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MAKERERE

UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, DESIGN, ART AND TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF ECLECTRICAL ENGINEERING
KEVIN ACUNGKENA 09/U/550

QoS PERFORMANCE OF MIMO COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS

Submitted in the fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Telecommunications Engineering of Makerere University

ACUNGKENA KEVIN | YEAR 4 PROJECT | May 31, 2013

DECLARATION I, Kevin Acungkena, to the best of my knowledge, hereby declare that the work herein is my own and has not been presented for another degree in this or any other university or institution of higher learning for the award of a degree.

. Kevin Acungkena

Dr. Roseline Akol Main supervisor Date:

Ms. Sheila Mugala Co. Supervisor Date:

DEDICATION I dedicate this report to my close friends, and my family. They have helped me come this far with my education.

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Probability of detection Probability of false alarm PU transmit power Maximum SU transmit power CR DSA DSS FCC IEEE IP MIMO MTBF MTRS NPMs PU Q Qos SISO SNR SU UWB Cognitive Radio Dynamic Spectrum Access Dynamic Spectrum Sharing Federal Communications Commission Institute of Electronic and Electric Engineers Internet Protocol Multiple Input Multiple Output Men Time Between Failure Mean Time to Restore Service Network Performance Matrices Primary User PU interference temperature Quality of Service Single Input Single Output Signal to Noise Ratio Secondary User Ultra Wide Band

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Contents
DECLARATION ........................................................................................................................................... i DEDICATION .............................................................................................................................................. ii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ..................................................................................................................... iii LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................................................... vi LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................... vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................................ viii ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................. ix CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 1 1.1 PROJECT BACKGROUND .............................................................................................................. 1 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT .................................................................................................................2 1.3 JUSTIFICATION ................................................................................................................................ 3 1.4 OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................................................... 3 1.5 METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................. 4 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................................5 2.1 COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS ......................................................................5 2.1.1 COGNITIVE RADIO DEFINITIONS .........................................................................................5 2.1.2 COGNITIVE RADIO CHARACTERISTICS ...............................................................................7 2.1.3 COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORK ARCHITECTURE ............................................................... 9 2.2 MIMO SYSTEMS ............................................................................................................................. 10 2.2.1 HOW MIMO WORKS ................................................................................................................... 11 2.3 SPECTRUM UNDERLAY AND OVERLAY TRANSMISSION ................................................. 12 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................. 14 3.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 14 3.2 SYSTEM MODEL............................................................................................................................. 14 3.3 ANALYSIS OF SYSTEM MODEL ................................................................................................. 17 3.3.1 CAPACITY OF A COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEM WHEN THE PU IS SENSED ABSENT . 17 3.3.2 CAPACITY OF THE COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEM WHEN THE PU IS SENSED PRESENT ............................................................................................................................................. 19 3.3.3 CAPACITY OF A MIMO CHANNEL ........................................................................................20

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3.3.4 CAPACITY OF THE MIMO CR CHANNEL WHEN THE PU IS SENSED ABSENT .......... 23 3.3.5 CAPACITY OF THE MIMO CR CHANNEL WHEN THE PU IS SENSED PRESENT .......24 3.4 RESULTS ...........................................................................................................................................27 3.4.1 GENERATION OF THE MIMO CHANNEL ............................................................................ 27 CHAPTER 4: ACHIEVEMENTS, CHALANGES FACED, RECOMMENDATION, CONCLUSION, ....................................................................................................................................................................... 31 4.1 ACHIEVEMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 31 4.2 CHALANGES FACED ..................................................................................................................... 31 4.3 RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................................................. 31 4.4 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................. 32 BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................................... 33 APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................................. 35

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Parameters used for simulation ................................................................................ 28

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Spectrum Hole concept................................................................................................. 2 Figure 2: Cognitive Cycle ...........................................................................................................8 Figure 3: Cognitive Radio Architecture ..................................................................................... 10 Figure 4: Multiple data streams transmitted in a single channel at the same time ......................... 11 Figure 5; system model ............................................................................................................. 14 Figure 6: General operation sequence of a cognitive radio system with quiet period for sensing being inserted in between normal data transmission intervals ......................................................15 Figure 7: Transmit and Receiver Shaping .................................................................................................. 21 Figure 8 : Constellation diagram for BPSK ............................................................................................ i6 Figure 9: Variation of throughput of a Cognitive radio system with respect to Primary User activity in overlay and a combination of overlay and underlay modes when 2X2 MIMO conditions are applied and when they are not applied. ............................................................................. 297 Figure 10 : Increase in through put with increase in the number of channels from SISO, 2X2 MIMO, and 4X4 MIMO ......................................................................................................................... 308

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to sincerely thank the Almighty God for the blessings and favor He has continuously bestowed upon me. It is by His grace that I have successfully accomplished this project and more so all the four years of my course. Special thanks go to our main supervisor Dr. Roseline Akol and Ms.Sheila Mugala, our co-supervisor. In the midst of all their preoccupations they found the time to offer all the advice that my project partner and I needed and for that I am grateful. My deep appreciation is extended to my parents for all the support they gave me not only during the course of this project but throughout my school years especially my mother. I cannot forget to give a special thanks to my project partner Joshua Waiswa without whose help it would have been almost impossible for me to start this report. I thank her for the all the support she gave me during the project especially at times when things did not seem to go our way and also for all her contributions during the course of the project.

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ABSTRACT Todays wireless networks are characterized by fixed spectrum assignment policy. Given the limitations of the natural frequency spectrum, it becomes obvious that the current static frequency allocation schemes cannot accommodate the ever increasing spectrum frequency demand. According to the FCC, temporal and geographical variations in spectrum usage range from 15% to 85% causing spectrum regulatory bodies to seek for innovative techniques that can offer new ways of exploiting the available spectrum are needed. Cognitive radio (CR) technology is envisaged to solve the problems in wireless networks resulting from the limited available spectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage by exploiting the existing wireless spectrum opportunistically. CR networks, equipped with the intrinsic capabilities of the cognitive radio, will provide an ultimate spectrum aware communication paradigm in wireless communications. CR networks, however, impose unique challenges due to the high fluctuation in the available spectrum as well as diverse quality-of-service (QoS) requirements

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION The lack of communication resources especially because of overloaded frequencies has been seen during the last years when wireless communications has been increasingly taken into use by consumers. Wireless operators are now continuously looking for solutions to avoid overloading their frequencies. Much can be done by using existing resources more effectively by taking cognitive radio systems into use. A cognitive radio system (CRS) is aware of its environment and makes decisions considering the performance of the whole radio system and is able to learn of its environment and performance. The spectral efficiency in bit/s/Hz of modern systems in a given frequency band is rather high. The performance of the CRSs is measured in terms of spectrum occupancy which is defined as the percentage of the total bandwidth that is used on the average.

1.1 PROJECT BACKGROUND The idea behind a Cognitive Radio (CR) in Wireless Networks are to enable a cognitive protocol for a Secondary (unlicensed) User to access and use temporarily the spectrum unused by the Primary (licensed) User, which is referred to as spectrum hole or white space, in an intelligent way without causing any harmful interference with primary users. If this band is further used by the licensed user, the cognitive protocol can move to another spectrum hole or stay in the same band altering the transmission power level or using another modulation scheme to avoid the interference. Spectrum sensing can be considered as the main issue that has to be done to enable the cognitive radio users to explore white space opportunities and to avoid interference with the primary users. Moreover, Dynamic spectrum access (DSA), Dynamic spectrum sharing (DSS) are the major goals of cognitive radio techniques and have responsibility of enabling cognitive radio users to share the spectrum resources by determining who will and when can access

the channel to win the availability of sending or receiving data through the white spaces.

Figure 1: Spectrum Hole concept 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT A CR system dynamically senses bands and uses a band if its usage does not affect a primary user (PU). Given that the CR system should not disturb the PU who has usage rights to the band, the CR system should carefully and frequently sense the spectrum. If the PU is detected in a certain band when the CR system is utilizing it, then the CR system should immediately stop using the band and find another band to use. Otherwise, the performance of both the CR system and the PU will be greatly deteriorated. CR networks, however, impose unique challenges due to the high fluctuation in the available spectrum as well as diverse quality-of-service (QoS) requirements Quality of Service parameters in cognitive radio networks are mainly data throughput and delay to accessing a channel. Cognitive radio systems operate in a way that transmission only takes place if the PU is sensed absent and transmission has to be stopped if the PU is sensed present. This can lead to increased transmit time for the SU, thus reducing the user experience of the service (reduces the QoS of the SU communication system).

The switching on and off of transmission can lead to information los for real-time applications for example voice communication or real-time gamming. 1.3 JUSTIFICATION Increasing wireless networks use - enabled with new technologies, services, and devices, puts pressure on network operators to develop new business models and new ways to earn in a situation where the lack of available radio resources turns to be a bottleneck for increase in the business. A survey made by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) indicates that the actual licensed spectrum is largely underutilized in a vast temporal and geographical dimensions [1]. Cognitive Radio finds white spaces which it can transmit its information. Increasing spectrum usage would lead to higher data rates, better quality of service and higher channel capacity. In this project, the SU is allowed to transmit in both overlay and underlay modes of transmission and then MIMO radio technology is used to significantly increase the available capacity. 1.4 OBJECTIVES General Objective To increase the Quality of Service (QoS) performance of the Cognitive Radio system (SU) Specific Objective Achieve an increase in throughput of the SU by allowing him to transmit even in when the PU is sensed present and also using MIMO techniques to further increase throughput, thus increasing the QoS of the SU transmission

1.5 METHODOLOGY The methodology used to execute the project included coming up with the specific problem statement which were addressed by the project. The problem statements included: 1 2 Finding the capacity of Cognitive overlay and underlay transmission modes Finding the capacity of a MIMO radio channel

Theoretical review of the underlying CR and MIMO systems were carried out using information contained in journals, published papers from IEEE, reports and the internet. MIMO technology is employed in CR in order to improve the capacity of the CR radio system A MIMO CR network was then modeled using the knowledge obtained and simulated using MATLAB software. Results were then generated for the SISO CR overlay transmit mode, SISO CR overlay-underlay transmit mode, MIMO CR overlay transmit mode, MIMO CR overlay underlay transmit mode.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS Aided by advances in processors, RF technology, and software, software radio technology has rapidly progressed since the coining of the term software radio by Joseph Mitola in 1999. The Wireless Innovation Forum www.wirelessinnovation.org has divided advanced radio systems into three categories: adaptive, cognitive, and intelligent radio systems. An adaptive radio system can monitor its own performance and make some performance enhancements. A cognitive radio system (CRS) is aware of its environment and makes decisions considering the performance of the whole radio system, and the intelligent radio system is a cognitive radio system that is able to learn of its environment and performance. [2] 2.1.1 COGNITIVE RADIO DEFINITIONS In the 1999 paper that first coined the term cognitive radio, Joseph Mitola III defines a cognitive radio as: A radio that employs model based reasoning to achieve a specified level of competence in radio-related domains. [3] The concept and the term cognitive radio quickly caught the interest of many in the communications field afterwards. Cognitive radio technology enables a number of capabilities to improve the usefulness and effectiveness of wireless communications. Those functions include: [4] Exploit locally vacant or unused radio channels, or ranges of radio spectrum, to provide new paths to spectrum access. Roam across borders and perform self-adjustment to stay in compliance with all local radio operations and emissions regulations. Negotiate as a broker on behalf of the radio user with multiple service providers to give network access best matched to the user needs at the lowest cost. Adapt itself without user intervention to save battery power or to reduce interference to other users.

Make use of location awareness to ensure that radio emissions do not interfere with licensed broadcasters. Understand and follow the actions and choices taken by their users to become more responsive and anticipate user needs over time. Formulate and issue queries, one radio to another. Execute commands sent by another radio. Fuse contradictory or complementary information.

The fact that there is an increase in research on cognitive radio and many industries are interested in this concept, there is a need for a common terminology to define cognitive radio for manufacturers, regulators, researchers, and users all to be able to advance the development of cognitive radios. The following definitions are some of the most commonly used: Simon Haykin defines a cognitive radio as: An intelligent wireless communication system that is aware of its surrounding environment (i.e., outside world), and uses the methodology of understanding-by-building to learn from the environment and adapt its internal states to statistical variations in the incoming RF stimuli by making corresponding changes in certain operating parameters (e.g., transmit-power, carrier frequency, and modulation strategy) in real-time, with two primary objectives in mind: [3] Highly reliable communications whenever and wherever needed; Efficient utilization of the radio spectrum. The broader IEEE tasked the IEEE 1900.1 group to define cognitive radio which has the following working definition [IEEE 1900.1]: A type of radio that can sense and autonomously reason about its environment and adapt accordingly. This radio could employ knowledge representation, automated reasoning and machine learning mechanisms in establishing, conducting, or terminating communication or networking

functions with other radios. Cognitive radios can be trained to dynamically and autonomously adjust its operating parameters. [3] From the above definitions, cognitive radios have key features associated with them and these include: [4] Awareness

a) The perception and retention of radio-related information b) The functionality with which a radio maintains internal information about its location, spectrum environment, or internal state, and is able to detect changes in that information. Radio awareness is required for supporting the cognitive control mechanism. c) The perception and retention of information by a radio. Typical types of information used in a cognitive radio include location, environmental information, and internal states. Perception

The process of acquiring, classifying, and organizing information. Reason

The application of logic and analysis to information. The term cognitive radio comes in part from the combination of awareness and reasoning capabilities. Cognition

The capacity to perceive, retains, and reason about information. Agency

The capacity to make and implement choices. Intelligence

Exhibiting behavior consistent with a purposeful goal. While a system could be cognitive without exhibiting agency (e.g., a brain in a jar), or could have cognition and agency without intelligence (e.g., a person who makes all of his/her choices by a flip of a coin), all three aspects are critical to the cognitive radio design paradigm. 2.1.2 COGNITIVE RADIO CHARACTERISTICS These are majorly cognitive capability and reconfigurability

1. Cognitive capability This is the ability of the Cognitive Radio to capture information from its radio environment. By this, portions of unused spectrum at a specific time and location can be identified and best spectrum and operating parameters can be identified. [5]

Figure 2: Cognitive Cycle Source (B. W. a. K. .. R. Liu, "Advances in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Survey," IEEE Journal Of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-15, 2011.) Spectrum sensing: The cognitive radio monitors available spectrum bands capturing there information and then detects spectrum holes. Spectrum analysis: The characteristics of the detected spectrum holes are estimated Spectrum decision: the radio determines the data rate, transmission mode and the bandwidth of transmission. The appropriate spectrum band is chosen according to spectrum characteristics and user requirements. Spectrum mobility: This is performed it the current spectrum band in use become unavailable or during transmission to provide a seamless transmission. This can be triggered by the appearance of a primary user, user movement or traffic variation.
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2. Reconfigurability The Cognitive radio can be programed to transmit and receive on a variety of frequencies and use different transmission access technologies supported by its hardware design enabling the CR to adapt easily the dynamic radio environmnet. Operating frequency: A CR is capable of changing the operating frequency. Based on information about the radio environment, the most suitable operating frequency can be determined and the communication dynamically performed on this appropriate operating frequency. Modulation: A CR should reconfigure the modulation scheme adaptive to the user requirements and channel conditions. For example, in the case of delay sensitive applications, the data rate is more important than the error rate. Thus, the modulation scheme that enables the higher spectral efficiency should be selected. Conversely, the loss-sensitive applications focus on the error rate, which necessitate modulation schemes with low bit error rate. Transmission power: Transmission power can be reconfigured within the power constraints. Power control enables dynamic transmission power configuration within the permissible power limit. If higher power operation is not necessary, the CR reduces the transmitter power to a lower level to allow more users to share the spectrum and to decrease the interference. Communication technology: A cognitive radio can also be used to provide interoperability among different communication systems.

2.1.3 COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORK ARCHITECTURE The Cognitive Radio network can be classified in the primary network and the secondary network. The primary network has exclusive rights to a certain spectrum band while the secondary network doesnt have a license to operate in the desired band.

There are three different access types over heterogeneous networks which show different implementation requirements; Primary Network Access. A CR user can access the primary base station through the licensed band.

Cognitive radio Network Access. A CR user can access his own CR base station both in the licensed and unlicensed spectrum band. The medium access scheme is independent of the primary network as all interactions occur inside the CR network. Cognitive radio Ad Hoc Access. Users can communicate with each other through an ad hoc connection on both the licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands. The CR users can have their own medium access technology.

Figure 3: Cognitive Radio Architecture Source: B. W. a. K. .. R. Liu, "Advances in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Survey," IEEE Journal Of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-15, 2011.

2.2 MIMO SYSTEMS Wireless communication using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems enables increased spectral efficiency for a given total transmit power. Increased capacity is

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achieved by introducing additional spatial channels that are exploited by using space-time coding. MIMO systems are a natural extension of developments in antenna array communication. Systems with multiple antennas at the receiver and transmitter are referred to as multiple input multiple output systems. The multiple antennas can be used to increase data rates through multiplexing or to improve performance through diversity.

2.2.1 HOW MIMO WORKS MIMO takes the advantage of multipath using multiple antennas to send multiple parallel signals from the transmitter. In urban environments, these signals bounce off trees, buildings etc. and continue on their way to the receiver but in different directions. Multipath occurs when the signals arrive at the receiver at various times. MIMO uses an algorithm to sort out the multipath signals to produce on signal that has the originally transmitted data. This delivers simultaneous speed, coverage and reliability improvements.

Figure 4: Multiple data streams transmitted in a single channel at the same time Source [6] 2.2.1 TYPES OF MIMO [7]

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Space Time Transmit Diversity (STTD) - The same data is coded and transmitted through different antennas, which effectively doubles the power in the channel. This improves Signal Noise Ratio. Spatial Multiplexing (SM) - delivers parallel streams of data to the receiver by exploiting multi-path. It can double (2x2 MIMO) or quadruple (4x4) capacity and throughput. SM gives higher capacity when RF conditions are favorable and users are closer to the BTS. Uplink Collaborative MIMO Link - Two devices can collaboratively transmit on the same sub-channel which can also double uplink capacity.

2.3 SPECTRUM UNDERLAY AND OVERLAY TRANSMISSION Radio regulatory bodies are recognizing that the rigid spectrum assignment granting exclusive use to licensed services is highly inefficient, due to high variability in traffic statistics across time, space and frequency. The most appropriate approach to tackle the great spectrum variability as a function of time and space calls for dynamic access strategies that adapt to the electromagnetic environment. Cognitive radio originated as a possible solution to this problem using different paradigms to allow secondary users to dynamically access the licensed spectrum under the constraint of not inducing quality of service degradations intolerable to the primary users. Three basic approaches have been considered to allow concurrent communications: spectrum overlay, spectrum underlay and hybrid, interweave. In overlay systems, secondary users allocate part of their power for secondary transmission and the remainder to assist (relay) the primary transmission. By exploiting sophisticated coding techniques, based on the knowledge of the primary users message and/ or codebook at the cognitive transmitter, these systems offer the possibility of concurrent transmission without capacity penalties. [8]

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In underlay CR systems, secondary users (SU) are admitted to access spectrum bands originally allocated to primary users (PU) only if interference caused by the secondary users is regulated below a predetermined level, i.e., interference temperature. The interference constraint for the primary users may be met by using multiple antennas to guide the cognitive signals away from the primary receivers, or by using a wide bandwidth over which the cognitive signal can be spread below the noise floor, then despread at the cognitive receiver. The latter technique is the basis of both spread spectrum and ultra-wideband (UWB) communications. The interference caused by a cognitive transmitter to a primary receiver can be approximated via reciprocity if the cognitive transmitter can overhear a transmission from the cognitive receivers location. Alternatively, the cognitive transmitter can be very conservative in its output power to ensure that its signal remains below the prescribed interference threshold. In this case, since the interference constraints in underlay systems are typically quite restrictive, this limits the cognitive users to short range communications. [9] In the hybrid/ interweave scheme, the underlay approach is incorporated in the frame of the overlay CR system. The CR system is normally working in an overlay mode and thus the secondary transmitter opportunistically accesses access the licensed spectrum when a primary user is idle. However, when a secondary user makes its throughput to maximize and maintains secondary users queue to be stable, the CR system operates in an underlay mode and a secondary transmitter is allowed to send their packets to its destination even though the primary user is also transmitting. [10]

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CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The focus of this chapter is to determine how MIMO systems impact the Quality of service of the Cognitive radio users, the QoS parameter of concern is capacity of the system. Knowing that cognitive Radio systems have the ability to change transmission parameters like power, there is a possibility of the SU to transmit information even when the PU is present increasing the average capacity and also reduction in traffic delay, thus a better QoS for the SUs. In this project, the SUs can transmit information under interference temperature constraints of the PUs making it possible to transmit information even when the PU is present. This reduces on delay experienced by the SUs. 3.2 SYSTEM MODEL

Figure 5; system model In this model, the SUs are equipped with a transmitter having multiple antennas, same as the receiver. The PU is has a single antenna. The SU is allowed to switch from overlay (transmission in absence of the PU) to underlay (transmission in the presence of the PU) in order to increase the average capacity over time. First a scenario when the SU is
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equipped with a single transmit and receive antenna and then apply MIMO conditions which increase the capacity of the system. SUs transmit information over a defined frame period T. This frame period contains a sensing time t and data transmission time T-t and at the end of each frame, the SU knows whether the PU is present or not allowing it to decide whether to transmit using the same power or change transmit power.

Figure 6: General operation sequence of a cognitive radio system with quiet period for sensing being inserted in between normal data transmission intervals Source (Interference-constrained adaptive simultaneous spectrum sensing and data transmission scheme for unslotted cognitive radio network by Xianjun Yang, Xiaofeng Tao, Qimei Cuiand Y Jay Guo ) In MIMO systems, multiple data streams are transmitted across the MIMO channel using the Alamouti space time block code [11] which combines all copies of the received signal in an optimal way to extract as much information as possible. At a given symbol period, two signals are simultaneously transmitted from the two antennas. The signal transmitted from antenna by . During the next symbol period signal is transmitted from antenna is denoted by and from antenna , and

is transmitted from antenna

signal

where is * the complex conjugate operation. For

a 2X2 MIMO system

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space

The received signal is denoted as;

Time

(1)

(2) This can be represented in matrix notation as;

(3)

The received signal can be represented by the equation: (4) Where H is the channel matrix. The additive noise, n is assumed to be a white Gaussian random variable with zero mean and unit variance.

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3.3 ANALYSIS OF SYSTEM MODEL Suppose that we are interested in the frequency band with carrier frequency fc and bandwidth W and the received signal is sampled at sampling frequency fs, which is greater than the Nyquist rate. When the primary user is active, the discrete received signal at the secondary user can be represented as [12]:

(5) Which is hypothesis .

When the primary user is inactive, the received signal is given by:

(6) This is hypothesis .

The following assumptions are made. The primary signal The primary signal is an iid random process with man zero and variance is independent of the noise .

3.3.1 CAPACITY OF A COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEM WHEN THE PU IS SENSED ABSENT This takes place under Hypothesis channel. If C0 is the throughput of the SU operating in the absence of the PU with an SNR of SNRs and C1 the throughput when the SU operates in the presence of the PU with SNRp as the SNR of the PU received at the receiver of the SU transmission link, then [12] . , where the SU receives only noise from the

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(7) And

(8) If the PU is not present and no false alarm is generated by the SU, the achievable throughput is:

(9) When the primary user is active but not detected by the secondary user, the achievable through put is:

(10) If P (H1) is the probability for which the primary user is active in the band of interest, the achievable through put of the cognitive system is:

(11) Where

(12)

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3.3.2 CAPACITY OF THE COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEM WHEN THE PU IS SENSED PRESENT To obtain the available through put of the system when the PU is sensed present, we consider the outage probability of the SU taking into consideration the interference temperature of the PU. The mode of data transmission when the PU is sensed present is known as underlay transmission. In underlay CR systems, Secondary Users (SU) are admitted to access the spectrum bands originally allocated to the Primary Users (PU) only if the interference caused by the SU is regulated below a predetermined level interference temperature [13]. The SU can transmit data under the conditions of a false alarm or detection of the PU. For a MIMO system, we find the capacity on each channel under interference temperature constraints of the PU and then sum up for all channels to obtain the total capacity for the MIMO CR channel The capacity the SU is given by [13],

(13) Where the departure rate is for the SU in underlay mode, is the hybrid rate,

is the penalty term caused by periodically sensing the interference channel in an underlay mode.

(14) is the outage probability of the SU link in overlay mode when there is no interference from the PU.

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is the outage probability of the SU link in overlay mode when there is interference for the PU

(15)

(16) Denotes an exponential integral function 3.3.3 CAPACITY OF A MIMO CHANNEL How to obtain independent channels from a MIMO Link Using Alamouti space time Block Codes, a MIMO channel can be obtained between the transmitter and receiver, in order to measure the capacity of the MIMO link, the capacity of each individual channel has to be obtained and then summed up. Considering a MIMO channel with channel gain matrix H known to both the

transmitter and receiver. Let RH denote the rank of H, from matrix theory, we can obtain the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of H as [14]:

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Where the

matrix U and

matrix V are unitary matrices and

is an

diagonal matrix of singular values for

of H which have the property that

being the ith eigenvalue of the matrix HHH ,and RH of these singular

values are nonzero. RH is the rank of the matrix H. Parallel decomposition of a channel is obtained by defining a transformation on the channel input x and output y through transmit precoding and receiver shaping. In transmit precoding, the input to the antennas x is generated through a linear transformation on the input while receiver shaping performs a similar operation at the receiver as shown in the diagram below

Figure 7: Transmit and Receiver Shaping Transmit precoding and receiver shaping transform the MIMO channel into RH parallel independent channels with the ith channel having a channel gain . Channel with these

gains are independent since the resulting parallel channels dont interfere with each other and are linked only though the power constraint and the performance of each channel is dependent on its gain. Channel known at the transmitter MIMO decomposition allows for characterization of the MIMO channel capacity for a fixed channel matrix H known at the transmitter and receiver where the capacity equals the sum of capacities on each of the independent parallel channels with transmit power optimally located between these channels.

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Optimization of transmit power across the independent channels results from optimizing the input covariance matrix to maximize the capacity formula. Using SVD and the properties of unitary matrices, the capacity of the MIMO channel under CSIT and CSIR is given as [15];

(17) Since , the above capacity can be expressed in terms of the power allocation Pi to

the ith parallel channel as:

(18)

Where

and

is the SNR associated with the ith channel at full

power. Solving the optimization leads to a water filling power allocation for the MIMO channel

(19) The SNR of the signal becomes

(20)

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For some cutoff value

, the resulting capacity is given as

(21)

3.3.4 CAPACITY OF THE MIMO CR CHANNEL WHEN THE PU IS SENSED ABSENT Capacity of the ith MIMO Link Considering frame structure of the Cognitive Radio system to be made up of a sensing slot and a data transmission slot. If the sensing duration is t and the framed duration is T, then the capacity of the ith MIMO link is given as;

(22) Equation 22 is obtained by substituting for SNR in equation 7 with the value of SNR in equation 20.

(23) Equation 23 is obtained by substituting for SNR in equation 8 with the value of SNR in equation 20. If the primary user is not present and no false alarm is generated by the secondary user, the achievable throughput on the ith MIMO link is:

(24)

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When the primary user is active but not detected by the secondary user, the achievable through put on the ith MIMO link is:

(25) If P (H1) is the probability for which the primary user is active in the band of interest, the achievable through put on the ith MIMO link of the cognitive system is:

(26) Where

The total through put of the MIMO system is the summation of the throughput from individual channels of the MIMO system

(27)

3.3.5 CAPACITY OF THE MIMO CR CHANNEL WHEN THE PU IS SENSED PRESENT Equations used are modified equations of section 3.3.2 taking into account MIMO conditions Capacity of the ith MIMO link

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Outage probability of the ith link when the SU switches to underlay mode when the PU is sensed present under false alarm conditions

(28) Where Ps is the SNR of the SU, Rs is the minimum transmission rate of the SU and is

the channel gain from the SU transmitter to the SU receiver. Prout1 being the outage probability of the SU when transmitting under the conditions of false alarm. Employing MIMO conditions for the ith channel,

(29) Substituting equation 20 in equation 15 for SNR Outage probability of the ith link when the SU switches to underlay mode when the PU is detected present and is present. When the PU exists, then the SU experiences more interference due to the presence of the PU [13].

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Where Pp is he SNR of the PU signal and transmitter to the SU receiver.

is the interference channel gain from the PU

Employing MIMO conditions for the ith MIMO channel,

(30) Substituting equation 20 in equation 16 for SNR Where Q is the interference temperature and Pp is the transmit power of the PU The outage probability for the ith MIMO channel due to false alarm and when the PU is sensed present and is present is given by:

(31) Where the probability of is false alarm and is the probability of missed detection.

The capacity of the ith MIMO CR link is then given by the equation

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(32) Capacity of the MIMO channel The total capacity of the MIMO CR link is a summation of the individual capacities of each link.

Where T is the frame duration and t is the sensing time of the frame.

3.4 RESULTS Application of both spectrum undelay and overlay methods of SU transmission are seen to improve the average capacity of SU transmission which is enhanced by the application of MIMO systems to the CR system as shown by the results below. The results are got by varying average capacity of the SU over a period of 10 frames with the activity of the PU. 3.4.1 GENERATION OF THE MIMO CHANNEL Binary Phase Shift Keying is used for modulation of information in the model. It uses two phases separated by 180. It takes the highest level of noise or distortion making it the most robust form of modulation. Its however only able to modulate 1bit/symbol and not suitable for high data rate applications [16].

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Figure 8: Constellation Diagram for BPSK

The two symbols generated using BPSK are then transmitted over the channel generated using Alamouti Space time Block code.
Parameters used for simulation Table 1: Parameters used for simulation

Parameter Frame duration T Frame sensing time t SNR of the PU SNR of the SU Interference temperature of the PU

Value 100ms 2.5ms 10dB 10dB 2dB

The MATLAB code used to generate results is shown in the appendix.

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Variation of throughput of a Cognitive radio system with respect to Primary User activity in overlay and a combination of overlay and underlay modes when 2X2 MIMO conditions are applied and for SISO
Figure 9:

The graph in figure 9 indicates that the average throughput of a CR system drops with increase in PU activity. In overlay mode, the average throughput drops to zero when PU is active for all time of measurement. However when a combination of both overlay and underlay is used, the SU still has a throughput even when the PU is present for all time. It is also shown that there is a general increase in throughput when both overlay and underlay are used. The throughput of SISO channel is generally less than that of any MIMO channel. This is illustrated in graphs of both figures 9and 10.

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Increase in through put with increase in the number of channels from SISO, 2X2 MIMO, and 4X4 MIMO
Figure 10:

In figure10, the increase in average throughput from SISO to 2X2 to 4X4 MIMO is shown as expected as the capacity is directly proportional to number of channels in any given system.

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CHAPTER 4: ACHIEVEMENTS, CHALANGES FACED, RECOMMENDATION, CONCLUSION, 4.1 ACHIEVEMENTS As a telecommunications engineering student, some of the of radio communications seamed complicated, however, during the project research, a lot of information exposed lead to understanding what seamed obscure for example various radio network aspects like conventional radio systems to MIMO and then CR technology. QoS improvement of the CR system was achieved by improving the available capacity of the SU. The project allowed the SU to transmit even in the presence of the PU, thus having an increase in available capacity. MIMO systems were also employed to further achieve an increase in the available capacity. 4.2 CHALANGES FACED During the course of the project, some challenges were encountered, these are listed below 1 Performance was only evaluated for a single MIMO CR user due to limited time and access to information. The results due to the performance of multiple CR users could be therefore be different from those shown in the project. 2 3 It was difficult to define a MIMO communications channel The PU is only equipped with a single antenna as it was difficult to achieve results when the PU is equipped with a MIMO system antenna.

4.3 RECOMMENDATIONS How MIMO cognitive systems affect other QoS parameters should be studied in order to have more conclusive results. These include: 1. Availability 2. Delivery
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3. Latency 4. MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) 5. MTRS (Mean Time to Restore Service) 4.4 CONCLUSION Radio frequency spectrum and channel capacity efficiency are one of the major concerns in wireless communication systems today. Cognitive radio is a promising solution which enables spectrum sensing for opportunistic spectrum usage by providing a means for the use of spectrum holes. In this project, the cognitive system has been allowed to send information even when the PU is present considering interference temperature constraints of the PU. With this, there has been an increase in the capacity of the Cognitive system compared to when the SU only transmits if the PU is absent. Also the Cognitive system capacity has been enhanced through the application of MIMO techniques. It has been seen that with a Cognitive system operating in both overlay and underlay modes equipped with a MIMO system, the average capacity of the SU is improved compared to a case when the SU has a single channel and uses an overlay transmit mode. Increase in capacity consequently reduces the transmit delay time of the SUs information

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1]

F. CommunicationsCommission, "Spectrum Policy Task Force," Rep. ET Docket no. 02-135, November 2002.

[2] VTT, "Cognitive Radio Systems, Enabler for Intelligent Wirelss Telecommunications," VTT, 29 March 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.vtt.fi/files/research/other/VTT_whitepaper_cognets_march2012.pdf.. [Accessed 14 November 2012]. [3] J. O. Neel, "Analysis and Design of Cognitive Radio Networks and Distributed Radio Resource Management Algorithms," Blacksburg, VA, 2006. [4] T. S. Forum, "Cognitive Radio Definitions and Nomenclature,"," SDR, 10 September 2008. [Online]. Available: http://www.sdrforum.org/pages/documentLibrary/documents/SDRF-06-. [Accessed 29 May 2013]. [5] B. W. a. K. .. R. Liu, "Advances in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Survey," IEEE Journal Of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-15, 2011. [6] D. J. Sharony, "sunysb," [Online]. Available: www.ieee.li/pdf/viewgraphs/wireless_mimo.pdf. [Accessed 12 November 2012]. [7] "http://en.wikipedia.org," [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIMO. [Accessed 12 November 2012]. [8] D. P. P. a. S. B. Gesualdo Scutari, "Cognitive MIMO Radio " Competitive optimality design based on subspace projections"," IEEE Signal processing Magazine, pp. 46-50, 2008. [9] S. A. J. I. M. S. S. Andrea Goldsmith, Breaking Spectrum Gridlock with Cognitive Radios: An Information Theoretic Perspective, 2011. [10] J. O. a. W. Choi, "A hybrid Cognitive Radio System of Underlay and Overlay Approach," IEEE , vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1-5, 2010. [11] F. Gregorio, Space Time Block codes for MIMO systems, 2005. [12] Y. Z. E. P. a. A. T. H. Ying-Chang Liang, "Sensing-Throughput tradeoff for Cognitive Radio networks," 2007.

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[13] J. O. a. W. Choi, "A Hybrid Cognitive Radio system: A combinaton of Underlay and Overlay Approaches," Korea, 2010. [14] A. Goldsmith, Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2005. [15] A. Goldsmith, Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 117-118. [16] T. E. R. A. D. O. Solomon Muhumuza, "Performance of MIMO Cognitive Radio Networks," 2012. [17] D. P. P. S. B. Gesualdo Scutari, "Cognitive MIMO Radio," Competitive optimality design based on subspace projection, pp. 46-59, November 2008. [18] A. R. S. Saeedeh parsaeefard, "Robust Distributed Power Control in Cognitive Radio Networks," IEEE Transactions on mobile computing, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 609-620, 2013. [19] W. C. Jinhyung Oh, "A Hybrid Cognitive Radio System: A combination of Underlay and Overlay Approaches," IEEE transactions on vehicular technology, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1-5, 2010. [20] P. M. Torlak, "utdallas.edu," [Online]. Available: http://www.utdallas.edu/~torlak/courses/ee6391/lectures/lecture5.pdf. [Accessed 19 March 2013].

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APPENDIX MATLAB CODE FOR GENERATING GRAPHS %%%%QoS Performance of MIMO Cognitive Radio Systems %%%By: Acungkena Kevin and Joshua Waiswa %%%Supervisors: Dr. Roseline Akol and Ms. Sheila Mugala

clear; clc;

N = 2; %Number of channels between the transmitter and receiver ip = rand(1,N)>0.5; %Generating 0 and 1 with equal proberbility s = (2*ip-1); %Applying Bpsk mdulation to the symbols 1 and 0 %%Gnerating a channel between transmitter and receiver using alamouti Space %%time Block H = (1/sqrt(2))*[s(1),s(2);conj(s(2)),-conj(s(1))] l = H*H' R = eig(H*H');

%% If the channel has a threshold value of 0dB yo = 10^0.1;

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%%If the signal power of the PU and SU is SNRp = 10^1; %% SNR of the PU SNRs = 10^1; %%SNR of the SU

%%%%Capacity of the MIMO CR channel %%Frame duration of T and sensing time t T = 100; t = 2.5; F = (T-t)/T; %%Probability of false alram and detection of the PU by the SU Pf = 0.2; %Probability of false alrm Pm = 0.25; %Probability of missed detection

PH0 = [0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.7,0.8,0.9,1]; % Probability for which the PU is active in the band of interest PH1 = 1-PH0; % Probability for which the PU is in-active in the band of interest

z=[1,0.9,0.8,0.7,0.6,0.5,0.4,0.3,0.2,0.1,0]; % PU activity factor

%%%Capacity of the MIMO_CR_Underlay Link i = 1;


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while i<(N+1)

y = abs(R(i))*SNRs; x = y/yo; k = x-1; %%Capacity of the ith MIMO underlay channel Q = 10^0.2; %PU interferenc temperature of 2dB Rs = 2; %Maximum rate for the SU is 2bit/second/Hertz

A = Q/k; B = (2^Rs)-1; %%%Outage probabilty of the ith MIMO link when the SU switches to %%%underlay under false alrm conditions Pr1 = (1 - exp(-A))*(1-exp(-B/k))+exp(-A)-(exp(-A*(1+B/Q))/(1+B/Q));

%%Outage probability of the ith MIMO Link whent he SU swithces to %%underlay when the PU is actually present C = B/k; D = expint(((Q+B)*(k+SNRp*B))/(SNRp*k*B)); Pr2 =(1-exp(-A))*(1-(exp(-C))/(1+SNRp*C))+exp(-A)(exp((1/SNRp)+Q/(SNRp*B)))/(SNRp*B)*D;

%%Total outage probability for the ith MIMO_CR_underlay link


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Pr = Pf*Pr1 + (1-Pm)*Pr2;

%%%Capacity of the ith MIMO_CR_Underlay link C(i) = F*(1-Pr)*log2(1+k);

i = i+1; end %%Total Underlay MIMO capacity of the link C_U = sum(C)*z;

%%%Capacity of the MIMO_CR_Overlay link i = 1; while i<(N+1) y = abs(R(i))*SNRs;

%Capacity when the PU is not present and no false alarm C0(i) = F*(1-Pf)*log2(y/yo);

%Capacity of the System when the PU is active but not detected by the %SU C1(i) = F*Pm*log2(1+((yo/y)-1)/(1+SNRp));

if y<yo
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C0(i)=C0(i)*0; C1(i)=C1(i)*0; end

i=i+1; end

%%Total Overerlay MIMO capacity of the link C_O = (PH0*sum(C0) + PH1*sum(C1)).*(1-z);

%%%Capacity of the MIMO_CR_Overlay_Underlay for a period of one frame C_MIMO = C_O + C_U;

%%%%Throughput of the SISO link

%Throught put of the overlay SISO link

SNR2 = SNRs/(1+SNRp); % SNR of the SU when the PU is present but sensed absent C_0 = log2(1+SNRs);% Capacity of a Cognitive system in when the PU is absent and sensed absent C_1 = log2(1+SNR2); % Capacity of the CR system when the PU is present but sensed absent

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%Acheived through put under different scenarios R0 = F*(1-Pf)*C_0; % Achieved through put when the PU is absent and sensed absent by the CR system R1 = F*(1-Pm)*C_1;% Acheived through put when the PU is present but sensed absent by the CR system

%Total through put of the CR system Rt = PH0*R0 + PH1*R1; % Total through put over the time interval concerned Rpu = Rt.*(1-z); %Average through put of the CR system over a period of 10 frames

%%Overlay of the SISO link %%Capacity = ((T-t)/T)(1-Pout)Blog2(1+SNR) Q = 10^0.2; %PU interferenc temperature of 2dB Rs = 2; %Maximum rate for the SU is 2bit/second/Hertz Psmax = SNRs; %Maximun transmit power for the SU is 10dB Pp =10^1; %PU transmit poer of 10dB A = Q/Psmax; B = (2^Rs)-1; SNR = 10^0.5; %SNR of the SU in underlay is 5dB

%%Outage probability under false alarm Pout1 = (1 - exp(-A))*(1-exp(-B/Psmax))+exp(-A)-(exp(-A*(1+B/Q))/(1+B/Q)); %%Outage probablity when the PU is detected C = B/Psmax;

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D = expint(((Q+B)*(Psmax+Pp*B))/(Pp*Psmax*B)); Pout2 =(1-exp(-A))*(1-(exp(-C))/(1+Pp*C))+exp(-A)(exp((1/Pp)+Q/(Pp*B)))/(Pp*B)*D; %%Total outage Probability Pouttotal = Pf*Pout1 + (1-Pm)*Pout2; %%Capacity of the system in underlay mode R = F*(1-Pouttotal)*log2(1+SNR); %%%Variation of through put over the transmit duration R3 = z*R;

%%%Total throughput of the SISO link over the period of 10 frames C_SISO = Rpu+R3;

%%%Ploting the curves plot(z,Rpu,'k:*',z,C_O,'k-.d')%,z,C_SISO,'k--v',z,C_MIMO,'k-o'); title('Through put of CR against PU activity '); legend('Through put of SISO CR Overlay','Through put of 2X2 MIMO CR Overlay');%,'Through put of SISO Overlay-Underlay','Through put of 2X2 MIMO CR Overlay-Underlay'); xlabel('Primary user activity over a time interval of 10 frames'); ylabel('Average through put in bps/Hz');

clear;

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