in the congregation as 3. IASh. has also preserved a mursal SS via Jarr b. Abd
having been caused by the Prophet’s overall weak condi- al-
amd, and according to Mz., XI, no. 16001, a marf 
tion. In brief, isha’s words betray ulterior motives, just is quoted in q with Ab ‘l-Awa instead of Jarr.
AMASH 123

Amash is the clear CL of this tradition. According f, t, s, confirmed in ay., no. 1380, IASh., III, p.
to the commentators (e.g. Awn al-mab d, VII, p. 229, I
., VI, pp. 42, 173, 278). Like in the previ-
75) it gave rise to the misunderstanding that fasting ous tradition, Amash and Manr are both CLs. In
during the first days of Dh ‘l-
ijja was frowned view of the masses of mawq ft preserved support-
upon, but nothing is less true: fasting on those days, ing matns in the same vein, the idea that someone
especially on the ninth, the Day of Arafa, was a who is struck down by disease or any other mishap
highly recommended supererogatory practice. will be compensated for that by having sins wiped
With the same strand as well as with another off his slate is surely an ancient one. Amash and/
strand on the authority of Ab ‘- u Muslim b. or Manr are therefore rather to be considered as
ubay—Masrq: responsible for this particular wording. Compare
also Amash’s similar tradition under no. 9191
• “When it was mentioned in isha’s pres- above.
ence that a dog, a donkey and a woman could With a strand on the authority of Thbit b. Ubayd
interrupt someone’s alt, she exclaimed: al-Anr—al-Qsim b. Muammad—isha:
‘Do you compare us with a donkey or a
dog? By God, I saw the Prophet perform • “The Prophet once said to me from the
1

his alt on the bed while I lay stretched mosque: ‘Get me the prayer mat.’ ‘But I
out on it (v.l. facing the bed between him have my period,’ I said. ‘Get it for me,’
and the qibla while I lay stretched out on he said, ‘your menstruation is not in your
it). When I wanted to do something and I hand’”,
feared that by sitting up I would disturb the cf. Mz., XII, no. 17446 (m, I, pp. 244 f, d, t, s, con-
Prophet, I would slip out (from between firmed in ay., no. 1430, Azq., I, p. 327, I
., VI,
the covers) at the foot of the bed”, pp. 45, 101, 173, 229). Amash is the clear CL of
this tradition.
cf. Mz., XI, nos. 15952, 15987, 17642 (kh, 8/105,
With a strand on the authority of Ab Wil
m, I, pp. 366 f, s, confirmed in ay., no. 1379, I
.,
Shaqq b. Salama—Masrq—isha, who related
VI, p. 230). Amash and Manr are both in any
the Prophet’s words:
case (S)CLs, if not CLs. It is difficult to say who
copied from whom. The matn fits chronologically • “When a wife spends (sc. on charity) from
well in the MC on the ancient debate whether a her husband’s household (v.l. food) with-
woman or an animal interrupts a person’s alt. An out exceeding the proper bounds, she will
older key figure, the obscure
umayd b. Hill (cf. receive a reward in accordance with what
no. 11939) still confirms a woman’s capability of
she has spent and her husband will receive
disrupting someone’s alt, but later there emerged
a reward in accordance with what he has
a series of traditions, of which the one mentioned
above is one, denying this and indemnifying her earned; likewise the (trusted) storekeeper
against this allegation. For another, later CL in this will receive a similar reward: no one’s
MC, see Shuba under no. 17368. reward will be diminished by the spending
With a strand on the authority of Ibrhm an- of others”,
Nakha—al-Aswad b. Yazd:
cf. Mz., XII, no. 17608 (the Six, kh, 24/26, 2 f, m,
• “Several young men from Quraysh came II, p. 710, confirmed in Azq., IV, p. 148, IX, p.
laughing to isha while she was in Min. 128,
um., no. 276, IASh., VI, pp. 582 f, I
., VI,
‘Why do you laugh?