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Preparation and purification of soluble salts

The reaction between acid and alkali is known as what process? Refer to acids and bases notes ok. Dont worry Ill help you.! Kita bukan along kita cuma nak tolong. Example: Preparing sodium chloride Step 1: Preparation (Titration)

Burette

Retort stand

Hydrochloric acid

Conical flask 25 cm3 NaOH + phenolphthalein indicator 1. 25.0 cm3 sodium hydroxide solutions is pipette into conical flask. 2. Two drops of phenolphthalein indicator are added into conical flask. The colour of solution is recorded. 3. A 50 cm3 burette is filled with hydrochloric acid. The initial burette reading is recorded. 4. Hydrochloric acid is added gradually from a burette into conical flask and swirling the conical flask. 5. Titration is stopped when phenolphthalein changes from pink to colourless. The final burette reading is recorded. 6. The volume of hydrochloric acid used is calculated. 7. The experiment is repeated by adding hydrochloric acid (known volume) to 25.0 cm3 sodium hydroxide in a beaker without using phenolphthalein. Step 2: Preparation (Crystallization)

Salt solution

Evaporating dish Bunsen burner

8. The mixture is transferred into a evaporating dish. 9. The colourless solution is slowly heated/evaporated until its saturated or to about onethird (1/3) of the original volume. 10. The saturated solution is then cooled to allow crystallization to occur. Step 3: Purification

Distilled water

Glass rod

Copper(II) sulphate Filter funnel

10. The white crystals formed are then filtered, rinsed with a little distilled water and dried by pressing between filter paper.

Note: Phenolphthalein indicator is used at the beginning of the experiment to determine the volume of hydrochloric acid that is required to react completely with 25 cm3 of sodium hydroxide. However experiment is repeated without using phenolphthalein so that the salt prepared will not contaminated by the indicator.

B. Preparing soluble salt through reaction between acid i. Metal oxide. ii. Metal iii. Metal carbonate Procedure To Prepare a Soluble Salt (not Na, K or NH4+) 50 cm3 of acid is measured using a measuring cylinder and poured into a beaker. The acid is heated slowly. Using a spatula, metal / metal oxide / metal carbonate powder is added a little at a time while stirring the mixture with a glass rod. The addition of the solid powder is stopped when some solids no longer dissolve anymore. (the solid is excess and all the acid is completely neutralised by the solid)

Acid

Metal oxide Powder Metal carbonate of : Metal


Heating

The mixture is filtered to remove the excess solid powder.


Excess of solid powder

Filtrate (Salt solution)

The filtrate is transferred to an evaporating dish. The filtrate is heated until saturated. (The filtrate is evaporated to about one-third (1/3) of the original volume) The saturated solution is then allowed to cool to room temperature and the salt crystals are formed. The crystals are filtered and rinsed with a little cold distilled water. Salt crystals are then dried by pressing it between filter papers.

Filtrate Heating

Saturated solution Crystals

Example: Preparing copper(II) sulphate (Sulphuric acid and copper(II) oxide powder) Step 1: Preparation Spatula Stir Copper(II) oxide

Glass rod Beaker Wire gauze Tripod xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

50 cm3 sulphuric acid 0.1 mol dm-3

Bunsen burner

1. 50 cm3 sulphuric acid 0.1 mol dm-3 is put in a beaker and is heated. 2. Using spatula copper(II) oxide powder is added a little at a time to the hot sulphuric acid while stirring continuously with glass rod. 3. The addition of copper(II) oxide is stopped when solids powder remain undissolved.

Glass rod Reactant mixture

Excess copper(II) oxide

Copper(II) sulphate solution

4. The mixture is filtered to remove the excess copper(II) oxide. 5. The filtrate is transferred to an evaporating dish.

Evaporating dish Copper(II) sulphate solution Bunsen burner

6. The filtrate is slowly heated/evaporated until its saturated, or to about one-third (1/3) of the original volume. 7. The saturated solution is then allowed to cool to room temperature. Step 3: Purification

Glass rod Distilled water

Copper(II) sulphate

8. The crystals are filtered and rinsed with a little cold distilled water. 9. Salt crystals are then dried by pressing it between filter papers.

B. Preparing soluble salt through reaction between acid i. Metal oxide. ii. Metal iii. Metal carbonate Procedure To Prepare a Soluble Salt (not Na, K or NH4+) 50 cm3 of acid is measured using a measuring cylinder and poured into a beaker. The acid is heated slowly. Using a spatula, metal / metal oxide / metal carbonate powder is added a little at a time while stirring the mixture with a glass rod. The addition of the solid powder is stopped when some solids no longer dissolve anymore. (the solid is excess and all the acid is completely neutralised by the solid)

Acid

Metal oxide Powder Metal carbonate of : Metal


Heating

The mixture is filtered to remove the excess solid powder.


Excess of solid powder

Filtrate (Salt solution)

The filtrate is transferred to an evaporating dish. The filtrate is heated until saturated. (The filtrate is evaporated to about one-third (1/3) of the original volume) The saturated solution is then allowed to cool to room temperature and the salt crystals are formed. The crystals are filtered and rinsed with a little cold distilled water. Salt crystals are then dried by pressing it between filter papers.

Filtrate Heating
Example: Preparing copper(II) sulphate

Saturated solution Crystals

(Sulphuric acid and copper(II) oxide powder) Step 1: Preparation Spatula Stir Copper(II) oxide

Glass rod Beaker Wire gauze Tripod xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

50 cm3 sulphuric acid 0.1 mol dm-3

Bunsen burner

8. 50 cm3 sulphuric acid 0.1 mol dm-3 is put in a beaker and is heated. 9. Using spatula copper(II) oxide powder is added a little at a time to the hot sulphuric acid while stirring continuously with glass rod. 10. The addition of copper(II) oxide is stopped when solids powder remain undissolved.

Glass rod Reactant mixture

Excess copper(II) oxide

Copper(II) sulphate solution

11. The mixture is filtered to remove the excess copper(II) oxide. 12. The filtrate is transferred to an evaporating dish.

Evaporating dish Copper(II) sulphate solution Bunsen burner

13. The filtrate is slowly heated/evaporated until its saturated, or to about one-third (1/3) of the original volume. 14. The saturated solution is then allowed to cool to room temperature. Step 3: Purification

Glass rod Distilled water

Copper(II) sulphate

8. The crystals are filtered and rinsed with a little cold distilled water. 9. Salt crystals are then dried by pressing it between filter papers.

a. Insoluble Salts i. Preparing Insoluble Salts


1. Insoluble salts can be prepared through precipitation reactions or double decomposition reactions. 2. Precipitation or double decomposition reaction involves; - two aquoues solutions/soluble salts were mix together - one of the solutions contains the cations of the insoluble salt. - one of the solutions contains the anions of the insoluble salt. - the ions of the two aqueous solutions above interchange to produce two new compound which is insoluble salt or precipitate, and aqueous solution. - the precipitate produced is obtained by filtration. The residue left in the filter paper is the insoluble salt. The filtrate is soluble salt. - the residue/precipitate (insoluble salt) then rinsed with distilled water to remove any other ions as impurities.

Cation (Metal ion)

Anion (Non-metal ion)

Ionic equation: Pb2+ + 2Cl- PbCl2

Pb2+ ions combined with Cl- ions to form white precipitate

Na+ NO3-

Na+ NO3-

Na+ ions and NO3- ions do not take part in the reaction and are free to move in the solution

PbCl2

Preparation and purification of insoluble salts (decomposition/ precipitation method)


Preparation of Plumbum(II) iodide
Chemical equation Ionic equation Step 1: Preparation : Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) PbI2 (s) + 2KNO3 (aq) : Pb2+ (aq) + 2I- (aq) PbI2 (s)

20 cm3 Lead(II) nitrat 0.1 mol dm-3

20 cm3 potassium iodide 0.1 mol dm-3

1. 20 cm3 lead(II) nitrate 0.1 mol dm-3 solution is measured with measuring cylinder 50 ml, and poured into a beaker. 2. 20 cm3 potassium iodide 0.1 mol dm-3 solution is measured with measuring cylinder 50 ml and poured into a beaker contains lead(II) nitrate solution. 3. The mixture is stirred with a glass rod. A yellow precipitate is formed.

Glass rod Mixture of solutions Filter paper

Precipitate of lead(II) iodide (yellow) Filter funnel Beaker Sodium nitrate solution

Retort stand

4. The mixture is filtered to obtain the yellow solids of lead(II) iodide as the residue.

Step 2: Purification Distilled water

Glass rod

Precipitate of lead(II) iodide

5. The residue is rinsed with distilled water to remove other ions in it.

Precipitate of lead(II) iodide

Filter paper

6. The yellow solid is dried by pressing between two pieces of filter paper.

EASY LAH !