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l'enseignement medieval Arts Libéraux, Grands Maitres Et Universités

les arts libéraux
Les sept arts libéraux désignent toute les disciplines intellectuelles fondamentales des écoles de l'Antiquité, mais également du Moyen Âge. Les arts libéraux étaient groupés en deux cycles :  le trivium (mot qui signifie les trois chemins en latin) concerne le « pouvoir de la langue »: la grammaire, la rhétorique et la dialectique.  le quadrivium (les quatre chemins du second degré) se rapporte au « pouvoir des nombres », groupant les quatre branches des mathématiques (arithmétique, géométrie, astronomie et musique). Dans la pensée chrétienne telle que la formule saint Augustin dans le De Doctrina christiana et le De Ordine, la connaissance des arts libéraux fut considérée comme l'étape préalable à l'étude de la théologie fondée sur l'Écriture sainte, qu'il importait de comprendre et d'interpréter car l‘enseignement médiéval placait la foi au centre de toute connaissance et les arts lib éraux en propédeutique à l‘étude de la théologie. Ils sont définis dans ces deux vers mnémoniques : Gramm loquitur, Dia verba docet, Rhet verba colorat, Mus canit, Ar numerat, Geo ponderat, Ast colit astra. Ce qui sgnifie :
la Gram (maire) parle, la Dia (lectique) enseigne, la Rhé (torique) colore les mots, la Mus (ique) chante, l'Ar (ithmétique) compte, la Géo (métrie) pèse, l'Ast (ronomie) s'occupe des astres.

On résumait aussi leur objet par sept substantifs formant également un vers : Lingua, tropus, ratio, numerus, tonus, angulus, astra.

les grands maîtres

St Augustin
Lorsque, après une période de déclin, la culture se réveilla en Occident au moment de la renaissance carolingienne, l'enseignement de ces e disciplines, particulièrement du trivium, reprit dans les écoles monastiques et cathédrales. Il faut attendre la fin du X siècle pour assister à un enseignement systématique du quadrivium dans certains centres, ainsi à Reims au temps de Gerbert, puis dans les écoles de Chartres. La e renaissance duXII siècle a été, entre autres, celle des arts libéraux dont l'étude fut stimulée par l'introduction dans l'enseignement des œuvr es d'Aristote et des scientifiques grecs traduits au préalable en latin. Quand se formeront les universités, les « sept colonnes de la sagesse », renforcées par la philosophie et les sciences de la nature, constitueront l'objet des études à la faculté des arts.

Ils ont notamment été transmis par Alcuin, précepteur de Charlemagne et sont à l'origine de la réforme scolaire de celui-ci, durant la période dite de la Renaissance carolingienne.

C‘est selon cette répartition du savoir et du « savoir-dire » que Martianus Capella rédigea son oeuvre principale (vers 400), le De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiæ (« Les Noces de Mercure et de Philologie »). Véritable manuel scolaire, cet ouvrage, où chaque science est personnifiée, fut la base de l‘enseignement des écoles monastiques carolingiennes, complétée par les réaménagements et les enrichissements apportés au VIe siècle par Cassiodore (Institutiones)et Boèce. Au VIIe siècle, Isidore de Séville reprend ces disciplines, mais, à travers un classement thématique des connaissances, il élargit les domaines du savoir, composant la première encyclopédie (Ethymologiæ) qui servira de référence aux compilateurs et de livre de chevet aux clercs jusqu‘au XVIe siècle. Au début du XIIe siècle, Hugues, maître de l‘École de Saint-Victor élabore une méthode d‘enseignement destinée aux clercs, suivant une classification d‘inspiration aristotélicienne :
  

sciences logiques (le trivium des arts libéraux), ou pratiques (sciences éthique), sciences théoriques : théologie, mathématique (contenant le quadrivium des arts libéraux) et physique. et il introduit les arts mécaniques (ou science des techniques).

Le XIIe siècle découvre la Logique, la Physique et la Métaphysique d‘Aristote, et la science grécoarabe, par les traductions latines ; l‘enseignement va en être bouleversé. L‘assimilation de ces nouveaux savoirs prendra un siècle.

les universités
Les universités se créent et se multiplient dans la première moitié du XIIIe siècle. Les statuts de l‘université de Paris sont promulgués en 1215. Quatre facultés la composent :     la faculté des Arts, la faculté de Théologie, la faculté de Décret (droit Canon) la faculté de Médecine.

Les arts libéraux (trivium, puis quadrivium) forment la base de l‘enseignement de la faculté des Arts, dispensé entre quatorze et vingt ans. Un « baccalauréat » est délivré au bout de deux ans et une « maîtrise ès arts » quatre ans plus tard. L‘étudiant peut ensuite aborder la médecine ou le droit, - de nouveau six années d‘études sanctionnées par la licence et le doctorat.

Les études de théologie sont beaucoup plus longues : huit ans sont prévus dans les statuts de l‘université de Paris qui impose, en outre, l‘âge minimum de trente-cinq ans pour l‘obtention du doctorat ; il semble, en fait, que la durée d‘apprentissage ait été de quinze à seize ans. Inscrites au programme de la faculté de Médecine, on trouve les oeuvres d‘Hippocrate et de Galien, puis les sommes arabes d‘Avicenne (le Canon), d‘Averroès (le Colliget) et de Rhazès (l‘Almansor). La faculté des Arts est un bouillon de culture de l‘averroïsme ; les discussions y sont passionnées, certains maîtres y soutiennent la thèse de l‘éternité du monde (niant ainsi la création), et l‘on y culti ve le raisonnement. L‘oeuvre logique d‘Aristote (l‘Organon) est enseignée dès 1215 à la faculté des Arts, mais sa Physique et sa Métaphysique sont interdites par les autorités ecclésiastiques. Les thèses d‘Aristote y sont cependant débattues à travers les commentaires d‘Averroès. Roger Bacon, venu de l‘université d‘Oxford en 1245, y donne des cours sur la Physique et la Métaphysique d‘Aristote. En 1277, l‘évêque de Paris, Étienne Tempier, et l‘archevêque de Cantorbéry condamnent l‘aristotélisme. Mais d‘autres querelles vont secouer l‘université : la lutte, récurrente jusqu‘au XIVe siècle, entre les séculiers et les réguliers des ordres mendiants. Bientôt, c‘est la méthode même de l‘enseignement universitaire - la scolastique - qui sera remise en cause : le premier coup lui est porté par Roger Bacon, qui, dans son Opus Majus (1268), jette les bases de la science expérimentale.

la dialectique. Au XIIe siècle. dans les écoles monastiques et les cathédrales. se distinguaient ceux qui devaient travailler pour vivre et ceux qui pouvaient étudier et pratiquer la philosophie.236). les arts libéraux redevinrent à l’honneur. appliqué par les jésuites. etc. La grammaire incluait la littérature. le terme triviumdésigna un cycle d’études que les élèves devaient suivre dans les écoles de grammaire et de rhétorique. comme la poésie. par exemple à la Sorbonne. à Paris. C’est durant la période carolingienne que l’enseignement du trivium se développa. etc ». la dialectique. Ainsi Rabelais. favorisa l’enseignement et la pratique des arts libéraux dans les Universités. notamment de la rhétorique et de la dialectique. les mathématiques. se développa également l’enseignement du quadrivium. Dans l’Occident médiéval. l’astronomie. la musique. la géométrie. p. dans son Dictionnaire (1690). Au XVIe siècle. bien que les arts en question se soient diversifiés : « Les arts libéraux sont ceux qui sont nobles et honnestes. Pantagruel. étudie les arts libéraux. tourneurs. devenu grande référence des lettrés médiévaux. la géométrie. arts des mathématiques et du symbole ( quadrivium). Durant la République et l’Empire romains. comprenant. la rhétorique. imagine que son héros.Les origines des arts libéraux sont lointaines. la peinture ». la redécouverte de la philosophie d’Aristote. boulengers. l’astronomie et la musique comme parties de la philosophie. Pléiade. . Le terme quadrivium fut employé pour la première fois au VIe siècle par Boèce. À partir de la fin du Xe siècle. cordonniers. l’opinion de Furetière. outre ces deux disciplines. ministre de Théodoric le Grand (empereur des Ostrogoths et des Romains). la dialectique. accordait une place prépondérante à ces arts libéraux. Dès lors les arts libéraux comprirent sept matières bien précises : la grammaire. la rhétorique. Chez les anciens Grecs. est encore conforme à celle qui avait cours au Moyen Âge. Le système d’éducation des jeunes gens. arts du discours ( trivium) et l’arithmétique. fondeurs. poète et philosophe latin. la musique. enseignés dans les collèges de la Faculté des arts : « Et après quelque espace de temps qu’il y eut demouré et fort bien estudié en tous les sept ars libéraux (…) » ( Pantagruel. cet enseignement se poursuivit. Cassiodore fut un des premiers à parler des « sept arts libéraux » : il présenta l’arithmétique. À ceux-ci s’opposent les « arts mécaniques » qui « sont ceux où l’on travaille plus de la main et du corps que de l’esprit : ce sont d’ordinaire ceux qui nous fournissent les nécessités de la vie comme celuy des horlogers.Autre écrivain et ministre célèbre de Théodoric. Au XVIIe siècle. charpentiers. Les arts libéraux dispensaient une formation dans les disciplines où l’intelligence avait la plus grande part.

/ Voulant apprendre la morale. pour bien gouverner. les arts libéraux étaient souvent désignés par le simple pluriel « les arts ».Jusqu’au XVIIIe siècle. aux États-Unis. les sciences physiques et biologiques ainsi que les mathématiques et la logique. surtout dans les pays anglo-saxons ( liberal arts). V : « Le lion. linguistique. ces matières sont enseignées dans des collèges privés en tant que disciplines de formation intellectuelle. Pléiade. philosophie. Il arrive aussi que l’on désigne par « arts libéraux »./ Se fit un beau jour amener/ Le Singe Maître ès arts chez la gent animale » ( Fables. p. XI. elle désigne les enseignements incluant l’étude de la littérature. comme dans ces vers de La Fontaine : « Le Lion. . L’expression est encore parfois utilisée à l’époque moderne. les disciplines des sciences humaines (littérature. S’agissant des universités. disciplines auxquelles s’ajoutent souvent les sciences de l’éducation. sociologie). beaux-arts. le singe et les deux ânes ».433). Ainsi. l’expression liberal arts ou liberal education les distinguant des disciplines dont le but est exclusivement professionnel. de la linguistique – ou de l’apprentissage des langues– de la philosophie et de l’histoire. histoire.

le TRIVIUM . de rechercher notre propre perfectionnement. LA LOGIQUE. Au cours de mon initiation au 1er degré les voyages sont parsemés d’obstacles. le compagnon découvre le cartouche des 7 arts libéraux. la grammaire. LA GRAMMAIRE. les voyages ne sont plus des épreuves mais des déplacements vers les échelons de la connaissance. Porteur du fil à plomb et du niveau. forme orale qui montre à quel point le verbe joue un rôle déterminant. Le 1 er degré (trivium) comporte 3 échelons. essayer de guider les autres.le QUADRIVIUM . de conclure. qui se rapporte au pouvoir des nombres . des paroles appropriées ne donnent que du bonheur à l’auditoire. Par LA RETHORIQUE. science Quaternaire dite mathématiques. mesurée. le récipiendaire subit symboliquement 3 épreuves. Nous nous devons de laisser guider notre raison par la Logique qui doit nous amener avec prudence vers la connaissance générale des choses . un sens différent à une phrase. par la beauté de l’expression.permettant ainsi d’évoluer dans sa foi maçonnique. science Ternaire des paroles et des voix . car la logique nous permet : de déduire. Pour mon élévation au 2ème degré. nous enseigne l’arrangement des mots. éveil de la pensée certes. et que cela soit pour enseigner ou approuver. l’importance de l’écriture. agréable. nous donnons de la force et de la grâce à nos discours. mais aussi de soi-même . et la ponctuation pour donner un rythme. Ne parler pour rien dire » quel ennui ! Pour l’assistance ». car.Les 7 Arts Libéraux Représentent l’étude de l’ancienne classification du Savoir humain. poursuivre la connaissance c’est chercher à s’instruire. Ces 7 disciplines se divisent en 2 degré. nombre qui consacre notre loge et la rend juste et parfaite. de raisonner. c’est essayé de captiver son auditoire par la vigueur de son argumentation. mais aussi de diriger nos recherches sur l’éveil de la conscience. L’élocution doit être. pour ensuite. la rhétorique et la logique. . Le Trivium se polarise donc sur la parole. qui se trouve dans cette permanente richesse de l’initiation qui nous permet.

Prenons l’écriture. mais l’écriture ne renferme pas tout. Grâce à cet art nous avons le pouvoir de compter.La parole permet aux hommes de se comprendre. la Géométrie. un frère. c’est une bibliothèque qui brûle « disent-ils. est ouvert au prologue de St. aux règles immuables. elle est le moyen de communication de connaissance et d’action. Les 4 chemins du second degré. elle nous enseigne . Ceux-ci sont représentés : Par L’Arithmétique. le Grand Architecte. Ces 3 chemins abordés. ont transmises à l’époque de vive voix. En tout temps la parole a été le moyen de transmission entre les êtres humains. et qui appelle à méditer sur les mystères insondables des nombres et donc de la création ? LA GEOMETRIE. d’où la nécessité une nouvelle fois de recourir à la tradition c'est-à-dire . L’Astronomie et La Musique. secrets des mots.elle est quelquefois obscure . L’Afrique a cultivé cette communication orale. JEAN qui décrit au moyen d’une phrase courte : « Au commencement était la parole « c’est par celle-ci que l’homme . nom du très haut. »que serait 1 tout seul « ? Je trouve que les nombres sont beaux et magiques. confidences. .les pouvoirs et les propriétés des nombres aux moyens de tables et de figures . m’a fait découvrir que dans leur forme primitive. source de toute lumière et de toute science. les apôtres . que les anciens ont conservé dans leur mémoire » Lorsque un vieux meurt. Au centre de l’étoile flamboyante nous trouvons la lettre G. communique et échange avec ses semblables. à la DOCTRINE ou OPINIONS qu’un des grands initiés qu’était JESUS et ses compagnons. chaque nombre possédait une quantité d’angle égale à sa valeur ! Surprenant. Cette science des nombres est en usage constant dans nos travaux. Parmi les 3 grandes lumières symboliques . ont été et sont communiqués oralement. L’ARITHMETIQUE. le créateur de l’univers aux règles harmonieuses et rigoureuses. ainsi l’homme de pensée pénètre dans l’amour de la fraternité. monogramme du grand Géomètre. de l’histoire. et qu’il se doit de leur apporter affection et solidarité. qui est un être essentiellement relationnel.le volume de la loi sacrée symbole de la tradition . cheminons maintenant sur le QUADRIVIUM. des rites. elle peut-être aussi un instrument pour conduire les hommes. communications des coutumes. popularisés par les Arabes mais d’origine Phénicienne.

Dans l’hémisphère céleste. mais elle passe autant par les symboles de son écriture (les notes de musique). que par le sens émotionnel qu’elle peut procurer.elle permet d’appréhender l’espace. Par l’utilisation rituelle des points cardinaux. dans tous nos temples. La période de construction des cathédrales fut propice à la culture des arts libéraux qui font appel à des facultés : intellectuelles. à travers l’espace et le temps. ( L’Astronomie ) nous apprend principalement à « LIRE « la sagesse la force et la beauté du principe créateur qu’est le tout puissant . de se façonner comme « pierre vivante » en vue de prendre sa place dans l’édification du temple. sphère céleste et globe terrestre nous permettent de contempler « la géométrie des mondes » La géométrie enseigne les lois de la construction universelle. Augustin :" La connaissance de ces arts est indispensable pour comprendre et interpréter . Par son arrangement des sons . nous les utilisons et entendons quotidiennement.la musique arrange et ordonne des sons pour construire « ce matériau musical « agréable à l’oreille. mais avant tout. elles remplissent donc une fonction essentielle dans notre existence. Aidés par cette science. ces sciences. détendeur des mystères sacrés de l’hémisphère céleste. mesurées . nous observons les mouvements des astres. calculons et fêtons les solstices. le bas et le haut. la musique produit des harmonies délicieuses. car le travail doit se poursuivre sans répit.La géométrie nous a fourni la plus grande partie de nos symboles. nos travaux s’effectuent sous la voûte étoilée. cette musique est « nature » elle est dans la nature . l’homme y trouve son cap. cet art nous permet de comprendre la grandeur des corps célestes. sa route. les étoiles ont toujours servies de guide. de l’immensément grand à l’immensément petit nous voilà en relation spirituelle entre le haut et le bas. nous ouvrons et fermons nos travaux. grâce à un ou des scintillements référencés. dans cette construction de poésie perçue par l’ouie. la belle musique ! une des pratiques culturelles les plus anciennes . Dans la pensée formulée par St. elle permet l’observation des astres. que ce soit dans le domaine maritime ou terrestre. Cet art. cette science traite de la grandeur en général ou toutes les dimensions sont considérées. Le 7ème des arts libéraux est la MUSIQUE. L’ASTRONOMIE. elle permet au compagnon maçon par l’utilisation des outils symboliques. elles nous permettent d’agir avec méthode et discernement. Considérée comme la plus ancienne des sciences. sensorielles et esthétiques. cette œuvre à laquelle nul ne peut assigner un fin.

sont le résultat de la pensée et du travail des hommes qui progressivement. ont réunis leur savoir pour nous faire découvrir ces sciences fondamentales résultantes d’une noble curiosité . d’apprendre. Ces arts qui ont exigées de grandes études et de profondes méditations. l’harmonie du beau. et la puissance des connaissances devant lesquelles nous demeurons humble et modeste. JP M . de comprendre. Curiosité certes. à s’unir et à travailler mutuellement pour le bien commun. Mais avant tout notre ordre n’est-il pas principalement basé sur la tradition orale ? VMet vous tous mes frères j’ai dit. mais animée d’un besoin inlassable. au fil du temps. de nous communiquer ces héritages (les arts). La FM est en quelque sorte une loi humanitaire qui engage les hommes à s’aimer.justement " car ceux-ci nous font apprécier. qui nous utilisons journellement et dont nous ne mesurons pas toujours l’importance.

nombre d’entre nous n’ont pas hésité. comme on distingue l’alchimie pratique des souffleurs de l’alchimie spirituelle des « cherchant » et de vérifier le bien-fondé de la théorie de la transition qui nous relie au « livre des métiers » de 1268 d’Étienne Boileau et autres. aveuglés par les convictions qui nous animent. Parfois. Cette démarche. fut-il religieux. Avertis par ces constatations. Les textes ne disent que ce qu’ils veulent dire. nous faisons consciemment parler notre cœur. Elle contribuera. . ont dans la franc-maçonnerie de tradition. Ainsi les arts libéraux sont les servants de la description et de la compréhension de l’essence des choses. en nous retirant d’un débat aussi aride qu’intéressant qui est celui d’une vérité historique dûment fondée sur des textes. voire spéculative. suivant le résultat obtenu. C’est bien qu’il en soit ainsi. plutôt que d’émettre une simple hypothèse. à orienter l’interprétation d’un texte. Notre définition fait rejoindre le point de vue antique qui s’affranchit de la matière et le point de vue moderne du libre arbitre détaché du cadre corporel. Sans cesse le franc-maçon cherche à se relier à une tradition ancienne qui est bien souvent plus légendaire qu’historique. c’est l’analogie qui nous permet de faire des liens troublants. en dehors des intentions orientées de leurs commentateurs. pour les besoins d’une démonstration ou d’une croyance. nous permettra d’établir un pont avec la source potentielle de la franc-maçonnerie opérative.Les sept arts libéraux ou l’exaltation de l’âme Les arts libéraux. une aura particulière qu’il nous semble utile d’expliquer. Ainsi les mythes et légendes sont des éléments probants de la connaissance initiatique. et la légende. nous allons essayer d’analyser la pertinence des arts libéraux dans la vie d’un tailleur de pierre du Moyen Âge. nous l’espérons. Si une preuve irréfragable ne peut être rapportée. La question préalable est de vérifier si les arts dits « libéraux » appartiennent bien au corpus initiatique des maçons opératifs ou s’ils doivent être rattachés à une autre filiation. Est libéral un art pratiqué par un homme libre de son jugement. en précisant que nous émettons une simple hypothèse. et ne concerne que les disciplines libres de toutes contingences. celui de la quête infinie d’un idéal divin. plus forte que tous les raisonnements universitaires parlent à cet autre nous-mêmes. préférant ainsi créer un lien doctrinal. à supputer un rapprochement entre deux faits historiques. à éclairer les tenants de la théorie de l’emprunt qui distingue la maçonnerie pratique et la maçonnerie spirituelle.

Il nous semble évident que la Géométrie crée le lien entre opératif et spéculatif. la science est à la fois de la matière et de l’esprit. De nos jours on en retrouve des traces dans nos rituels. celui de la Géométrie. fondement pratique du grade de compagnon. qui nous font côtoyer la parole perdue. Le lien fondateur qui justifie explicitement l’intégration des arts libéraux aux corpus de la maçonnerie est Vitruve l’architecte romain du 1er siècle av. Il s’agit donc de s’élever au plan spirituel. appelés Anciens Devoirs ce qui semble témoigner de leur authenticité dans une continuité et une constance. Ces sciences sont supposées permettre de s’élever au niveau du divin. Quoi qu'il en soit. La révélation unique se substitua aux multiples vérités. Cette antériorité livresque plaide pour la constance immémoriale et invérifiable de la source première. poids ». Il établit un cycle septénaire de sciences qui ne touchent pas aux choses mortelles comme la médecine et aux choses terrestres comme l’architecture.-C. Les arts libéraux sont cités dans de nombreux textes et manuscrits anciens. qui produit le premier traité d’architecture mentionnant les arts libéraux sous un angle utilitaire et technique. à notre avis. c’est une fausse idée. Ainsi Dieu sera le grand Géomètre. ce qui exclue la matière. J. en libérant l’âme. La mère de toutes les sciences est pour les Grecs la philosophie. La géométrie semble occuper le domaine périmétrique de la pratique architecturale. C’est ainsi que naissent les légendes et les mythes. compendium de l’art du trait. La géométrie est le langage de l’architecte et l’architecture est servante du . Le cycle s’explique aussi. et connue de Platon. pour un bâtisseur du moyen-âge. par la parenté et l’origine unique des dites matières. Qu’ils soient de type anglais ou écossais.Les arts libéraux sont cités dans de nombreux rituels maçonniques tels le Régius dés 1390. On peut conclure que ces arts dits « libéraux » devinrent une propédeutique à l’étude théologique. Le cinquième des arts est la première porte d’accès sur la métaphysique. la source est incontestablement ant ique. Dans un but doctrinaire et hégémonique. mais rien ne dit non plus qu’il ne fut pas sensibilisé. Faut il préciser qu’il ne fut jamais philosophe ou musicien. C’est sur cette source néoplatonicienne que la maçonnerie des Anciens Devoirs entend se souquer. Ils font partie du corpus que doit connaître le compagnon et dans ce corpus figure évidemment le cinquième art qui est le premier dans le métier. qu’ils soient anciens ou modernes. nombre. On les divise en « Trivium » qui sont les arts du langage pour comprendre les écritures et « Quadrivium » pour les arts du nombre. C’est Marius Cappella qui en 400 fit la liste septénaire que l’on connaît. pour comprendre comment Dieu a organisé le monde « en mesure. la théologie chrétienne se substitua à la philosophie grecque. qu’ils reposent expressément sur les Anciens Devoirs ou sur la structure du Masson Word. Le solde positif des 7 arts libéraux est la Géométrie. La géométrie exhale et libère le cœur de la matière.

C’est donc les clercs de l’église et les moines qui se dotèrent d’outils. car il est nécessaire à la bonne conduite des travaux. L’église et le monastère sont les donneurs d’ordre principaux de cette époque. ils étaient détenteurs des secrets de la géométrie de la construction et de l’élévation des colonnes. doit-il pour autant étudier les autres arts libéraux ? Que viennent faire la rhétorique. pour la perfection de l’œuvre divine. Il s’agissait donc de la grammaire. Si un compagnon doit savoir faire un relevé et un tracé géométrique qui justifie sa future qualification de maître. la grammaire. aux mélanges des mortiers et ciments. soumission au pouvoir temporel de droit divin. Ces secrets n’étaient pas entre les mains du clergé. ses secrets doivent nous révéler le schème. C’est donc aux clercs que revient la maîtrise des arts libéraux.sacré. Au surplus ces arts constituent le fondement de l’éducation cléricale et bourgeoise du moyen-âge. il était bien affirmé dans les Anciens Devoirs. Ces esprits sélectionnés par la difficulté de mise en œuvre de ces arts étaient d’office les gardiens des secrets de la profession. la nécessité de respecter le pouvoir du seigneur. La différence tenait au caractère progressif à sept degrés de cet enseignement. le plan divin. Il s’agissait d’ouvrir l’esprit des opératifs pour les aider à communiquer avec leurs prescripteurs. C’est là. appelés Arts libéraux. La situation n’est pas si simple. Il n’est donc pas anormal que le contact forcé des deux univers produise un résultat qui propose la perfection de soi. de la rhétorique et de la logique. Dans le même registre. Il existe un autre apport à la pratique des arts libéraux. Cet apport consiste non seulement à la production d’une élite au sein de la classe artisanale. ou la musique avec la statique et le tracé d’ogives ? Voyons ce que l’histoire peut nous apprendre à ce sujet. sauf peut-être. Ces arts sont considérés comme supérieurs aux arts mécaniques dits « inférieurs » qui appartiennent à l’artisanat dont fait partie la taille de la pierre. Ces secrets étaient relatifs aux rituels de fondation des ouvrages. qui armèrent nos moines dans leurs études. à une petite élite qui se détache de la masse et qui dans une soif d’entreprendre et d’apprendre. Ce rapprochement n’est pas douteux. Ils servirent à l’éducation morale plus qu’à l’exercice de style. à une époque où l’on pouvait tout apprendre et devenir un « savant ». mais aussi à faire la distinction entre ceux qui sont aptes à connaître et concevoir et ceux qui ne seront que de simples exécutants. mais aussi. affaire de nécessité. aux techniques de découpe et de placement des pierres et clef de voûte. Le chanoine est le premier architecte connu du moyen-âge. C’est lui qui dirige les travaux. dans un premier temps. de la dialectique. pour mieux comprendre et étudier la Bible. se rapproche de l’institution cléricale. Les arts libéraux sont bien connus depuis l’antiquité et le moyen-âge en fit un passeport pour l’étude biblique. des ogives et des dômes sur bases carrées. plus qu’aux maçons. . et surtout. La géométrie est donc d’essence sacrée.

Il est impossible de travailler sur le chantier d’une cathédrale sans en connaître le dimensionnement intellectuel et spirituel. Connaître la Bible c’est comprendre la dimension sacrée du bâti et l’élévation à donner à l’architecture. dont la double perfection est au bénéfice de l’ouvrage cultuel. sans doute éduqués. Cette affirmation est d’autant plus pertinente si elle s’adresse au chef du chantier et à ses adjoints. . la proportion des corps sous l’enseignement de la médecine se retrouve dans la statuaire et la divine proportion. L’étude de la Bible n’était pas à cette époque uniquement exotérique. La théologie est omniprésente. elle était aussi ésotérique.C’est ce que nous appellerons la production du Chef-d’œuvre. Le maître maçon s’oblige à l’étude des 7 arts libéraux comme préparation à l’étude de la Bible et donc à la sagesse chrétienne. la grammaire et la rhétorique ordonnancent l’explication et la lecture logique du livre de pierre. l’harmonie des formes fait écho aux harmonies musicales et à la sonorité du lieu. l’architecture n’est que la figure servante et technique des 7 arts libéraux. Sa vie en est « réglée » à la manière Des Moines. bons praticiens dans le maniement du maillet et du ciseau. Le maître était suffisamment aguerri aux arts libéraux. ou l’évêque. Les cathédrales gothiques aux flancs desquelles étaient installées les loges de tailleurs de pierre témoignent de cette élévation de l’âme. Le Chef-d’œuvre est toujours dédié à un Saint à une Église ou à un Roi. Il est donc hautement probable qu’il ait existé une maçonnerie spirituelle composée à la fois d’opératifs éclairés et volontaires et de cléricaux rompus aux arts libéraux. Dieu est omniprésent dans le quotidien du maçon et dans le vécu de la confrérie à laquelle il appartient. on a connu Des Moines bâtisseurs. pour entrer dans un dialogue fructueux avec le chanoine. C’est une ascension de l’esprit qui s’appuie sur l’amélioration du tour de main en conscience et en perspective d’un but intellectualisé. cisterciens notamment. Pouvait-on s’affranchir de la pesanteur de la matière sans élever son âme par l’étude et le perfectionnement ? Une cathédrale n’est pas uniquement affaire de technique. C’est ce dimensionnement dans l’interprétation des écrits sacrés qui est véritablement initiatique et que l’on retrouve illustré dans le bâti sacré. Inversement. Tous ne pouvaient être des clercs formés dans un cursus classique. la cathédrale libère enfin l’esprit enfermé dans la matière. même de manière superficielle. Cette connexité plaide pour cette maçonnerie spirituelle. Aucune des sciences d’élévation de l’âme n’est superflue. si l'on en croit les anciens devoirs. Les rituels maçonniques ne font rien d’autre que d’assimiler les cycles de la nature que Dieu a laissé se manifester. Le maître maçon n’était pas la brute épaisse que l’on peut imaginer. socle ordinaire d’expression et de pensée commune. sa transparence cristalline. Dans ce cadre. Par son élancement et ses ruptures d’ogives. toutes se conjuguent dans l’exhaussement du genre humain.

.) Y a-t-il une actualité dans la pratique des arts libéraux ? De nos jours les maçons spéculatifs trouvent-ils une quelconque élévation de l’esprit dans l’étude des arts libéraux ? Loin d’être obsolètes. une vague trace d’un passé révolu. Ces arts sont du niveau du compagnon. les arts libéraux mettent le franc-maçon sur la voie de la logique et de l’harmonie. C’est une mort et une résurrection dans la plus pure tradition chrétienne. À l’issue de ces constatations nous pouvons émettre l’hypothèse que les arts libéraux.. Symboliquement il gravit un certain nombre de marches. La théorie de la transition tout comme la théorie de l’emprunt s’accommodent fort bien de l’usage des arts libéraux dans les rangs des opératifs. à une science de l’élévation de l’âme et de l’esprit. il s’élève spirituellement tout comme il gravit les échelons représentés par les barreaux de la Scala Philosopha. Il me semble que le poids de l’église étant si important. Le but est le même que celui des opératifs. construire un temple. Il doit les connaître pour passer au grade de maître et changer d’univers. à permis aux générations de maçons qui se succédèrent sur les chantiers. de parler d’une même voie et d’amener progressivement l’architecture. sous couvert de la Géométrie.À l’évidence. œuvre de l’esprit. L’harmonie et la perception juste de l’univers sont les préalables nécessaires à la production de l’œuvre. étaient d’origine ecclésiale. le maçon construit la maison de Dieu. Tel Lazare. C’est l’éternel combat entre tradition et modernité dont les arts libéraux font les frais. C’est une des conséquences du productivisme de la pensée moderne que de vouloir transformer un art ou une science en technologie rentable. C’est ainsi que l’on enseigne encore les ordres d’architecture. d’une science technique inhérente à la matière. le maître se relève et son âme s’exalte. temple de l’esprit et temple intérieur pour les spéculatifs. (. le pouvoir des clercs « scribes » dans les . et que l’on tâche de travailler sur les cinq sens qui viennent alimenter notre boîte d’os. Le malentendu pour nos contemporains est de percevoir ces sciences libérales et leurs accessoires. Il éventre la terre des enfers pour ses fondations puis il tutoie la puissance céleste du haut d’un clocher. se détache de la matière. elles enracinent et fondent le socle de la progression pour l’étude des textes sacrés. tout en affirmant clairement sa pensée. dans une application superficielle au métier. Ces disciplines sont actuelles et indispensables à la progression initiatique et ne peuvent être remplacées par aucune modernité ni virtualité numérique. Le but d’interpréter les textes sous l’angle ésotérique. Réactualisées dans leur sens initiatique. le premier ressuscité de la Bible. Arrivé au sommet. Pour ceux d’entre nous qui voyaient dans cet enseignement. C’était bien le but initial de l’enseignement des sept arts libéraux : exalter l’âme du corps. sous l’angle de l’actualité des nouvelles sciences dont la contrepartie est la rentabilité du produit. il entrevoit la figure de Dieu pour les opératifs et il accède à la chambre du milieu pour les spéculatifs. Le travail du maçon spéculatif se résume dans la taille de sa planche. qu’ils en sont pour leurs frais.

prise pour temple de Salomon dans son sens ontologique. Cette continuité repose sur l’élévation des connaissances pour atteindre la perfection du Chef d’œuvre. perfusera une pensée opérative rythmée par l’église. On ne peut affirmer de manière péremptoire qu’il n’y a pas eu transition. Les arts libéraux témoignent par leur universalité que l’élévation de l’âme peut être la chose la mieux partagée dans les idées comme dans leurs « mises en Œuvre ». celles de l'emprunt et celle de la transition s’appliquent pour le bien de l’ordre maçonnique contemporain. et nous pouvons affirmer qu’il existât une initiation de métier fondée sur l’ésotérisme de l’interprétation des textes chrétiens.. la technique opérative infusera dans l’esprit clérical. à l’imitation des loges opératives auxquelles elles empruntèrent leurs attributs. De plus il est certain que nombre de loges se créèrent. Je pense que les premiers maçons acceptés. Les intellectuels rose-croix. avec dans leurs bagages l’initiation rose croix. Le maçon spéculatif continua l’édification de son temple intérieur en prenant exemple sur les Chefs d’œuvre dédiés des anciens. transmette valablement la continuité de la chaîne initiatique. On peut dire que l’« acceptation » dans les confréries et les corporations a toujours existé et que l’« emprunt » par les « modernes » anglais est hautement probable.. Il suffisait alors qu’il y ait parmi eux des acceptés ou des maçons de métier dûment initiés pour que la chaîne de la transmission se poursuive. Nous vivons sur la richesse de ces espaces-temps. que l’on soit de tradition opérative ou spéculative. En retour. Il est donc clair que la maçonnerie spéculative est bien régulière dans son lignage. codes et outils. Au plan initiatique.) Eri Rom . ou créant une loge spéculative. (. typiquement spéculatifs arrivèrent bien plus tardivement. par d’autres influences.assemblées de métiers et des confréries. et autres familiers de la royale société. Notre avis est que les deux théories. furent les moines bâtisseurs du moyen-âge roman. augmentée. C’est ainsi que la rose du bâtisseur rencontra la rose sur la croix. dont le but était la construction de la maison de Dieu. il a suffi que trois maçons spéculatifs soient acceptés dans le temple opératif pour que ceux-ci revenant. depuis fort longtemps.

Mark Van Doren. Grands Maitres Et Universités education Éduquer v. de ducere. au participle passé) au latin classique educare. représente un emprunt (1385. Van Doren faisait parti d‘une tradition aux USA connu sous le nom de ―the Great Books Tradition‖. Mieux connaitre les raciness de sa tradition permet de mieux comprendre ses fruits. Corpus de la tradition occidentale. Eduquer. ―tirer à soi‖.. signifie ―diriger la formation de qqn par l‘instruction et la pédagogie‖. Liberal Education. Comprendre d‘où l‘on vi ent. mener‖.L'enseignement medieval Arts Libéraux. d‘où ―conduire. ―élever. instruire‖. qu‘ils soient amer ou sucrée. L‘Occident est enclin/a la facheuse tendance d‘oublier que la tradition islamique fait . qui consistait à étudier les textes fondateurs de la civilsation occidentale et qui avait pour objectif de mieux comprendre notre place dans l‘univers.tr. Cela permet à l‘homme de comprendre pourquoi le fruit récolté et comme il est. sain ou bien malsain/insalubre.

and spiritual tradition. and citizens needed to serve a rapidly growing Muslim community and an ever-changing America. It is the sincere prayer of Zaytuna College that by bringing together these many elements. a welldesigned college education will change lives and transform the world. both spiritual and philosophical. but also for people of other faiths. and to ensure that it remains accessible as a living. an in-depth examination of critical methodological issues. through practice. In a seminal essay on Liberal Education. teaching. In order to do this. our collective problems are. rooted in disparate academic universes. This curriculum also fulfills the requirements established by the most rigorous accrediting organizations of American higher education. the ―rise and fall of civilizations‖ is reassessed through a study of world religions and contemporary Islamic tho ught. text-based tradition in its central place in modern Islamic education. The curriculum emphasizes key foundational texts. distilled by analytical and interpretive tools developed by some of the finest minds in history. has been passed on by successive generations of believers. discussions in the Qur‘an class spill over into astronomy. Zaytuna College has developed a unique curriculum for a Bachelor‘s program that relies on various pedagogical approaches such as selective memorization and critical analysis. Courses in law speak to concerns in Ethics. they lead and participate in religious gatherings. a solid command of the Arabic language. the utility and limits of logic are explored in philosophic theology and the history of science. tensions in the freshman seminar are resolved in a class on spiritual psychology and cosmology. They deliver lectures and sermons. At the heart of our mission is the Islamic legal.Bachelor Arts Program ISLAMIC STUDIES IN THE LIBERAL ARTS TRADITION AT ZAYTUNA COLLEGE Zaytuna College is committed to demonstrating. The courses are designed collectively by a diverse faculty who bring unique strengths and perspectives to the conversation. we will be able to produce the future leaders. and a firm grounding in the tools of learning with an emphasis on the qualitative elements of the traditional liberal arts. they provide counsel. which we believe to be derived f rom the Qur‘an and the words and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ . a familiarity with the most important Islamic sciences. through our diverse cultural histories. the Islamic intellectual legacy begs to be integrated into a global conversation on great ideas shaping our planet. has begun the life of learning. at their root. WHY STUDY AT ZAYTUNA COLLEGE? . intellectual. We believe that one of the primary purposes of Islamic education today is to keep that scholarly tradition alive. Mark van Doren tells us: ―The student who can begin early in his life to think of things as connected. EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY The idea of Zaytuna may be captured in a few phrases: As God‘s creation. scholars. we discover our shared humanity and dream of a common future. the power of the imagination is unleashed in literature. As our students learn. holistic reality. Islam‘s critical role in the modern world. mastery of grammar and rhetoric in English and Arabic propels us through great ideas embedded in timeless texts. we are all interconnected.‖ This spirit captures an essential aspect of Zaytuna College‘s academic curriculum. Our educational philosophy also reflects our belief that the ability of a student to become part of a living intellectual and spiritual tradition is enhanced by an ongoing involvement with an active community of believers. especially for the youth of the community. not only for Muslims. We believe that this knowledge. even if he revises his view with every succeeding year. they are integrated into the life of the surrounding Muslim community. and the free exchange of ideas. imams. Zaytuna College aspires to revive the sciences of Islam and to position this nuanced. and they are exposed to the full range of daily trials and triumphs that characterize human society.

Our comprehensive curriculum has been designed to ensure that our students receive an education that exposes them to the best of a vibrant Muslim intellectual tradition. thereby grounding them in the best traditions of the past. Students want to feel confident that they are receiving an education that will give them an advantage in the professional world. We are confident that a Zaytuna College education will prepare our students to effectively participate in a full array of occupations and professions. Parents want to know that their children are receiving a quality education and that they are being competently prepared for a productive future. the associations they form. At Zaytuna College. Everybody makes mistakes. Every chaplain has passions. We invite them to dream of a different now.‖ we inspire them to ―make a life worth living. We envision our graduates working as Muslim community and religious leaders.Every doctor faces uncertainty.‖ Every lawyer has a heart. insight. the policies they draft. thereby providing students with a firm footing in the present and a basis for looking at the future with clarity and vision. We invite them to think critically about the forces that shape all of our lives. first-and-foremost. we help them see themselves as. At Zaytuna. and a different tomorrow. the classrooms they teach. part of a shared humanity. and a fresh perspective to nonprofit and NGO sectors. and the wars they choose to fight. As Zaytuna students graduate from their studies. succeeding in graduate and professional schools. . and becoming inspiring Islamic Studies teachers in a rapidly expanding network of Muslim schools in North America and elsewhere in the Western world. the families they raise. but we all strive to better ourselves. Regardless of where our graduates go. while allowing them to explore issues and ideas that will enrich their lives in ways tangible and intangible. Students leave with the conviction that our human flaws are overcome through lives of service.Choosing a college is a momentous decision for students and their parents. We invite them to dream of different possibilities. but rather ends in themselves. as well as into commercial and business endeavors. We believe our graduates will bring compassion. It also incorporates the most relevant aspects of modern social science and humanities courses. We want everyone‘s children to realize that they are not the means of someone else‘s ends. At Zaytuna College. we are sensitive to these concerns. Every teacher has something to learn. the communities they inhabit. Every merchant confronts dilemmas. entering into public service. and our task is generational. What we offer is a civilizational vision. we provide an academic environment that fosters a productive and invigorating meeting of the hearts as a means to enrich and nourish the mind. the charities they support. we educate people not simply to ―make a living. these dreams will penetrate the professions they pursue.

He traveled in search of hadith throughout the Muslim world. historian. early in his career he was interested in poetry and literature. Sunan Abu Dawud. his eyelid is wet with pouring tears./ In eternity. AH 256. and married scholarly women./ how often tears have flowed. Jawahir wa durar. I encourage you to praise Allah. he traveled to the eastern Islamic world and studied with al-Ghazzali. Khartang) . the one besides whom there is no other God. his student. sweet. al-Asha„ab b. and wrote a commentary on al-Bukhari. Though it was unusual at the time. its verses will be transformed into mansions./ Although his genealogy attributes him to a stone (hajar). well to do./ My praise of you shall continue for as long as I live. and historian. every time he is mentioned. well traveled. He was handsome. Verily. who is mad with love. including biographies and assessments of accuracy of the chains of transmission. And I beseech (God) that He sends His mercy upon Muhammad. hadith scholar./ For I see nothing that could ever deflect me from your praise. He is the compiler of one of the seven major hadith collections. „Abd Allah b. al-‘Arabi(d. Basra) Abu Dawud opened a letter he addressed to the people of Mecca with the following advice: “Peace upon you. Imam Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani(d. hoping for Allah‟s forgiveness of slips. Muhammad b. encyclopedest. but perhaps.” Imam Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (Ahmad b. AH 852.” Qadi Abu Bakr b. AH 543. wrote a grand biography of him. Imam Abu Dawud(d. Al-Sakhawi. Imam al-Bukhari(d. peace upon him. al-„Arabi (Muhammad b. al-Mu‟afiri) was a Maliki judge. He is commonly confused with the Andalusian Sufi Muhyi al-Din ibn „Arabi.” Imam Abu Dawud (Sulayman b./ O best of mankind in radiance of face and countenance!/ Through you he seeks a means (tawassala).A people disconnected from their past will never move confidently into the future. as well as histories and books on the hadith sciences. Muhammad) was originally from Asqalan (Palestine). a commentary on Imam Tirmidhi‟s book. Ali b. which is in fact closer to ignorance than knowledge. Ishaq al-Azdi) was a master hadith scholar who collected many hadiths. and mujtahid. and accompanied it with a minimum amount of adab and yet it was enough to rescue us from death. Fez) “I utilized a small amount of a sort of learning. we believe we must acknowledge and remain connected to the giants who have laid the intellectual and spiritual foundation upon which we aspire to build. Qadi Abu Bakr b. May Allah grant all of us a state of well being that will never be followed by any tribulation or torment. AH 275. His works include Awasim min al-qawasim and Aridat al-ahwadi. his books became famous during his life. pure and fresh!/ Praise of you does not do you justice. His exegesis on the Qur‟an is entitled Ahkam al-Qur‟an. entitled Fath al-Bari. Cairo) “By the gate of your generosity stands a sinner./ from fear of Him. later he turned to hadith and became a hadith scholar. He served as a judge in Egypt. At Zaytuna College.

capital of Abbasid caliphate. Muhammad b. One of his students. Muhammad b. nor distance you from the fire of Hell tomorrow. including two well-known histories: al-Tarikh alkabir and al-Tarikh al-saghir. He is said to have prayed two rak‟as for guidance before writing any hadith in the Sahih. later in life. collected his sayings into a book entitled Tathbit al-fu‟ad. Damascus) . and considered by Muslims to be the most authentic source for prophetic traditions. and a scholar of textual criticism of hadith. Alawi al-Haddad(d. AH 748. and a thirty-six volume history. AH 1132. Da„wat al-tamma wa tadhkirah al-ammah. Ahmad b. Hadramawt) “Be humble for humility is the attribute of believers. and the following: Aqidat al-tawhid. Abu Hamid) traveled far and wide in search of knowledge. AH 795.” Imam al-Haddad („Abd Allah b. Its condition is followership and the flight away from egotism and innovation. „Uthman. popular until today for his very readable and clear works on Islam.“I used to earn five hundred silver coins a month and I spent them all seeking sacred knowledge. He was appointed professor in the prestigious Nizamiyah college in Baghdad. Imam Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi(d. Imam ‘Abd Allah b. he wrote many other books. Ahmad. He wrote the twenty-three volume Siyar alam al-nubala‟. and action without knowledge is vanity. Ismail b. Ahmad b. Ibrahim b. Al-Bukhari was an orphan. Imam al-Dhahabi went blind seven years before his death. Abu „Abd Allah) is the undisputed hadith master. but a light which God casts into the heart. Abu „Abd Allah) was a historian. compiler of the famed Sahih. and a work on literature: al-Adab al-mufrad. he moved to al-Hawi. Damascus) “(Knowledge is) not the profusion of narration. He then left his teaching position for a life of asceticism. Tus) “Knowledge without action is insanity. Many believe his work is second in importance only to the Qur‟an. Muhammad) was a Sufi and author of many books. when oppressed by rulers of Tarim.‟ and it will be said to you: „O Fool. Alawi b. you will say on the Last Day: „Return us to our previous life.‟” Imam al-Ghazzali (Muhammad b. Tabsirat al-waliy. He wrote Tahafut al-falasifah as a refutation of metaphysics. (This is because) what is with Allah endures. it is from there that you have come. and we will do good deeds. Al-Ghazzali was a Shafi„i jurist and perhaps the Islamic world‟s most famous Sufi author. nor bring you into obedience. and Masa‟ilat al-sufiyah. by the time of his death he had memorized hundreds of thousands of hadith and traveled throughout the Islamic world in his efforts to verify chains of hadith transmission. Beware of pride for God does not like the proud. Tarikh alIslam al-kabir. „Abd al-Karim al-Shajjar. al-Mughira. His most famous work is Ihya „ulum al-din. AH 505. Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali(d. including poetry. Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali(d. an expert in Qur‟anic recitation. Those who humble themselves are raised up by God. He was blinded by chicken pox in his childhood.” Imam Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi (Muhammad b. which is known for its accurate descriptions of scholars. and those who are proud are abased by Him. Know that knowledge today will not distance you from sin. If you do not act today and do not derive lessons from your past days.” Imam al-Bukhari (Muhammad b.

God swears. Ayyub) was one of the most famous students of Ibn Taymiyah. Musa b. Imam al-Juwayni(d. He adhered to the Maliki school with Shafi„i leanings. Muhammad b. His work „Ilam almuwaqqi'in is a book on the foundations of jurisprudence. and who buttresses others by counseling them with truth and patience. and the two of them are incomplete without patience. Isfahan) “O One striving assiduously to hide his whims! Verily. „Abd Allah. He also wrote on many aspects of earthly life. a significant work in the Shadhiliyah order. Abu Bakr b. Abu Muhammad) was one of the great mystics of Islam and the founder of the Qadiri sufi order. When it speaks his hidden whims will be known. He wrote a commentary on Imam Nawawi‟s al-Arba‟in. The true lover (of God) has a voice rooted in his subconscious. He wrote al-Fath al-Rabbani. Muhammad b. Fuyudat al-Rabbani. „Abd al-Karim) was a Sufi imam and second in succession to al-Shadhili.” Imam „Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani („Abd al-Qadir b. and taught at al-Azhar. who buttresses his physical strength with righteous deeds. his strivings will only bring about more assiduousness. Imam ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani(d.” Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah (Muhammad b. a dictionary of uncommon terms in the Qur‟an. and he authored a comprehensive work on the effects of Satan on human affairs (Ighathat al-lafhan). jurisprudence. Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah(d. Imam Ibn ‘Ata’ Allah al-Iskandari(d. and Sufism. Cairo) “Nothing you seek relying on your Lord will ever be difficult. it is not only a matter of utterance by the tongue. but also the heart's acknowledgment of the Lord's bestowal of gracious favor. that everyone is lost except one who buttresses his intellectual strength with faith. glorified is He. AH 478. making them fifty hadith and calling it Jami‟ „ulum wa al-hikam.” Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali („Abd al-Rahman b. He was the author of al-Hikam al-„Ata‟iyah. Imam Raghib al-Isfahani(d. al-Mufaddal) was the author of al-Mufradat fi gharib al-Qur‟an.” Imam Ibn „Ata‟ Allah al-Iskandari (Ahmad b. AH 751. Damascus) “(In Sura al-„Asr). and nothing you seek relying on yourself will ever be easy. Futuh alghayb. such as love. he wrote Zad al-ma„ad while traveling on pilgrimage. and al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq. he was known for his sharp intellect and quick mind.“The scholars occupy the position of the prophets in a noble station between God and humanity.” Imam al-Isfahani (Abu al-Qasim al-Husayn b. Nishapur) . he was imprisoned with his shaykh in the citadel of Damascus. Truth is faith and righteous deeds. He also wrote important works on jurisprudence and an influential book on Hanbali methodology. Baghdad) “When the thankfulness of the servant is genuine. He is the author of many works on theology. AH 709. AH 502. AH 561. Ahmad) was a hadith scholar and jurist.

“I do not eat or sleep out of habit. AH 671. to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet by actions and speech. a popular manual set to verse that many memorized). Herat) “The world is a garden. Egypt) “The scholars are those who know the power of Allah. paper sheets. and I do not recall a single time I looked at it without learning some new benefit. and to always refer your matters to Allah. Ahmad b. He was known for his brave political stance and successfully petitioned the Mamluk sultan Rukn al-Din Baybars on behalf of Damascene residents who sought relief from heavy tax burdens during a drought that lasted many years. Sharaf Abu Zakariyah Muhyi al-Din) was an imam of the later Shafi„i school. He was considered a key promoter of al-Shafi„i‟s school and wrote al-Mukhtasar. and only if I need to eat.. The army is made secure by wealth. the Nizamiyah school in Nishapur was built for him by Nizam al-Mulk. to keep away from people and from asking them. Imam al-Nawawi(d. The Law is a policy. Wealth is gathered from the subjects. Nawa) “The specifications of the Way of the Sufis are five: to keep the Presence of Allah in your heart in public and in private. brought into being by the army. and author of the extensive Qur‟anic commentary. AH 264.” Imam al-Nawawi (Yahya b. which is protected by the kingdom. but only if sleep overcomes me whether by night or by day. He also wrote on Arabic grammar and the science of Qur‟anic recitation. He wrote but did not complete his commentary on Sahih alBukhari. and many works on theology. whose gardener is the state. Imam al-Ghazzali was among his most famous students. a work on the principles of Islamic jurisprudence. Imam al-Qurtubi(d. The state is the sultan whose guardian is the Law. Imam al-Muzni(d. Egypt) “I have been looking into al-Shafi‟i‟s Risala for fifty years. among which is al-Irshad and al-Shamil.” Imam al-Muzni (Ismail b. the author of Riyad al-salihin and Minhaj al-talibin.. al-Jami‟ li-ahkam al-Qur‟an. They are in no doubt of His punishment no matter what the sin is. Abu Ibrahim) was a student of Imam Shafi„i. Ismail. AH 606. extensive commentaries. The subjects are made servants by justice. whatever the time. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi(d. Abu „Abd Allah al-Ansari) was a scholar of hadith. He wrote al-Burhan (lit. Justice is the axis of the prosperity of the world. the proof) and al-Waraqat (lit. theology or creed (aqidah). The kingdom is a city. or Forty [hadiths] and many other works. He authored al-Arba‟in. his complete commentary on Muslim‟s Sahih is considered to be among the best in its class. Abu Bakr. a summary of the school‟s rulings.” Imam al-Qurtubi (Muhammad b. AH 676. Yahya b.” Imam al-Juwayni was a Shafi„i jurist and theologian.” . even if it is less. to be happy with what Allah gave you. and a Shafi„i scholar in his own right.

„O Lord. it is as though he has brought him or her back to life. He authored al-Umm and al-Risalah. philosophy. AH 204. Umar b. arrogance and pride. and if the truth be on his side. the original work on usul al-fiqh (Islamic jurisprudential principles). he traveled throughout the Islamic world. Imam al-Sakhawi(d. „Abd al-Kafi. to Mecca. described by scholars as everything but Qur‟anic commentary. and if they witness good in people that would move eyes to tears. and more. if they see something questionable endeavor to hide it.” Imam al-Sakhawi (Muhammad b.” Imam Taj al-Din al-Subki („Abd al-Wahhab b. AH 911. Imam al-Shafi’i(d. Idris b.‟” Imam al-Shafi„i (Muhammad b. Cairo) “I am among those individuals who if they hear something virtuous endeavor to spread it. He was known for his many public debates. he wrote on theology. endeavor to attach their hearts to it. Abu „Abd Allah al-Qurayshi al-Makki) studied with Imam Malik and Abu Hanifah‟s students in Baghdad. then alphabetically. If it be that the truth is on my side. a comprehensive biography of Shafi„i scholars arranged chronologically. Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti(d. including al-„Alan bi-al-tawbikh li man thamma ahl al-tarikh. Imam Taj al-Din al-Subki(d. Cairo) “Never do I debate a man with a desire to hear him err in his speech. Al-Subki was from a long line of scholars. medicine. and thus vanquish him. and throughout Syria. Damascus. his father was Taqi al-Din al-Subki. Muhammad) was a Shafi„i jurist known for his biographies and histories. Abu „Abd Allah) was an encyclopedist. because he included philosophy. may he follow me. may I follow him. which sometimes incited crowds and mobs against him. Cairo) “Pursuit of the science of the hearts—knowledge of its diseases such as jealousy. „Ali b. help him so that truth may manifest itself in his heart and on his tongue. AH 711. or to expose the flaws in his argument. He was a luminary and a scholar‟s scholar. Whenever I face an opponent in debate I silently supplicate. and a Qur‟an exegesis (Mufatih al-ghayb). ultimately he returned to Cairo where he taught hadith. considered a main text of the discipline. He wrote a great work (al-Mahsul) on the principles of Islamic jurisprudence. al-Abbas. Cairo) “Whoever records a biography of a believer. „Abd al-Rahman b. a work on historiography. then moved to Egypt and founded the later Shafi„i school. He was Ibn Hajar al-„Asqalani‟s neighbor and student. rhetoric. Hasan b. al-Husayn. AH 902. and leaving them—are an obligation on every Muslim. Abi Nasr) was a Shafi„i jurist and the author of Tabaqat al-Shafi„iyah al-kubra. grammar. Medina.” . theology. He traveled far and wide throughout the Muslim world in search of knowledge and spent time with Bedouins in order to learn classical Arabic before it was corrupted and changed by the growing Muslim world.Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (Muhammad b. a contemporary of Ibn Taymiyah with whom he had many public debates.

He grew up an orphan in Cairo. Imam Abu Jaf’ar al-Tahawi(d. a concise summary of the essentials of the Islamic creed. commonly known as Tafsir al-Tabari. He also wrote on hadith. which he completely revised upon finding more source material. jurisprudent. at the age of forty. al-Itqan fi „ulum al-Qur‟an.” Qadi Ayyad was a Maliki scholar of hadith and Arabic. Jarir. help them in the affair of their religion. as well as Tarikh al-rusul wa muluk. Salama. He is one of the famed Jalals of the Tafsir al-jalalayn. Imam Abu Ja’far al-Tabari(d. Be abstinent and to Him repent.” Imam Ibn Ashir (Ahmad b. including works on al-Muwtta‟ and a highly regarded commentary on Sahih Muslim. Marrakesh) “Advice for the sake of the common Muslims is to guide them to their best interests. How can such a person find any enjoyment in his recitation?” Imam al-Tabari (Muhammad b. Baghdad) “The best of my days is when I awaken and find my cupboards bare. He studied with al-Muzni and was a Shafi‟i jurist. veiling their faults. giving to the needy.” . it is unique in Muslim literature. Cairo) “Only a fanatic follows another blindly!” Imam al-Tahawi (Ahmad b. and the author of al-Shifa‟. His works on the hadith sciences continue to be studied by scholars today. repelling what will harm them. Sila) “Depend on God. AH 1163. For that is a day my reliance on Allah is complete. Muhammad b. AH 314. Ashir al-Andalusi who died in 764 or 765. and this world by word and action. AH 544. Jalal al-Din) was a polymath: a hadith master. He is known for his work. Be happy with what He sent. a biography of the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ . and securing what will benefit them. Imam Ahmad Ibn Ashir(d. and wrote Tuhfat al-za‟ir. enlightening the ignorant. Ashir b. and exegete. Muhammad b. biographies of famous scholars of his time. AH 241. AH 321. He wrote a commentary on the Qur‟an and a work on hadith work entitlied Mushkil al-athar. He founded his own school of fiqh (al-Jaririyah) and wrote a commentary on the Qur‟an. Qadi Ayyad(d. and completed over five hundred books in various disciplines. al-Aqidah al-Tahawiyah. a biography of Ahmad b. he gave up successful work teaching and committed himself to writing books.Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti („Abd al-Rahman b. reminding those of them who forget. Imran and followed the Hanafi school. Jami‟ albayan. „Abd al-Rahman al-Hafi al-Silawi) wrote a book titled al-Fahrasta. Abu Bakr b. Al-Suyuti wrote perhaps the most comprehensive manual on Qur‟anic sciences. Love God. Hanbal(d. „Umar b. Abu Ja‟far) was a Hanafi jurist and a hadith scholar who studied at al-Azhar. Imam Ahmad b. a multi-volume history. His autobiography is Tahadath bi na‟mat Allah. Baghdad) “I am amazed by someone who recites the Qur‟an and does not know its explanation. historian. Abu Ja‟far) is most known as a historian. then with Ahmad b. and Qur‟an scholar. Muhammad.

AH 808. which is known for taking into consideration the practice of the people of Medina. al-Muwatta‟. Abu „Abd Allah al-Shaybani) was a scholar of hadith who traveled for sixteen years throughout the Islamic world in an effort to gather hadith. In Egypt he was appointed a Maliki judge (and dismissed and reappointed many times). but in the course of the journey lost his family and all his property in a shipwreck off the coast of Alexandria. Muhammad b. Born in Basra to a destitute family. Muhammad b. Muhammad) originally trained as a government employee and served under various rulers.” Qadi Ibn Khaldun („Abd al-Rahman b. he wrote the famous book of hadith. Medina) “The shield of the scholar is. AH 185. AH 899. his statement is open to attack. became an ascetic under the tutelage of Hasan al-Basri. who had persuaded the Abbasid caliph to adopt the position and enforce adherence to it. not hope or fear. is one of the first detailed Berber histories. Hanbal. a science that he invented. Muhammad b. AH 179. before beginning her night prayers: ''The eyes have fallen asleep and the heedless are engulfed in their heedlessness. the sinner. thirty thousand of which were recorded in his famous work. He is also considered part of the golden chain of narration.‟” . In particular. Takrin) “Watch your eye. Hanbal (Ahmad b. „I do not know. there he wrote his most famous work. stands before You. Jerusalem) Rabi'ah would say.‟ so if he neglects it. Anas(d. in the view of some. Qadi Ibn Khaldun(d. Malik) was a jurist and founder of the school of Islamic law that bears his name. and later introduced her own spiritual insights to the Sufi tradition. other people have eyes too.Ibn Ahmad b. Now Rabi‟ah. Kitab al-„ibar. say to it: „O my eye. Rabi’ah al-‘Adawiyyah(d. He was. Imam al-Shafi„i was one of his most well known students. his involvement in many (failed) usurpations led to his retirement from politics. Imam Malik b. she is the source of the concept of Divine Love (mahabbah).'' Rabi‟ah al-„Adawiyyah is. should it ever reveal to you the faults of others. al-Musnad.” Imam Malik (Malik b. No human being exists who possesses an unbroken pedigree of nobility from Adam down to himself. It comes into being and decays inevitably. Perhaps You will gaze upon her with a blessed gaze that will prevent her from sleeping during the time of Your service. al-Muqaddimah. the most authentic chain to be found in Bukhari and Muslim. a doctrine advocated by the Mut„azili. Ibn Khaldun‟s history. This book is considered the first work on sociology and historiography. the first woman Sufi. He emigrated to Cairo. He survived the trials (al-mihna) over the createdness of the Qur‟an. also ambassador (from Damascus) to Tamerlane. Egypt. He memorized one million hadith. Cairo) “Prestige is an accident that affects human beings. Imam Ahmad Zarruq(d. Anas b. which emphasizes that an ascetic‟s motivation in worship and the service of God should be love. during his long and eventful life. she eventually accepted the mystic path.

Imam Ahmad Zarruq (Ahmad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn „Isa) was a scholar from Fes. He later became one of the most prominent and accomplished legal. . theoretical. His grandmother. and spiritual scholars in Islamic history. an accomplished jurist. He was orphaned of both his mother and father within the first seven days of his birth. raised him and was his first teacher. He was also the first to be given the honorific title “Regulator of the Scholars and Saints” (muhtasib al-„ulama‟ wa al-awliya‟). Morocco. and is considered by some to be a renewer of his time (mujaddid).

we had a real breakthrough when we began discussion the precepts of ontology (the study of being) and Aristotle‘s concept of ―substance‖ vs ―accidents‖. . After that class participation greatly improved as the students realized they had made a valid contribution and it was fun. were responsible for beginning the dialogue on a specific book of the Republic. Some of the students were having difficulty understanding the concepts of ―accidents‖ when all of a sudden a real conversation started with various students trying to explain the concepts with different examples. We then looked at Aristotle‘s Metaphysics so the students could compare the survey with the actual text. I gave the students the lead in the discussion. The students were responsible for providing a brief outline of the book and for beginning its analysis and discussion. when we moved to Plato‘s Republic. We will begin with a survey using An Brief Introduction to Islamic Philosophy by Oliver Leaman. It uses both survey books which are designed to give an overview of philosophy and three primary sources. Some of the students have commented on how much more they got out of theRepublic though their preparation and it really shows in their presentations and discussions. our first primary source. In an effort to encourage the students to engage with the philosophers and work on their critical thinking. they saw a resemblance to the janissaries who were Baltic Christians who taken as slaves in the Ottoman Empire and trained to be the body guards for the sultan and as a standing army. working in pairs so that they could bounce ideas off of each other. At first the students were reluctant to give their comments in class. We started with a general survey of philosophical thought that focused on Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas‘ philosophies as presented in An introduction to Philosophy by Jacques Maritain. The students. 2013 at 9:34am The Philosophy class is focused on class participation and discussion of Philosophical concepts and texts (although there are exams). Cindy Ausec by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Tuesday. We will then move to our primary texts Ibn Tufayl‘s Hayy Ibn Yaqzan and Averooë‘s Decisive Treatise & Epistle Dedicatory. however. The students will again be asked to lead our discussion of these texts and I am looking forward to the discussions and observations they will make.The Philosophy Class by Dr. The students were very excited about being able to study philosophy and some asked for the book list in advance so they could begin looking at the material. one Greek and two Islamic philosophers. such as when we were discussing the ―guardians‖. The students have been making lots of observations about the Republic. March 12. We will be finishing up the Republic this week and moving on to study Islamic Philosophy.

The next major unit was on material fallacies. and to partake in an exchange of ideas with academic and policy-making organizations. Both units were followed by brief quizzes. enthymemes. thinking clearly and logically becomes a habit. We started the class with a study of basic terms: the three acts of the mind. Once trained thus. As leaders of the community. Platonic Questions. intellectual. The process we use to study these concepts is simple: I introduce the topics in class. . My goal is to cover enough of the text for the students to get a real understanding of the principles of classical logic.‖ We then delved into the rules of definition and the various kinds of definitions. the students read the chapters at home and hone their understanding of the concepts through class discussion and practice exercises. The last homework I assigned was for students to read Book I of the Republic. The course ―Introduction to Logic‖ provides a comprehensive overview of classical Aristotelian logic. Shirin Maskatia by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday. It trains persons to constantly examine their own thinking and that of others and to evaluate it for accuracy and validity. the students have been interested and enthusiastic and have shown considerable proficiency in understanding some challenging concepts. 2012 at 2:43pm The stated mission of Zaytuna College is ―to educate and prepare morally committed professional.‖ This system of logic is most appropriate for Zaytuna students. syllogisms. They will need precisely those skills that are practiced in a course on logic. The last chapter we studied was on definitions. Persons trained so will be better able to understand their own beliefs. and spiritual leaders. and arguments. both because it is practical and because it is the system that played an important role in the development of Islamic philosophical ideas. induction and deduction. arguments.Introduction to Logic with Dr. hold on to the truth. and classification of terms. propositions. in which Plato describes Socrates exploring the definition of ―Justice. October 12.‖ One of the most important prerequisites for leadership is a firm grasp of thinking skills. and defend it throughout their lives. and Aristotelian Principles. and analogies. causal arguments. The text-book—Socratic Logic by Peter Kreeft – is sub-titled ―A logic text using Socratic Method. to analyze the beliefs of other groups.‖ Some of the topics to be covered through the rest of the semester include propositions. Each student picked a fallacy to work on and then explained that fallacy to the class through presentations. Zaytuna students will be called upon to explain their own beliefs. Students practiced creating definitions for every-day objects such as ―chair‖ and ―raincoat‖ and for more abstract concepts such as ―justice‖ and ―religion. I am also hoping to give them (with the help of other faculty members) a list of the Arabic equivalents for the terms we are using and a general introduction to the connections between Aristotelian and Islamic logic. terms. That is why the study of formal logic is foundational to any liberal arts curriculum. So far. I also bring in additional material from other logic text-books and from Sister Miriam Joseph‘s text on the Trivium. who are grounded in the Islamic scholarly tradition and conversant with the cultural currents and critical ideas shaping modern society.

there is merely the limited imagination. Implementing it and eventually embodying it is another task entirely. we have covered a lot – not just by the rolling page count of the new collection of books we all find ourselves organizing and reorganizing in our growing family of various-sized shelves. praise be . I can say. October 16. that the study of religion is somehow divorced from its practice.‖ as if I could use an entire extra month to just digest and memorize what was feasible from it. I have witnessed things I could not have imagined had I not seen them. helped to assemble a vessel alongside some of the most astute shipbuilders. by the depths that we have had the light of knowledge shone upon. but by the wide variety of subjects we are becoming familiarized with. or that we Zaytuna students are intellectually or motivationally incapable. I have been brought to the shores of on an ocean whose depth is unknown. I couldn't help but think to myself. To make use of a metaphor. majoring from two different departments after having changed my major twice previously. I have experienced here what I never have elsewhere. and for everything else. received my masters. as a matter of reference and not a point of gloating. and surely not their teachers nor mentors – may God bless and reward them all. But in the same breath. And in that sense. Some things in life have to be experienced. I wasn‘t brought up going to madrasah as a child nor did I attend an Ivy League university or its training grounds. whether by outsiders or by our very selves. worked in the Islamic non-profit sector. when it was still September. that comprehension is secondary. spent time in other schools in three different countries in the Muslim world. and by the particular insights that God has blessed us to receive at their hands. nothing could be further from the truth. Zaytuna College has provided me an opportunity that I have not had before to learn from a perspective I would remain unable to envision had I not been here.Bismillah by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Tuesday. by the degree of comprehension our professors are providing us. the institutes. I have had things explained to me with a clarity I did not believe even existed. or that we are not given the opportunity within the time constraints of being a student to reflect upon what we‘ve learned as minimally the first step toward practicing it. that quantity trumps quality. Nor is it to say that we don‘t morally strive to embody the school‘s teachings. and attended many classes in different masajid. they have been foundational in ways I can‘t express and beneficial to a degree I am unable to quantify – Zaytuna has been truly something unique. ―It's only been a month. This isn‘t to say that we cover material so fast there‘s no opportunity to understand it. Despite any shortcomings that have been attributed to it. and been given the instruments of navigation by veteran compasssmiths. 2012 at 2:45pm Two weeks ago. In fact. This isn't meant to sound like a treatise on the virtues of studying at the feet of Zaytuna's scholars – although certainly I could write an extensive one that may knock on the doors of exaggerated embellishment with not a concern for the reader's opinion or perspective as to the degree of my objectivity – but it is to say. yet we‘ve covered so much material already. with all my heart. I say that without hesitation as to its truth but with reservation as to my ability to express its reality in mere words. that I‘ve been to college before. so I may not be in the best position to conduct a comparative study between Zaytuna College and other educational institutions. Without belittling any of those settings.

others did not. The first time I went through college I had a similar experience: the first year of school was fresh and exciting. Fear of regret. And to be honest. and by the next time I check. And although we can use positive emotions as motivation – a hope for great reward. and when they do. There is a story that has been often narrated about a group of people traveling at night who came upon some rocks. and then the third year (along with reality) hits – this is going to be over before I know it. by citing two hadith from our beloved Prophet. to the best of our ability. and such will be the Day of Judgment. It was said to them that whoever picked up the rocks would have regret and whoever did not would have regret. if we may call it that. and with one mid-term down and two on the way it‘s starting to hit me: ―This semester will be over before I know it!‖ It‘s already year three. the opportunities we are presented with. and what an opportunity this is! Eventually all things come to pass. you will find yourself in a state of regret. A confusing dilemma for the people – some chose to pick up some of the rocks and take them with them. ―Had we only picked up some rocks!‖ while those who did pick up some of the rocks said to themselves.. as well as the individual. to me.to God for this blessing. it behooves us to take advantage of the time we have been given. And if somehow I am wrong in saying that.and ironically ten years later. motivational. I find myself still in school. and these we should all keep in mind as we struggle from day to day – sometimes a ―negative‖ emotion. while a little frightening. we all know that sinking feeling in our hearts. In the morning when they reached home they found that those rocks had turned into diamonds. can be just as (and sometimes even more) effective. ―Had we only picked up more rocks!‖ Such is time. albeit for a different reason with a totally different outlook).. these are all real. then let it be Him who takes me to task for praising Him for what He bestows. if you have not seized them with the utmost of your effort. well. of not living up to a God-given potential and of not taking advantage of all of God‘s blessings in order to strive in His cause is.And so now it's almost the middle of October. Thus. the second year felt like school might. the satisfaction that our time has paid off. to everyone striving to learn something new or accomplish something worthwhile. Those who had not picked up any rocks said to themselves. and the blessings bestowed upon us. proclaim it 93:11 . salla Allahu ‗alayhi wa sallam: . last forever.. and to anyone struggling to find that extra ounce of motivation. for better or worse (at that point I had been in school for more than fourteen straight years. the desire to accomplish some sort of goal that we have set for ourselves. it‘ll be half way over. It wasn‘t until this year that it all began to sink in. all by Divine facilitation.. I close with a brief reminder to myself. it‘s very refreshing because it encourages me to make the best of my time and my opportunities. such are our lives. It simply depends on the situation. my fellow students from every walk of life. And as for the bounty of your Lord.

―There are two blessings which many people lose: health and free time.‖ -Bukhari ―Take advantage of five matters before five other matters: your youth before you become old. your health before you fall sick.‖ -Ahmed . and your life before your death. your richness before you become poor. your free time before you become busy.

All topics will be dealt with based on the guidance of the Qur‘an. The Basics of Islamic Business Law & Ethics. and the findings of Muslim scholars. The aim of this course is to acquaint students with the Islamic teachings on business transactions. and the distinctions between economics. and ethics. mortgages. and transacts wealth. property exchange. November 16. So a Muslim is expected to have knowledge of what is lawful and unlawful with regard to his/her everyday financial dealings. we will be reading from Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani‘s. earns. the rules of buying and selling. the question in economics concerning scarcity. debts. stocks & bonds. and business ethics. bankruptcy. the various types of financial partnerships. The primer acquaints readers with the basic components of a business transaction. impermissible forms of transactions. students will have a look at how contemporary jurists are navigating the challenging terrain of economic novelty and innovation and how they have accommodated these new forms of exchange with inspiration from the early Islamic principles of commerce. and transactions. types of exchanges. This work is supplemented by my own original unpublished primer entitled. During the second half of the semester. Students will be acquainted with a basic overview of developments in Islamic finance. warranties. The semester has been divided into two parts: the first half is meant to acquaint students with fundamental teachings and principles concerning contracts. the rules of buying and selling. monopolies. Islam impacts both the religious and secular affairs of the Muslim. One will learn the basic components of a business transaction and contracts. the second half of the semester will bring students into the modern age to study some of the newer forms of business practices with an aim of discerning their legality and/or to understand the reasons that contemporary Muslim jurists differ about their illicitness. spends. types of exchanges. An Introduction to Islamic Finance. and much more. financing. lease-purchase. We also spoke about the agrarian .Islamic Business Law with Ustadh Abdullah bin Hamid Ali by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday. and banking. the Class of 2014 commenced its study of ―Islamic Business Law‖ at Zaytuna College. business law. and scriptural teachings on illicit forms of property exchange. The class meets every Tuesday and Thursday from 11:30 am to 12:45 pm. We began the semester with discussions about the nature of wealth. insurance. bank accounts. That includes how a person acquires. In our reading of this work. During the first half of this semester. refunds. property rights and the laws of acquisition. the impermissible forms of transactions. business transactions. the various types of Islamic corporations. sales. The goal of the use of this work is to offer students a broad overview of the kinds of hadith literature that exists on the subject of sales. we are studying Economic Teachings of Prophet Muhammad: A Select Anthology of Hadith Literature on Economics compiled by Muhammad Akram Khan. and much more. which provides the framework for most of our discussions. the Sunna. 2012 at 4:29pm On August 28. how it differs from currency. 2012. investments. Students have started to learn more about how Islam directly impacts and directs every aspect of human life.

financial risk. fraud. and visual art. and the transition into universal currency. injustice. My review of those reflections informs my belief that they ar e thoroughly enjoying this course. the difference between the ownership of the corpus or usufruct of an item. They recently submitted their first reflective summary for the semester. Islam has as one of its stated goals the protection of wealth. Not everything that is lawful is deemed to be ethical according to Islam‘s moral teachings. like the sale and use of dogs. Students have been expected to keep up with the readings and be actively involved with in-class discussions. and wrong. We discovered that the Islamic teachings on business weigh heavily on the importance of maintaining mutual consent.origins of human interconnectivity. the practices are deemed to be unethical even if by ruse of legal deliberation it is declared to be licit by certain jurists. the barter system. When a practice erodes the trust between the members of society or between corporate society and consumers. and the discussion of selected legal particulars. and its laws against charging interest on loans. satisfaction. We discussed the different laws governing movable and immovable property. silk. and trust between members of society with the aim of obliterating or at least minimalizing exploitation. sundry usufruct agreements. . And I‘m proud to be given the opportunity to help them improve their understanding of the issues outlined therein. and other exploitative financial arrangements magnify the importance of that goal.

The class then moves on to a discussion of the reading material and the importance of the events to our history. American Indians. We have looked at some of the early struggles between European whites and Native Americans. One of the wonderful things about teaching at Zaytuna is the small classroom size. Your Annotated Guide to the Constitution. I was very curious as to what the student meant by their statement (was it the style of the portrait the pose. factory workers. When we were discussing the colonization of Pennsylvania by the Quakers. Recently we were discussing the U. Finally. I was really pleased that they wanted the counter argument.) and I asked them to clarify. A student asked me if I had an Anti-Federalist view. Monk explains the Constitution line by line. We also focused on the Enlightenment philosophies and the political developments in Europe which contributed to the American values of freedom and the natural right to rebel against an unjust government. we will be using Jerald F. Our main text book is Howard Zinn‘s A Peoples History of the United States. the poor and immigrant laborers. etc. We researched the question and found that while not owned by Quakers. Dirks Muslims in American History a Forgotten Legacy. Constitution and we were looking at the Federalist Papers which were written by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. such as women. . The student could not quite explain and so one of the other students posed the possibility that Clinton as the first President that they could remember and that is why they look different.American History with Dr. in class I show a lot of pictures of historical figures. providing historic examples to demonstrate how its Articles and Amendments affect American History. which focuses on American History from the point of view of the lower and underrepresented classes. One day one of my students made the observation that the pictures of the presidents all looked alike until you get to Clinton. Each class I present a brief lecture on the basic historical framework of the period we are studying and show short film clips that augment the period. The student‘s questions and observations really demonstrate that they are engages with the material. the development of the English colonies and the revolts that led to the creation of the United States. one of the students asked if the Quaker Oat Company was owned by Quakers. and in fact had one that I could quickly make copies of and we continued the discussion. which really facilitates discussion and questions. Monk‘s The Words We Live By. Some of the topics we have covered thus far are the periods of exploration. During discussion I often bring in primary sources for us to compare. For our study of the U. Cindy Ausec by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday. colonization and the American Revolution. November 30. Constitution we are using Linda R. Currently we are looking at the United States constitution and the Amendments which make up the Bill of Rights. We encourage free and open discussion for example.S. S. slaves. the owners of Quakers Oats Company selected the name as they believed Quakers were a symbol of honesty and good value. 2012 at 5:06pm The American History course is designed as an introduction to United States history from the arrival of the Europeans until the present. to see Islam‘s contribution to American History.

2012 at 10:56am Engaging the Great Books is a course designed to introduce students to intellectual excellence through a reading of "great books" -.While some of the instruction in . I find it very exciting to share the literature I love with my students. The students had animated discussions on the effectiveness of Socrates‘ defense.Engaging the Great Books with Dr. In addition. students will learn to grapple with important ideas. These will be followed by George Orwell‘s Nineteen Eighty-Four. December 7. Since these works are challenging. raises the troubling question of whether man is a victim of fate or the maker of his own destiny. The students have just submitted their first formal paper on Plato‘s writings.‖ Although reading the classics is an important goal. we plan to read the Communist Manifesto and an interesting companion piece – Socrates meets Marx—by Peter Kreeft. and on his personality as it emerges from Plato‘s writings. After the tragedies. they will study Aristotle‘s theory of tragedy in the Poetics and see if the tragedies they read fit Aristotle‘s definition. but I am also very aware of my limitations. These plays are truly ―classics. on his method of questioning. The class is currently engaged in a study of two major tragedies – Oedipus Rex by Sophocles and Hamlet by Shakespeare. this class also aims at teaching a clear and accurate style of writing. for instance. This class can only function as an introduction to great works. Shirin Maskatia by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday. Sophocles wrote at a time when science was emerging in Greece and the infallibility of the oracles was being questioned. participate in stimulating discussions.‖ Students can read them again and again and discover ideas that are as relevant to us as they were to contemporary audiences. This conflict between ―blind‖ faith and scientific reasoning is reflected in the play. The Apology and theCrito contain Plato‘s account of the trial and death of Socrates – one of the most significant moments in Western literature and philosophy.works of literature that represent the highest achievements of the human mind. Sophocles‘ lines –even in translation – are majestic and powerful. It will succeed in its goals only if it can inspire students to continue to make the reading of ―great works‖ a regular activity in their lives. . and create a synthesis of the ideas they encounter with their own thoughts and interpretations We started the semester reading and discussing two works by Plato. The final unit of the course will consist of a selection of poems ranging from preShakespearean lyrics to Eliot and Yeats. and it is wonderful to see the students‘ faces light up in amazement as they read selected sections in class. Oedipus‘ situation. A semester is a very short period of time. These readings also provided an interesting background for the concepts the students are studying in their logic class. Only then will they be truly ―engaging the great works. since they are concerned with timeless issues of the human condition. students will develop the skills and acquire the knowledge required to understand them.

I hope to achieve more with regular student-teacher conferences in which students get feedback on their papers.writing can be done in class. .

Rania Awwad by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday. One might ask why would she decide to write a modernized book on Shafi‘i fiqh when she had studied the classical texts and was granted ijaza. and alMajmu'. Sharh al-Bayjouri. may Allah SWT grant him mercy. Shaykh Abdul-Karim ar-Rifa‘i. religiously obligatory knowledge. ‗azza wa jal. You see. It just so happens that all the students are female. for her book has not only educated the women of Damascus in the science of fiqh. Fiqh al-Ibadaton the Shafi‘i Madhhab. it is said because of its immense popularity. . The book gained so much acceptance in Syria that you can find it in just about every bookstore and on the bookshelves of students and non-students alike. to teach them? The answer lies in the fact that fiqh was a discipline largely neglected by people. She studied fiqh at the hands of the late eminent scholar. Divine Success. the instructor is female and the author and translator of the book we are studying are also female! Allah SWT clearly has a special plan in store for us this year! I must first mention that is really an honor to be the first female instructor of the Islamic Sciences of Zaytuna College. the book was written at a time when the seeking of classical Islamic knowledge had greatly dwindled and the wave of secularism had left its devastating marks on post-colonial Damascus. educated or not. Rowdat at-Talibeen . but reached the entire Syrian society and beyond. Sharh al-Tahrir . the foremost of those students being Hajjah Durriah who would then author the book we are currently studying. by writing a book that conveyed the classical rulings but in language that was accessible to the modern reader. she would just say that she had made du'aa that Allah accepts her work and hopes this a sign of qubool. She dreamed of reaching the women of Shaam. in Damascus where I studied the Sacred Sciences. It is further my honor to be teaching one of the most widely taught modern fiqh books.Shafii Class with Dr. She felt that this would be the key to ensure that women studied their fard 'ayn. the women who held on to the once rich tradition of Islamic scholarship became few and far in between. In fact. Divine Acceptance. Surely she was gifted with Tawfiq illahi. 2012 at 10:23am This year‘s Islamic Law. The sources Hajjah Durriah used in compiling this book are the core. Mughni al-muhtaj. December 14. and implementing these rulings in their daily lives.class is truly unique. classical texts of the Shafi‘i madhhab that she studied with Shaykh ar-Rifai'i: al-Muqademah al-Hadramiya. publishing companies have published the book even without permission! Yet when the author would be told of these many pirated copies. licensing.Shafi‘i Fiqh. It was in this era that Hajjah Durriah al-Aytah took on the task of studying the Sacred Sciences with hopes to reach out to the women of Syria and help in bringing back to them the relevance of studying the rulings of Allah. particularly by women. It is said that Shaykh ar-Rifa‘i bucked the trend of his time and welcomed a group of women to study fiqh with him. Perhaps the population most greatly affected by this phenomenon was the womenfolk whose already limited access to serious Islamic scholarship became virtually non-existent during this era. As the numbers of women entering college followed by graduate studies increased.

Hajjah Durriah has taken great measures to provide clear and in-depth discussion on rulings pertaining to female-related fiqh issues.‖ it‘s been great fun thus far to be able to discuss questions that pertain to women without any embarrassment or hesitation! I pray that the students taking this class and studying this book will carry on the tradition of its author and spread the Light of Islam on their life‘s journey. . May Allah SWT grant us all sincere intention. being that ―we are all female in the room.at the hands of the Zaytuna College students. In our Zaytuna College classroom. It is unique in that just about every ruling is accompanied by its supporting evidence from Hadith or Qur‘anproviding true aid to its student by giving them these references at their fingertips! Furthermore.The book is set up like a college textbook and suits our Zaytuna College class perfectly. elevate the status of our teachers. being a female author. I pray that our religion‘s long lost trad ition of strong and serious female scholarship will once again resurface.something that is lacking in many works of fiqh. use us in the service of His Deen and protect the blessed lands of ash-Shaam and its people.

the rulings (fardh. We began our first class with a fresh group of students on August 28. prayer and fasting along with their corresponding legal classifications in the Hanafi School. . The students will learn about the reasons Muslim schools of law evolved and the nature and rationale of the legal schools. Tayammum and many more. To become acquainted with the nomenclature of Islamic jurisprudence. Abdullah ibn Mas‘ud. Wudu. etc. To understand how Muslim scholars classify human actions. waajibat. some of them were: Types of water.) and the entire chapter on Purification (Taharah). the students will look at prayer very differently. authored by Hasan Shurunbulali. and translated by Wesam Charkawi. Ghusl. we‘ve covered how the schools of fiqh evolved. In Taharah.Islamic Law I: Introduction to Hanafi Fiqh with Imam Tahir Anwar by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Wednesday. and makes the experience a very rich one. The class will also introduce the student to reading legal manuals in the Arabic language. To acquire knowledge of the details related to ritual purification. Not only will their prayer be perfected. there are many stipulations misunderstood or unknown. 2012 at 9:32pm This class introduces the student to the foundation of Muslim law as the basis for a life of devotion and servitude to God as envisioned in the school of Imam Abu Hanifah. 2012.      We enjoy the discussions we have in class. The chapter on Prayer (Salah) covers everything from the times of prayer. To strengthen one‘s knowledge of the Arabic language and augment one‘s ability to access the primary sources. among the many subjects covered. etc. wajib. knowing each action. while the class is taking place. By then end of these sessions. The objectives we wish to meet are the following:  To understand the foundation of sacred knowledge and the validity of following qualified scholarship. In the five classes we‘ve had so far. To learn the major sources of law in the Hanafi School. and others even came as a surprise! We also went through the biography of Imam Abu Hanifah and the great companion. December 19. As simple as they are. sunan. The questions and discussions are happening as the teaching is continuing. to the types of prayer. sunnah. Some parts were very simple. to fara‘idh. but they will be ready to teach the perfect prayer to others. Students will learn the detailed rulings relating to purification (Taharah) and prayer (Salat) along with an examination of some of the textual proofs for those rulings. and understanding the reasoning behind the action. The primary text we are using is Nur al-Idah (The Light of Clarification).

We are also using Maraqi‘l-Sa‘adat (Ascent to Felicity). authored by Hasan Shurunbulali. and translated by Faraz Khan. A text that the students are reading is Fiqh al Imam. authored by Abdur Rahman ibn Yusuf. .

Better yet. our aim will then be to complete Miftah al-Wusul ila Bina‘ al-Furu‘ ‗ala al-Usul of the Maliki scholar of Tlmecen. By the second class. known as alWaraqat (The Papers). Algeria. 2013 at 10:43am The semester started and by the end of the first week we still had not met for the first lesson in Islamic Jurisprudential Principles. Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali (505 AH/1111 CE).Jurisprudential Principles By Ustadh Abdullah bin Hamid Ali by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Monday. look up words they don‘t know. students spoke of noticing a marked improvement in their ability to follow. The reason is that it was this semester — Spring 2013—that I would decide to adopt all-Arabic instruction for at least one of my courses at Zaytuna College. Muhammad b. not only for me as a teacher and for my students. the worry of some students was very clear. The fact that my students were juniors meant to me that it was now time to test how useful nearly 4 years of the study of Arabic alongside other courses would pay off. The book offers a very good overview of Islamic jurisprudential principles and sources even though some issues apply specifically t o the Shafi‘i School of law. but in this case the excitement was all mine as a teacher. I chose to inaugurate the semester with the famous introductory text on juristic principles. Once we complete Sharh al-Waraqat. February 25. the complaints were over. This was only natural since until now they had been studying Arabic. written by the esteemed scholar Imam al-Haramayn ‗Abd Al-Malik al-Jawayni (478 AH/1085 CE). Upon completion of Al-Mahsul. because it adds more nuance and detail to the first book. mentor of the Proof of Islam. However. I chose this work after Sharh al-Waraqat. we will move onto Al-Mahsul fi Usul al-Fiqh of the Maliki judge from Seville. Abu Bakr Ibn al-‗Arabi. . Now they would have to study in Arabic. and ask questions when they are confused. This work is a fitting end to the semester. As a student I recall the excitement involved with coming back to school. as the author and commentator were both Shafi‘is. Ahmad al-Tilmasani. After my introductory session. Comparing one‘s self to other students is often the source of this sort of frustration. coauthor of the superbly adapted Qur‘anic gloss. What made the matter so difficult was that—as students explained—they could not comprehend every word or phrase of mine. it usually doesn‘t take long for students to note similar challenges faced by even heritage speakers. The book is accompanied by the famous commentary of Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli (835 AH/1431 CE). and also covers topics not mentioned in the former work. It would also be a big test for the College overall as a way of knowing just how effective our curriculum and pedagogy have been. Tafsir al-Jalalayn. It would be a real test. I reassured them that with time comprehending would become much easier as long as they were taking the time to try to read the r equired texts outside of class. since it incorporates applications of the jurisprudential principles to selected rulings found in the Four Schools of Sunnism.

It is also because I firmly believe that by approaching the study of Islam in America in the way that Zaytuna College is will make it the envy of both undergraduate and graduate programs in the West. not only because I am able to help students to access these works in their original language. Students will now know that a firm grounding in Islam can be achieved here in America. not only in the Muslim world.I must say that I am a proud teacher. .

students are comparing the approaches to the theme of ―God‖ in the Quran between Fazlur Rahman. In addition to engaging in a close reading of Imam al-Ghazali's work. We do our best to offer a real education. let alone in a single semester. students also read and discuss a more recent work that takes into account modern sensibilities. Each of these three approach the topic from a different perspective. too. along with many other precious minerals. We also cover a book that summarizes the topics of the discipline of Quranic Studies. A close reading of classical texts is one of the hallmarks of a Zaytuna education. where one verse (3:190) combines the activities of the heart and mind (dhikr andfikr). the entry in the Encyclopaedia of the Qur‘an. This course. where students are grounded in Islamic scholarship but also able to think for themselves. and a chapter in The Blackwell Companion to the Qur‘an. The Quran is the ultimate source of guidance for Muslims and the greatest miracle of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). As I said: magical! . In their next assignment. Fazlur Rahman‘s Major Themes of the Qur‘an. These chapters are read in conversation with contemporary literature in Quranic studies through reference works in local libraries. only a beginning. Von Denffer‘s ‗Ulum al-Qur‘an. But instead of that being an end. In this work. with islands full of valuables and depths unfathomable. enables students to become life-long learners through systematic exposure to research methods and resources. and gems. or ―Jewels of the Quran. we collectively pondered why Surat Ya Sin is called "the heart of the Quran. but students of rhetoric will understand that it is not intended to be literal. it is. over and above the treatment of core content. A class at Zaytuna is not about indoctrination. The allegory speaks of the Quran as a vast ocean that offers adventurous travelers the opportunity for an endless journey of discovery. therefore. This lesson." It is truly exciting to be able to study in an environment that prizes both devotion and critical thought.‖ which the course begins with. This week.Introduction to Quranic Sciences with Dr. students visited the UC Berkeley library to explore reference materials and journals like the Journal of Qur‘anic Studies. some of you may be offended by the association of Quran and magic. one of the greatest scholars of Islam tells us that the Quran consists of pearls and rubies. Now. The field of Quranic Studies is vast and difficult to cover comprehensively in a lifetime. is learned best from the Quran. 23:08 The Quran class is magical. This lesson is best learned by reading Imam al-Ghazali's Jawahir al-Qur‘an. Last week. Mahan Mirza by Zaytuna College (Articles) on lundi 1 octobre 2012. for us. substances. It is the beginning of a process of reflection that brings the texts to life and makes them relevant for today.

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rather than through images (pictures. Astronomy (for example) isn‘t studied in isolation. This information makes up the ―grammar. the ―Rhetoric Stage. A classical education. the logic of history demands that the student find out why the War of 1812 was fought. Why is this important? Language-learning and image-learning require very different habits of thought. rules of grammar. to the way facts fit together into a logical framework. rather than simply reading its story. the high school student learns to write and speak with force and originality. includes paragraph construction and learning to support a thesis. Students also begin to specialize in whatever branch of knowledge attracts them. Rules of phonics and spelling. not simple absorption of information.‖ or the basic building blocks. and finally equipped to express conclusions. In the high school years.‖ is a time when the child begins to pay attention to cause and effect. students learn to think through arguments. the vocabulary of foreign languages. At this point. It is language-focused. has two important aspects. elegant language. but rather the learning of facts. and other forms of specialized training. the logic of reading involves the criticism and analysis of texts. In the elementary school years — what we commonly think of as grades one through four — the mind is ready to absorb information. to the relationships between different fields of knowledge relate. which l eads into the . The logic of writing. the facts of mathematics — the list goes on. the brain can ―sit back‖ and relax. descriptions of plants and animals and the human body. for example. forceful. learning is accomplished through words. Language requires the mind to work harder. the logic of science requires that the child learn the scientific method. in reading. written and spoken. During these years. poems. The first years of schooling are called the ―grammar stage‖ — not because you spend four years doing English. In front of a video screen. This classical pattern is called the trivium. though. such as those on videos and television. just as grammar is the foundation for language. the mind is required to roll its sleeves up and get back to work. And it follows a specific three-part pattern: the mind must be first supplied with facts and images. To the classical mind. Middle-school students are less interested in finding out facts than in asking ―Why?‖ The second phase of the classical education. Children at this age actually find memorization fun. foreign travel. So during this period. the ―Logic Stage. they learn to express themselves. then. But that isn‘t all. The student of rhetoric applies the rules of logic learned in middle school to the foundational information learned in the early grades and expresses his conclusions in clear. In the middle grades. apprenticeships. these are the years for art camps. for the second stage of education. but because these are the years in which the building blocks for all other learning are laid.What is Classical Education? by Susan Wise Bauer Classical education depends on a three-part process of training the mind. Classical education is language-focused. By fifth grade. it‘s learned along with the history of scientific discovery. all knowledge is interrelated. videos. Images. a child‘s mind begins to think more analytically. education involves not self-expression and selfdiscovery. systematically laying the foundations for advanced study. the student begins algebra and the study of logic. A classical education is more than simply a pattern of learning. the brain is forced to translate a symbol (words on the page) into a concept. allow the mind to be passive. the stories of history and literature. college courses. faced with the written page. and television).‖ builds on the first two. The final phase of a classical education. A student is ready for the Logic Stage when the capacity for abstract thought begins to mature. and begins to apply logic to all academic subjects. then given the logical tools for organization of facts. The early years of school are spent in absorbing facts.

The world is full of knowledge. dance. ―is that it dwells on one problem. and motifs. Systematic study also allows the student to join what Mortimer Adler calls the ―Great Conversation‖ — the ongoing conversation of great minds down through the ages. or one epoch long enough to allow even the youngest student a chance to exercise his mind in a scholarly way: to make connections and to trace developments. She‘ll read Beowulf. The other subject areas of the curriculum are linked to history studies. she starts with Swift (Gulliver‘s Travels) and ends with Dickens. The classical education is. one author. biology. rigorous study has two purposes. and man‘s understanding of the divine. systematic — in direct contrast to the scattered. The virtuous man (or woman) can force himself to do what he knows to be right. the tales of the Iliad and Odyssey. lines of reasoning. medicine. The student who is working on ancient history will read Greek and Roman mythology. Four years later. This pattern lends coherence to the study of history. when the student works through these time periods using original sources (from Homer to Hitler) and also has the opportunity to pursue a particular interest (music. Renaissance and Reformation. creative writing) in depth. The sciences are studied in a four-year pattern that roughly corresponds to the periods of scientific discovery: biology. earth science and basic astronomy (which flowered during the early Renaissance). the development of the epic. Middle Ages. patterns of action. the fifth grader reads one of the popular middle-grade adaptations — Olivia Coolidge‘s The Trojan War. unorganized nature of so much secondary education. The reading of the Odyssey leads the student into the consideration of Greek history. art and music. The child studies these four time periods at varying levels — simple for grades 1-4. Aristotle. more difficult in grades 5-8 (when the student begins to read original sources). Rigorous study develops virtue in the student. science. and finding the links between fields of study can be a mind-twisting task. A classical education meets this challenge by taking history as its organizing outline — beginning with the ancients and progressing forward to the moderns in history. chemistry (which came into its own during the early modern period).‖ . and taking an even more complex approach in grades 912. This systematic.‖ writes classical schoolmaster David Hicks. or Roger Lancelyn Greene‘s Tales of Troy. or the desire to watch another half hour of TV) in order to reach a goal — mastery of a subject. and Modern Times. When the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are studied. recurring symbolisms. a first grader listens to you read the story of the Iliad from one of the picture book versions available at any public library. ―The beauty of the classical curriculum. and then basic physics and computer science (very modern subjects). Much modern education is so eclectic that the student has little opportunity to make connections between past events and the flood of current information. science. undaunted. she reads modern literature as she is studying modern history. The pattern widens and deepens as the student progresses in maturity and learning. Shakespeare the following year. Aristotle defined virtue as the ability to act in accordance to what one knows to be right. classification and the human body (subjects known to the ancients). plots. Herodutus. Chinese and Japanese fairy tales. early medieval writings.church‘s relationship to science and from there to the intricacies of medieval church history. Chaucer. above all. and the ninth grader — faced with the Iliad itself — plunges right in. Dante. when she‘s studying medieval and early Renaissance history. This is easier said than done. the nature of heroism. Four more years go by. technology. even when it runs against his inclinations. and (for the older student) the classical texts of Plato. Virgil. The classical education continually asks a student to work against his baser inclinations (laziness. We suggest that the twelve years of education consist of three repetitions of the same four-year pattern: Ancients. For example. and literature — subjects that are too often fragmented and confusing. finally. literature.

‖ ―problem solving. ―Critical thinking skills‖ has become the slogan of educators from kindergarten through high school. thing. and noun clauses can also act as nouns. (―Hmmm .‖) Once she knows why the formula works. . with scorn. (―To find the area of a square.‖ and adds.‖ as the above quote from a critical-thinking manual . she memorizes the formula and then figures out why it works.‖ But what are these ―critical thinking skills. I‘ll know how much area the triangle covers. to question. Critical thinking can‘t be taught in isolation (or ―directly. and then if I take half of that. or idea. The child who enjoyed rattling off her memorized spelling rules now starts noticing all the awkward exceptions. Its nuisance-value is extremely high. and an army made up entirely of mercenaries weakened the empire. and by the propounding of conundrums. The first grader has learned that Rome fell to the barbarians. place. In the second stage of the trivium.‖) Instead. ―The Lost Tools of Learning‖ Somewhere around fourth grade. the student begins to connect all the facts she has learned and to discover the relationships among them.Chapter 13 The Argumentative Child The Pert age . ―What keeps the earth in orbit around the sun?‖ The mind begins to generalize.‖1 But you shouldn‘t consider critical thinking and fact gathering to be mutually exclusive activities. . The area of a triangle is this side. then evaluating it to reach a logical conclusion or answer. as ―mere fact assimilation‖ or ―rote memorization. ―What if I have only one two-digit number and an answer? Can I discover the missing number if I call it x ?‖ Now it‘s time for critical thinking. so if I multiply this side by itself. the fifth grader asks why and discovers that high taxes. times itself. is characterized by contradicting.all have to do with something that comes ‘before‘?‖ ―How do we know that water boils at two hundred twelve degrees Fahrenheit?‖ The student who has mastered ―higher-order thinking‖ and ―problem-solving techniques‖ doesn‘t simply memorize a formula.‖) Some critical-thinking advocates suggest that ―thinking skills‖ can somehow replace the acquisition of specific knowledge. The young historian says. . ―Increasingly. ―Are you going to wait until schools teach thinking directly?‖ asks the back cover of one critical-thinking tome. infinitives. Catastrophe is predicted for children who miss out on this vital training. That‘s why I multiply the side by itself. ―But why did Alexander the Great want to conquer the whole world?‖ The young scientist asks. —Dorothy Sayers.‖ and how are they to be taught? A quick look through education materials reveals certain phrases popping up again and again: ―higherorder thinking.‖ an outdated mode of learning that should be replaced with classes in ―learning to think. Criticalthinking books. answering back. I‘ll get the area of a square . . The third grader has learned how to multiply two-digit numbers together to produce an answer. the sixth grader discovers that gerunds. times one-half. . to analyze—to develop the capacity for abstract thought. so the area inside the square is always going to measure the same horizontally and vertically. multiply the length of a side by itself.‖ All these boil down to one simple concept: critical thinking means that the student stops absorbing facts uncritically and starts to ask ―Why?‖: ―Why do you multiply the tops and bottoms of fractions?‖ ―Why did the North and South really go to war?‖ ―Why do scientists believe that nothing can go faster than the speed of light?‖ ―Why do words that begin with pre. . this triangle is like half a square . the sides of a square are the same. . educators believe that schools should focus more on critical thinking than on memorization of facts. she can extrapolate from it to cover other situations. ―Traditional teaching‖ is referred to. The second grader has learned that a noun names a person. the seventh grader asks. (―How would I find the area of a triangle? Well.‖ The popular teacher‘s journal Education Week defines critical thinking as ―the mental process of acquiring information. the growing mind begins to switch gears. liking to ―catch people out‖ (especially one‘s elders). and curricula abound. ―That may be too late for your children.‖ ―metacognitive strategies. software. . corruption.

suggests). You can‘t teach a child to follow a recipe without actually providing butter, sugar, flour, and salt; piano skills can‘t be taught without a keyboard. And your new focus on the whys and wherefores doesn‘t mean that your child will no longer learn facts. A math student can‘t think critically about how to find the area of a triangle unless she already knows the formula for finding the area of a square. A fifth grader can‘t analyze the fall of Rome until she knows the facts about Rome‘s decay. So we won‘t be simply recommending workbooks that claim to develop isolated ―critical-thinking skills.‖ Instead, as we cover each of the subjects— math, language, science, history, art, music—we‘ll offer specific instructions on how to teach your middle schooler to evaluate, to trace connections, to fit facts into a logical framework, and to analyze the arguments of others. The middle-grade student still absorbs information. But instead of passively accepting this information, she‘ll be interacting with it—deciding on its value, its purpose, and its place in the scheme of knowledge.

BUILDING ON THE FOUNDATION
The poll-parrot stage has prepared the middle-grade student for the logic stage in two important ways. First, the middle-grade student should no longer be struggling with the basic skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. A child must read fluently and well before entering the logic stage; the student who still battles her way through a sentence cannot concentrate on what that sentence means. The logic-stage student will write extensively as she evaluates, analyzes, and draws conclusions; the study of grammar and punctuation will continue through high school, but the basic mechanics of spelling, comma placement, capitalization, and sentence construction should no longer act as barriers to expression. The middle-grade child will begin to think of mathematics in terms of concepts and ideas; she can‘t do this unless the basic facts of arithmetic are rock solid in her mind. Second, the student has already been exposed to the basics of history, science, art, music, and other subjects. Now she has a framework of knowledge that will allow her to think critically. On pages 221–225, we discussed the differences between parts-to-whole and whole-to-parts instruction. When you taught bugs in first grade, you used parts-to-whole instruction. You got out all the pictures of bugs (or used actual bugs) and described the five different types of legs and feet. Then you asked the child to tell you what she just heard, to point out the different types of legs, to write a sentence or draw a picture. In other words, you taught the bits of information—the parts—to the child and then helped her to assemble them into a whole. The middle grader has already learned something about bugs, though. And her mind has matured and developed beyond the need for spoon-feeding. In the middle grades, you‘ll move toward a whole-to-parts method of teaching—presenting the student with a piece of information or a phenomenon and asking her to analyze it. When you study biology with a fifth grader, you lay out a trayful of insects and ask: ―What differences do you see between these legs and those?‖ ―How would you describe each leg?‖ ―What function does each have?‖ In the following chapters, we‘ll guide you through this type of teaching in the middle-grade curriculum.

LOGIC AND THE TRIVIUM
A classical education isn‘t a matter of tacking logic and Latin onto a standard fifth-grade curriculum. Rather, logic trains the mind to approach every subject in a particular way—to look for patterns and sets of relationships in each subject area. But formal logic is an important part of this process. The systematic study of logic provides the beginning thinker with a set of rules that will help her to decide whether or not she can trust the information she‘s receiving. This logic will help her ask appropriate questions: ―Does that conclusion follow the facts as I know them?‖ ―What does this word really mean? Am I using it accurately?‖ ―Is this speaker sticking to the point, or is he trying to distract me with irrelevant remarks?‖ ―Why is this person trying to convince me of this fact?‖ ―Why don‘t I believe this argument—what do I have at stake?‖ ―What other points of view on this subject exist?‖ These are questions that very young minds cannot grapple with. A seven year old has difficulty in understanding that (for example) a public figure might twist the facts to suit himself, or that a particular text

might not be trustworthy because of the writer‘s bias, or that newspaper reports might not be accurate. But in the expanding universe of the middle-grade child, these questions will begin to make sense. You may find yourself indebted to formal logic as well. Any parent of a fifth grader should be able to point out such logical fallacies as the argumentum ad nauseam (the incorrect belief that an assertion is likely to be accepted as true if it is repeated over and over again) and the argumentum ad populum (if everyone‘s doing it, it must be okay).

LOGIC IN THE CURRICULUM
In language, the logic-stage student will begin to study syntax—the logical relationships among the parts of a sentence. She‘ll learn the art of diagramming (drawing pictures of those relationships). The grammarstage student wrote compositions that summarized information—how the Egyptians wrote, the important battles of the Civil War, the life of George Washington. Now, compositions will begin to focus on questions of motivation, of historical development, of debated fact. How did picture language such as hieroglyphics develop into written language? What were the real causes of the Civil War? Why did George Washington keep slaves? Logic-stage students will also begin to read literature more critically, looking for character and plot development. Properly speaking, grammar-stage math is concerned with arithmetic— adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing actual numbers. Arithmetic isn‘t theoretical. Arithmetic problems can be worked out in apples and oranges and pieces of bread. But in the second stage of the trivium, the student begins mathematics proper—the study of the many different relationships between numbers, both real and theoretical (negative numbers, for example). In other words, arithmetic is the foundation for mathematics proper. History in the logic stage will take on a new character. The student will still be responsible for dates and places, but you‘ll encourage her to dig deeper into the motivations of leaders, into the relationships between different cultures that existed at the same time, into forms of government and causes of war. Morality should become a matter of discussion as well. Was this action (this war, this threat) justified? Why? The study of art and music at this point will become synchronized with the study of history. The student will learn about broad developments in society and culture, and will try to understand how these are reflected in the creative works of the times.

HOW TO TEACH THE LOGIC STAGE
For you, the teacher, the teaching process will change slightly. In first through fourth grades, your focus was on memorization—on the learning of rules, dates, stories, and scientific facts. You told the student what she needed to learn, either by reading to her or by giving her a little lecture, and you expected her to be able to repeat that information back to you. You used narration and notebook pages to bring this about. Now, you won‘t be feeding the child with a spoon. You‘ll be asking her to dig a little deeper, to do more discovering on her own. Instead of lecturing, you‘ll concentrate on carrying on a dialogue with your child, a conversation in which you guide her toward the correct conclusions, while permitting her to find her own way. You‘ll allow the child to disagree with your conclusions, if she can support her points with the facts. And you‘ll expect her not simply to repeat what she‘s read, but to rework the material to reflect her own thoughts. Once she‘s done this, she‘ll have learned the material once and for all. Here, one-to-one tutoring has an obvious advantage over the large public-school classroom. Classrooms encourage children to answer questions set to them; one-on-one instruction encourages children to formulate their own questions and then pursue the answers. Even the most dedicated teacher can‘t allow a class of thirty to dialogue their way to comprehension—the noise would be overwhelming. As the logic stage progresses, you‘ll be using more and more original sources, steering away from ―textbooks.‖ Many textbooks are boring. And most present information in a way that‘s actively incompatible with the intent of the logic stage. History, for example, is often given as a series of incontrovertible facts. As Neil Postman observes, there is usually ―no clue given as to who claimed these are the facts of the case . . . no sense of the frailty or ambiguity of human judgment, no hint of the possibilities of error.‖2 A textbook leaves nothing for the child to investigate or question; it leaves no connections for the student to discover. How do you guide this journey toward discovery?

Start with logic. In the next chapter, we‘ll introduce you to the formal study of logic. In the chapters that follow, we‘ll guide you in applying the categories and structures of logic to the various subjects. We cover logic and mathematics first; then, since the middle-grade humanities curriculum is structured around the logic of history, we present history before continuing on to reading, writing, grammar, science, foreign languages, art, and music.

PRIORITIES
The logic-stage student is doing much more independent work than the grammar-stage student and is requiring much less one-on-one attention from you. Home-educated students typically spend an hour in self-directed work for every ten minutes of parental tutoring. Because of this new time economy, and because the student has now mastered the most basic elements of reading, writing, and math, you‘ll find that you‘re able to cover more material. Language, mathematics, logic, history, and science are staples of the logic stage; art and music should be pursued, if possible. While you won‘t need to do as much one-on-one teaching with the student, maintain close supervision. Every home-schooling parent has made the mistake of handing a textbook off to a seemingly mature seventh grader only to find at Christmas that two lessons had been completed. Check assignments on a weekly basis. By the middle grades, students will often develop a particular fondness for one subject (or a loathing for another). Because home education is flexible, you can structure your academic day to allow a child to follow an interest. If, for example, your seventh grader acquires a passion for King Arthur, let her follow the knights of the Round Table throughout literature and history for several months; don‘t insist that she move to the Reformation right on schedule. At the same time, though, do insist that the student keep up in each subject area. Don‘t let math slide for history, or foreign language for math. It‘s too early for the child to develop a speciality; she still hasn‘t been exposed to the full range of possibilities.
1 2

―Critical Thinking,‖ Education Week on the Web, www.edweek.org. Neil Postman, The End of Education: Redefining the Value of Schools (New York: Knopf, 1995), p. 115.

to weigh the value of evidence. ―Those who are likely never to have any great use . But the skills acquired in the study of rhetoric are then exercised in history. elegance.‖ Aristotle writes in Rhetoric. the classic text on the subject. just as logic was during the middle grades. the traditional high-school years—the student learns to express herself with fluency. —Aristotle. clearly and convincingly. Ordinary people do this either at random. and literature. for the use of rational speech is more distinctive of a human being than the use of his limbs. hairstyles—assume an exaggerated value as the clearest forms of self-expression possible. and persuasiveness. When the high schooler decides on the fields she‘ll study in depth. high-school students should have training in the skills of rhetoric so that they can say. which will show her mastery of rhetoric as well as her skills. the desire for self-expression is frustrated. the student will undertake two major writing projects in an area of her own choice. These demand a great deal of time and effort. Rhetoric SUBJECT: Rhetoric and debate TIME REQUIRED: 3 hours per week in grades 9 and 10. During the rhetoric stage—grades 9 through 12. Since self-expression is one of the greatest desires of adolescence.Chapter 24 Speaking Your Mind: The Rhetoric Stage It is absurd to hold that a man should be ashamed of an inability to defend himself with his limbs.‖ The study of rhetoric is designed to make success in speech a matter of skill and practice. jewelry. External objects— clothes. The logic stage taught the student to think through the validity of arguments. other subjects in which she has already received a good basic grounding will fade into the background. what‘s on their minds. Expression itself becomes inarticulate. At first. ―all men attempt to discuss statements and to maintain them. The last four years of classical education stress expression and flexibility. Flexibility becomes paramount as the student pursues her junior and senior writing projects. grace. but not ashamed of an inability to defend himself with speech and reason. ―To a certain extent. the rhetorician has nothing of substance to say. In the last two years of schooling. plus time spent in extracurricular debate activities Rhetoric is the art of expression. to defend themselves and to attack others. tattoos. not accident. the student uses knowledge and the skill of logical argument to write and speak about all the subjects in the curriculum. The student expresses herself by continually writing and speaking about what she‘s learning. 1 2 A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE RHETORIC STAGE Rhetoric is dependent upon the first two stages of the trivium. science. Without these skills. rhetoric is a specific subject for study. The grammar stage laid a foundation of knowledge. In the rhetoric stage. or through practice and from acquired habit. without knowledge.

‖ teaches you how to evaluate the words you use when you give your argument.or aptitude for mathematics.‖ And this is true for every subject in which rhetoric is employed. History and literature meld together as the student reads the works of great minds. and pronuntiatio. they can prevent the student from swallowing the rhetoric of modern-day orators undigested. elocutio. Aristotle concludes. dispositio. Aristotle tells us. The first three of these apply to both written and spoken rhetoric.‖ is the process of formulating an argument and gathering all the supporting evidence. figures of speech should you use? How can you structure your sentences for maximum effect? For debate. which continually brings ethical issues to the fore. 3 THE STUDY OF RHETORIC During the rhetoric stage. Great books are rhetoric in action. is universal. she will know how to learn—a skill that she can use for the rest of her life. while memoria and pronuntiatio apply specifically to debate and speechmaking. Rhetoric. Inventio. Dispositio teaches you to arrange all your evidence in the most convincing way. leads to fair-mindedness. the setting you‘ll be arguing in. Great books provide historical perspective on the accepted truths of our own age. she analyzes the force of their arguments. In essay writing. not in order to convince his audience of that which is wrong. As the high schooler studies the rhetoric of classic authors. (The question of whether this is also the best and truest way is a source of tension within the study of rhetoric. lining up all the proof needed to make your thesis convincing. upon their oars. the emotional effect various types of information might produce. using modern texts that build on the classical foundations. Rhetoric. which words will produce the desired emotions in the listener?) Which types of metaphors. parallelisms. A third distinctive characteristic of the rhetoric stage is its focus on great books.‖ ―[should] be allowed to rest. Twelve years of schooling aren‘t sufficient for a student to complete her studies in a particular field of knowledge anyway. Which words will most clearly reveal the truth? (Alternately. ―invention. The student of rhetoric must be able to argue persuasively on both sides of an issue. and so on. inventio occurs when you select a thesis and research it.) Elocutio. but ―in order that we may see clearly what the facts are.‖ writes Dorothy Sayers in ―The Lost Tools of Learning. you‘ll also need skills in memoria (memorizing important points or entire speeches) and pronuntiatio (effective methods of delivering the speech). more or less. Dispositio is the skill of putting all that information into persuasive order. their persuasion has stood time‘s test. 4 5 HOW TO DO IT . or ―canons‖: inventio.‖ The same can be said for languages and for highly technical aspects of the sciences. ―elocution. It requires both logic and knowledge. memoria. But even though the student may not finish twelfth grade with a comprehensive grasp of science or history. The study of rhetoric involves developing skill in five areas. from ancient Greece to the present day. the student will study the principles of self-expression and exercise them in both writing and speech. The way you present an argument depends on a slew of factors—the makeup of the audience.

2. the student will work her way through three texts: 1. or other personal attacks are irrelevant. 3. she‘ll follow a slightly different pattern. This is the ―ad hominem‖ fallacy: attacking the person of an authority rather than his or her qualifications. Some German professors advanced all three arguments together against the validity of Ricardo‘s teaching. Otherwise. the student should probably construct one outline for each chapter. 3. . religion. divided into two sessions of one and a half hours each or three sessions of one hour each. you can use a tutor or online tutorial for the study of rhetoric. . Not being informed. or that other equally reputable economists disagree with his findings. A. and the German nationalists because he was an Englishman. and nationality are irrelevant to the possible truth of his theories. an introduction to rhetoric that provides a quick review of logic as applied to written essays. B. they have to show that his judgments were not fully informed—or that he was not impartial. these sections are then divided further by subheadings in regular type. An authority can be attacked for three reasons. Beginning in ninth grade. Other sorts of attacks on authorities are not legitimate. An authority cannot be attacked for his person. Supposed authorities may be disqualified if they are not informed. Read a section in A Rulebook for Arguments.During ninth and tenth grades (seconde et premère). As with other advanced subjects. A. Either exercise will show that she understands the concept. . and may occupy all four of the high-school years. II. or largely in agreement. a section entitled ―Personal attacks do not disqualify a source. impartial. This study will cover at least two years. either from someone else‘s rhetoric or of your own creation. The German racists condemn the same theory because Ricardo was a Jew. When the student turns to The New Oxford Guide to Writing. Ad hominem attacks disqualify the attacker. those ―German professors‖ have to show that his evidence was incomplete—that is. with bold headings generally treated as major outline points. nationality. In most cases. However. 2. and finally Edward Corbett‘s Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. Plan on three hours per week. The student would follow this by finding two examples of ad hominem attacks in a political speech (a depressingly easy exercise) or by writing her own ad hominem refutation of something she‘s read. Being out of agreement with most other authorities. good readers should be able to pursue this study independently by following this pattern: 1. The student‘s first step should be to outline the chapter. Each chapter is divided into sections with bold-print headings.‖ Weston‘s text reads: 6 (17) Personal attacks do not disqualify a source. This is the ―ad hominem‖ fallacy. The ninth grader using A Rulebook for Arguments will encounter. Kane‘s The New Oxford Guide to Writing. Not being impartial. religion. the student should study rhetoric during those hours previously devoted to logic. Class. To disqualify him as an authority. Thomas S. . Outline the content of the text. Anthony Weston‘s A Rulebook for Arguments. at the end of Chapter 4. personal attacks only disqualify the attacker! 7 8 A good outline of this passage might look like this: I. Provide two examples of the text‘s lesson. C. Ricardo‘s class. C. B. Ludwig von Mises describes a series of illegitimate attacks on the economist Ricardo: In the eyes of the Marxians the Ricardian theory is spurious because Ricardo was a bourgeois.

Parallel reasons that have an order in time should be listed chronologically. The cause should be found in the topic sentence. 2. Give a single reason and repeat it or expand it. 1. B. After outlining the chapter (an exercise which may take the whole week or perhaps longer. When completing these exercises. A writer may also choose to give cause and effect implicitly. For example. . Explaining ―why‖ is a major purpose of writing. Kane gives clear examples of each kind of paragraph.). Cause. she should always feel free to substitute her own topics (perhaps drawn from her study of history. While the student should generally do the analysis exercises as written. . . A. In this case.However. they are ―parallel.‖ is divided into the following headings and subheadings: Cause Ordering Reasons within a Paragraph Effects Multiple Effects Cause and Effect A good outline of this chapter might look like this: I. There may be more than one effect. Chapter 16. Or each effect may actually be the cause of the next. How to write a paragraph containing the effects or consequences of a cause. Some of the chapters have no practice exercises.‖ etc. the student will have a good grasp of the basics of written rhetoric. Chapter 16 ends with several practice exercises. either from someone else‘s rhetoric or of her own creation. II. B. After working through Kane. Students who are putting a high level of effort into the study of upper-level . she should make an effort to use all of the different techniques described by Kane in the chapter. There may be a single effect. b. the first involving analysis (―Analyze the cause-effect relationship in the following paragraph‖) and the next two involving composition (―Compose a single paragraph developing three or four reasons to support one of the following topics: The enormous increase in the cost of housing. A. the contemporary mania for exercise. ―Paragraph Development: Cause and Effect. A. this is ―serial order. b. How to write a paragraph containing reasons for a cause. she shouldn‘t feel obliged to make the subheadings into outline points as well. the student should provide an example for each technique described in the chapter. science.‖ 2. C. the expansion of professional sports in the last twenty-five years .‖ II. If the reasons are independent of each other. Otherwise. If each reason causes the next. Arrange several reasons in order. they should be listed from least to most important. B. The simplest strategy: ask ―Why‖ and then give the answer. a. the student should complete the practice exercises at each chapter‘s end. or another subject) for those suggested by Kane. For example.‖ a. without using the word ―Why. for more detailed chapters). The effects may be independent of each other. The effects should be found in the rest of the paragraph. 1.

arguing for or against a proverb (a ―maxim or adage‖). remember that writing is a subjective activity and that even expert writing teachers can differ over whether a particular assignment is well-done or incompetent. explaining an anecdote.com) offers an online evaluation program for home-school students. However. ―The Progymnasmata.‖ Most students will need a month or more to work through this chapter. ―A Survey of Rhetoric. The following chapters are not quite as lengthy. if you‘d like some additional help in evaluating your high school student‘s writing. The resources suggested earlier (see Chapter 17) can help you. However. Generally. ―Discovery of Arguments. section by section (the sections are set off by bold-print headings). most students (and all those interested in the humanities) should go on to the final rhetoric text: Edward Corbett‘s Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student (4th edition). The fifth chapter.00–$50. Note: To complete the above rhetoric study. Note: Evaluation of these writing exercises can sometimes present a challenge. After outlining. The student should begin by simply reading the first chapter. the student should either give a written example or (where provided) complete the ―Practice‖ provided by Corbett.‖ These exercises will ask the student to put into practice all of the skills learned throughout the book. Make sure that you take the rhetoric text with you. or to show what kind of thing it is—three classic strategies for narrowing the subject of an argument). after outlining ―Formulating a Thesis. If necessary. the rhetoric-stage student can return to these resources. students should be skilled at outlining.‖ can be simply read for information or can be skipped. offering an honorarium of $40. there is no ―right‖ answer to a writing assignment. ask three questions about it (Corbett writes that you should define a topic for argument by asking whether you intend to prove that the topic is a fact. This skill is covered in the grammar programs we recommend in Chapters 17 and 25.writingassess ment. and will give her all the tools needed for the junior and senior projects (see Chapter 33). Corbett‘s six-chapter study of rhetoric uses models ranging from Socrates to Rachel Carson to teach students the art of persuasion. For example.mathematics or science may need to end their study of rhetoric here in order to have enough time to specialize.00 for an evaluation session is a nice gesture. the ―legislation. so that the teacher knows the principles the student is trying to put into place. 9 For Further Study . also. choosing a topic for writing (in Corbett‘s words.‖ carefully. writing a narrative.‖ deals with inventio. the student should follow the same basic procedure in working through them.‖ walks students through a set of writing exercises which have long been used in classical tutorials to develop writing skills. The chapter is quite long (over 200 pages!) and should be outlined. consider one of the following options: (1) Cindy Marsch‘s Writing Assessment Services (www. The final chapter. The second chapter. Often.‖ in which the student argues ―for or against the goodness of a law.‖ the student should choose a general topic. (2) Call your local private or parochial school and ask whether the composition teacher would be willing to evaluate your student‘s work. the same honorarium is acceptable. the student begins by retelling a folktale and then continues. (3) Call the secretary of the English department at your local university or community college and ask whether any of the writing teachers might be willing to evaluate your student‘s papers. ―Introduction. to define it. and then state a thesis in a ―single declarative sentence. and so on through the final step of the progymnasmata. ―how to ‘discover‘ something to say on some given subject‖).

this is a two. p.to three-year progression. which includes a seminar on DVD plus a fourteen-week program during which students practice writing SAT-type essays as well as the dreaded ―personal experience‖ essays for college applications. or who have come out of a classroom situation and are not yet used to working independently. Students who have not used this program can begin with the first level. However. we suggest two options: 1. some parents may feel the need for a more structured curriculum—a ―writing program‖—particularly for students who continue to struggle with writing.com) for more information. you can check the Classical Writing website (www. Alternatives The program we‘ve outlined above walks the student through foundational training in rhetoric. Although upper levels are not yet available. a foundational ancient text on the subject. intended for high school persuasive writing. It also includes a useful teacher‘s key. 359). reading exercises from Mortimer Adler‘s classic How to Read a Book. Aesop and Homer for Older Beginners. the final high school year(s) could then be spent on Anthony Weston‘s text and the New Oxford Guide to Writing. and the skills covered will equip the high school student to write persuasive essays. p. is an option for experienced home-school parents or parents who feel comfortable with the writing process. IEW also offers an Advanced Communication Series DVD set. 358) now offers a one-year rhetoric course. as described above. The rhetoric course outlined above is focused more toward preparation for college writing. and exercises to reinforce Latin and logic skills (these are optional). the training exercises used in classical rhetoric.Students who wish to continue the study of rhetoric as a specialization— and particularly those with an interest in political rhetoric—will benefit from Martin Cothran‘s Classical Rhetoric with Aristotle: Traditional Principles of Speaking and Writing. Classical Rhetoric through Structure and Style: Writing Lessons Based on the Progymnasmata. (Students who are not yet writing on a high school level should spend at least two years in one of the curricula recommended for logic-stage writing in Chapter 17 before moving on to our rhetoricstage recommendations). Depending on the student‘s ease with writing. Students and parents who have already completed at least one year of the IEW course could progress through the Advanced Communication Series set. and then the College-Bound Student Package.classicalwriting. . and a College-Bound Student Package. theClassical Rhetoric through Structure and Style curriculum. the texts we recommend are based on the model of the progymnasmata. based on the exercises of theprogymnasmata. The Institute for Excellence in Writing (see Chapter 17. The courses assume previous experience with the IEW ―Teaching Writing: Structure and Style‖ program. Classical Writing (see Chapter 17. Cothran‘s course is a more traditional ―ancient rhetoric‖ course. If you‘d prefer to investigate a structured curriculum. and can then move intoDiogenes: Maxim and Diogenes: Chreia. Students and parents who have not used IEW before should complete one year of ―Teaching Writing: Structure and Style‖ before beginning the Advanced Communication Series. 2. in that it gives equal preparation for speaking and writing and also focuses on the motivations of the men (and women) who seek to persuade. This thirty-three-week rhetoric course is based on the reading and analysis of Aristotle‘s Rhetoric.

Tenth grade Eleventh and twelfth grades 3 hours per week Extracurricular 3 hours per week Continue with Corbett until finished. debate can then be dropped from the curriculum—it has served its purpose. Order from any bookstore. telephone numbers. 4th ed. the lessons are complex and require the parent to be comfortable with grammar. Most books can be obtained from any bookstore or library. At the very least. imitation of good writers is at the center of the method. Some private schools welcome home schoolers to extracurricular clubs. begin Corbett. Once you‘ve found the coach.95. Complete The New Oxford Guide. Edward P. You can view sample lessons at the Classical Writing website. $69. where we know of a mail-order option. Try to pursue debate throughout ninth and tenth grades. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student.. J. Ask about the qualifications of the coach before you commit. Finally. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. and Robert J. but you can often find used copies through www. and explain your situation. and editing skills into the daily lessons. and enroll your ninth grader in it. SCHEDULES Ninth grade 3 hours per week Extracurricular A Rulebook for Arguments (9–14 weeks).abebooks. and writing. The coach may invite the student to sit in on the college sessions. But these groups are often very resourceful. The New Oxford Guide to Writing (remainder of the year). and the program develops the specific writing skills needed to tackle Great Books study. However.The curriculum makes very effective use of classical teaching techniques. hands-on training in rhetoric. If the eleventh grader no longer wants to take part. If at all possible. Ask who coaches the debate team. and ask how your ninth grader can practice debating skills.com. Connors. mounting regular competitions and even statewide championships for home schoolers. vocabulary. Debate club. Oxford: Oxford University Press. which is generally connected with the debate club because debate is a spoken performance. and other information. he should be able to direct you to an age-appropriate debate group nearby. RESOURCES For publisher and catalog addresses. Call the theater department. . Your local university or college is a good starting place. Ask for the debate-team coach. the parent is responsible for planning the sessions and directing the integration of grammar and vocabulary learning into the lessons. find a local debate society. we have provided it Rhetoric Corbett. You can also call a parochial school. This is available only in hardback and is rarely discounted. The quality of the coaching tends to be mixed— you can end up with anyone from an overworked parent who‘s never studied rhetoric to a moonlighting university professor. spelling. see Sources (pages 749–776). you can call your state home-education organization (see pages 722–742) and ask about debate clubs for home schoolers. students are encouraged to incorporate grammar learning. 1998. explain what you‘re doing. list the rhetoric texts you‘re using. DEBATE Involvement in a debate club or society provides invaluable. spelling. More and more of these are popping up. if you happen to have a good one nearby. Debate club.

www.org) was founded by the Christian homeeducation advocacy group Home School Legal Defense Association (HSLDA). A Rulebook for Arguments. support. Brent C.95. Student Workbook for Older Beginners. Boston. Oberg. $26. $119.ncfca. The National Christian Forensics and Communications Association (www. Comprehensive survey of argumentation and debate.95. Colorado Springs. Colo. Alternative Resources Classical Writing.: Meriwether Publishing. 2005. and links for debaters and debate societies. You can purchase texts from Classical Writing. Springer. A standard hardcover textbook on the subject. Visit website for pricing. Kane. forums. $50. Mountlake Terrace. but no physical address or phone number. scenarios. (425) 7763620. 1994. Debate The National Forensic League (www. 2008. 5th ed. A guide to debate. The Classical Writing website provides an Email contact and message board.95 for coursebook.writingassessment. each level is approximately one year‘s worth of work and consists of a core book and student workbooks or guides. (920) 7489478. The New Oxford Guide to Writing. Mass. 3d ed. Aesop & Homer for Older Beginners.95. Basic Debate. Ky. $4. Visit website for pricing. Diogenes: Maxim. 2000. William S. Diogenes: Maxim core book. Order from any bookstore.96. . Martin. New York: Glencoe/McGrawHill. Leslie. Student Guide. Hicks.64. Cindy.Cothran.: Hackett. $39. 98043. Homer core book. with mod els. Order from any bookstore. Marsch. look for these useful titles through any bookstore: Freeley. Forensics: The Winner‘s Guide to Speech Contests. P. Phillips. Indianapolis. Writing Assessment Services. Order from Memoria Press. $17. Aesop core book. Ripon.95.com.95.ncfca. NCFCA provides coaching and how-to resources for would-be debate teams. 2002. Louisville.org) provides manuals. Wisc. Box 212.95. $20. 1995. If you‘re inspired to start your own debate club. seehttp://www .nflonline. and Douglas R. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Instructor‘s Guide for Older Beginners. and guides for real-life situations. or from Rainbow Resource Center. through print-on-demand from Lulu.95. $19. Argumentation and Debate. $34.com. 54971. 125 Watson Street. 12th ed.95 for teacher‘s key.org/resources/books_and_materials. $26.: Wadsworth Publishing. The texts are listed below in order of use. The first two levels also require the purchase of a separate instructor‘s guide. Classical Rhetoric with Aristotle: Traditional Principles of Speaking and Writing. $6. Austin J. Anthony.: Memoria Press. Wash. specifically geared toward competition skills. Ind.O. Thomas S. Weston.

Institute for Excellence in Writing series. Advanced Communication Series $65. 1 . Atascadero. 1963). 4 Aristotle. I.: Institute for Excellence in Writing.‖ in Douglas Wilson. Human Action (New Haven: Yale University Press. 5 Ibid. 3 Dorothy Sayers. Ill. Connors. Order from IEW. Student Text.i.00 Prerequisite to the advanced levels. 7 L.: Crossway. ―The Lost Tools of Learning. Recovering the Lost Tools of Learning (Wheaton. The package includes 10 DVDs and a workbook/syllabus. Calif. A Rulebook for Arguments (Indianapolis: Hackett. Herodotus Student Guide and Answer Key. video seminar instructs parents on how to teach writing. Herodotus core book.00. Susan has a completely unscientific theory about this—she believes that students who are skilled in rhetoric will never feel the need for a tongue stud. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 4th ed. 2 Aristotle. 1999). and DVDs. Diogenes: Chreia core book. von Mises.Visit the Classical Writing website for pricing information and more information on the following advanced courses: Diogenes: Chreia. p. 9 Edward Corbett and Robert J. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. Worksheets. 35–36. Classical Rhetoric through Structure and Style: Writing Lessons Based on the Progymnasmata. Student Guide. Rhetoric I.1. Rhetoric I. 161. CollegeBound Student Package $179. 8 Anthony Weston. 27–31. Herodotus. p. 1992). $169. text. pp.00. Teaching Writing: Structure and Style. 6 Students who begin the classical pattern later should finish one year of logic before beginning the study of rhetoric.. 75. $29.2. pp.00. 3DVD seminar and student Ebook. 1991).

   . Nursery School ou Head Start (école maternelle) : de 3 à 5 ans Elementary School ou Grade School (école élémentaire.  Community college (communauté universitaire)  Lower division (division inférieure). Doctor of Theology. Doctor of Arts. école primaire)  Kindergarten (jardin d'enfant) : 5-6  1st Grade : 6-7  2nd Grade : 7-8  3rd Grade : 8-9  4th Grade : 9-10  5th Grade : 10-11 Middle School ou Junior High School (premier cycle du secondaire)  6th Grade : 11-12 (parfois cette classe est assurée par les écoles élémentaires)  7th Grade : 12-13  8th Grade : 13-14 High school  9th Grade (dite Freshman year (première année) : 14-15 (parfois cette classe est assurée par les middle schools)  10th Grade (dite Sophomore year (deuxième année) : 15-16  11th Grade (dite Junior year (secondaire) : 16-17  12th Grade (dite Senior year (cycle supérieur) : 17-18 7 College( ) ou University  Undergraduate (étudiant universitaire préparant une licence)  College ou University (faculté)  Cycle de 4 ans débouchant sur un Bachelor of Arts (BA). Doctor of Medicine ou Juris Doctor [law degree]). cycle de 2 ans débouchant sur un BA. Master of Science (MS) ou sur d‘autres diplômes tels qu‘un Master of Education (MEd) ouMaster of Fine Arts (MFA). 8  Postgraduate dans les « universités nationales »  Cycle de 3 ans ou plus débouchant sur un doctorat : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). cycle de 2 ans débouchant sur un diplôme d‘Associate of Arts (AA).Le système éducatif américain   Pre-School. un doctorat peut aussi être obtenu après au moins deux ans d'études suivant un master.  Upper division (division supérieure). un Bachelor of Science (BS) ou d‘autres diplômes comme un Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA) par exemple. un BS ou d‘autres diplômes comme un Bachelor of Technology (BT) par exemple.  Postgraduate (étudiant de troisième cycle)  Cycle de 1 à 3 ans débouchant sur un master : Master of Arts (MA).

we believe that we can actually understand the world and that our experience of reality is true (even though we can be fooled : ex. and the one who has not mastered it cannot be relied upon for his knowledge at all. we see the sun moving across the sky (geocentric) while in reality it is the earth which is spinning on the solar (heliocentric)). Object ??? 3. it helps us define things) 5. then you’ve grasped what logic is about. Indeed. As people dedicated to epistemological realism. conceptualization conceptualization (or understanding) is the grasping of concepts which involves definition. Subject The subject of Logic covers the three operations of the mind:  conceptualization  judgment  reasoning through argumentation or demonstration 1. 4.The Ten Foundations of Logic 1. Benefit the fruit of logic: According to Ghazali. you can put them together either by affirming or negating through a subject (mawdu’) and a predicate (maHmûl ?). Definition ??? 2. logic is a propedutic science: Logic is ―an introduction to all knowledge.‖ (mustashfa) Its greatest benefit derives from the clarity of thought and sound reasoning skills it engenders in one trained in its art coupled with more effective oral and written communication . Geometry is to mathematics what logic is to language 2. Topics . you need to understand something before you can define it. (for ex. judgement (tasdîq) once you have understood the concepts. It involves propositions. Reasonning (burhan) demonstration is the most powerful form of argument If you get those three. 3.

Categorical. species (nu‘). such as Simple and Compound.these all share the same genes « government » but they are different :   divisions : how you divide. . Hypothetical. tyranny. etc. Sources Logic does not derive its sources from any other science. oligarchy. Once you grasp what a glass is as a universal concept. Its sources and foundations. etc etc. property (khâsa). time. 6. Propositions involve composing or separating concepts in a subject/predicate form upon which judgment is based. A topic can be a subject and vice versa. Judgments. ex. which enables definition. and Topics. shi‘r. such as the Laws of Identity. the Five Predicables. which is essentially an analytical inquiry into these ―acts of the mind. These are the categories in which every existent thing fall under except God. The Five Arts (sina’at al-khams) : the ways that we argue.Topics and subjects our almost considered in our culture synonyms. Affirmative and Negative. subject can be looked as the overarching rubric and topics are the things that fall under. Definitions.‖ which enable us to reason soundly and avoid the pitfalls common to an untrained mind. quantity. the term is whats called wujud al-lafdhi  definition (had. In sum. place. Non-Contradiction. It is the singular introductory science. For instance « government » is a genes which has different species « democracy ». wine glass is a type of division. Logical Fallacies. you can bring any type of glass if I ask you to bring me a glass bc you got the universal concept of glass. Logic‘s basic tools are intuited concepts and the concomitant propositions that stem from them. The Five Predicables (al-fadhl khamsa) : genus (jins). That is how we define things. Material or Major Logic deals with the contents of Syllogisms and involves : Categories. etc. accident (‗arad). Logical Fallacies Topics : things that we use in the arguments. Which is not always easy to differentiate between a property. (cf. Divisions. of topucs of formal/minor/petite logic:  simple apprehension: this is the foundation of a concept: you grasp something. the only thing is that the concept of the glass is called ―verre‖ in my mind. Reasoning. the universal concept is the s imple apprehension. position. ―while in my mind it is called ―badak‖. and its sources are observation and intuition. Concepts. difference (fasl). Terms. These two operations of the mind are how we reason deductively or inductively in the third act of the mind: argument or demonstration. the Syllogism and its Divisions. and their varieties. . and Modal. Categories : they are ten (essence. compare. etc. or an accident and a different. any truth the opposite of which is impossible to conceive. and the Excluded Middle are rooted in self-evident truths – that is. the Five Arts. qawl ash-shariH): knowing what the genes and the difference is. Concepts involve the mind‘s abstraction of universals from particulars. list below) The topics of Minor or Formal Logic consist of : Simple Apprehensions. contrast. mujarrabat. It is related to rhetoric. These three mental operations are the sources of Logic . quality(size). No matter what the languages. and finally Induction. burhan. Propositions. the concept does not change. cup. Opposition and Conversion.

Amjad cannot be Amjad and As‘ad at the same time. One cannot understand logic without them. there is no middle position such as « it is either A or it‘s not A ». The Founder 1 :04 :00 .Law of Identity Non-Contradiction Law of the Excluded Middle things are what they are. 7. They are intuitive. These three laws (laws of identity. non-contradiction and excluded middle) are the axioms of logic. sthg cannot be and not be at the same time. A is A and A is not not A. It has to be one or the other.