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l'enseignement medieval Arts Libraux, Grands Maitres Et Universits

les arts libraux


Les sept arts libraux dsignent toute les disciplines intellectuelles fondamentales des coles de l'Antiquit, mais galement du Moyen ge. Les arts libraux taient groups en deux cycles : le trivium (mot qui signifie les trois chemins en latin) concerne le pouvoir de la langue : la grammaire, la rhtorique et la dialectique. le quadrivium (les quatre chemins du second degr) se rapporte au pouvoir des nombres , groupant les quatre branches des mathmatiques (arithmtique, gomtrie, astronomie et musique). Dans la pense chrtienne telle que la formule saint Augustin dans le De Doctrina christiana et le De Ordine, la connaissance des arts libraux fut considre comme l'tape pralable l'tude de la thologie fonde sur l'criture sainte, qu'il importait de comprendre et d'interprter car lenseignement mdival placait la foi au centre de toute connaissance et les arts lib raux en propdeutique ltude de la thologie. Ils sont dfinis dans ces deux vers mnmoniques : Gramm loquitur, Dia verba docet, Rhet verba colorat, Mus canit, Ar numerat, Geo ponderat, Ast colit astra. Ce qui sgnifie :
la Gram (maire) parle, la Dia (lectique) enseigne, la Rh (torique) colore les mots, la Mus (ique) chante, l'Ar (ithmtique) compte, la Go (mtrie) pse, l'Ast (ronomie) s'occupe des astres.

On rsumait aussi leur objet par sept substantifs formant galement un vers : Lingua, tropus, ratio, numerus, tonus, angulus, astra.

les grands matres

St Augustin
Lorsque, aprs une priode de dclin, la culture se rveilla en Occident au moment de la renaissance carolingienne, l'enseignement de ces e disciplines, particulirement du trivium, reprit dans les coles monastiques et cathdrales. Il faut attendre la fin du X sicle pour assister un enseignement systmatique du quadrivium dans certains centres, ainsi Reims au temps de Gerbert, puis dans les coles de Chartres. La e renaissance duXII sicle a t, entre autres, celle des arts libraux dont l'tude fut stimule par l'introduction dans l'enseignement des uvr es d'Aristote et des scientifiques grecs traduits au pralable en latin. Quand se formeront les universits, les sept colonnes de la sagesse , renforces par la philosophie et les sciences de la nature, constitueront l'objet des tudes la facult des arts.

Ils ont notamment t transmis par Alcuin, prcepteur de Charlemagne et sont l'origine de la rforme scolaire de celui-ci, durant la priode dite de la Renaissance carolingienne.

Cest selon cette rpartition du savoir et du savoir-dire que Martianus Capella rdigea son oeuvre principale (vers 400), le De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologi ( Les Noces de Mercure et de Philologie ). Vritable manuel scolaire, cet ouvrage, o chaque science est personnifie, fut la base de lenseignement des coles monastiques carolingiennes, complte par les ramnagements et les enrichissements apports au VIe sicle par Cassiodore (Institutiones)et Boce. Au VIIe sicle, Isidore de Sville reprend ces disciplines, mais, travers un classement thmatique des connaissances, il largit les domaines du savoir, composant la premire encyclopdie (Ethymologi) qui servira de rfrence aux compilateurs et de livre de chevet aux clercs jusquau XVIe sicle. Au dbut du XIIe sicle, Hugues, matre de lcole de Saint-Victor labore une mthode denseignement destine aux clercs, suivant une classification dinspiration aristotlicienne :

sciences logiques (le trivium des arts libraux), ou pratiques (sciences thique), sciences thoriques : thologie, mathmatique (contenant le quadrivium des arts libraux) et physique. et il introduit les arts mcaniques (ou science des techniques).

Le XIIe sicle dcouvre la Logique, la Physique et la Mtaphysique dAristote, et la science grcoarabe, par les traductions latines ; lenseignement va en tre boulevers. Lassimilation de ces nouveaux savoirs prendra un sicle.

les universits
Les universits se crent et se multiplient dans la premire moiti du XIIIe sicle. Les statuts de luniversit de Paris sont promulgus en 1215. Quatre facults la composent : la facult des Arts, la facult de Thologie, la facult de Dcret (droit Canon) la facult de Mdecine.

Les arts libraux (trivium, puis quadrivium) forment la base de lenseignement de la facult des Arts, dispens entre quatorze et vingt ans. Un baccalaurat est dlivr au bout de deux ans et une matrise s arts quatre ans plus tard. Ltudiant peut ensuite aborder la mdecine ou le droit, - de nouveau six annes dtudes sanctionnes par la licence et le doctorat.

Les tudes de thologie sont beaucoup plus longues : huit ans sont prvus dans les statuts de luniversit de Paris qui impose, en outre, lge minimum de trente-cinq ans pour lobtention du doctorat ; il semble, en fait, que la dure dapprentissage ait t de quinze seize ans. Inscrites au programme de la facult de Mdecine, on trouve les oeuvres dHippocrate et de Galien, puis les sommes arabes dAvicenne (le Canon), dAverros (le Colliget) et de Rhazs (lAlmansor). La facult des Arts est un bouillon de culture de laverrosme ; les discussions y sont passionnes, certains matres y soutiennent la thse de lternit du monde (niant ainsi la cration), et lon y culti ve le raisonnement. Loeuvre logique dAristote (lOrganon) est enseigne ds 1215 la facult des Arts, mais sa Physique et sa Mtaphysique sont interdites par les autorits ecclsiastiques. Les thses dAristote y sont cependant dbattues travers les commentaires dAverros. Roger Bacon, venu de luniversit dOxford en 1245, y donne des cours sur la Physique et la Mtaphysique dAristote. En 1277, lvque de Paris, tienne Tempier, et larchevque de Cantorbry condamnent laristotlisme. Mais dautres querelles vont secouer luniversit : la lutte, rcurrente jusquau XIVe sicle, entre les sculiers et les rguliers des ordres mendiants. Bientt, cest la mthode mme de lenseignement universitaire - la scolastique - qui sera remise en cause : le premier coup lui est port par Roger Bacon, qui, dans son Opus Majus (1268), jette les bases de la science exprimentale.

Les origines des arts libraux sont lointaines. Chez les anciens Grecs, se distinguaient ceux qui devaient travailler pour vivre et ceux qui pouvaient tudier et pratiquer la philosophie, la rhtorique, la dialectique, les mathmatiques, etc. Durant la Rpublique et lEmpire romains, le terme triviumdsigna un cycle dtudes que les lves devaient suivre dans les coles de grammaire et de rhtorique, comprenant, outre ces deux disciplines, la dialectique. Le terme quadrivium fut employ pour la premire fois au VIe sicle par Boce, pote et philosophe latin, ministre de Thodoric le Grand (empereur des Ostrogoths et des Romains).Autre crivain et ministre clbre de Thodoric, Cassiodore fut un des premiers parler des sept arts libraux : il prsenta larithmtique, la gomtrie, lastronomie et la musique comme parties de la philosophie. Dans lOccident mdival, les arts libraux redevinrent lhonneur. Cest durant la priode carolingienne que lenseignement du trivium se dveloppa, dans les coles monastiques et les cathdrales. partir de la fin du Xe sicle, se dveloppa galement lenseignement du quadrivium. Au XIIe sicle, la redcouverte de la philosophie dAristote, devenu grande rfrence des lettrs mdivaux, favorisa lenseignement et la pratique des arts libraux dans les Universits, notamment de la rhtorique et de la dialectique. La grammaire incluait la littrature. Ds lors les arts libraux comprirent sept matires bien prcises : la grammaire, la rhtorique, la dialectique, arts du discours ( trivium) et larithmtique, la gomtrie, lastronomie, la musique, arts des mathmatiques et du symbole ( quadrivium). Au XVIe sicle, cet enseignement se poursuivit, par exemple la Sorbonne, Paris. Ainsi Rabelais, imagine que son hros, Pantagruel, tudie les arts libraux, enseigns dans les collges de la Facult des arts : Et aprs quelque espace de temps quil y eut demour et fort bien estudi en tous les sept ars libraux () ( Pantagruel, Pliade, p.236). Au XVIIe sicle, lopinion de Furetire, dans son Dictionnaire (1690), est encore conforme celle qui avait cours au Moyen ge, bien que les arts en question se soient diversifis : Les arts libraux sont ceux qui sont nobles et honnestes, comme la posie, la musique, la peinture . ceux-ci sopposent les arts mcaniques qui sont ceux o lon travaille plus de la main et du corps que de lesprit : ce sont dordinaire ceux qui nous fournissent les ncessits de la vie comme celuy des horlogers, tourneurs, charpentiers, fondeurs, boulengers, cordonniers, etc . Les arts libraux dispensaient une formation dans les disciplines o lintelligence avait la plus grande part. Le systme dducation des jeunes gens, appliqu par les jsuites, accordait une place prpondrante ces arts libraux.

Jusquau XVIIIe sicle, les arts libraux taient souvent dsigns par le simple pluriel les arts , comme dans ces vers de La Fontaine : Le Lion, pour bien gouverner,/ Voulant apprendre la morale,/ Se fit un beau jour amener/ Le Singe Matre s arts chez la gent animale ( Fables, XI, V : Le lion, le singe et les deux nes , Pliade, p.433). Lexpression est encore parfois utilise lpoque moderne. Sagissant des universits, elle dsigne les enseignements incluant ltude de la littrature, de la linguistique ou de lapprentissage des langues de la philosophie et de lhistoire, disciplines auxquelles sajoutent souvent les sciences de lducation. Il arrive aussi que lon dsigne par arts libraux , surtout dans les pays anglo-saxons ( liberal arts), les disciplines des sciences humaines (littrature, linguistique, philosophie, beaux-arts, histoire, sociologie), les sciences physiques et biologiques ainsi que les mathmatiques et la logique. Ainsi, aux tats-Unis, ces matires sont enseignes dans des collges privs en tant que disciplines de formation intellectuelle, lexpression liberal arts ou liberal education les distinguant des disciplines dont le but est exclusivement professionnel.

Les 7 Arts Libraux


Reprsentent ltude de lancienne classification du Savoir humain. Au cours de mon initiation au 1er degr les voyages sont parsems dobstacles, le rcipiendaire subit symboliquement 3 preuves. Pour mon lvation au 2me degr, les voyages ne sont plus des preuves mais des dplacements vers les chelons de la connaissance, car, poursuivre la connaissance cest chercher sinstruire. Porteur du fil plomb et du niveau, le compagnon dcouvre le cartouche des 7 arts libraux, nombre qui consacre notre loge et la rend juste et parfaite. Ces 7 disciplines se divisent en 2 degr, le TRIVIUM , science Ternaire des paroles et des voix ,le QUADRIVIUM , science Quaternaire dite mathmatiques, qui se rapporte au pouvoir des nombres . Le 1 er degr (trivium) comporte 3 chelons, la grammaire, la rhtorique et la logique. LA GRAMMAIRE, nous enseigne larrangement des mots, limportance de lcriture, et la ponctuation pour donner un rythme, un sens diffrent une phrase. Par LA RETHORIQUE, nous donnons de la force et de la grce nos discours, cest essay de captiver son auditoire par la vigueur de son argumentation, par la beaut de lexpression, et que cela soit pour enseigner ou approuver. LA LOGIQUE. Nous nous devons de laisser guider notre raison par la Logique qui doit nous amener avec prudence vers la connaissance gnrale des choses , car la logique nous permet : de dduire, de raisonner, de conclure, mais aussi de diriger nos recherches sur lveil de la conscience, veil de la pense certes, mais aussi de soi-mme ,permettant ainsi dvoluer dans sa foi maonnique, qui se trouve dans cette permanente richesse de linitiation qui nous permet, de rechercher notre propre perfectionnement, pour ensuite, essayer de guider les autres. Le Trivium se polarise donc sur la parole, forme orale qui montre quel point le verbe joue un rle dterminant. Ne parler pour rien dire quel ennui ! Pour lassistance . Llocution doit tre, mesure, agrable, des paroles appropries ne donnent que du bonheur lauditoire.

La parole permet aux hommes de se comprendre, elle est le moyen de communication de connaissance et daction, elle peut-tre aussi un instrument pour conduire les hommes. En tout temps la parole a t le moyen de transmission entre les tres humains, confidences, secrets des mots, ont t et sont communiqus oralement. LAfrique a cultiv cette communication orale, communications des coutumes, de lhistoire, des rites, que les anciens ont conserv dans leur mmoire Lorsque un vieux meurt, cest une bibliothque qui brle disent-ils. Prenons lcriture, aux rgles immuables, mais lcriture ne renferme pas tout,elle est quelquefois obscure , do la ncessit une nouvelle fois de recourir la tradition c'est--dire , la DOCTRINE ou OPINIONS quun des grands initis qutait JESUS et ses compagnons, les aptres , ont transmises lpoque de vive voix. Parmi les 3 grandes lumires symboliques ,le volume de la loi sacre symbole de la tradition , est ouvert au prologue de St. JEAN qui dcrit au moyen dune phrase courte : Au commencement tait la parole cest par celle-ci que lhomme , qui est un tre essentiellement relationnel, communique et change avec ses semblables, et quil se doit de leur apporter affection et solidarit, ainsi lhomme de pense pntre dans lamour de la fraternit. Ces 3 chemins abords, cheminons maintenant sur le QUADRIVIUM. Les 4 chemins du second degr. Ceux-ci sont reprsents : Par LArithmtique, la Gomtrie, LAstronomie et La Musique. LARITHMETIQUE. Cette science des nombres est en usage constant dans nos travaux, elle nous enseigne ,les pouvoirs et les proprits des nombres aux moyens de tables et de figures ; Grce cet art nous avons le pouvoir de compter, que serait 1 tout seul ? Je trouve que les nombres sont beaux et magiques, populariss par les Arabes mais dorigine Phnicienne, un frre, ma fait dcouvrir que dans leur forme primitive, chaque nombre possdait une quantit dangle gale sa valeur ! Surprenant, et qui appelle mditer sur les mystres insondables des nombres et donc de la cration ? LA GEOMETRIE. Au centre de ltoile flamboyante nous trouvons la lettre G, monogramme du grand Gomtre, nom du trs haut, le Grand Architecte, source de toute lumire et de toute science, le crateur de lunivers aux rgles harmonieuses et rigoureuses.

La gomtrie nous a fourni la plus grande partie de nos symboles, cette science traite de la grandeur en gnral ou toutes les dimensions sont considres, mesures ,elle permet dapprhender lespace, sphre cleste et globe terrestre nous permettent de contempler la gomtrie des mondes La gomtrie enseigne les lois de la construction universelle, elle permet au compagnon maon par lutilisation des outils symboliques, de se faonner comme pierre vivante en vue de prendre sa place dans ldification du temple, cette uvre laquelle nul ne peut assigner un fin, car le travail doit se poursuivre sans rpit, travers lespace et le temps. LASTRONOMIE. Considre comme la plus ancienne des sciences, elle permet lobservation des astres. Dans lhmisphre cleste, les toiles ont toujours servies de guide, que ce soit dans le domaine maritime ou terrestre, lhomme y trouve son cap, sa route, grce un ou des scintillements rfrencs. Par lutilisation rituelle des points cardinaux, nous ouvrons et fermons nos travaux. Aids par cette science, nous observons les mouvements des astres, calculons et ftons les solstices, cet art nous permet de comprendre la grandeur des corps clestes, dans tous nos temples, nos travaux seffectuent sous la vote toile, de limmensment grand limmensment petit nous voil en relation spirituelle entre le haut et le bas, le bas et le haut. Cet art, ( LAstronomie ) nous apprend principalement LIRE la sagesse la force et la beaut du principe crateur quest le tout puissant , dtendeur des mystres sacrs de lhmisphre cleste. Le 7me des arts libraux est la MUSIQUE, la belle musique ! une des pratiques culturelles les plus anciennes ,la musique arrange et ordonne des sons pour construire ce matriau musical agrable loreille, Par son arrangement des sons , la musique produit des harmonies dlicieuses, mais elle passe autant par les symboles de son criture (les notes de musique), que par le sens motionnel quelle peut procurer, mais avant tout, cette musique est nature elle est dans la nature , dans cette construction de posie perue par louie. La priode de construction des cathdrales fut propice la culture des arts libraux qui font appel des facults : intellectuelles, sensorielles et esthtiques, ces sciences, nous les utilisons et entendons quotidiennement, elles remplissent donc une fonction essentielle dans notre existence, elles nous permettent dagir avec mthode et discernement. Dans la pense formule par St. Augustin :" La connaissance de ces arts est indispensable pour comprendre et interprter

justement " car ceux-ci nous font apprcier, lharmonie du beau, et la puissance des connaissances devant lesquelles nous demeurons humble et modeste. Ces arts qui ont exiges de grandes tudes et de profondes mditations, sont le rsultat de la pense et du travail des hommes qui progressivement, au fil du temps, ont runis leur savoir pour nous faire dcouvrir ces sciences fondamentales rsultantes dune noble curiosit . Curiosit certes, mais anime dun besoin inlassable, dapprendre, de comprendre, de nous communiquer ces hritages (les arts), qui nous utilisons journellement et dont nous ne mesurons pas toujours limportance. La FM est en quelque sorte une loi humanitaire qui engage les hommes saimer, sunir et travailler mutuellement pour le bien commun. Mais avant tout notre ordre nest-il pas principalement bas sur la tradition orale ? VMet vous tous mes frres jai dit. JP M

Les sept arts libraux ou lexaltation de lme


Les arts libraux, ont dans la franc-maonnerie de tradition, une aura particulire quil nous semble utile dexpliquer. Sans cesse le franc-maon cherche se relier une tradition ancienne qui est bien souvent plus lgendaire quhistorique. Cest bien quil en soit ainsi, nous faisons consciemment parler notre cur, en nous retirant dun dbat aussi aride quintressant qui est celui dune vrit historique dment fonde sur des textes. Les textes ne disent que ce quils veulent dire, en dehors des intentions orientes de leurs commentateurs, et la lgende, plus forte que tous les raisonnements universitaires parlent cet autre nous-mmes, celui de la qute infinie dun idal divin. Parfois, pour les besoins dune dmonstration ou dune croyance, nombre dentre nous nont pas hsit, aveugls par les convictions qui nous animent, orienter linterprtation dun texte, supputer un rapprochement entre deux faits historiques, prfrant ainsi crer un lien doctrinal, plutt que dmettre une simple hypothse. Si une preuve irrfragable ne peut tre rapporte, cest lanalogie qui nous permet de faire des liens troublants. Ainsi les mythes et lgendes sont des lments probants de la connaissance initiatique. Avertis par ces constatations, nous allons essayer danalyser la pertinence des arts libraux dans la vie dun tailleur de pierre du Moyen ge, en prcisant que nous mettons une simple hypothse. La question pralable est de vrifier si les arts dits libraux appartiennent bien au corpus initiatique des maons opratifs ou sils doivent tre rattachs une autre filiation. Cette dmarche, suivant le rsultat obtenu, nous permettra dtablir un pont avec la source potentielle de la franc-maonnerie oprative, voire spculative. Elle contribuera, nous lesprons, clairer les tenants de la thorie de lemprunt qui distingue la maonnerie pratique et la maonnerie spirituelle, comme on distingue lalchimie pratique des souffleurs de lalchimie spirituelle des cherchant et de vrifier le bien-fond de la thorie de la transition qui nous relie au livre des mtiers de 1268 dtienne Boileau et autres. Est libral un art pratiqu par un homme libre de son jugement, et ne concerne que les disciplines libres de toutes contingences. Notre dfinition fait rejoindre le point de vue antique qui saffranchit de la matire et le point de vue moderne du libre arbitre dtach du cadre corporel, fut-il religieux. Ainsi les arts libraux sont les servants de la description et de la comprhension de lessence des choses.

Les arts libraux sont cits dans de nombreux rituels maonniques tels le Rgius ds 1390. Quils soient de type anglais ou cossais, quils soient anciens ou modernes, quils reposent expressment sur les Anciens Devoirs ou sur la structure du Masson Word. De nos jours on en retrouve des traces dans nos rituels. Le solde positif des 7 arts libraux est la Gomtrie, compendium de lart du trait, fondement pratique du grade de compagnon. La gomtrie semble occuper le domaine primtrique de la pratique architecturale, cest une fausse ide. Le cinquime des arts est la premire porte daccs sur la mtaphysique, pour un btisseur du moyen-ge. La gomtrie exhale et libre le cur de la matire. Le lien fondateur qui justifie explicitement lintgration des arts libraux aux corpus de la maonnerie est Vitruve larchitecte romain du 1er sicle av. J.-C. qui produit le premier trait darchitecture mentionnant les arts libraux sous un angle utilitaire et technique. Faut il prciser quil ne fut jamais philosophe ou musicien, mais rien ne dit non plus quil ne fut pas sensibilis. Quoi qu'il en soit, la source est incontestablement ant ique, et connue de Platon. Cest sur cette source noplatonicienne que la maonnerie des Anciens Devoirs entend se souquer. Cette antriorit livresque plaide pour la constance immmoriale et invrifiable de la source premire. Cest ainsi que naissent les lgendes et les mythes. Cest Marius Cappella qui en 400 fit la liste septnaire que lon connat. On les divise en Trivium qui sont les arts du langage pour comprendre les critures et Quadrivium pour les arts du nombre, pour comprendre comment Dieu a organis le monde en mesure, nombre, poids . Il tablit un cycle septnaire de sciences qui ne touchent pas aux choses mortelles comme la mdecine et aux choses terrestres comme larchitecture. Ces sciences sont supposes permettre de slever au niveau du divin, en librant lme, ce qui exclue la matire. Il sagit donc de slever au plan spirituel. Le cycle sexplique aussi, notre avis, par la parent et lorigine unique des dites matires, qui nous font ctoyer la parole perdue. La mre de toutes les sciences est pour les Grecs la philosophie. Dans un but doctrinaire et hgmonique, la thologie chrtienne se substitua la philosophie grecque. La rvlation unique se substitua aux multiples vrits. On peut conclure que ces arts dits libraux devinrent une propdeutique ltude thologique. Les arts libraux sont cits dans de nombreux textes et manuscrits anciens, appels Anciens Devoirs ce qui semble tmoigner de leur authenticit dans une continuit et une constance. Ils font partie du corpus que doit connatre le compagnon et dans ce corpus figure videmment le cinquime art qui est le premier dans le mtier, celui de la Gomtrie. Il nous semble vident que la Gomtrie cre le lien entre opratif et spculatif, la science est la fois de la matire et de lesprit. Ainsi Dieu sera le grand Gomtre. La gomtrie est le langage de larchitecte et larchitecture est servante du

sacr. La gomtrie est donc dessence sacre, ses secrets doivent nous rvler le schme, le plan divin. La situation nest pas si simple. Si un compagnon doit savoir faire un relev et un trac gomtrique qui justifie sa future qualification de matre, doit-il pour autant tudier les autres arts libraux ? Que viennent faire la rhtorique, la grammaire, ou la musique avec la statique et le trac dogives ? Voyons ce que lhistoire peut nous apprendre ce sujet. Les arts libraux sont bien connus depuis lantiquit et le moyen-ge en fit un passeport pour ltude biblique. Cest donc les clercs de lglise et les moines qui se dotrent doutils, appels Arts libraux, pour mieux comprendre et tudier la Bible. Au surplus ces arts constituent le fondement de lducation clricale et bourgeoise du moyen-ge. Il sagissait donc de la grammaire, de la dialectique, de la rhtorique et de la logique, qui armrent nos moines dans leurs tudes. Ces arts sont considrs comme suprieurs aux arts mcaniques dits infrieurs qui appartiennent lartisanat dont fait partie la taille de la pierre. Ils servirent lducation morale plus qu lexercice de style. Il sagissait douvrir lesprit des opratifs pour les aider communiquer avec leurs prescripteurs. Cest l, dans un premier temps, affaire de ncessit. Dans le mme registre, il tait bien affirm dans les Anciens Devoirs, la ncessit de respecter le pouvoir du seigneur, soumission au pouvoir temporel de droit divin. La diffrence tenait au caractre progressif sept degrs de cet enseignement, une poque o lon pouvait tout apprendre et devenir un savant . Il existe un autre apport la pratique des arts libraux. Cet apport consiste non seulement la production dune lite au sein de la classe artisanale, mais aussi faire la distinction entre ceux qui sont aptes connatre et concevoir et ceux qui ne seront que de simples excutants. Ces esprits slectionns par la difficult de mise en uvre de ces arts taient doffice les gardiens des secrets de la profession. Ces secrets taient relatifs aux rituels de fondation des ouvrages, aux mlanges des mortiers et ciments, aux techniques de dcoupe et de placement des pierres et clef de vote, mais aussi, et surtout, ils taient dtenteurs des secrets de la gomtrie de la construction et de llvation des colonnes, des ogives et des dmes sur bases carres. Ces secrets ntaient pas entre les mains du clerg. Cest donc aux clercs que revient la matrise des arts libraux, plus quaux maons, sauf peut-tre, une petite lite qui se dtache de la masse et qui dans une soif dentreprendre et dapprendre, se rapproche de linstitution clricale. Ce rapprochement nest pas douteux, car il est ncessaire la bonne conduite des travaux. Le chanoine est le premier architecte connu du moyen-ge. Cest lui qui dirige les travaux. Lglise et le monastre sont les donneurs dordre principaux de cette poque. Il nest donc pas anormal que le contact forc des deux univers produise un rsultat qui propose la perfection de soi, pour la perfection de luvre divine.

Cest ce que nous appellerons la production du Chef-duvre, dont la double perfection est au bnfice de louvrage cultuel. Le Chef-duvre est toujours ddi un Saint une glise ou un Roi. Cette connexit plaide pour cette maonnerie spirituelle. Cest une ascension de lesprit qui sappuie sur lamlioration du tour de main en conscience et en perspective dun but intellectualis. Il est impossible de travailler sur le chantier dune cathdrale sans en connatre le dimensionnement intellectuel et spirituel. Cette affirmation est dautant plus pertinente si elle sadresse au chef du chantier et ses adjoints. Tous ne pouvaient tre des clercs forms dans un cursus classique. Il est donc hautement probable quil ait exist une maonnerie spirituelle compose la fois dopratifs clairs et volontaires et de clricaux rompus aux arts libraux, socle ordinaire dexpression et de pense commune. Le matre tait suffisamment aguerri aux arts libraux, mme de manire superficielle, pour entrer dans un dialogue fructueux avec le chanoine, ou lvque. Inversement, on a connu Des Moines btisseurs, cisterciens notamment, sans doute duqus, bons praticiens dans le maniement du maillet et du ciseau. Le matre maon ntait pas la brute paisse que lon peut imaginer. Le matre maon soblige ltude des 7 arts libraux comme prparation ltude de la Bible et donc la sagesse chrtienne. Connatre la Bible cest comprendre la dimension sacre du bti et llvation donner larchitecture. Les cathdrales gothiques aux flancs desquelles taient installes les loges de tailleurs de pierre tmoignent de cette lvation de lme. Pouvait-on saffranchir de la pesanteur de la matire sans lever son me par ltude et le perfectionnement ? Une cathdrale nest pas uniquement affaire de technique. La thologie est omniprsente, lharmonie des formes fait cho aux harmonies musicales et la sonorit du lieu, la proportion des corps sous lenseignement de la mdecine se retrouve dans la statuaire et la divine proportion, la grammaire et la rhtorique ordonnancent lexplication et la lecture logique du livre de pierre. Aucune des sciences dlvation de lme nest superflue, toutes se conjuguent dans lexhaussement du genre humain. Dans ce cadre, larchitecture nest que la figure servante et technique des 7 arts libraux. Par son lancement et ses ruptures dogives, sa transparence cristalline, la cathdrale libre enfin lesprit enferm dans la matire. Ltude de la Bible ntait pas cette poque uniquement exotrique, elle tait aussi sotrique. Cest ce dimensionnement dans linterprtation des crits sacrs qui est vritablement initiatique et que lon retrouve illustr dans le bti sacr. Dieu est omniprsent dans le quotidien du maon et dans le vcu de la confrrie laquelle il appartient. Sa vie en est rgle la manire Des Moines, si l'on en croit les anciens devoirs. Les rituels maonniques ne font rien dautre que dassimiler les cycles de la nature que Dieu a laiss se manifester.

lvidence, le maon construit la maison de Dieu. Il ventre la terre des enfers pour ses fondations puis il tutoie la puissance cleste du haut dun clocher. lissue de ces constatations nous pouvons mettre lhypothse que les arts libraux, dans une application superficielle au mtier, taient dorigine ecclsiale. Le but dinterprter les textes sous langle sotrique, permis aux gnrations de maons qui se succdrent sur les chantiers, de parler dune mme voie et damener progressivement larchitecture, sous couvert de la Gomtrie, dune science technique inhrente la matire, une science de llvation de lme et de lesprit. (...) Y a-t-il une actualit dans la pratique des arts libraux ? De nos jours les maons spculatifs trouvent-ils une quelconque lvation de lesprit dans ltude des arts libraux ? Loin dtre obsoltes, les arts libraux mettent le franc-maon sur la voie de la logique et de lharmonie, tout en affirmant clairement sa pense. Le travail du maon spculatif se rsume dans la taille de sa planche, uvre de lesprit. Le but est le mme que celui des opratifs, construire un temple, temple de lesprit et temple intrieur pour les spculatifs. Lharmonie et la perception juste de lunivers sont les pralables ncessaires la production de luvre. Cest ainsi que lon enseigne encore les ordres darchitecture, et que lon tche de travailler sur les cinq sens qui viennent alimenter notre bote dos. Pour ceux dentre nous qui voyaient dans cet enseignement, une vague trace dun pass rvolu, quils en sont pour leurs frais. Ces disciplines sont actuelles et indispensables la progression initiatique et ne peuvent tre remplaces par aucune modernit ni virtualit numrique. Ractualises dans leur sens initiatique, elles enracinent et fondent le socle de la progression pour ltude des textes sacrs. Le malentendu pour nos contemporains est de percevoir ces sciences librales et leurs accessoires, sous langle de lactualit des nouvelles sciences dont la contrepartie est la rentabilit du produit. Cest une des consquences du productivisme de la pense moderne que de vouloir transformer un art ou une science en technologie rentable. Cest lternel combat entre tradition et modernit dont les arts libraux font les frais. Ces arts sont du niveau du compagnon. Il doit les connatre pour passer au grade de matre et changer dunivers. Symboliquement il gravit un certain nombre de marches, il slve spirituellement tout comme il gravit les chelons reprsents par les barreaux de la Scala Philosopha. Arriv au sommet, il entrevoit la figure de Dieu pour les opratifs et il accde la chambre du milieu pour les spculatifs. Cest une mort et une rsurrection dans la plus pure tradition chrtienne. Tel Lazare, le premier ressuscit de la Bible, le matre se relve et son me sexalte, se dtache de la matire. Ctait bien le but initial de lenseignement des sept arts libraux : exalter lme du corps. La thorie de la transition tout comme la thorie de lemprunt saccommodent fort bien de lusage des arts libraux dans les rangs des opratifs. Il me semble que le poids de lglise tant si important, le pouvoir des clercs scribes dans les

assembles de mtiers et des confrries, perfusera une pense oprative rythme par lglise. En retour, la technique oprative infusera dans lesprit clrical. Je pense que les premiers maons accepts, depuis fort longtemps, furent les moines btisseurs du moyen-ge roman. Les intellectuels rose-croix, et autres familiers de la royale socit, typiquement spculatifs arrivrent bien plus tardivement, avec dans leurs bagages linitiation rose croix. Cest ainsi que la rose du btisseur rencontra la rose sur la croix. On peut dire que l acceptation dans les confrries et les corporations a toujours exist et que l emprunt par les modernes anglais est hautement probable. Nous vivons sur la richesse de ces espaces-temps, et nous pouvons affirmer quil existt une initiation de mtier fonde sur lsotrisme de linterprtation des textes chrtiens, dont le but tait la construction de la maison de Dieu, prise pour temple de Salomon dans son sens ontologique. Le maon spculatif continua ldification de son temple intrieur en prenant exemple sur les Chefs duvre ddis des anciens. Cette continuit repose sur llvation des connaissances pour atteindre la perfection du Chef duvre. On ne peut affirmer de manire premptoire quil ny a pas eu transition. Au plan initiatique, il a suffi que trois maons spculatifs soient accepts dans le temple opratif pour que ceux-ci revenant, ou crant une loge spculative, transmette valablement la continuit de la chane initiatique. Il est donc clair que la maonnerie spculative est bien rgulire dans son lignage. De plus il est certain que nombre de loges se crrent, limitation des loges opratives auxquelles elles empruntrent leurs attributs, codes et outils. Il suffisait alors quil y ait parmi eux des accepts ou des maons de mtier dment initis pour que la chane de la transmission se poursuive, augmente, par dautres influences. Notre avis est que les deux thories, celles de l'emprunt et celle de la transition sappliquent pour le bien de lordre maonnique contemporain. Les arts libraux tmoignent par leur universalit que llvation de lme peut tre la chose la mieux partage dans les ides comme dans leurs mises en uvre , que lon soit de tradition oprative ou spculative. (...) Eri Rom

L'enseignement medieval Arts Libraux, Grands Maitres Et Universits

education
duquer v.tr., reprsente un emprunt (1385, au participle pass) au latin classique educare, lever,

instruire, de ducere, tirer soi, do conduire, mener. Eduquer, signifie diriger la formation de qqn par linstruction et la pdagogie. Mark Van Doren, Liberal Education. Van Doren faisait parti dune tradition aux USA connu sous le nom de the Great Books Tradition, qui consistait tudier les textes fondateurs de la civilsation occidentale et qui avait pour objectif de mieux comprendre notre place dans lunivers. Mieux connaitre les raciness de sa tradition permet de mieux comprendre ses fruits, quils soient amer ou sucre, sain ou bien malsain/insalubre. Cela permet lhomme de comprendre pourquoi le fruit rcolt et comme il est. Comprendre do lon vi ent. Corpus de la tradition occidentale. LOccident est enclin/a la facheuse tendance doublier que la tradition islamique fait

Bachelor Arts Program ISLAMIC STUDIES IN THE LIBERAL ARTS TRADITION AT ZAYTUNA COLLEGE Zaytuna College is committed to demonstrating, through practice, teaching, and the free exchange of ideas, Islams critical role in the modern world. At the heart of our mission is the Islamic legal, intellectual, and spiritual tradition, which we believe to be derived f rom the Quran and the words and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad . We believe that this knowledge, distilled by analytical and interpretive tools developed by some of the finest minds in history, has been passed on by successive generations of believers. We believe that one of the primary purposes of Islamic education today is to keep that scholarly tradition alive, and to ensure that it remains accessible as a living, holistic reality, not only for Muslims, but also for people of other faiths. Zaytuna College aspires to revive the sciences of Islam and to position this nuanced, text-based tradition in its central place in modern Islamic education. In order to do this, Zaytuna College has developed a unique curriculum for a Bachelors program that relies on various pedagogical approaches such as selective memorization and critical analysis. The curriculum emphasizes key foundational texts; an in-depth examination of critical methodological issues; a solid command of the Arabic language; a familiarity with the most important Islamic sciences; and a firm grounding in the tools of learning with an emphasis on the qualitative elements of the traditional liberal arts. This curriculum also fulfills the requirements established by the most rigorous accrediting organizations of American higher education. Our educational philosophy also reflects our belief that the ability of a student to become part of a living intellectual and spiritual tradition is enhanced by an ongoing involvement with an active community of believers. As our students learn, they are integrated into the life of the surrounding Muslim community. They deliver lectures and sermons; they lead and participate in religious gatherings; they provide counsel, especially for the youth of the community; and they are exposed to the full range of daily trials and triumphs that characterize human society. It is the sincere prayer of Zaytuna College that by bringing together these many elements, rooted in disparate academic universes, we will be able to produce the future leaders, imams, scholars, and citizens needed to serve a rapidly growing Muslim community and an ever-changing America. EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY The idea of Zaytuna may be captured in a few phrases: As Gods creation, we are all interconnected; through our diverse cultural histories, we discover our shared humanity and dream of a common future; our collective problems are, at their root, both spiritual and philosophical; the Islamic intellectual legacy begs to be integrated into a global conversation on great ideas shaping our planet; a welldesigned college education will change lives and transform the world. In a seminal essay on Liberal Education, Mark van Doren tells us: The student who can begin early in his life to think of things as connected, even if he revises his view with every succeeding year, has begun the life of learning. This spirit captures an essential aspect of Zaytuna Colleges academic curriculum. The courses are designed collectively by a diverse faculty who bring unique strengths and perspectives to the conversation. Courses in law speak to concerns in Ethics; discussions in the Quran class spill over into astronomy; tensions in the freshman seminar are resolved in a class on spiritual psychology and cosmology; the utility and limits of logic are explored in philosophic theology and the history of science; the power of the imagination is unleashed in literature; the rise and fall of civilizations is reassessed through a study of world religions and contemporary Islamic tho ught; mastery of grammar and rhetoric in English and Arabic propels us through great ideas embedded in timeless texts. WHY STUDY AT ZAYTUNA COLLEGE?

Choosing a college is a momentous decision for students and their parents. Parents want to know that their children are receiving a quality education and that they are being competently prepared for a productive future. Students want to feel confident that they are receiving an education that will give them an advantage in the professional world, while allowing them to explore issues and ideas that will enrich their lives in ways tangible and intangible. At Zaytuna College, we are sensitive to these concerns. Our comprehensive curriculum has been designed to ensure that our students receive an education that exposes them to the best of a vibrant Muslim intellectual tradition, thereby grounding them in the best traditions of the past. It also incorporates the most relevant aspects of modern social science and humanities courses, thereby providing students with a firm footing in the present and a basis for looking at the future with clarity and vision. We are confident that a Zaytuna College education will prepare our students to effectively participate in a full array of occupations and professions. We envision our graduates working as Muslim community and religious leaders, succeeding in graduate and professional schools, entering into public service, and becoming inspiring Islamic Studies teachers in a rapidly expanding network of Muslim schools in North America and elsewhere in the Western world. We believe our graduates will bring compassion, insight, and a fresh perspective to nonprofit and NGO sectors, as well as into commercial and business endeavors. At Zaytuna College, we provide an academic environment that fosters a productive and invigorating meeting of the hearts as a means to enrich and nourish the mind. We want everyones children to realize that they are not the means of someone elses ends, but rather ends in themselves. We invite them to think critically about the forces that shape all of our lives. We invite them to dream of different possibilities. We invite them to dream of a different now, and a different tomorrow. As Zaytuna students graduate from their studies, these dreams will penetrate the professions they pursue, the classrooms they teach, the families they raise, the communities they inhabit, the associations they form, the charities they support, the policies they draft, and the wars they choose to fight. At Zaytuna, we educate people not simply to make a living, we inspire them to make a life worth living. Every lawyer has a heart. Every chaplain has passions. Every teacher has something to learn.Every doctor faces uncertainty. Every merchant confronts dilemmas. Everybody makes mistakes, but we all strive to better ourselves. Regardless of where our graduates go, we help them see themselves as, first-and-foremost, part of a shared humanity. Students leave with the conviction that our human flaws are overcome through lives of service. What we offer is a civilizational vision, and our task is generational.

A people disconnected from their past will never move confidently into the future. At Zaytuna College, we believe we must acknowledge and remain connected to the giants who have laid the intellectual and spiritual foundation upon which we aspire to build. Imam Abu Dawud(d. AH 275, Basra)
Abu Dawud opened a letter he addressed to the people of Mecca with the following advice: Peace upon you. Verily, I encourage you to praise Allah, the one besides whom there is no other God. And I beseech (God) that He sends His mercy upon Muhammad, peace upon him, every time he is mentioned. May Allah grant all of us a state of well being that will never be followed by any tribulation or torment. Imam Abu Dawud (Sulayman b. al-Ashaab b. Ishaq al-Azdi) was a master hadith scholar who collected many hadiths. He traveled in search of hadith throughout the Muslim world. He is the compiler of one of the seven major hadith collections, Sunan Abu Dawud.

Qadi Abu Bakr b. al-Arabi(d. AH 543, Fez)


I utilized a small amount of a sort of learning, which is in fact closer to ignorance than knowledge, and accompanied it with a minimum amount of adab and yet it was enough to rescue us from death. Qadi Abu Bakr b. al-Arabi (Muhammad b. Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. al-Muafiri) was a Maliki judge, hadith scholar, historian, and mujtahid; he traveled to the eastern Islamic world and studied with al-Ghazzali. His works include Awasim min al-qawasim and Aridat al-ahwadi, a commentary on Imam Tirmidhis book. His exegesis on the Quran is entitled Ahkam al-Quran. He is commonly confused with the Andalusian Sufi Muhyi al-Din ibn Arabi.

Imam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani(d. AH 852, Cairo)


By the gate of your generosity stands a sinner, who is mad with love./ O best of mankind in radiance of face and countenance!/ Through you he seeks a means (tawassala), hoping for Allahs forgiveness of slips;/ from fear of Him, his eyelid is wet with pouring tears./ Although his genealogy attributes him to a stone (hajar),/ how often tears have flowed, sweet, pure and fresh!/ Praise of you does not do you justice, but perhaps,/ In eternity, its verses will be transformed into mansions./ My praise of you shall continue for as long as I live,/ For I see nothing that could ever deflect me from your praise. Imam Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (Ahmad b. Ali b. Muhammad) was originally from Asqalan (Palestine); early in his career he was interested in poetry and literature, later he turned to hadith and became a hadith scholar, encyclopedest, and historian. Though it was unusual at the time, his books became famous during his life. He was handsome, well to do, well traveled, and married scholarly women. He served as a judge in Egypt, and wrote a commentary on al-Bukhari, entitled Fath al-Bari, as well as histories and books on the hadith sciences, including biographies and assessments of accuracy of the chains of transmission. Al-Sakhawi, his student, wrote a grand biography of him, Jawahir wa durar.

Imam al-Bukhari(d. AH 256, Khartang)

I used to earn five hundred silver coins a month and I spent them all seeking sacred knowledge. (This is because) what is with Allah endures. Imam al-Bukhari (Muhammad b. Ismail b. Ibrahim b. al-Mughira, Abu Abd Allah) is the undisputed hadith master, compiler of the famed Sahih, and considered by Muslims to be the most authentic source for prophetic traditions. Many believe his work is second in importance only to the Quran. Al-Bukhari was an orphan; by the time of his death he had memorized hundreds of thousands of hadith and traveled throughout the Islamic world in his efforts to verify chains of hadith transmission. He is said to have prayed two rakas for guidance before writing any hadith in the Sahih; he wrote many other books, including two well-known histories: al-Tarikh alkabir and al-Tarikh al-saghir, and a work on literature: al-Adab al-mufrad.

Imam Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi(d. AH 748, Damascus)


(Knowledge is) not the profusion of narration, but a light which God casts into the heart. Its condition is followership and the flight away from egotism and innovation. Imam Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi (Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Uthman, Abu Abd Allah) was a historian, an expert in Quranic recitation, and a scholar of textual criticism of hadith. He wrote the twenty-three volume Siyar alam al-nubala, which is known for its accurate descriptions of scholars, and a thirty-six volume history, Tarikh alIslam al-kabir. Imam al-Dhahabi went blind seven years before his death.

Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali(d. AH 505, Tus)


Knowledge without action is insanity, and action without knowledge is vanity. Know that knowledge today will not distance you from sin, nor bring you into obedience, nor distance you from the fire of Hell tomorrow. If you do not act today and do not derive lessons from your past days, you will say on the Last Day: Return us to our previous life, and we will do good deeds, and it will be said to you: O Fool, it is from there that you have come. Imam al-Ghazzali (Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Ahmad, Abu Hamid) traveled far and wide in search of knowledge. He was appointed professor in the prestigious Nizamiyah college in Baghdad, capital of Abbasid caliphate. He then left his teaching position for a life of asceticism. Al-Ghazzali was a Shafii jurist and perhaps the Islamic worlds most famous Sufi author, popular until today for his very readable and clear works on Islam. His most famous work is Ihya ulum al-din. He wrote Tahafut al-falasifah as a refutation of metaphysics.

Imam Abd Allah b. Alawi al-Haddad(d. AH 1132, Hadramawt)


Be humble for humility is the attribute of believers. Beware of pride for God does not like the proud. Those who humble themselves are raised up by God, and those who are proud are abased by Him. Imam al-Haddad (Abd Allah b. Alawi b. Muhammad) was a Sufi and author of many books, including poetry, and the following: Aqidat al-tawhid, Dawat al-tamma wa tadhkirah al-ammah, Tabsirat al-waliy, and Masailat al-sufiyah. He was blinded by chicken pox in his childhood; later in life, when oppressed by rulers of Tarim, he moved to al-Hawi. One of his students, Ahmad b. Abd al-Karim al-Shajjar, collected his sayings into a book entitled Tathbit al-fuad.

Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali(d. AH 795, Damascus)

The scholars occupy the position of the prophets in a noble station between God and humanity. Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (Abd al-Rahman b. Ahmad) was a hadith scholar and jurist. He wrote a commentary on Imam Nawawis al-Arbain, making them fifty hadith and calling it Jami ulum wa al-hikam. He also wrote important works on jurisprudence and an influential book on Hanbali methodology.

Imam Raghib al-Isfahani(d. AH 502, Isfahan)


O One striving assiduously to hide his whims! Verily, his strivings will only bring about more assiduousness. The true lover (of God) has a voice rooted in his subconscious, When it speaks his hidden whims will be known. Imam al-Isfahani (Abu al-Qasim al-Husayn b. Muhammad b. al-Mufaddal) was the author of al-Mufradat fi gharib al-Quran, a dictionary of uncommon terms in the Quran; he was known for his sharp intellect and quick mind.

Imam Ibn Ata Allah al-Iskandari(d. AH 709, Cairo)


Nothing you seek relying on your Lord will ever be difficult, and nothing you seek relying on yourself will ever be easy. Imam Ibn Ata Allah al-Iskandari (Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abd al-Karim) was a Sufi imam and second in succession to al-Shadhili. He was the author of al-Hikam al-Ataiyah, a significant work in the Shadhiliyah order. He adhered to the Maliki school with Shafii leanings, and taught at al-Azhar.

Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah(d. AH 751, Damascus)


(In Sura al-Asr), God swears, glorified is He, that everyone is lost except one who buttresses his intellectual strength with faith, who buttresses his physical strength with righteous deeds, and who buttresses others by counseling them with truth and patience. Truth is faith and righteous deeds, and the two of them are incomplete without patience. Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah (Muhammad b. Abu Bakr b. Ayyub) was one of the most famous students of Ibn Taymiyah; he was imprisoned with his shaykh in the citadel of Damascus. He is the author of many works on theology, jurisprudence, and Sufism; he wrote Zad al-maad while traveling on pilgrimage. His work Ilam almuwaqqi'in is a book on the foundations of jurisprudence. He also wrote on many aspects of earthly life, such as love, and he authored a comprehensive work on the effects of Satan on human affairs (Ighathat al-lafhan).

Imam Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani(d. AH 561, Baghdad)


When the thankfulness of the servant is genuine, it is not only a matter of utterance by the tongue, but also the heart's acknowledgment of the Lord's bestowal of gracious favor. Imam Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (Abd al-Qadir b. Musa b. Abd Allah, Abu Muhammad) was one of the great mystics of Islam and the founder of the Qadiri sufi order. He wrote al-Fath al-Rabbani, Futuh alghayb, Fuyudat al-Rabbani, and al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq.

Imam al-Juwayni(d. AH 478, Nishapur)

I do not eat or sleep out of habit, but only if sleep overcomes me whether by night or by day, and only if I need to eat, whatever the time. Imam al-Juwayni was a Shafii jurist and theologian; the Nizamiyah school in Nishapur was built for him by Nizam al-Mulk. He wrote al-Burhan (lit., the proof) and al-Waraqat (lit., paper sheets, a popular manual set to verse that many memorized); extensive commentaries; a work on the principles of Islamic jurisprudence; and many works on theology, among which is al-Irshad and al-Shamil. Imam al-Ghazzali was among his most famous students.

Imam al-Muzni(d. AH 264, Egypt)


I have been looking into al-Shafiis Risala for fifty years, and I do not recall a single time I looked at it without learning some new benefit. Imam al-Muzni (Ismail b. Yahya b. Ismail, Abu Ibrahim) was a student of Imam Shafii, and a Shafii scholar in his own right. He was considered a key promoter of al-Shafiis school and wrote al-Mukhtasar, a summary of the schools rulings.

Imam al-Nawawi(d. AH 676, Nawa)


The specifications of the Way of the Sufis are five: to keep the Presence of Allah in your heart in public and in private; to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet by actions and speech; to keep away from people and from asking them; to be happy with what Allah gave you, even if it is less; and to always refer your matters to Allah. Imam al-Nawawi (Yahya b. Sharaf Abu Zakariyah Muhyi al-Din) was an imam of the later Shafii school, the author of Riyad al-salihin and Minhaj al-talibin. He wrote but did not complete his commentary on Sahih alBukhari; his complete commentary on Muslims Sahih is considered to be among the best in its class. He authored al-Arbain, or Forty [hadiths] and many other works. He was known for his brave political stance and successfully petitioned the Mamluk sultan Rukn al-Din Baybars on behalf of Damascene residents who sought relief from heavy tax burdens during a drought that lasted many years.

Imam al-Qurtubi(d. AH 671, Egypt)


The scholars are those who know the power of Allah. They are in no doubt of His punishment no matter what the sin is. Imam al-Qurtubi (Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Abu Bakr, Abu Abd Allah al-Ansari) was a scholar of hadith, theology or creed (aqidah), and author of the extensive Quranic commentary, al-Jami li-ahkam al-Quran. He also wrote on Arabic grammar and the science of Quranic recitation.

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi(d. AH 606, Herat)


The world is a garden, whose gardener is the state; The state is the sultan whose guardian is the Law; The Law is a policy, which is protected by the kingdom; The kingdom is a city, brought into being by the army; The army is made secure by wealth; Wealth is gathered from the subjects; The subjects are made servants by justice; Justice is the axis of the prosperity of the world.

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (Muhammad b. Umar b. Hasan b. al-Husayn, Abu Abd Allah) was an encyclopedist; he wrote on theology, philosophy, medicine, and a Quran exegesis (Mufatih al-ghayb), described by scholars as everything but Quranic commentary, because he included philosophy, theology, grammar, rhetoric, and more. He was known for his many public debates, which sometimes incited crowds and mobs against him. He was a luminary and a scholars scholar. He wrote a great work (al-Mahsul) on the principles of Islamic jurisprudence; considered a main text of the discipline.

Imam al-Sakhawi(d. AH 902, Cairo)


Whoever records a biography of a believer, it is as though he has brought him or her back to life. Imam al-Sakhawi (Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman b. Muhammad) was a Shafii jurist known for his biographies and histories, including al-Alan bi-al-tawbikh li man thamma ahl al-tarikh, a work on historiography. He was Ibn Hajar al-Asqalanis neighbor and student; he traveled throughout the Islamic world, to Mecca, Medina, Damascus, and throughout Syria; ultimately he returned to Cairo where he taught hadith.

Imam al-Shafii(d. AH 204, Cairo)


Never do I debate a man with a desire to hear him err in his speech, or to expose the flaws in his argument, and thus vanquish him. Whenever I face an opponent in debate I silently supplicate, O Lord, help him so that truth may manifest itself in his heart and on his tongue. If it be that the truth is on my side, may he follow me; and if the truth be on his side, may I follow him. Imam al-Shafii (Muhammad b. Idris b. al-Abbas, Abu Abd Allah al-Qurayshi al-Makki) studied with Imam Malik and Abu Hanifahs students in Baghdad, then moved to Egypt and founded the later Shafii school. He authored al-Umm and al-Risalah, the original work on usul al-fiqh (Islamic jurisprudential principles). He traveled far and wide throughout the Muslim world in search of knowledge and spent time with Bedouins in order to learn classical Arabic before it was corrupted and changed by the growing Muslim world.

Imam Taj al-Din al-Subki(d. AH 711, Cairo)


I am among those individuals who if they hear something virtuous endeavor to spread it; if they see something questionable endeavor to hide it; and if they witness good in people that would move eyes to tears, endeavor to attach their hearts to it. Imam Taj al-Din al-Subki (Abd al-Wahhab b. Ali b. Abd al-Kafi, Abi Nasr) was a Shafii jurist and the author of Tabaqat al-Shafiiyah al-kubra, a comprehensive biography of Shafii scholars arranged chronologically, then alphabetically. Al-Subki was from a long line of scholars; his father was Taqi al-Din al-Subki, a contemporary of Ibn Taymiyah with whom he had many public debates.

Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti(d. AH 911, Cairo)


Pursuit of the science of the heartsknowledge of its diseases such as jealousy, arrogance and pride, and leaving themare an obligation on every Muslim.

Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (Abd al-Rahman b. Abu Bakr b. Muhammad, Jalal al-Din) was a polymath: a hadith master, historian, and exegete. He is one of the famed Jalals of the Tafsir al-jalalayn. He grew up an orphan in Cairo; at the age of forty, he gave up successful work teaching and committed himself to writing books; and completed over five hundred books in various disciplines. Al-Suyuti wrote perhaps the most comprehensive manual on Quranic sciences, al-Itqan fi ulum al-Quran, which he completely revised upon finding more source material. His autobiography is Tahadath bi namat Allah; it is unique in Muslim literature.

Imam Abu Jafar al-Tabari(d. AH 314, Baghdad)


I am amazed by someone who recites the Quran and does not know its explanation. How can such a person find any enjoyment in his recitation? Imam al-Tabari (Muhammad b. Jarir, Abu Jafar) is most known as a historian, jurisprudent, and Quran scholar. He founded his own school of fiqh (al-Jaririyah) and wrote a commentary on the Quran, Jami albayan, commonly known as Tafsir al-Tabari, as well as Tarikh al-rusul wa muluk, a multi-volume history.

Imam Abu Jafar al-Tahawi(d. AH 321, Cairo)


Only a fanatic follows another blindly! Imam al-Tahawi (Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Salama, Abu Jafar) was a Hanafi jurist and a hadith scholar who studied at al-Azhar. He studied with al-Muzni and was a Shafii jurist, then with Ahmad b. Imran and followed the Hanafi school. He is known for his work, al-Aqidah al-Tahawiyah, a concise summary of the essentials of the Islamic creed. He wrote a commentary on the Quran and a work on hadith work entitlied Mushkil al-athar.

Qadi Ayyad(d. AH 544, Marrakesh)


Advice for the sake of the common Muslims is to guide them to their best interests, help them in the affair of their religion, and this world by word and action, reminding those of them who forget, enlightening the ignorant, giving to the needy, veiling their faults, repelling what will harm them, and securing what will benefit them. Qadi Ayyad was a Maliki scholar of hadith and Arabic, and the author of al-Shifa, a biography of the Prophet Muhammad . He also wrote on hadith, including works on al-Muwtta and a highly regarded commentary on Sahih Muslim. His works on the hadith sciences continue to be studied by scholars today.

Imam Ahmad Ibn Ashir(d. AH 1163, Sila)


Depend on God. Be happy with what He sent. Love God. Be abstinent and to Him repent. Imam Ibn Ashir (Ahmad b. Ashir b. Abd al-Rahman al-Hafi al-Silawi) wrote a book titled al-Fahrasta, biographies of famous scholars of his time; and wrote Tuhfat al-zair, a biography of Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Umar b. Ashir al-Andalusi who died in 764 or 765.

Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal(d. AH 241, Baghdad)


The best of my days is when I awaken and find my cupboards bare. For that is a day my reliance on Allah is complete.

Ibn Ahmad b. Hanbal (Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Hanbal, Abu Abd Allah al-Shaybani) was a scholar of hadith who traveled for sixteen years throughout the Islamic world in an effort to gather hadith. He memorized one million hadith, thirty thousand of which were recorded in his famous work, al-Musnad. He survived the trials (al-mihna) over the createdness of the Quran, a doctrine advocated by the Mutazili, who had persuaded the Abbasid caliph to adopt the position and enforce adherence to it.

Qadi Ibn Khaldun(d. AH 808, Cairo)


Prestige is an accident that affects human beings. It comes into being and decays inevitably. No human being exists who possesses an unbroken pedigree of nobility from Adam down to himself. Qadi Ibn Khaldun (Abd al-Rahman b. Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Muhammad) originally trained as a government employee and served under various rulers; his involvement in many (failed) usurpations led to his retirement from politics. He emigrated to Cairo, but in the course of the journey lost his family and all his property in a shipwreck off the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. In Egypt he was appointed a Maliki judge (and dismissed and reappointed many times); there he wrote his most famous work, al-Muqaddimah. This book is considered the first work on sociology and historiography, a science that he invented. Ibn Khalduns history, Kitab al-ibar, is one of the first detailed Berber histories. He was, during his long and eventful life, also ambassador (from Damascus) to Tamerlane.

Imam Malik b. Anas(d. AH 179, Medina)


The shield of the scholar is, I do not know, so if he neglects it, his statement is open to attack. Imam Malik (Malik b. Anas b. Malik) was a jurist and founder of the school of Islamic law that bears his name; he wrote the famous book of hadith, al-Muwatta, which is known for taking into consideration the practice of the people of Medina. He is also considered part of the golden chain of narration, the most authentic chain to be found in Bukhari and Muslim. Imam al-Shafii was one of his most well known students.

Rabiah al-Adawiyyah(d. AH 185, Jerusalem)


Rabi'ah would say, before beginning her night prayers: ''The eyes have fallen asleep and the heedless are engulfed in their heedlessness. Now Rabiah, the sinner, stands before You. Perhaps You will gaze upon her with a blessed gaze that will prevent her from sleeping during the time of Your service.'' Rabiah al-Adawiyyah is, in the view of some, the first woman Sufi. Born in Basra to a destitute family, she eventually accepted the mystic path, became an ascetic under the tutelage of Hasan al-Basri, and later introduced her own spiritual insights to the Sufi tradition. In particular, she is the source of the concept of Divine Love (mahabbah), which emphasizes that an ascetics motivation in worship and the service of God should be love, not hope or fear.

Imam Ahmad Zarruq(d. AH 899, Takrin)


Watch your eye, should it ever reveal to you the faults of others, say to it: O my eye, other people have eyes too.

Imam Ahmad Zarruq (Ahmad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa) was a scholar from Fes, Morocco. He was orphaned of both his mother and father within the first seven days of his birth. His grandmother, an accomplished jurist, raised him and was his first teacher. He later became one of the most prominent and accomplished legal, theoretical, and spiritual scholars in Islamic history, and is considered by some to be a renewer of his time (mujaddid). He was also the first to be given the honorific title Regulator of the Scholars and Saints (muhtasib al-ulama wa al-awliya).

The Philosophy Class by Dr. Cindy Ausec


by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Tuesday, March 12, 2013 at 9:34am

The Philosophy class is focused on class participation and discussion of Philosophical concepts and texts (although there are exams). It uses both survey books which are designed to give an overview of philosophy and three primary sources; one Greek and two Islamic philosophers. The students were very excited about being able to study philosophy and some asked for the book list in advance so they could begin looking at the material.

We started with a general survey of philosophical thought that focused on Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas philosophies as presented in An introduction to Philosophy by Jacques Maritain. We then looked at Aristotles Metaphysics so the students could compare the survey with the actual text. At first the students were reluctant to give their comments in class; however, we had a real breakthrough when we began discussion the precepts of ontology (the study of being) and Aristotles concept of substance vs accidents. Some of the students were having difficulty understanding the concepts of accidents when all of a sudden a real conversation started with various students trying to explain the concepts with different examples. After that class participation greatly improved as the students realized they had made a valid contribution and it was fun.

In an effort to encourage the students to engage with the philosophers and work on their critical thinking, when we moved to Platos Republic, our first primary source, I gave the students the lead in the discussion. The students, working in pairs so that they could bounce ideas off of each other, were responsible for beginning the dialogue on a specific book of the Republic. The students were responsible for providing a brief outline of the book and for beginning its analysis and discussion. Some of the students have commented on how much more they got out of theRepublic though their preparation and it really shows in their presentations and discussions. The students have been making lots of observations about the Republic, such as when we were discussing the guardians, they saw a resemblance to the janissaries who were Baltic Christians who taken as slaves in the Ottoman Empire and trained to be the body guards for the sultan and as a standing army.

We will be finishing up the Republic this week and moving on to study Islamic Philosophy. We will begin with a survey using An Brief Introduction to Islamic Philosophy by Oliver Leaman. We will then move to our primary texts Ibn Tufayls Hayy Ibn Yaqzan and Averoos Decisive Treatise & Epistle Dedicatory. The students will again be asked to lead our discussion of these texts and I am looking forward to the discussions and observations they will make.

Introduction to Logic with Dr. Shirin Maskatia


by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday, October 12, 2012 at 2:43pm

The stated mission of Zaytuna College is to educate and prepare morally committed professional, intellectual, and spiritual leaders, who are grounded in the Islamic scholarly tradition and conversant with the cultural currents and critical ideas shaping modern society. One of the most important prerequisites for leadership is a firm grasp of thinking skills. As leaders of the community, Zaytuna students will be called upon to explain their own beliefs, to analyze the beliefs of other groups, and to partake in an exchange of ideas with academic and policy-making organizations. They will need precisely those skills that are practiced in a course on logic. That is why the study of formal logic is foundational to any liberal arts curriculum. It trains persons to constantly examine their own thinking and that of others and to evaluate it for accuracy and validity. Once trained thus, thinking clearly and logically becomes a habit. Persons trained so will be better able to understand their own beliefs, hold on to the truth, and defend it throughout their lives. The course Introduction to Logic provides a comprehensive overview of classical Aristotelian logic. The text-bookSocratic Logic by Peter Kreeft is sub-titled A logic text using Socratic Method, Platonic Questions, and Aristotelian Principles. This system of logic is most appropriate for Zaytuna students, both because it is practical and because it is the system that played an important role in the development of Islamic philosophical ideas. The process we use to study these concepts is simple: I introduce the topics in class; the students read the chapters at home and hone their understanding of the concepts through class discussion and practice exercises. I also bring in additional material from other logic text-books and from Sister Miriam Josephs text on the Trivium. We started the class with a study of basic terms: the three acts of the mind; terms, propositions, and arguments; induction and deduction, and classification of terms. The next major unit was on material fallacies. Each student picked a fallacy to work on and then explained that fallacy to the class through presentations. Both units were followed by brief quizzes. The last chapter we studied was on definitions. Students practiced creating definitions for every-day objects such as chair and raincoat and for more abstract concepts such as justice and religion. We then delved into the rules of definition and the various kinds of definitions. The last homework I assigned was for students to read Book I of the Republic, in which Plato describes Socrates exploring the definition of Justice. Some of the topics to be covered through the rest of the semester include propositions, arguments, syllogisms, enthymemes, causal arguments, and analogies. So far, the students have been interested and enthusiastic and have shown considerable proficiency in understanding some challenging concepts. My goal is to cover enough of the text for the students to get a real understanding of the principles of classical logic. I am also hoping to give them (with the help of other faculty members) a list of the Arabic equivalents for the terms we are using and a general introduction to the connections between Aristotelian and Islamic logic.

Bismillah
by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Tuesday, October 16, 2012 at 2:45pm

Two weeks ago, when it was still September, I couldn't help but think to myself, It's only been a month, yet weve covered so much material already, as if I could use an entire extra month to just digest and memorize what was feasible from it. Implementing it and eventually embodying it is another task entirely. This isnt to say that we cover material so fast theres no opportunity to understand it, that quantity trumps quality, that comprehension is secondary, or that we Zaytuna students are intellectually or motivationally incapable. Nor is it to say that we dont morally strive to embody the schools teachings, that the study of religion is somehow divorced from its practice, or that we are not given the opportunity within the time constraints of being a student to reflect upon what weve learned as minimally the first step toward practicing it. In fact, nothing could be further from the truth. I wasnt brought up going to madrasah as a child nor did I attend an Ivy League university or its training grounds, so I may not be in the best position to conduct a comparative study between Zaytuna College and other educational institutions. But in the same breath, I can say, as a matter of reference and not a point of gloating, that Ive been to college before, majoring from two different departments after having changed my major twice previously, received my masters, worked in the Islamic non-profit sector, spent time in other schools in three different countries in the Muslim world, and attended many classes in different masajid. Without belittling any of those settings, the institutes, and surely not their teachers nor mentors may God bless and reward them all; they have been foundational in ways I cant express and beneficial to a degree I am unable to quantify Zaytuna has been truly something unique. I have experienced here what I never have elsewhere; I have witnessed things I could not have imagined had I not seen them; I have had things explained to me with a clarity I did not believe even existed. To make use of a metaphor, I have been brought to the shores of on an ocean whose depth is unknown, helped to assemble a vessel alongside some of the most astute shipbuilders, and been given the instruments of navigation by veteran compasssmiths. I say that without hesitation as to its truth but with reservation as to my ability to express its reality in mere words. Some things in life have to be experienced, and for everything else, there is merely the limited imagination. Despite any shortcomings that have been attributed to it, whether by outsiders or by our very selves, Zaytuna College has provided me an opportunity that I have not had before to learn from a perspective I would remain unable to envision had I not been here. And in that sense, we have covered a lot not just by the rolling page count of the new collection of books we all find ourselves organizing and reorganizing in our growing family of various-sized shelves, but by the wide variety of subjects we are becoming familiarized with, by the depths that we have had the light of knowledge shone upon, by the degree of comprehension our professors are providing us, and by the particular insights that God has blessed us to receive at their hands. This isn't meant to sound like a treatise on the virtues of studying at the feet of Zaytuna's scholars although certainly I could write an extensive one that may knock on the doors of exaggerated embellishment with not a concern for the reader's opinion or perspective as to the degree of my objectivity but it is to say, with all my heart, praise be

to God for this blessing. And if somehow I am wrong in saying that, then let it be Him who takes me to task for praising Him for what He bestows.

And as for the bounty of your Lord, proclaim it 93:11 ...And so now it's almost the middle of October, and with one mid-term down and two on the way its starting to hit me: This semester will be over before I know it! Its already year three, and by the next time I check, itll be half way over. The first time I went through college I had a similar experience: the first year of school was fresh and exciting; the second year felt like school might, well, last forever, for better or worse (at that point I had been in school for more than fourteen straight years...and ironically ten years later, I find myself still in school, albeit for a different reason with a totally different outlook); and then the third year (along with reality) hits this is going to be over before I know it. It wasnt until this year that it all began to sink in. And to be honest, while a little frightening, its very refreshing because it encourages me to make the best of my time and my opportunities, and what an opportunity this is! Eventually all things come to pass, and when they do, if you have not seized them with the utmost of your effort, you will find yourself in a state of regret; we all know that sinking feeling in our hearts. And although we can use positive emotions as motivation a hope for great reward, the satisfaction that our time has paid off, the desire to accomplish some sort of goal that we have set for ourselves, all by Divine facilitation; these are all real, and these we should all keep in mind as we struggle from day to day sometimes a negative emotion, if we may call it that, can be just as (and sometimes even more) effective. It simply depends on the situation, as well as the individual. Fear of regret, of not living up to a God-given potential and of not taking advantage of all of Gods blessings in order to strive in His cause is, to me, motivational. There is a story that has been often narrated about a group of people traveling at night who came upon some rocks. It was said to them that whoever picked up the rocks would have regret and whoever did not would have regret. A confusing dilemma for the people some chose to pick up some of the rocks and take them with them, others did not. In the morning when they reached home they found that those rocks had turned into diamonds. Those who had not picked up any rocks said to themselves, Had we only picked up some rocks! while those who did pick up some of the rocks said to themselves, Had we only picked up more rocks! Such is time, such are our lives, and such will be the Day of Judgment. Thus, it behooves us to take advantage of the time we have been given, the opportunities we are presented with, and the blessings bestowed upon us, to the best of our ability. I close with a brief reminder to myself, my fellow students from every walk of life, to everyone striving to learn something new or accomplish something worthwhile, and to anyone struggling to find that extra ounce of motivation, by citing two hadith from our beloved Prophet, salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam:

There are two blessings which many people lose: health and free time. -Bukhari

Take advantage of five matters before five other matters: your youth before you become old, your health before you fall sick, your richness before you become poor, your free time before you become busy, and your life before your death. -Ahmed

Islamic Business Law with Ustadh Abdullah bin Hamid Ali


by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday, November 16, 2012 at 4:29pm

On August 28, 2012, the Class of 2014 commenced its study of Islamic Business Law at Zaytuna College. The class meets every Tuesday and Thursday from 11:30 am to 12:45 pm. The aim of this course is to acquaint students with the Islamic teachings on business transactions, sales, and ethics. One will learn the basic components of a business transaction and contracts, types of exchanges, the rules of buying and selling, the impermissible forms of transactions, insurance, lease-purchase, mortgages, stocks & bonds, bank accounts, debts, refunds, financing, warranties, bankruptcy, monopolies, the various types of Islamic corporations, and much more. All topics will be dealt with based on the guidance of the Quran, the Sunna, and the findings of Muslim scholars.

Students have started to learn more about how Islam directly impacts and directs every aspect of human life. That includes how a person acquires, earns, spends, and transacts wealth. Islam impacts both the religious and secular affairs of the Muslim. So a Muslim is expected to have knowledge of what is lawful and unlawful with regard to his/her everyday financial dealings. The semester has been divided into two parts: the first half is meant to acquaint students with fundamental teachings and principles concerning contracts, business transactions, and scriptural teachings on illicit forms of property exchange; the second half of the semester will bring students into the modern age to study some of the newer forms of business practices with an aim of discerning their legality and/or to understand the reasons that contemporary Muslim jurists differ about their illicitness.

During the first half of this semester, we are studying Economic Teachings of Prophet Muhammad: A Select Anthology of Hadith Literature on Economics compiled by Muhammad Akram Khan. The goal of the use of this work is to offer students a broad overview of the kinds of hadith literature that exists on the subject of sales, property exchange, and transactions. This work is supplemented by my own original unpublished primer entitled, The Basics of Islamic Business Law & Ethics, which provides the framework for most of our discussions. The primer acquaints readers with the basic components of a business transaction, types of exchanges, the rules of buying and selling, impermissible forms of transactions, the various types of financial partnerships, and much more. During the second half of the semester, we will be reading from Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmanis, An Introduction to Islamic Finance. In our reading of this work, students will have a look at how contemporary jurists are navigating the challenging terrain of economic novelty and innovation and how they have accommodated these new forms of exchange with inspiration from the early Islamic principles of commerce. Students will be acquainted with a basic overview of developments in Islamic finance, investments, and banking.

We began the semester with discussions about the nature of wealth, how it differs from currency, the question in economics concerning scarcity, property rights and the laws of acquisition, and the distinctions between economics, business law, and business ethics. We also spoke about the agrarian

origins of human interconnectivity, the barter system, and the transition into universal currency. We discussed the different laws governing movable and immovable property, the difference between the ownership of the corpus or usufruct of an item, sundry usufruct agreements, and the discussion of selected legal particulars, like the sale and use of dogs, silk, and visual art. We discovered that the Islamic teachings on business weigh heavily on the importance of maintaining mutual consent, satisfaction, and trust between members of society with the aim of obliterating or at least minimalizing exploitation, injustice, and wrong. Islam has as one of its stated goals the protection of wealth, and its laws against charging interest on loans, fraud, financial risk, and other exploitative financial arrangements magnify the importance of that goal. Not everything that is lawful is deemed to be ethical according to Islams moral teachings. When a practice erodes the trust between the members of society or between corporate society and consumers, the practices are deemed to be unethical even if by ruse of legal deliberation it is declared to be licit by certain jurists.

Students have been expected to keep up with the readings and be actively involved with in-class discussions. They recently submitted their first reflective summary for the semester. My review of those reflections informs my belief that they ar e thoroughly enjoying this course. And Im proud to be given the opportunity to help them improve their understanding of the issues outlined therein.

American History with Dr. Cindy Ausec


by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday, November 30, 2012 at 5:06pm

The American History course is designed as an introduction to United States history from the arrival of the Europeans until the present. Some of the topics we have covered thus far are the periods of exploration, colonization and the American Revolution. We have looked at some of the early struggles between European whites and Native Americans, the development of the English colonies and the revolts that led to the creation of the United States. We also focused on the Enlightenment philosophies and the political developments in Europe which contributed to the American values of freedom and the natural right to rebel against an unjust government. Currently we are looking at the United States constitution and the Amendments which make up the Bill of Rights. Our main text book is Howard Zinns A Peoples History of the United States, which focuses on American History from the point of view of the lower and underrepresented classes, such as women, slaves, American Indians, factory workers, the poor and immigrant laborers. For our study of the U. S. Constitution we are using Linda R. Monks The Words We Live By. Your Annotated Guide to the Constitution. Monk explains the Constitution line by line, providing historic examples to demonstrate how its Articles and Amendments affect American History. Finally, we will be using Jerald F. Dirks Muslims in American History a Forgotten Legacy, to see Islams contribution to American History.

Each class I present a brief lecture on the basic historical framework of the period we are studying and show short film clips that augment the period. The class then moves on to a discussion of the reading material and the importance of the events to our history. During discussion I often bring in primary sources for us to compare. Recently we were discussing the U.S. Constitution and we were looking at the Federalist Papers which were written by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. A student asked me if I had an Anti-Federalist view. I was really pleased that they wanted the counter argument, and in fact had one that I could quickly make copies of and we continued the discussion. One of the wonderful things about teaching at Zaytuna is the small classroom size, which really facilitates discussion and questions. When we were discussing the colonization of Pennsylvania by the Quakers, one of the students asked if the Quaker Oat Company was owned by Quakers. We researched the question and found that while not owned by Quakers, the owners of Quakers Oats Company selected the name as they believed Quakers were a symbol of honesty and good value.

We encourage free and open discussion for example, in class I show a lot of pictures of historical figures. One day one of my students made the observation that the pictures of the presidents all looked alike until you get to Clinton. I was very curious as to what the student meant by their statement (was it the style of the portrait the pose, etc.) and I asked them to clarify. The student could not quite explain and so one of the other students posed the possibility that Clinton as the first President that they could remember and that is why they look different. The students questions and observations really demonstrate that they are engages with the material.

Engaging the Great Books with Dr. Shirin Maskatia


by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday, December 7, 2012 at 10:56am

Engaging the Great Books is a course designed to introduce students to intellectual excellence through a reading of "great books" -- works of literature that represent the highest achievements of the human mind. Since these works are challenging, students will develop the skills and acquire the knowledge required to understand them; since they are concerned with timeless issues of the human condition, students will learn to grapple with important ideas, participate in stimulating discussions, and create a synthesis of the ideas they encounter with their own thoughts and interpretations

We started the semester reading and discussing two works by Plato. The Apology and theCrito contain Platos account of the trial and death of Socrates one of the most significant moments in Western literature and philosophy. The students had animated discussions on the effectiveness of Socrates defense, on his method of questioning, and on his personality as it emerges from Platos writings. These readings also provided an interesting background for the concepts the students are studying in their logic class. The students have just submitted their first formal paper on Platos writings. The class is currently engaged in a study of two major tragedies Oedipus Rex by Sophocles and Hamlet by Shakespeare. In addition, they will study Aristotles theory of tragedy in the Poetics and see if the tragedies they read fit Aristotles definition. These plays are truly classics. Students can read them again and again and discover ideas that are as relevant to us as they were to contemporary audiences. Oedipus situation, for instance, raises the troubling question of whether man is a victim of fate or the maker of his own destiny. Sophocles wrote at a time when science was emerging in Greece and the infallibility of the oracles was being questioned. This conflict between blind faith and scientific reasoning is reflected in the play. Sophocles lines even in translation are majestic and powerful, and it is wonderful to see the students faces light up in amazement as they read selected sections in class.

After the tragedies, we plan to read the Communist Manifesto and an interesting companion piece Socrates meets Marxby Peter Kreeft. These will be followed by George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four. The final unit of the course will consist of a selection of poems ranging from preShakespearean lyrics to Eliot and Yeats. I find it very exciting to share the literature I love with my students, but I am also very aware of my limitations. A semester is a very short period of time. This class can only function as an introduction to great works. It will succeed in its goals only if it can inspire students to continue to make the reading of great works a regular activity in their lives. Only then will they be truly engaging the great works. Although reading the classics is an important goal, this class also aims at teaching a clear and accurate style of writing. .While some of the instruction in

writing can be done in class, I hope to achieve more with regular student-teacher conferences in which students get feedback on their papers.

Shafii Class with Dr. Rania Awwad


by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Friday, December 14, 2012 at 10:23am

This years Islamic Law- Shafii Fiqh- class is truly unique. It just so happens that all the students are female, the instructor is female and the author and translator of the book we are studying are also female! Allah SWT clearly has a special plan in store for us this year! I must first mention that is really an honor to be the first female instructor of the Islamic Sciences of Zaytuna College. It is further my honor to be teaching one of the most widely taught modern fiqh books, Fiqh al-Ibadaton the Shafii Madhhab, in Damascus where I studied the Sacred Sciences. You see, the book was written at a time when the seeking of classical Islamic knowledge had greatly dwindled and the wave of secularism had left its devastating marks on post-colonial Damascus. Perhaps the population most greatly affected by this phenomenon was the womenfolk whose already limited access to serious Islamic scholarship became virtually non-existent during this era. As the numbers of women entering college followed by graduate studies increased, the women who held on to the once rich tradition of Islamic scholarship became few and far in between.

It was in this era that Hajjah Durriah al-Aytah took on the task of studying the Sacred Sciences with hopes to reach out to the women of Syria and help in bringing back to them the relevance of studying the rulings of Allah, azza wa jal, and implementing these rulings in their daily lives. She studied fiqh at the hands of the late eminent scholar, Shaykh Abdul-Karim ar-Rifai, may Allah SWT grant him mercy. It is said that Shaykh ar-Rifai bucked the trend of his time and welcomed a group of women to study fiqh with him, the foremost of those students being Hajjah Durriah who would then author the book we are currently studying. The sources Hajjah Durriah used in compiling this book are the core, classical texts of the Shafii madhhab that she studied with Shaykh ar-Rifai'i: al-Muqademah al-Hadramiya, Sharh al-Bayjouri, Sharh al-Tahrir , Mughni al-muhtaj, Rowdat at-Talibeen , and alMajmu'.

One might ask why would she decide to write a modernized book on Shafii fiqh when she had studied the classical texts and was granted ijaza, licensing, to teach them? The answer lies in the fact that fiqh was a discipline largely neglected by people; particularly by women. She dreamed of reaching the women of Shaam, educated or not, by writing a book that conveyed the classical rulings but in language that was accessible to the modern reader. She felt that this would be the key to ensure that women studied their fard 'ayn, religiously obligatory knowledge. Surely she was gifted with Tawfiq illahi, Divine Success, for her book has not only educated the women of Damascus in the science of fiqh, but reached the entire Syrian society and beyond. The book gained so much acceptance in Syria that you can find it in just about every bookstore and on the bookshelves of students and non-students alike. In fact, it is said because of its immense popularity, publishing companies have published the book even without permission! Yet when the author would be told of these many pirated copies, she would just say that she had made du'aa that Allah accepts her work and hopes this a sign of qubool, Divine Acceptance.

The book is set up like a college textbook and suits our Zaytuna College class perfectly. It is unique in that just about every ruling is accompanied by its supporting evidence from Hadith or Quranproviding true aid to its student by giving them these references at their fingertips! Furthermore, being a female author, Hajjah Durriah has taken great measures to provide clear and in-depth discussion on rulings pertaining to female-related fiqh issues- something that is lacking in many works of fiqh. In our Zaytuna College classroom, being that we are all female in the room, its been great fun thus far to be able to discuss questions that pertain to women without any embarrassment or hesitation! I pray that the students taking this class and studying this book will carry on the tradition of its author and spread the Light of Islam on their lifes journey. I pray that our religions long lost trad ition of strong and serious female scholarship will once again resurface- at the hands of the Zaytuna College students. May Allah SWT grant us all sincere intention, elevate the status of our teachers, use us in the service of His Deen and protect the blessed lands of ash-Shaam and its people.

Islamic Law I: Introduction to Hanafi Fiqh with Imam Tahir Anwar


by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Wednesday, December 19, 2012 at 9:32pm

This class introduces the student to the foundation of Muslim law as the basis for a life of devotion and servitude to God as envisioned in the school of Imam Abu Hanifah. The students will learn about the reasons Muslim schools of law evolved and the nature and rationale of the legal schools. Students will learn the detailed rulings relating to purification (Taharah) and prayer (Salat) along with an examination of some of the textual proofs for those rulings. The class will also introduce the student to reading legal manuals in the Arabic language.

The objectives we wish to meet are the following:

To understand the foundation of sacred knowledge and the validity of following qualified scholarship; To understand how Muslim scholars classify human actions; To acquire knowledge of the details related to ritual purification, prayer and fasting along with their corresponding legal classifications in the Hanafi School; To become acquainted with the nomenclature of Islamic jurisprudence; To learn the major sources of law in the Hanafi School; To strengthen ones knowledge of the Arabic language and augment ones ability to access the primary sources.
We began our first class with a fresh group of students on August 28, 2012. In the five classes weve had so far, weve covered how the schools of fiqh evolved, the rulings (fardh, wajib, sunnah, etc.) and the entire chapter on Purification (Taharah). In Taharah, among the many subjects covered, some of them were: Types of water, Wudu, Ghusl, Tayammum and many more. As simple as they are, there are many stipulations misunderstood or unknown. Some parts were very simple, and others even came as a surprise! We also went through the biography of Imam Abu Hanifah and the great companion, Abdullah ibn Masud.

We enjoy the discussions we have in class, while the class is taking place. The questions and discussions are happening as the teaching is continuing, and makes the experience a very rich one.

The chapter on Prayer (Salah) covers everything from the times of prayer, to faraidh, waajibat, sunan, etc. to the types of prayer. By then end of these sessions, the students will look at prayer very differently, knowing each action, and understanding the reasoning behind the action. Not only will their prayer be perfected, but they will be ready to teach the perfect prayer to others.

The primary text we are using is Nur al-Idah (The Light of Clarification), authored by Hasan Shurunbulali, and translated by Wesam Charkawi.

We are also using Maraqil-Saadat (Ascent to Felicity), authored by Hasan Shurunbulali, and translated by Faraz Khan.

A text that the students are reading is Fiqh al Imam, authored by Abdur Rahman ibn Yusuf.

Jurisprudential Principles By Ustadh Abdullah bin Hamid Ali


by Zaytuna College (Notes) on Monday, February 25, 2013 at 10:43am

The semester started and by the end of the first week we still had not met for the first lesson in Islamic Jurisprudential Principles. As a student I recall the excitement involved with coming back to school, but in this case the excitement was all mine as a teacher. The reason is that it was this semester Spring 2013that I would decide to adopt all-Arabic instruction for at least one of my courses at Zaytuna College. The fact that my students were juniors meant to me that it was now time to test how useful nearly 4 years of the study of Arabic alongside other courses would pay off. It would be a real test, not only for me as a teacher and for my students. It would also be a big test for the College overall as a way of knowing just how effective our curriculum and pedagogy have been.

After my introductory session, the worry of some students was very clear. This was only natural since until now they had been studying Arabic. Now they would have to study in Arabic. What made the matter so difficult was thatas students explainedthey could not comprehend every word or phrase of mine. I reassured them that with time comprehending would become much easier as long as they were taking the time to try to read the r equired texts outside of class, look up words they dont know, and ask questions when they are confused. By the second class, the complaints were over. Better yet, students spoke of noticing a marked improvement in their ability to follow. Comparing ones self to other students is often the source of this sort of frustration. However, it usually doesnt take long for students to note similar challenges faced by even heritage speakers.

I chose to inaugurate the semester with the famous introductory text on juristic principles, known as alWaraqat (The Papers), written by the esteemed scholar Imam al-Haramayn Abd Al-Malik al-Jawayni (478 AH/1085 CE), mentor of the Proof of Islam, Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali (505 AH/1111 CE). The book is accompanied by the famous commentary of Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli (835 AH/1431 CE), coauthor of the superbly adapted Quranic gloss, Tafsir al-Jalalayn. The book offers a very good overview of Islamic jurisprudential principles and sources even though some issues apply specifically t o the Shafii School of law, as the author and commentator were both Shafiis.

Once we complete Sharh al-Waraqat, we will move onto Al-Mahsul fi Usul al-Fiqh of the Maliki judge from Seville, Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi. I chose this work after Sharh al-Waraqat, because it adds more nuance and detail to the first book, and also covers topics not mentioned in the former work. Upon completion of Al-Mahsul, our aim will then be to complete Miftah al-Wusul ila Bina al-Furu ala al-Usul of the Maliki scholar of Tlmecen, Algeria, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Tilmasani. This work is a fitting end to the semester, since it incorporates applications of the jurisprudential principles to selected rulings found in the Four Schools of Sunnism.

I must say that I am a proud teacher, not only because I am able to help students to access these works in their original language. It is also because I firmly believe that by approaching the study of Islam in America in the way that Zaytuna College is will make it the envy of both undergraduate and graduate programs in the West. Students will now know that a firm grounding in Islam can be achieved here in America, not only in the Muslim world.

Introduction to Quranic Sciences with Dr. Mahan Mirza


by Zaytuna College (Articles) on lundi 1 octobre 2012, 23:08

The Quran class is magical. Now, some of you may be offended by the association of Quran and magic, but students of rhetoric will understand that it is not intended to be literal. This lesson is best learned by reading Imam al-Ghazali's Jawahir al-Quran, or Jewels of the Quran, which the course begins with. In this work, one of the greatest scholars of Islam tells us that the Quran consists of pearls and rubies, along with many other precious minerals, substances, and gems. The allegory speaks of the Quran as a vast ocean that offers adventurous travelers the opportunity for an endless journey of discovery, with islands full of valuables and depths unfathomable. A close reading of classical texts is one of the hallmarks of a Zaytuna education. But instead of that being an end, it is, for us, only a beginning. It is the beginning of a process of reflection that brings the texts to life and makes them relevant for today.

In addition to engaging in a close reading of Imam al-Ghazali's work, students also read and discuss a more recent work that takes into account modern sensibilities, Fazlur Rahmans Major Themes of the Quran. We also cover a book that summarizes the topics of the discipline of Quranic Studies, Von Denffers Ulum al-Quran. These chapters are read in conversation with contemporary literature in Quranic studies through reference works in local libraries. In their next assignment, students are comparing the approaches to the theme of God in the Quran between Fazlur Rahman, the entry in the Encyclopaedia of the Quran, and a chapter in The Blackwell Companion to the Quran. Each of these three approach the topic from a different perspective. A class at Zaytuna is not about indoctrination. We do our best to offer a real education, where students are grounded in Islamic scholarship but also able to think for themselves.

The Quran is the ultimate source of guidance for Muslims and the greatest miracle of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). The field of Quranic Studies is vast and difficult to cover comprehensively in a lifetime, let alone in a single semester. This course, therefore, enables students to become life-long learners through systematic exposure to research methods and resources, over and above the treatment of core content. Last week, students visited the UC Berkeley library to explore reference materials and journals like the Journal of Quranic Studies. This week, we collectively pondered why Surat Ya Sin is called "the heart of the Quran." It is truly exciting to be able to study in an environment that prizes both devotion and critical thought. This lesson, too, is learned best from the Quran, where one verse (3:190) combines the activities of the heart and mind (dhikr andfikr). As I said: magical!

What is Classical Education? by Susan Wise Bauer Classical education depends on a three-part process of training the mind. The early years of school are spent in absorbing facts, systematically laying the foundations for advanced study. In the middle grades, students learn to think through arguments. In the high school years, they learn to express themselves. This classical pattern is called the trivium. The first years of schooling are called the grammar stage not because you spend four years doing English, but because these are the years in which the building blocks for all other learning are laid, just as grammar is the foundation for language. In the elementary school years what we commonly think of as grades one through four the mind is ready to absorb information. Children at this age actually find memorization fun. So during this period, education involves not self-expression and selfdiscovery, but rather the learning of facts. Rules of phonics and spelling, rules of grammar, poems, the vocabulary of foreign languages, the stories of history and literature, descriptions of plants and animals and the human body, the facts of mathematics the list goes on. This information makes up the grammar, or the basic building blocks, for the second stage of education. By fifth grade, a childs mind begins to think more analytically. Middle-school students are less interested in finding out facts than in asking Why? The second phase of the classical education, the Logic Stage, is a time when the child begins to pay attention to cause and effect, to the relationships between different fields of knowledge relate, to the way facts fit together into a logical framework. A student is ready for the Logic Stage when the capacity for abstract thought begins to mature. During these years, the student begins algebra and the study of logic, and begins to apply logic to all academic subjects. The logic of writing, for example, includes paragraph construction and learning to support a thesis; the logic of reading involves the criticism and analysis of texts, not simple absorption of information; the logic of history demands that the student find out why the War of 1812 was fought, rather than simply reading its story; the logic of science requires that the child learn the scientific method. The final phase of a classical education, the Rhetoric Stage, builds on the first two. At this point, the high school student learns to write and speak with force and originality. The student of rhetoric applies the rules of logic learned in middle school to the foundational information learned in the early grades and expresses his conclusions in clear, forceful, elegant language. Students also begin to specialize in whatever branch of knowledge attracts them; these are the years for art camps, college courses, foreign travel, apprenticeships, and other forms of specialized training. A classical education is more than simply a pattern of learning, though. Classical education is language-focused; learning is accomplished through words, written and spoken, rather than through images (pictures, videos, and television). Why is this important? Language-learning and image-learning require very different habits of thought. Language requires the mind to work harder; in reading, the brain is forced to translate a symbol (words on the page) into a concept. Images, such as those on videos and television, allow the mind to be passive. In front of a video screen, the brain can sit back and relax; faced with the written page, the mind is required to roll its sleeves up and get back to work. A classical education, then, has two important aspects. It is language-focused. And it follows a specific three-part pattern: the mind must be first supplied with facts and images, then given the logical tools for organization of facts, and finally equipped to express conclusions. But that isnt all. To the classical mind, all knowledge is interrelated. Astronomy (for example) isnt studied in isolation; its learned along with the history of scientific discovery, which l eads into the

churchs relationship to science and from there to the intricacies of medieval church history. The reading of the Odyssey leads the student into the consideration of Greek history, the nature of heroism, the development of the epic, and mans understanding of the divine. This is easier said than done. The world is full of knowledge, and finding the links between fields of study can be a mind-twisting task. A classical education meets this challenge by taking history as its organizing outline beginning with the ancients and progressing forward to the moderns in history, science, literature, art and music. We suggest that the twelve years of education consist of three repetitions of the same four-year pattern: Ancients, Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation, and Modern Times. The child studies these four time periods at varying levels simple for grades 1-4, more difficult in grades 5-8 (when the student begins to read original sources), and taking an even more complex approach in grades 912, when the student works through these time periods using original sources (from Homer to Hitler) and also has the opportunity to pursue a particular interest (music, dance, technology, medicine, biology, creative writing) in depth. The other subject areas of the curriculum are linked to history studies. The student who is working on ancient history will read Greek and Roman mythology, the tales of the Iliad and Odyssey, early medieval writings, Chinese and Japanese fairy tales, and (for the older student) the classical texts of Plato, Herodutus, Virgil, Aristotle. Shell read Beowulf, Dante, Chaucer, Shakespeare the following year, when shes studying medieval and early Renaissance history. When the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are studied, she starts with Swift (Gullivers Travels) and ends with Dickens; finally, she reads modern literature as she is studying modern history. The sciences are studied in a four-year pattern that roughly corresponds to the periods of scientific discovery: biology, classification and the human body (subjects known to the ancients); earth science and basic astronomy (which flowered during the early Renaissance); chemistry (which came into its own during the early modern period); and then basic physics and computer science (very modern subjects). This pattern lends coherence to the study of history, science, and literature subjects that are too often fragmented and confusing. The pattern widens and deepens as the student progresses in maturity and learning. For example, a first grader listens to you read the story of the Iliad from one of the picture book versions available at any public library. Four years later, the fifth grader reads one of the popular middle-grade adaptations Olivia Coolidges The Trojan War, or Roger Lancelyn Greenes Tales of Troy. Four more years go by, and the ninth grader faced with the Iliad itself plunges right in, undaunted. The classical education is, above all, systematic in direct contrast to the scattered, unorganized nature of so much secondary education. This systematic, rigorous study has two purposes. Rigorous study develops virtue in the student. Aristotle defined virtue as the ability to act in accordance to what one knows to be right. The virtuous man (or woman) can force himself to do what he knows to be right, even when it runs against his inclinations. The classical education continually asks a student to work against his baser inclinations (laziness, or the desire to watch another half hour of TV) in order to reach a goal mastery of a subject. Systematic study also allows the student to join what Mortimer Adler calls the Great Conversation the ongoing conversation of great minds down through the ages. Much modern education is so eclectic that the student has little opportunity to make connections between past events and the flood of current information. The beauty of the classical curriculum, writes classical schoolmaster David Hicks, is that it dwells on one problem, one author, or one epoch long enough to allow even the youngest student a chance to exercise his mind in a scholarly way: to make connections and to trace developments, lines of reasoning, patterns of action, recurring symbolisms, plots, and motifs.

Chapter 13
The Argumentative Child
The Pert age . . . is characterized by contradicting, answering back, liking to catch people out (especially ones elders); and by the propounding of conundrums. Its nuisance-value is extremely high. Dorothy Sayers, The Lost Tools of Learning

Somewhere around fourth grade, the growing mind begins to switch gears. The child who enjoyed rattling
off her memorized spelling rules now starts noticing all the awkward exceptions. The young historian says, But why did Alexander the Great want to conquer the whole world? The young scientist asks, What keeps the earth in orbit around the sun? The mind begins to generalize, to question, to analyzeto develop the capacity for abstract thought. In the second stage of the trivium, the student begins to connect all the facts she has learned and to discover the relationships among them. The first grader has learned that Rome fell to the barbarians; the fifth grader asks why and discovers that high taxes, corruption, and an army made up entirely of mercenaries weakened the empire. The second grader has learned that a noun names a person, place, thing, or idea; the sixth grader discovers that gerunds, infinitives, and noun clauses can also act as nouns. The third grader has learned how to multiply two-digit numbers together to produce an answer; the seventh grader asks, What if I have only one two-digit number and an answer? Can I discover the missing number if I call it x ? Now its time for critical thinking. Critical thinking skills has become the slogan of educators from kindergarten through high school. Criticalthinking books, software, and curricula abound. Catastrophe is predicted for children who miss out on this vital training. Are you going to wait until schools teach thinking directly? asks the back cover of one critical-thinking tome. That may be too late for your children. But what are these critical thinking skills, and how are they to be taught? A quick look through education materials reveals certain phrases popping up again and again: higherorder thinking, problem solving, metacognitive strategies. All these boil down to one simple concept: critical thinking means that the student stops absorbing facts uncritically and starts to ask Why?: Why do you multiply the tops and bottoms of fractions? Why did the North and South really go to war? Why do scientists believe that nothing can go faster than the speed of light? Why do words that begin with pre- all have to do with something that comes before? How do we know that water boils at two hundred twelve degrees Fahrenheit? The student who has mastered higher-order thinking and problem-solving techniques doesnt simply memorize a formula. (To find the area of a square, multiply the length of a side by itself.) Instead, she memorizes the formula and then figures out why it works. (Hmmm . . . the sides of a square are the same, so the area inside the square is always going to measure the same horizontally and vertically. Thats why I multiply the side by itself.) Once she knows why the formula works, she can extrapolate from it to cover other situations. (How would I find the area of a triangle? Well, this triangle is like half a square . . . so if I multiply this side by itself, Ill get the area of a square . . . and then if I take half of that, Ill know how much area the triangle covers. The area of a triangle is this side, times itself, times one-half.) Some critical-thinking advocates suggest that thinking skills can somehow replace the acquisition of specific knowledge. Traditional teaching is referred to, with scorn, as mere fact assimilation or rote memorization, an outdated mode of learning that should be replaced with classes in learning to think. The popular teachers journal Education Week defines critical thinking as the mental process of acquiring information, then evaluating it to reach a logical conclusion or answer, and adds, Increasingly, educators believe that schools should focus more on critical thinking than on memorization of facts.1 But you shouldnt consider critical thinking and fact gathering to be mutually exclusive activities. Critical thinking cant be taught in isolation (or directly, as the above quote from a critical-thinking manual

suggests). You cant teach a child to follow a recipe without actually providing butter, sugar, flour, and salt; piano skills cant be taught without a keyboard. And your new focus on the whys and wherefores doesnt mean that your child will no longer learn facts. A math student cant think critically about how to find the area of a triangle unless she already knows the formula for finding the area of a square. A fifth grader cant analyze the fall of Rome until she knows the facts about Romes decay. So we wont be simply recommending workbooks that claim to develop isolated critical-thinking skills. Instead, as we cover each of the subjects math, language, science, history, art, musicwell offer specific instructions on how to teach your middle schooler to evaluate, to trace connections, to fit facts into a logical framework, and to analyze the arguments of others. The middle-grade student still absorbs information. But instead of passively accepting this information, shell be interacting with itdeciding on its value, its purpose, and its place in the scheme of knowledge.

BUILDING ON THE FOUNDATION


The poll-parrot stage has prepared the middle-grade student for the logic stage in two important ways. First, the middle-grade student should no longer be struggling with the basic skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. A child must read fluently and well before entering the logic stage; the student who still battles her way through a sentence cannot concentrate on what that sentence means. The logic-stage student will write extensively as she evaluates, analyzes, and draws conclusions; the study of grammar and punctuation will continue through high school, but the basic mechanics of spelling, comma placement, capitalization, and sentence construction should no longer act as barriers to expression. The middle-grade child will begin to think of mathematics in terms of concepts and ideas; she cant do this unless the basic facts of arithmetic are rock solid in her mind. Second, the student has already been exposed to the basics of history, science, art, music, and other subjects. Now she has a framework of knowledge that will allow her to think critically. On pages 221225, we discussed the differences between parts-to-whole and whole-to-parts instruction. When you taught bugs in first grade, you used parts-to-whole instruction. You got out all the pictures of bugs (or used actual bugs) and described the five different types of legs and feet. Then you asked the child to tell you what she just heard, to point out the different types of legs, to write a sentence or draw a picture. In other words, you taught the bits of informationthe partsto the child and then helped her to assemble them into a whole. The middle grader has already learned something about bugs, though. And her mind has matured and developed beyond the need for spoon-feeding. In the middle grades, youll move toward a whole-to-parts method of teachingpresenting the student with a piece of information or a phenomenon and asking her to analyze it. When you study biology with a fifth grader, you lay out a trayful of insects and ask: What differences do you see between these legs and those? How would you describe each leg? What function does each have? In the following chapters, well guide you through this type of teaching in the middle-grade curriculum.

LOGIC AND THE TRIVIUM


A classical education isnt a matter of tacking logic and Latin onto a standard fifth-grade curriculum. Rather, logic trains the mind to approach every subject in a particular wayto look for patterns and sets of relationships in each subject area. But formal logic is an important part of this process. The systematic study of logic provides the beginning thinker with a set of rules that will help her to decide whether or not she can trust the information shes receiving. This logic will help her ask appropriate questions: Does that conclusion follow the facts as I know them? What does this word really mean? Am I using it accurately? Is this speaker sticking to the point, or is he trying to distract me with irrelevant remarks? Why is this person trying to convince me of this fact? Why dont I believe this argumentwhat do I have at stake? What other points of view on this subject exist? These are questions that very young minds cannot grapple with. A seven year old has difficulty in understanding that (for example) a public figure might twist the facts to suit himself, or that a particular text

might not be trustworthy because of the writers bias, or that newspaper reports might not be accurate. But in the expanding universe of the middle-grade child, these questions will begin to make sense. You may find yourself indebted to formal logic as well. Any parent of a fifth grader should be able to point out such logical fallacies as the argumentum ad nauseam (the incorrect belief that an assertion is likely to be accepted as true if it is repeated over and over again) and the argumentum ad populum (if everyones doing it, it must be okay).

LOGIC IN THE CURRICULUM


In language, the logic-stage student will begin to study syntaxthe logical relationships among the parts of a sentence. Shell learn the art of diagramming (drawing pictures of those relationships). The grammarstage student wrote compositions that summarized informationhow the Egyptians wrote, the important battles of the Civil War, the life of George Washington. Now, compositions will begin to focus on questions of motivation, of historical development, of debated fact. How did picture language such as hieroglyphics develop into written language? What were the real causes of the Civil War? Why did George Washington keep slaves? Logic-stage students will also begin to read literature more critically, looking for character and plot development. Properly speaking, grammar-stage math is concerned with arithmetic adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing actual numbers. Arithmetic isnt theoretical. Arithmetic problems can be worked out in apples and oranges and pieces of bread. But in the second stage of the trivium, the student begins mathematics properthe study of the many different relationships between numbers, both real and theoretical (negative numbers, for example). In other words, arithmetic is the foundation for mathematics proper. History in the logic stage will take on a new character. The student will still be responsible for dates and places, but youll encourage her to dig deeper into the motivations of leaders, into the relationships between different cultures that existed at the same time, into forms of government and causes of war. Morality should become a matter of discussion as well. Was this action (this war, this threat) justified? Why? The study of art and music at this point will become synchronized with the study of history. The student will learn about broad developments in society and culture, and will try to understand how these are reflected in the creative works of the times.

HOW TO TEACH THE LOGIC STAGE


For you, the teacher, the teaching process will change slightly. In first through fourth grades, your focus was on memorizationon the learning of rules, dates, stories, and scientific facts. You told the student what she needed to learn, either by reading to her or by giving her a little lecture, and you expected her to be able to repeat that information back to you. You used narration and notebook pages to bring this about. Now, you wont be feeding the child with a spoon. Youll be asking her to dig a little deeper, to do more discovering on her own. Instead of lecturing, youll concentrate on carrying on a dialogue with your child, a conversation in which you guide her toward the correct conclusions, while permitting her to find her own way. Youll allow the child to disagree with your conclusions, if she can support her points with the facts. And youll expect her not simply to repeat what shes read, but to rework the material to reflect her own thoughts. Once shes done this, shell have learned the material once and for all. Here, one-to-one tutoring has an obvious advantage over the large public-school classroom. Classrooms encourage children to answer questions set to them; one-on-one instruction encourages children to formulate their own questions and then pursue the answers. Even the most dedicated teacher cant allow a class of thirty to dialogue their way to comprehensionthe noise would be overwhelming. As the logic stage progresses, youll be using more and more original sources, steering away from textbooks. Many textbooks are boring. And most present information in a way thats actively incompatible with the intent of the logic stage. History, for example, is often given as a series of incontrovertible facts. As Neil Postman observes, there is usually no clue given as to who claimed these are the facts of the case . . . no sense of the frailty or ambiguity of human judgment, no hint of the possibilities of error.2 A textbook leaves nothing for the child to investigate or question; it leaves no connections for the student to discover. How do you guide this journey toward discovery?

Start with logic. In the next chapter, well introduce you to the formal study of logic. In the chapters that follow, well guide you in applying the categories and structures of logic to the various subjects. We cover logic and mathematics first; then, since the middle-grade humanities curriculum is structured around the logic of history, we present history before continuing on to reading, writing, grammar, science, foreign languages, art, and music.

PRIORITIES
The logic-stage student is doing much more independent work than the grammar-stage student and is requiring much less one-on-one attention from you. Home-educated students typically spend an hour in self-directed work for every ten minutes of parental tutoring. Because of this new time economy, and because the student has now mastered the most basic elements of reading, writing, and math, youll find that youre able to cover more material. Language, mathematics, logic, history, and science are staples of the logic stage; art and music should be pursued, if possible. While you wont need to do as much one-on-one teaching with the student, maintain close supervision. Every home-schooling parent has made the mistake of handing a textbook off to a seemingly mature seventh grader only to find at Christmas that two lessons had been completed. Check assignments on a weekly basis. By the middle grades, students will often develop a particular fondness for one subject (or a loathing for another). Because home education is flexible, you can structure your academic day to allow a child to follow an interest. If, for example, your seventh grader acquires a passion for King Arthur, let her follow the knights of the Round Table throughout literature and history for several months; dont insist that she move to the Reformation right on schedule. At the same time, though, do insist that the student keep up in each subject area. Dont let math slide for history, or foreign language for math. Its too early for the child to develop a speciality; she still hasnt been exposed to the full range of possibilities.
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Critical Thinking, Education Week on the Web, www.edweek.org. Neil Postman, The End of Education: Redefining the Value of Schools (New York: Knopf, 1995), p. 115.

Chapter 24
Speaking Your Mind: The Rhetoric Stage
It is absurd to hold that a man should be ashamed of an inability to defend himself with his limbs, but not ashamed of an inability to defend himself with speech and reason; for the use of rational speech is more distinctive of a human being than the use of his limbs. Aristotle, Rhetoric

SUBJECT: Rhetoric and debate TIME REQUIRED: 3 hours per week in grades 9 and 10, plus time spent in extracurricular debate activities

Rhetoric is the art of expression. During the rhetoric stagegrades 9 through 12, the
traditional high-school yearsthe student learns to express herself with fluency, grace, elegance, and persuasiveness. Since self-expression is one of the greatest desires of adolescence, high-school students should have training in the skills of rhetoric so that they can say, clearly and convincingly, whats on their minds. Without these skills, the desire for self-expression is frustrated. Expression itself becomes inarticulate. External objects clothes, jewelry, tattoos, hairstylesassume an exaggerated value as the clearest forms of self-expression possible. To a certain extent, Aristotle writes in Rhetoric, the classic text on the subject, all men attempt to discuss statements and to maintain them, to defend themselves and to attack others. Ordinary people do this either at random, or through practice and from acquired habit. The study of rhetoric is designed to make success in speech a matter of skill and practice, not accident.
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A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE RHETORIC STAGE Rhetoric is dependent upon the first two stages of the trivium. The grammar stage laid a foundation of knowledge; without knowledge, the rhetorician has nothing of substance to say. The logic stage taught the student to think through the validity of arguments, to weigh the value of evidence. In the rhetoric stage, the student uses knowledge and the skill of logical argument to write and speak about all the subjects in the curriculum. The last four years of classical education stress expression and flexibility. The student expresses herself by continually writing and speaking about what shes learning. At first, rhetoric is a specific subject for study, just as logic was during the middle grades. But the skills acquired in the study of rhetoric are then exercised in history, science, and literature. In the last two years of schooling, the student will undertake two major writing projects in an area of her own choice, which will show her mastery of rhetoric as well as her skills. Flexibility becomes paramount as the student pursues her junior and senior writing projects. These demand a great deal of time and effort. When the high schooler decides on the fields shell study in depth, other subjects in which she has already received a good basic grounding will fade into the background. Those who are likely never to have any great use

or aptitude for mathematics, writes Dorothy Sayers in The Lost Tools of Learning, [should] be allowed to rest, more or less, upon their oars. The same can be said for languages and for highly technical aspects of the sciences. Twelve years of schooling arent sufficient for a student to complete her studies in a particular field of knowledge anyway. But even though the student may not finish twelfth grade with a comprehensive grasp of science or history, she will know how to learna skill that she can use for the rest of her life. A third distinctive characteristic of the rhetoric stage is its focus on great books. History and literature meld together as the student reads the works of great minds, from ancient Greece to the present day. Great books are rhetoric in action; their persuasion has stood times test. As the high schooler studies the rhetoric of classic authors, she analyzes the force of their arguments. Great books provide historical perspective on the accepted truths of our own age; they can prevent the student from swallowing the rhetoric of modern-day orators undigested.
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THE STUDY OF RHETORIC


During the rhetoric stage, the student will study the principles of self-expression and exercise them in both writing and speech, using modern texts that build on the classical foundations. The study of rhetoric involves developing skill in five areas, or canons: inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria, and pronuntiatio. The first three of these apply to both written and spoken rhetoric, while memoria and pronuntiatio apply specifically to debate and speechmaking. Inventio, invention, is the process of formulating an argument and gathering all the supporting evidence. It requires both logic and knowledge. In essay writing, inventio occurs when you select a thesis and research it, lining up all the proof needed to make your thesis convincing. Dispositio is the skill of putting all that information into persuasive order. The way you present an argument depends on a slew of factorsthe makeup of the audience, the setting youll be arguing in, the emotional effect various types of information might produce, and so on. Dispositio teaches you to arrange all your evidence in the most convincing way. (The question of whether this is also the best and truest way is a source of tension within the study of rhetoric, which continually brings ethical issues to the fore.) Elocutio, elocution, teaches you how to evaluate the words you use when you give your argument. Which words will most clearly reveal the truth? (Alternately, which words will produce the desired emotions in the listener?) Which types of metaphors, parallelisms, figures of speech should you use? How can you structure your sentences for maximum effect? For debate, youll also need skills in memoria (memorizing important points or entire speeches) and pronuntiatio (effective methods of delivering the speech). Rhetoric, Aristotle tells us, leads to fair-mindedness. The student of rhetoric must be able to argue persuasively on both sides of an issue, not in order to convince his audience of that which is wrong, but in order that we may see clearly what the facts are. And this is true for every subject in which rhetoric is employed. Rhetoric, Aristotle concludes, is universal.
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HOW TO DO IT

During ninth and tenth grades (seconde et premre), the student should study rhetoric during those hours previously devoted to logic. Plan on three hours per week, divided into two sessions of one and a half hours each or three sessions of one hour each. Beginning in ninth grade, the student will work her way through three texts: 1. Anthony Westons A Rulebook for Arguments, an introduction to rhetoric that provides a quick review of logic as applied to written essays; 2. Thomas S. Kanes The New Oxford Guide to Writing; 3. and finally Edward Corbetts Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. This study will cover at least two years, and may occupy all four of the high-school years. As with other advanced subjects, you can use a tutor or online tutorial for the study of rhetoric. However, good readers should be able to pursue this study independently by following this pattern: 1. Read a section in A Rulebook for Arguments. 2. Outline the content of the text. 3. Provide two examples of the texts lesson, either from someone elses rhetoric or of your own creation. The ninth grader using A Rulebook for Arguments will encounter, at the end of Chapter 4, a section entitled Personal attacks do not disqualify a source. Westons text reads:
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(17) Personal attacks do not disqualify a source. Supposed authorities may be disqualified if they are not informed, impartial, or largely in agreement. Other sorts of attacks on authorities are not legitimate. Ludwig von Mises describes a series of illegitimate attacks on the economist Ricardo: In the eyes of the Marxians the Ricardian theory is spurious because Ricardo was a bourgeois. The German racists condemn the same theory because Ricardo was a Jew, and the German nationalists because he was an Englishman. . . . Some German professors advanced all three arguments together against the validity of Ricardos teaching. This is the ad hominem fallacy: attacking the person of an authority rather than his or her qualifications. Ricardos class, religion, and nationality are irrelevant to the possible truth of his theories. To disqualify him as an authority, those German professors have to show that his evidence was incompletethat is, they have to show that his judgments were not fully informedor that he was not impartial, or that other equally reputable economists disagree with his findings. Otherwise, personal attacks only disqualify the attacker!
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A good outline of this passage might look like this:


I. An authority can be attacked for three reasons. A. Not being informed. B. Not being impartial. C. Being out of agreement with most other authorities. II. An authority cannot be attacked for his person. A. This is the ad hominem fallacy. B. Class, religion, nationality, or other personal attacks are irrelevant. C. Ad hominem attacks disqualify the attacker.

The student would follow this by finding two examples of ad hominem attacks in a political speech (a depressingly easy exercise) or by writing her own ad hominem refutation of something shes read. Either exercise will show that she understands the concept. When the student turns to The New Oxford Guide to Writing, shell follow a slightly different pattern. Each chapter is divided into sections with bold-print headings; these sections are then divided further by subheadings in regular type. The students first step should be to outline the chapter. In most cases, the student should probably construct one outline for each chapter, with bold headings generally treated as major outline points.

However, she shouldnt feel obliged to make the subheadings into outline points as well. For example, Chapter 16, Paragraph Development: Cause and Effect, is divided into the following headings and subheadings: Cause Ordering Reasons within a Paragraph Effects Multiple Effects Cause and Effect A good outline of this chapter might look like this: I. Cause. A. Explaining why is a major purpose of writing. B. The simplest strategy: ask Why and then give the answer. C. A writer may also choose to give cause and effect implicitly, without using the word Why. II. How to write a paragraph containing reasons for a cause. A. Give a single reason and repeat it or expand it. B. Arrange several reasons in order. 1. If each reason causes the next, this is serial order. 2. If the reasons are independent of each other, they are parallel. a. Parallel reasons that have an order in time should be listed chronologically. b. Otherwise, they should be listed from least to most important. II. How to write a paragraph containing the effects or consequences of a cause. A. The cause should be found in the topic sentence. B. The effects should be found in the rest of the paragraph. 1. There may be a single effect. 2. There may be more than one effect. a. The effects may be independent of each other. b. Or each effect may actually be the cause of the next. Kane gives clear examples of each kind of paragraph. After outlining the chapter (an exercise which may take the whole week or perhaps longer, for more detailed chapters), the student should complete the practice exercises at each chapters end. For example, Chapter 16 ends with several practice exercises, the first involving analysis (Analyze the cause-effect relationship in the following paragraph) and the next two involving composition (Compose a single paragraph developing three or four reasons to support one of the following topics: The enormous increase in the cost of housing, the contemporary mania for exercise, the expansion of professional sports in the last twenty-five years . . . , etc.). While the student should generally do the analysis exercises as written, she should always feel free to substitute her own topics (perhaps drawn from her study of history, science, or another subject) for those suggested by Kane. When completing these exercises, she should make an effort to use all of the different techniques described by Kane in the chapter. Some of the chapters have no practice exercises. In this case, the student should provide an example for each technique described in the chapter, either from someone elses rhetoric or of her own creation. After working through Kane, the student will have a good grasp of the basics of written rhetoric. Students who are putting a high level of effort into the study of upper-level

mathematics or science may need to end their study of rhetoric here in order to have enough time to specialize. However, most students (and all those interested in the humanities) should go on to the final rhetoric text: Edward Corbetts Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student (4th edition). Corbetts six-chapter study of rhetoric uses models ranging from Socrates to Rachel Carson to teach students the art of persuasion. The student should begin by simply reading the first chapter, Introduction, carefully. The second chapter, Discovery of Arguments, deals with inventio, choosing a topic for writing (in Corbetts words, how to discover something to say on some given subject). The chapter is quite long (over 200 pages!) and should be outlined, section by section (the sections are set off by bold-print headings). After outlining, the student should either give a written example or (where provided) complete the Practice provided by Corbett. For example, after outlining Formulating a Thesis, the student should choose a general topic, ask three questions about it (Corbett writes that you should define a topic for argument by asking whether you intend to prove that the topic is a fact, to define it, or to show what kind of thing it isthree classic strategies for narrowing the subject of an argument), and then state a thesis in a single declarative sentence. Most students will need a month or more to work through this chapter. The following chapters are not quite as lengthy; the student should follow the same basic procedure in working through them. The fifth chapter, The Progymnasmata, walks students through a set of writing exercises which have long been used in classical tutorials to develop writing skills; the student begins by retelling a folktale and then continues, writing a narrative, explaining an anecdote, arguing for or against a proverb (a maxim or adage), and so on through the final step of the progymnasmata, the legislation, in which the student argues for or against the goodness of a law. These exercises will ask the student to put into practice all of the skills learned throughout the book, and will give her all the tools needed for the junior and senior projects (see Chapter 33). The final chapter, A Survey of Rhetoric, can be simply read for information or can be skipped. Note: Evaluation of these writing exercises can sometimes present a challenge. The resources suggested earlier (see Chapter 17) can help you; also, remember that writing is a subjective activity and that even expert writing teachers can differ over whether a particular assignment is well-done or incompetent. Often, there is no right answer to a writing assignment. However, if youd like some additional help in evaluating your high school students writing, consider one of the following options: (1) Cindy Marschs Writing Assessment Services (www.writingassess ment.com) offers an online evaluation program for home-school students. (2) Call your local private or parochial school and ask whether the composition teacher would be willing to evaluate your students work. Make sure that you take the rhetoric text with you, so that the teacher knows the principles the student is trying to put into place. Generally, offering an honorarium of $40.00$50.00 for an evaluation session is a nice gesture. (3) Call the secretary of the English department at your local university or community college and ask whether any of the writing teachers might be willing to evaluate your students papers; the same honorarium is acceptable. Note: To complete the above rhetoric study, students should be skilled at outlining. This skill is covered in the grammar programs we recommend in Chapters 17 and 25. If necessary, the rhetoric-stage student can return to these resources.
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For Further Study

Students who wish to continue the study of rhetoric as a specialization and particularly those with an interest in political rhetoricwill benefit from Martin Cothrans Classical Rhetoric with Aristotle: Traditional Principles of Speaking and Writing. This thirty-three-week rhetoric course is based on the reading and analysis of Aristotles Rhetoric, a foundational ancient text on the subject. It also includes a useful teachers key, reading exercises from Mortimer Adlers classic How to Read a Book, and exercises to reinforce Latin and logic skills (these are optional). The rhetoric course outlined above is focused more toward preparation for college writing; Cothrans course is a more traditional ancient rhetoric course, in that it gives equal preparation for speaking and writing and also focuses on the motivations of the men (and women) who seek to persuade. Alternatives The program weve outlined above walks the student through foundational training in rhetoric; the texts we recommend are based on the model of the progymnasmata, the training exercises used in classical rhetoric, and the skills covered will equip the high school student to write persuasive essays. However, some parents may feel the need for a more structured curriculuma writing programparticularly for students who continue to struggle with writing, or who have come out of a classroom situation and are not yet used to working independently. (Students who are not yet writing on a high school level should spend at least two years in one of the curricula recommended for logic-stage writing in Chapter 17 before moving on to our rhetoricstage recommendations). If youd prefer to investigate a structured curriculum, we suggest two options: 1. The Institute for Excellence in Writing (see Chapter 17, p. 358) now offers a one-year rhetoric course, Classical Rhetoric through Structure and Style: Writing Lessons Based on the Progymnasmata. IEW also offers an Advanced Communication Series DVD set, intended for high school persuasive writing, and a College-Bound Student Package, which includes a seminar on DVD plus a fourteen-week program during which students practice writing SAT-type essays as well as the dreaded personal experience essays for college applications. The courses assume previous experience with the IEW Teaching Writing: Structure and Style program. Students and parents who have already completed at least one year of the IEW course could progress through the Advanced Communication Series set, theClassical Rhetoric through Structure and Style curriculum, and then the College-Bound Student Package. Depending on the students ease with writing, this is a two- to three-year progression; the final high school year(s) could then be spent on Anthony Westons text and the New Oxford Guide to Writing, as described above. Students and parents who have not used IEW before should complete one year of Teaching Writing: Structure and Style before beginning the Advanced Communication Series. 2. Classical Writing (see Chapter 17, p. 359), based on the exercises of theprogymnasmata, is an option for experienced home-school parents or parents who feel comfortable with the writing process. Students who have not used this program can begin with the first level, Aesop and Homer for Older Beginners, and can then move intoDiogenes: Maxim and Diogenes: Chreia. Although upper levels are not yet available, you can check the Classical Writing website (www.classicalwriting.com) for more information.

The curriculum makes very effective use of classical teaching techniques; imitation of good writers is at the center of the method, students are encouraged to incorporate grammar learning, spelling, and editing skills into the daily lessons, and the program develops the specific writing skills needed to tackle Great Books study. However, the lessons are complex and require the parent to be comfortable with grammar, spelling, vocabulary, and writing; the parent is responsible for planning the sessions and directing the integration of grammar and vocabulary learning into the lessons. You can view sample lessons at the Classical Writing website.

DEBATE
Involvement in a debate club or society provides invaluable, hands-on training in rhetoric. If at all possible, find a local debate society, and enroll your ninth grader in it. Try to pursue debate throughout ninth and tenth grades. If the eleventh grader no longer wants to take part, debate can then be dropped from the curriculumit has served its purpose. Your local university or college is a good starting place. Call the theater department, which is generally connected with the debate club because debate is a spoken performance. Ask who coaches the debate team. Once youve found the coach, explain what youre doing, list the rhetoric texts youre using, and ask how your ninth grader can practice debating skills. The coach may invite the student to sit in on the college sessions. At the very least, he should be able to direct you to an age-appropriate debate group nearby. You can also call a parochial school, if you happen to have a good one nearby. Ask for the debate-team coach, and explain your situation. Some private schools welcome home schoolers to extracurricular clubs. Finally, you can call your state home-education organization (see pages 722742) and ask about debate clubs for home schoolers. More and more of these are popping up. The quality of the coaching tends to be mixed you can end up with anyone from an overworked parent whos never studied rhetoric to a moonlighting university professor. Ask about the qualifications of the coach before you commit. But these groups are often very resourceful, mounting regular competitions and even statewide championships for home schoolers.

SCHEDULES
Ninth grade 3 hours per week Extracurricular A Rulebook for Arguments (914 weeks); The New Oxford Guide to Writing (remainder of the year). Debate club. Complete The New Oxford Guide, begin Corbett, Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. Debate club.

Tenth grade Eleventh and twelfth grades

3 hours per week Extracurricular

3 hours per week

Continue with Corbett until finished.

RESOURCES
For publisher and catalog addresses, telephone numbers, and other information, see Sources (pages 749776). Most books can be obtained from any bookstore or library; where we know of a mail-order option, we have provided it

Rhetoric
Corbett, Edward P. J., and Robert J. Connors. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. $69.95. Order from any bookstore. This is available only in hardback and is rarely discounted, but you can often find used copies through www.abebooks.com.

Cothran, Martin. Classical Rhetoric with Aristotle: Traditional Principles of Speaking and Writing. Louisville, Ky.: Memoria Press, 2002. $39.95 for coursebook, $4.95 for teachers key. Order from Memoria Press. Kane, Thomas S. The New Oxford Guide to Writing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. $19.95. Order from any bookstore. Marsch, Cindy. Writing Assessment Services. www.writingassessment.com. Weston, Anthony. A Rulebook for Arguments. 3d ed. Indianapolis, Ind.: Hackett, 2000. $6.95. Order from any bookstore.

Debate
The National Forensic League (www.nflonline.org) provides manuals, forums, support, and links for debaters and debate societies. 125 Watson Street, Ripon, Wisc. 54971; (920) 7489478. The National Christian Forensics and Communications Association (www.ncfca.org) was founded by the Christian homeeducation advocacy group Home School Legal Defense Association (HSLDA). P.O. Box 212, Mountlake Terrace, Wash. 98043; (425) 7763620. NCFCA provides coaching and how-to resources for would-be debate teams; seehttp://www .ncfca.org/resources/books_and_materials. If youre inspired to start your own debate club, look for these useful titles through any bookstore: Freeley, Austin J. Argumentation and Debate, 12th ed. Boston, Mass.: Wadsworth Publishing, 2008. $119.95. Comprehensive survey of argumentation and debate, with mod els, scenarios, and guides for real-life situations. Oberg, Brent C. Forensics: The Winners Guide to Speech Contests. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Meriwether Publishing, 1995. $17.95. A guide to debate, specifically geared toward competition skills. Phillips, Leslie, William S. Hicks, and Douglas R. Springer. Basic Debate, 5th ed. New York: Glencoe/McGrawHill, 2005. $50.64. A standard hardcover textbook on the subject.

Alternative Resources
Classical Writing. The Classical Writing website provides an Email contact and message board, but no physical address or phone number. You can purchase texts from Classical Writing, through print-on-demand from Lulu.com, or from Rainbow Resource Center. The texts are listed below in order of use; each level is approximately one years worth of work and consists of a core book and student workbooks or guides. The first two levels also require the purchase of a separate instructors guide. Aesop & Homer for Older Beginners. Aesop core book. $20.95. Homer core book. $34.95. Student Workbook for Older Beginners. Visit website for pricing. Instructors Guide for Older Beginners. Visit website for pricing.

Diogenes: Maxim. Diogenes: Maxim core book. $26.96. Student Guide. $26.95.

Visit the Classical Writing website for pricing information and more information on the following advanced courses: Diogenes: Chreia. Diogenes: Chreia core book. Student Guide.

Herodotus. Herodotus core book. Herodotus Student Guide and Answer Key.

Institute for Excellence in Writing series. Atascadero, Calif.: Institute for Excellence in Writing. Order from IEW. Advanced Communication Series $65.00. 3DVD seminar and student Ebook. Classical Rhetoric through Structure and Style: Writing Lessons Based on the Progymnasmata. $29.00. Student Text. CollegeBound Student Package $179.00. Worksheets, text, and DVDs.

Teaching Writing: Structure and Style. $169.00 Prerequisite to the advanced levels; video seminar instructs parents on how to teach writing. The package includes 10 DVDs and a workbook/syllabus.
Susan has a completely unscientific theory about thisshe believes that students who are skilled in rhetoric will never feel the need for a tongue stud. 2 Aristotle, Rhetoric I.i. 3 Dorothy Sayers, The Lost Tools of Learning, in Douglas Wilson, Recovering the Lost Tools of Learning (Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway, 1991), p. 161. 4 Aristotle, Rhetoric I.1. 5 Ibid., I.2. 6 Students who begin the classical pattern later should finish one year of logic before beginning the study of rhetoric. 7 L. von Mises, Human Action (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963), p. 75. 8 Anthony Weston, A Rulebook for Arguments (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1992), pp. 3536. 9 Edward Corbett and Robert J. Connors, Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student, 4th ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 2731.
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Le systme ducatif amricain Pre-School, Nursery School ou Head Start (cole maternelle) : de 3 5 ans Elementary School ou Grade School (cole lmentaire, cole primaire) Kindergarten (jardin d'enfant) : 5-6 1st Grade : 6-7 2nd Grade : 7-8 3rd Grade : 8-9 4th Grade : 9-10 5th Grade : 10-11 Middle School ou Junior High School (premier cycle du secondaire) 6th Grade : 11-12 (parfois cette classe est assure par les coles lmentaires) 7th Grade : 12-13 8th Grade : 13-14 High school 9th Grade (dite Freshman year (premire anne) : 14-15 (parfois cette classe est assure par les middle schools) 10th Grade (dite Sophomore year (deuxime anne) : 15-16 11th Grade (dite Junior year (secondaire) : 16-17 12th Grade (dite Senior year (cycle suprieur) : 17-18 7 College( ) ou University Undergraduate (tudiant universitaire prparant une licence) College ou University (facult) Cycle de 4 ans dbouchant sur un Bachelor of Arts (BA), un Bachelor of Science (BS) ou dautres diplmes comme un Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA) par exemple. Community college (communaut universitaire) Lower division (division infrieure), cycle de 2 ans dbouchant sur un diplme dAssociate of Arts (AA). Upper division (division suprieure), cycle de 2 ans dbouchant sur un BA, un BS ou dautres diplmes comme un Bachelor of Technology (BT) par exemple. Postgraduate (tudiant de troisime cycle) Cycle de 1 3 ans dbouchant sur un master : Master of Arts (MA), Master of Science (MS) ou sur dautres diplmes tels quun Master of Education (MEd) ouMaster of Fine Arts (MFA). 8 Postgraduate dans les universits nationales Cycle de 3 ans ou plus dbouchant sur un doctorat : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Doctor of Arts, Doctor of Theology, Doctor of Medicine ou Juris Doctor [law degree]); un doctorat peut aussi tre obtenu aprs au moins deux ans d'tudes suivant un master.

The Ten Foundations of Logic

1. Definition ??? 2. Object ??? 3. Subject The subject of Logic covers the three operations of the mind: conceptualization judgment reasoning through argumentation or demonstration 1. conceptualization conceptualization (or understanding) is the grasping of concepts which involves definition. Indeed, you need to understand something before you can define it.
As people dedicated to epistemological realism, we believe that we can actually understand the world and that our experience of reality is true (even though we can be fooled : ex. we see the sun moving across the sky (geocentric) while in reality it is the earth which is spinning on the solar (heliocentric)). Geometry is to mathematics what logic is to language

2. judgement (tasdq) once you have understood the concepts, you can put them together either by affirming or negating through a subject (mawdu) and a predicate (maHml ?). It involves propositions. 3. Reasonning (burhan) demonstration is the most powerful form of argument If you get those three, then youve grasped what logic is about.

4. Benefit the fruit of logic: According to Ghazali, logic is a propedutic science: Logic is an introduction to all knowledge, and the one who has not mastered it cannot be relied upon for his knowledge at all. (mustashfa) Its greatest benefit derives from the clarity of thought and sound reasoning skills it engenders in one trained in its art coupled with more effective oral and written communication . (for ex. it helps us define things) 5. Topics

Topics and subjects our almost considered in our culture synonyms. A topic can be a subject and vice versa. subject can be looked as the overarching rubric and topics are the things that fall under. ex. of topucs of formal/minor/petite logic: simple apprehension: this is the foundation of a concept: you grasp something. Once you grasp what a glass is as a universal concept, you can bring any type of glass if I ask you to bring me a glass bc you got the universal concept of glass. No matter what the languages, the concept does not change; the only thing is that the concept of the glass is called verre in my mind, while in my mind it is called badak. In sum, the universal concept is the s imple apprehension; the term is whats called wujud al-lafdhi definition (had; qawl ash-shariH): knowing what the genes and the difference is. Which is not always easy to differentiate between a property, or an accident and a different. That is how we define things. For instance government is a genes which has different species democracy , tyranny, oligarchy, etc. ;these all share the same genes government but they are different : divisions : how you divide. wine glass is a type of division, cup, etc etc. (cf. list below)

The topics of Minor or Formal Logic consist of : Simple Apprehensions, Concepts, Terms, Definitions, Divisions, Judgments, Propositions, and their varieties, such as Simple and Compound, Affirmative and Negative, Categorical, Hypothetical, and Modal, Opposition and Conversion, Reasoning, the Syllogism and its Divisions, and finally Induction. Material or Major Logic deals with the contents of Syllogisms and involves : Categories, the Five Predicables, the Five Arts, Logical Fallacies, and Topics. Categories : they are ten (essence, quality(size), quantity, time, place, position, etc. These are the categories in which every existent thing fall under except God. The Five Predicables (al-fadhl khamsa) : genus (jins), species (nu), difference (fasl), property (khsa), accident (arad). The Five Arts (sinaat al-khams) : the ways that we argue. burhan, shir, mujarrabat, Logical Fallacies Topics : things that we use in the arguments. compare, contrast, etc. It is related to rhetoric.

6. Sources Logic does not derive its sources from any other science. It is the singular introductory science, and its sources are observation and intuition. Logics basic tools are intuited concepts and the concomitant propositions that stem from them. Concepts involve the minds abstraction of universals from particulars, which enables definition. Propositions involve composing or separating concepts in a subject/predicate form upon which judgment is based. These two operations of the mind are how we reason deductively or inductively in the third act of the mind: argument or demonstration. These three mental operations are the sources of Logic , which is essentially an analytical inquiry into these acts of the mind, which enable us to reason soundly and avoid the pitfalls common to an untrained mind. Its sources and foundations, such as the Laws of Identity, Non-Contradiction, and the Excluded Middle are rooted in self-evident truths that is, any truth the opposite of which is impossible to conceive.

Law of Identity Non-Contradiction Law of the Excluded Middle

things are what they are. A is A and A is not not A. sthg cannot be and not be at the same time. Amjad cannot be Amjad and Asad at the same time. there is no middle position such as it is either A or its not A . It has to be one or the other.

These three laws (laws of identity, non-contradiction and excluded middle) are the axioms of logic. One cannot understand logic without them. They are intuitive.

7. The Founder 1 :04 :00