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# SEMINAR REPORT ON VAPOUR POWER CYCLES

## DEPARTMENT MECHANICAL ENGINEERING GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY MAY 2012

College Roll No.-D (09)

Examination Roll No. 2002734

This is to certify that MR. HIMANSHU JAISWAL has satisfactorily completed the seminar report on the topic VAPOUR POWER CYCLES in partial fulfillment of these requirements at the IV semester of B.Tech Degree course prescribed by the Graphic Era University, Dehra Dun during the year 2011-2012.

Staff Member (In-charge of the Batch)

## ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The sense of cantonment and elation that accompanies the successful completion of the seminar would be incomplete without mentioning name of people who helped me in accomplishing this seminar, people whose constant support and encouragement resulted in this realization.

IHIMANSHU JAISWAL take this opportunity

to thanks Honorable President Prof.

KAMAL GHANSALA for providing healthy environment in our college, which helped in concentrating on the task. I thank our HOD AMIR SHAIKH and all the staff members, teaching and non-teaching for helping me during the seminar.

I will be failing in my duty If I don’t thanks my guide MISS CHETNA for the guidance and inspiration he gave during the course of completion.

SIGN.

### Rankine Cycle

heat engine with vapor power cycle. The common fluid is water. The cycle consists of four processes: working  1 to 2: Isentropic expansion (Steam turbine)  2 to 3: Isobaric heat rejection (Condenser)  3 to 4: Isentropic compression (Pump)  4 to 1: Isobaric heat supply (Boiler) Work output of the cycle (Steam turbine), W1 and work input to the cycle (Pump), W2 are: W1 = m (h1-h2) W2 = m (h4-h3) where m is the mass flow of the cycle. Heat supplied to the cycle (boiler), Q1 and heat rejected from the cycle (condenser), Q2 are: Q1 = m (h1-h4) Q2 = m (h2-h3) " id="pdf-obj-3-4" src="pdf-obj-3-4.jpg">
 Rankine cycle is a with vapor power cycle. The common is water. The cycle consists of four processes:
  1 to 2: Isentropic expansion (Steam turbine)  2 to 3: Isobaric heat rejection (Condenser)  3 to 4: Isentropic compression (Pump)  4 to 1: Isobaric heat supply (Boiler)
Work output of the cycle (Steam turbine), W1 and work input to the cycle
(Pump), W2 are:

W1 = m (h1-h2) W2 = m (h4-h3)

 where m is the mass flow of the cycle. Heat supplied to the cycle (boiler), Q1 and heat rejected from the cycle (condenser), Q2 are:

Q1 = m (h1-h4) Q2 = m (h2-h3)

The net work output of the cycle is:

W = W1 - W2

The
thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle is: The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as Carnot cycle but the cycle has less practical difficulties and more economic 8.5 Rankine Power Cycles Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics] A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8.11 . The cycle is shown on - , - , and - coordinates in Figure 8.12 . The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows: 1. : Cold liquid at initial temperature is pressurized reversibly to a high pressure by a pump. In this process, the volume changes slightly. " id="pdf-obj-4-11" src="pdf-obj-4-11.jpg">

of a Rankine cycle is:

The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as

but the cycle

has less practical difficulties and more economic

thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle is: The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as Carnot cycle but the cycle has less practical difficulties and more economic 8.5 Rankine Power Cycles Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics] A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8.11 . The cycle is shown on - , - , and - coordinates in Figure 8.12 . The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows: 1. : Cold liquid at initial temperature is pressurized reversibly to a high pressure by a pump. In this process, the volume changes slightly. " id="pdf-obj-4-26" src="pdf-obj-4-26.jpg">

### 8.5 Rankine Power Cycles

Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics]

A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8.11.

The cycle is shown on

thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle is: The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as Carnot cycle but the cycle has less practical difficulties and more economic 8.5 Rankine Power Cycles Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics] A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8.11 . The cycle is shown on - , - , and - coordinates in Figure 8.12 . The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows: 1. : Cold liquid at initial temperature is pressurized reversibly to a high pressure by a pump. In this process, the volume changes slightly. " id="pdf-obj-4-38" src="pdf-obj-4-38.jpg">

-

thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle is: The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as Carnot cycle but the cycle has less practical difficulties and more economic 8.5 Rankine Power Cycles Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics] A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8.11 . The cycle is shown on - , - , and - coordinates in Figure 8.12 . The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows: 1. : Cold liquid at initial temperature is pressurized reversibly to a high pressure by a pump. In this process, the volume changes slightly. " id="pdf-obj-4-42" src="pdf-obj-4-42.jpg">

,

thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle is: The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as Carnot cycle but the cycle has less practical difficulties and more economic 8.5 Rankine Power Cycles Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics] A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8.11 . The cycle is shown on - , - , and - coordinates in Figure 8.12 . The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows: 1. : Cold liquid at initial temperature is pressurized reversibly to a high pressure by a pump. In this process, the volume changes slightly. " id="pdf-obj-4-46" src="pdf-obj-4-46.jpg">

-

thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle is: The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as Carnot cycle but the cycle has less practical difficulties and more economic 8.5 Rankine Power Cycles Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics] A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8.11 . The cycle is shown on - , - , and - coordinates in Figure 8.12 . The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows: 1. : Cold liquid at initial temperature is pressurized reversibly to a high pressure by a pump. In this process, the volume changes slightly. " id="pdf-obj-4-50" src="pdf-obj-4-50.jpg">

, and

thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle is: The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as Carnot cycle but the cycle has less practical difficulties and more economic 8.5 Rankine Power Cycles Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics] A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8.11 . The cycle is shown on - , - , and - coordinates in Figure 8.12 . The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows: 1. : Cold liquid at initial temperature is pressurized reversibly to a high pressure by a pump. In this process, the volume changes slightly. " id="pdf-obj-4-54" src="pdf-obj-4-54.jpg">

-

thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle is: The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as Carnot cycle but the cycle has less practical difficulties and more economic 8.5 Rankine Power Cycles Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics] A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8.11 . The cycle is shown on - , - , and - coordinates in Figure 8.12 . The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows: 1. : Cold liquid at initial temperature is pressurized reversibly to a high pressure by a pump. In this process, the volume changes slightly. " id="pdf-obj-4-58" src="pdf-obj-4-58.jpg">

coordinates in Figure 8.12.

The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows:

thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle is: The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as Carnot cycle but the cycle has less practical difficulties and more economic 8.5 Rankine Power Cycles Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics] A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8.11 . The cycle is shown on - , - , and - coordinates in Figure 8.12 . The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows: 1. : Cold liquid at initial temperature is pressurized reversibly to a high pressure by a pump. In this process, the volume changes slightly. " id="pdf-obj-4-66" src="pdf-obj-4-66.jpg">
• 1. : Cold liquid at initial temperature

thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle is: The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not as high as Carnot cycle but the cycle has less practical difficulties and more economic 8.5 Rankine Power Cycles Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics] A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8.11 . The cycle is shown on - , - , and - coordinates in Figure 8.12 . The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows: 1. : Cold liquid at initial temperature is pressurized reversibly to a high pressure by a pump. In this process, the volume changes slightly. " id="pdf-obj-4-70" src="pdf-obj-4-70.jpg">

is pressurized reversibly to

a high pressure by a pump. In this process, the volume changes slightly.

 2. : Reversible constant pressure heating in a boiler to temperature . 3. : Heat added at constant temperature (constant pressure), with transition of liquid to vapor. 4. : Isentropic expansion through a turbine. The quality decreases from unity at point to . 5. : Liquid-vapor mixture condensed at temperature extracting heat. by

[

[

[

• coordinates ]

 - - coordinates] - coordinates]

Figure 8.12: Rankine cycle diagram. Stations correspond to those in Figure

In the Rankine cycle, the mean temperature at which heat is supplied is less

than the maximum temperature,

, so that the efficiency is less than that of

a Carnot cycle working between the same maximum and minimum

temperatures. The heat absorption takes place at constant pressure over

but only the part

is isothermal. The heat rejected occurs over

, ; this is at

both constant temperature and pressure.

To examine the efficiency of the Rankine cycle, we define a mean effective

 temperature, , in terms of the heat exchanged and the entropy differences:

The thermal efficiency of the cycle is

The compression and expansion processes are isentropic, so the entropy differences are related by

The thermal efficiency can be written in terms of the mean effective temperatures as

For the Rankine cycle,

. From this equation we see not

, only the reason that the cycle efficiency is less than that of a Carnot cycle, but

the direction to move in terms of cycle design (increased increase the efficiency.

) if we wish to

There are several features that should be noted about Figure 8.12 and the Rankine cycle in general:

• 1. The

8.12 and the Rankine cycle in general: 1. The - and the - diagrams are not similar in shape, as they were with the perfect gas with constant specific heats. The slope of a constant pressure reversible heat addition line is, as derived in Chapter 6 , In the two-phase region, constant pressure means also constant temperature, so the slope of the constant pressure heat addition line is constant and the line is straight. 2. The effect of irreversibilities is represented by the dashed line from to . Irreversible behavior during the expansion results in a value of entropy at the end state of the expansion that is higher than . The enthalpy at the end of the expansion (the turbine exit) is thus higher for the irreversible process than for the reversible process, and, as seen for the Brayton cycle, the turbine work is thus lower in the irreversible case. 3. The Rankine cycle is less efficient than the Carnot cycle for given maximum and minimum temperatures, but, as said earlier, it is more effective as a practical power production device Description Physical layout of the four main devices used in the Rankine cycle The Rankine cycle, also known as caralho, most closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines most commonly found in power " id="pdf-obj-7-8" src="pdf-obj-7-8.jpg">

-

8.12 and the Rankine cycle in general: 1. The - and the - diagrams are not similar in shape, as they were with the perfect gas with constant specific heats. The slope of a constant pressure reversible heat addition line is, as derived in Chapter 6 , In the two-phase region, constant pressure means also constant temperature, so the slope of the constant pressure heat addition line is constant and the line is straight. 2. The effect of irreversibilities is represented by the dashed line from to . Irreversible behavior during the expansion results in a value of entropy at the end state of the expansion that is higher than . The enthalpy at the end of the expansion (the turbine exit) is thus higher for the irreversible process than for the reversible process, and, as seen for the Brayton cycle, the turbine work is thus lower in the irreversible case. 3. The Rankine cycle is less efficient than the Carnot cycle for given maximum and minimum temperatures, but, as said earlier, it is more effective as a practical power production device Description Physical layout of the four main devices used in the Rankine cycle The Rankine cycle, also known as caralho, most closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines most commonly found in power " id="pdf-obj-7-12" src="pdf-obj-7-12.jpg">

and the

8.12 and the Rankine cycle in general: 1. The - and the - diagrams are not similar in shape, as they were with the perfect gas with constant specific heats. The slope of a constant pressure reversible heat addition line is, as derived in Chapter 6 , In the two-phase region, constant pressure means also constant temperature, so the slope of the constant pressure heat addition line is constant and the line is straight. 2. The effect of irreversibilities is represented by the dashed line from to . Irreversible behavior during the expansion results in a value of entropy at the end state of the expansion that is higher than . The enthalpy at the end of the expansion (the turbine exit) is thus higher for the irreversible process than for the reversible process, and, as seen for the Brayton cycle, the turbine work is thus lower in the irreversible case. 3. The Rankine cycle is less efficient than the Carnot cycle for given maximum and minimum temperatures, but, as said earlier, it is more effective as a practical power production device Description Physical layout of the four main devices used in the Rankine cycle The Rankine cycle, also known as caralho, most closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines most commonly found in power " id="pdf-obj-7-16" src="pdf-obj-7-16.jpg">

-

8.12 and the Rankine cycle in general: 1. The - and the - diagrams are not similar in shape, as they were with the perfect gas with constant specific heats. The slope of a constant pressure reversible heat addition line is, as derived in Chapter 6 , In the two-phase region, constant pressure means also constant temperature, so the slope of the constant pressure heat addition line is constant and the line is straight. 2. The effect of irreversibilities is represented by the dashed line from to . Irreversible behavior during the expansion results in a value of entropy at the end state of the expansion that is higher than . The enthalpy at the end of the expansion (the turbine exit) is thus higher for the irreversible process than for the reversible process, and, as seen for the Brayton cycle, the turbine work is thus lower in the irreversible case. 3. The Rankine cycle is less efficient than the Carnot cycle for given maximum and minimum temperatures, but, as said earlier, it is more effective as a practical power production device Description Physical layout of the four main devices used in the Rankine cycle The Rankine cycle, also known as caralho, most closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines most commonly found in power " id="pdf-obj-7-20" src="pdf-obj-7-20.jpg">

diagrams are not similar in shape, as they were

with the perfect gas with constant specific heats. The slope of a

constant pressure reversible heat addition line is, as derived in Chapter 6,

8.12 and the Rankine cycle in general: 1. The - and the - diagrams are not similar in shape, as they were with the perfect gas with constant specific heats. The slope of a constant pressure reversible heat addition line is, as derived in Chapter 6 , In the two-phase region, constant pressure means also constant temperature, so the slope of the constant pressure heat addition line is constant and the line is straight. 2. The effect of irreversibilities is represented by the dashed line from to . Irreversible behavior during the expansion results in a value of entropy at the end state of the expansion that is higher than . The enthalpy at the end of the expansion (the turbine exit) is thus higher for the irreversible process than for the reversible process, and, as seen for the Brayton cycle, the turbine work is thus lower in the irreversible case. 3. The Rankine cycle is less efficient than the Carnot cycle for given maximum and minimum temperatures, but, as said earlier, it is more effective as a practical power production device Description Physical layout of the four main devices used in the Rankine cycle The Rankine cycle, also known as caralho, most closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines most commonly found in power " id="pdf-obj-7-30" src="pdf-obj-7-30.jpg">

In the two-phase region, constant pressure means also constant temperature, so the slope of the constant pressure heat addition line is constant and the line is straight.

• 2. The effect of irreversibilities is represented by the dashed line from

8.12 and the Rankine cycle in general: 1. The - and the - diagrams are not similar in shape, as they were with the perfect gas with constant specific heats. The slope of a constant pressure reversible heat addition line is, as derived in Chapter 6 , In the two-phase region, constant pressure means also constant temperature, so the slope of the constant pressure heat addition line is constant and the line is straight. 2. The effect of irreversibilities is represented by the dashed line from to . Irreversible behavior during the expansion results in a value of entropy at the end state of the expansion that is higher than . The enthalpy at the end of the expansion (the turbine exit) is thus higher for the irreversible process than for the reversible process, and, as seen for the Brayton cycle, the turbine work is thus lower in the irreversible case. 3. The Rankine cycle is less efficient than the Carnot cycle for given maximum and minimum temperatures, but, as said earlier, it is more effective as a practical power production device Description Physical layout of the four main devices used in the Rankine cycle The Rankine cycle, also known as caralho, most closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines most commonly found in power " id="pdf-obj-7-36" src="pdf-obj-7-36.jpg">
 to . Irreversible behavior during the expansion results in a value of entropy at the end state of the expansion that is higher than .

The enthalpy at the end of the expansion (the turbine exit) is thus higher

for the irreversible process than for the reversible process, and, as seen for the Brayton cycle, the turbine work is thus lower in the irreversible case.

• 3. The Rankine cycle is less efficient than the Carnot cycle for given maximum and minimum temperatures, but, as said earlier, it is more effective as a practical power production device

### Physical layout of the four main devices used in the Rankine cycle

The Rankine cycle, also known as caralho, most closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines most commonly found in power

generation plants generate power. The two most common heating processes used in these power plants are nuclear fissionand the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and oil.

The Rankine cycle is sometimes referred to as a practical Carnot cycle because, when an efficient turbine is used, the TS diagram begins to resemble the Carnot cycle. The main difference is that heat addition (in the boiler) and rejection (in the condenser) are isobaric in the Rankine cycle and isothermal in the theoretical Carnot cycle. A pump is used to pressurize the working fluid received from the condenser as a liquid instead of as a gas. All of the energy in pumping the working fluid through the complete cycle is lost, as is most of the energy of vaporization of the working fluid in the boiler. This energy is lost to the cycle because the condensation that can take place in the turbine is limited to about 10% in order to minimize blade erosion; the vaporization energy is rejected from the cycle through the condenser. But pumping the working fluid through the cycle as a liquid requires a very small fraction of the energy needed to transport it as compared to compressing the working fluid as a gas in a compressor (as in the Carnot cycle).

The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid. Without the pressure reaching super critical levels for the working fluid, the temperature range the cycle can operate over is quite small: turbine entry temperatures are typically 565°C (the creep limit of stainless steel) and condenser temperatures are around 30°C. This gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of about 63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern coal-fired power station. This low turbine entry temperature (compared with a gas turbine) is why the Rankine cycle is often used as a bottoming cycle in combined-cycle gas turbine power stations.

The working fluid in a Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and is reused constantly. The water vapor with entrained droplets often seen billowing from power stations is generated by the cooling systems (not from the closed-loop Rankine power cycle) and represents the waste heat energy (pumping and condensing) that could not be converted to useful work in the turbine. Note that cooling towersoperate using the latent heat of vaporization of the cooling fluid. While many substances could be used in the Rankine cycle, water is usually the fluid of choice due to its favorable properties, such as nontoxic and nonreactive chemistry, abundance, and low cost, as well as its thermodynamic properties.

One of the principal advantages the Rankine cycle holds over others is that during the compression stage relatively little work is required to drive the pump, the working fluid being in its liquid phase at this point. By condensing the fluid, the work required by the pump consumes only 1% to 3% of the turbine power and contributes to a much higher efficiency for a real cycle. The benefit of this is lost somewhat due to the lower heat addition

temperature. Gas turbines, for instance, have turbine entry temperatures approaching 1500°C. Nonetheless, the efficiencies of actual large steam cycles and large modern gas turbines are fairly well matched.

### 1. Lowering the condenser Pressure:-

Gas turbines , for instance, have turbine entry temperatures approaching 1500°C. Nonetheless, the efficiencies of actual large steam cycles and large modern gas turbines are fairly well matched. Methods to increase the efficiency of the Rankine cycle Basic idea: Increase the average temperature at which heat is transferred to the working fluid in the boiler, or decrease the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the working fluid in the condenser. 1. Lowering the condenser Pressure :- Lowering the operating pressure of the condenser lowers the temperature at which heat is rejected. The overall effect of lowering the condenser pressure is an increase in the thermal efficiency of the cycle. " id="pdf-obj-9-15" src="pdf-obj-9-15.jpg">

### Superheating the steam to high temperatures:-

The average temperature at which heat is added to the steam can be increased without increasing the boiler pressure by superheating the steam to high temperatures.

Superheating the steam to higher temperatures has another very desirable effect: It decreases the moisture content of the steam at the turbine exit.

• ### 3. Increasing the Boiler pressure:-

Increasing the operating pressure of the boiler, automatically raises the temperature at which boiling takes place.

This raises the average temperature at which heat is added to the steam and thus raises the thermal efficiency of the cycle ..

## Reheat Rankine Cycle

(a) schematic representation of a reheat Rankine cycle (b) T-s diagram of a reheat Rankine cycle

The energy added ( per unit mass of steam ) in the steam generator is given by,

# )

The energy rejected in the condenser,

# 1

The thermal efficiency,

# )

The Rankine Cycle has its roots in the steam age, when thermodynamic cycles first became widely used. These early thermodynamic cycles were used in steam engines to generate mechanical power from the combustion of fossil fuels, most notably coal. The application of the steam engine radically altered society in many ways. Prior to the steam engine, transportation speeds were typically not much faster than a person could walk and major inland transportation routes usually followed a waterway, such as a river, canal, or lake. The steam engine transformed transportation by significantly increasing the speed of travel and opening new inland transportation trade routes that

were not limited to waterways. The earliest electric generating plants used hydropower to generate electricity and were only economically feasible in areas with easily exploitable hydro resources (i.e., water undergoing a significant elevation change over a short distance). The application of the steam engine to generate electricity brought electricity to the large populations living in areas without adequate hydro resources nearby.

Today the majority of our electricity is generated in coal and nuclear power plants that use the Rankine Cycle. The Rankine Cycle has also been used in power plants that use renewable energy sources, such as solar energy (shown on right) and biomass.

### Rankine versus Carnot Cycle

The Rankine Cycle is a practical version of the Carnot Power Cycle.

Display T-s Diagram for

Rankine Cycle
Carnot Cycle

The Carnot Cycle presented in Tutorial is significant for historical and theoretical reasons. However, it is difficult to design reliable components for the two pressure change processes (processes 1-2 and 3-4) in the Carnot Cycle because the working fluid exists as a saturated liquid-vapor mixture; consequently, the practical applications of the Carnot Cycle are limited.

The Rankine Cycle is similar to the Carnot Cycle, but the Rankine Cycle is much more practical because the working fluid typically exists as a single phase (liquid or vapor) for the two pressure change processes. Compare the ideal Carnot and Rankine Cycles in the T-s diagrams above, noting in particular the difference in the phase of the working fluid for the two pressure change processes.

# Rankine versus Brayton Cycle

Both the ideal Rankine and Brayton Cycles consist of two isentropic pressure change processes (1-2 and 3-4) and two isobaric heat transfer processes (2-3 and 4-1). The major difference between the two is that the Rankine is a vapor cycle, where the working fluid is cycled between vapor and liquid states, while the Brayton is a gas cycle, where the working fluid always exists as a gas. The Rankine Cycle's T-s diagram includes the vapor dome while the Brayton Cycle's T-s diagram typically does not, as the Brayton Cycle occurs to the right of the vapor dome. Additionally, recall that isobaric phase-change processes are also

isothermal, and thus the heat transfer process lines (2-3 and 4-1) are horizontal inside the vapor dome for the Rankine Cycle.

### Components for Rankine and Brayton Cycles

Rankine | Brayton | Cycle With similar processes, the Rankine and Brayton Cycle also use similar components, as shown in the diagrams above. When comparing the two, take particular note of the following:  While the Rankine Cycle and the air-standard Brayton Cycle both use  heat exchangers for the heat transfer processes (2-3 and 4-1), the two heat exchangers are called a steam generator and condenser for the Rankine Cycle. Both the Rankine and Brayton Cycle use turbines for the expansion  process (3-4); however the Rankine Cycle uses a steam turbine while the Brayton Cycle uses a gas turbine. For the pressure increase process (1-2), the Rankine Cycle uses a pump since the working fluid is an incompressible liquid,while the Brayton Cycle uses a compressor since the working fluid is a gas. On the following pages, each process and component in Ideal Rankine Cycle are discussed in detail. Process 1 to 2: Pressure Increase " id="pdf-obj-15-6" src="pdf-obj-15-6.jpg">

Display components for | Rankine | Brayton | Cycle

With similar processes, the Rankine and Brayton Cycle also use similar components, as shown in the diagrams above. When comparing the two, take particular note of the following:

  While the Rankine Cycle and the air-standard Brayton Cycle both use  heat exchangers for the heat transfer processes (2-3 and 4-1), the two heat exchangers are called a steam generator and condenser for the Rankine Cycle. Both the Rankine and Brayton Cycle use turbines for the expansion  process (3-4); however the Rankine Cycle uses a steam turbine while the Brayton Cycle uses a gas turbine. For the pressure increase process (1-2), the Rankine Cycle uses a pump since the working fluid is an incompressible liquid,while the Brayton Cycle uses a compressor since the working fluid is a gas.

On the following pages, each process and component in Ideal Rankine Cycle are discussed in detail.

### Process 1 to 2: Pressure Increase

Components | T-s Diagram A pump is used to increase the pressure of the working fluid in the process from states 1 to 2. The working fluid enters the pump as a saturated liquid and exits the pump as a compressed liquid. This process requires mechanical power, and a small fraction of the mechanical power generated by the turbine is used to power the pump. This pressure change process is both adiabatic and internally-reversible, and is therefore isentropic as indicated by the vertical line on the T-s diagram. A first law analysis for this process yields " id="pdf-obj-16-2" src="pdf-obj-16-2.jpg">

Rankine Cycle | Components | T-s Diagram

Components | T-s Diagram A pump is used to increase the pressure of the working fluid in the process from states 1 to 2. The working fluid enters the pump as a saturated liquid and exits the pump as a compressed liquid. This process requires mechanical power, and a small fraction of the mechanical power generated by the turbine is used to power the pump. This pressure change process is both adiabatic and internally-reversible, and is therefore isentropic as indicated by the vertical line on the T-s diagram. A first law analysis for this process yields " id="pdf-obj-16-9" src="pdf-obj-16-9.jpg">

A pump is used to increase the pressure of the working fluid in the process from states 1 to 2. The working fluid enters the pump as a saturated liquid and exits the pump as a compressed liquid. This process requires mechanical power, and a small fraction of the mechanical power generated by the turbine is used to power the pump.

This pressure change process is both adiabatic and internally-reversible, and is therefore isentropic as indicated by the vertical line on the T-s diagram. A first law analysis for this process yields

Components | T-s Diagram A pump is used to increase the pressure of the working fluid in the process from states 1 to 2. The working fluid enters the pump as a saturated liquid and exits the pump as a compressed liquid. This process requires mechanical power, and a small fraction of the mechanical power generated by the turbine is used to power the pump. This pressure change process is both adiabatic and internally-reversible, and is therefore isentropic as indicated by the vertical line on the T-s diagram. A first law analysis for this process yields " id="pdf-obj-16-15" src="pdf-obj-16-15.jpg">

Typically the working fluid is assumed to be incompressible, and the mechanical power required by the pump can be calculated as

### Process 2 to 3: Energy Addition

Rankine Cycle | Components | T-s Diagram

The working fluid leaves the pump at state 2 as a compressed liquid and then passes through the steam generator, where it is boiled first and then superheated to state 3. The steam generator actually consists of two heat exchangers in series. The first heat exchanger is called the boiler, which the working fluid enters as a compressed liquid at state 2 and exits as a saturated vapor. The second heat exchanger is called the superheater, which the working enters as a saturated vapor and exits at state 3 as a superheated vapor. However, for simplicity the two heat exchangers are often referred to in tandem as a steam generator. The energy transferred to the working fluid in this process is the energy input to the cycle, and can come from the combustion of a fossil fuel, such as coal, a nuclear reaction, or solar radiation; for generality, this is simply referred to as the energy source.

The energy addition process from states 2 to 3 is isobaric and internally reversible. No mechanical power is associated with the steam generator (as with all heat exchangers), and a First Law analysis yields

Components | T-s Diagram The working fluid leaves the pump at state 2 as a compressed liquid and then passes through the steam generator, where it is boiled first and then superheated to state 3. The steam generator actually consists of two heat exchangers in series. The first heat exchanger is called the boiler, which the working fluid enters as a compressed liquid at state 2 and exits as a saturated vapor. The second heat exchanger is called the superheater, which the working enters as a saturated vapor and exits at state 3 as a superheated vapor. However, for simplicity the two heat exchangers are often referred to in tandem as a steam generator. The energy transferred to the working fluid in this process is the energy input to the cycle, and can come from the combustion of a fossil fuel, such as coal, a nuclear reaction, or solar radiation; for generality, this is simply referred to as the energy source. The energy addition process from states 2 to 3 is isobaric and internally reversible. No mechanical power is associated with the steam generator (as with all heat exchangers), and a First Law analysis yields Process 3 to 4: Expansion Page 7 of 13 " id="pdf-obj-18-13" src="pdf-obj-18-13.jpg">
Components | T-s Diagram The working fluid leaves the pump at state 2 as a compressed liquid and then passes through the steam generator, where it is boiled first and then superheated to state 3. The steam generator actually consists of two heat exchangers in series. The first heat exchanger is called the boiler, which the working fluid enters as a compressed liquid at state 2 and exits as a saturated vapor. The second heat exchanger is called the superheater, which the working enters as a saturated vapor and exits at state 3 as a superheated vapor. However, for simplicity the two heat exchangers are often referred to in tandem as a steam generator. The energy transferred to the working fluid in this process is the energy input to the cycle, and can come from the combustion of a fossil fuel, such as coal, a nuclear reaction, or solar radiation; for generality, this is simply referred to as the energy source. The energy addition process from states 2 to 3 is isobaric and internally reversible. No mechanical power is associated with the steam generator (as with all heat exchangers), and a First Law analysis yields Process 3 to 4: Expansion Page 7 of 13 " id="pdf-obj-18-15" src="pdf-obj-18-15.jpg">

### Process 3 to 4: Expansion

Page 7 of 13

Components | T-s Diagram The working fluid leaves the pump at state 2 as a compressed liquid and then passes through the steam generator, where it is boiled first and then superheated to state 3. The steam generator actually consists of two heat exchangers in series. The first heat exchanger is called the boiler, which the working fluid enters as a compressed liquid at state 2 and exits as a saturated vapor. The second heat exchanger is called the superheater, which the working enters as a saturated vapor and exits at state 3 as a superheated vapor. However, for simplicity the two heat exchangers are often referred to in tandem as a steam generator. The energy transferred to the working fluid in this process is the energy input to the cycle, and can come from the combustion of a fossil fuel, such as coal, a nuclear reaction, or solar radiation; for generality, this is simply referred to as the energy source. The energy addition process from states 2 to 3 is isobaric and internally reversible. No mechanical power is associated with the steam generator (as with all heat exchangers), and a First Law analysis yields Process 3 to 4: Expansion Page 7 of 13 " id="pdf-obj-18-21" src="pdf-obj-18-21.jpg">

Rankine Cycle | Components | T-s Diagram

Components | T-s Diagram The working fluid is expanded in a turbine from a superheated vapor at state 3 to a saturated vapor at state 4 generating mechanical power. The expansion process is both adiabatic and reversible, and is therefore isentropic as indicated by the vertical line on the T-s diagram. A First Law analysis for this process yields A fraction of the mechanical power produced by the turbine is used to drive the pump, while the rest is the net mechanical power produced by the cycle. Therefore, " id="pdf-obj-19-7" src="pdf-obj-19-7.jpg">

The working fluid is expanded in a turbine from a superheated vapor at state 3 to a saturated vapor at state 4 generating mechanical power.

The expansion process is both adiabatic and reversible, and is therefore isentropic as indicated by the vertical line on the T-s diagram. A First Law analysis for this process yields

Components | T-s Diagram The working fluid is expanded in a turbine from a superheated vapor at state 3 to a saturated vapor at state 4 generating mechanical power. The expansion process is both adiabatic and reversible, and is therefore isentropic as indicated by the vertical line on the T-s diagram. A First Law analysis for this process yields A fraction of the mechanical power produced by the turbine is used to drive the pump, while the rest is the net mechanical power produced by the cycle. Therefore, " id="pdf-obj-19-13" src="pdf-obj-19-13.jpg">
Components | T-s Diagram The working fluid is expanded in a turbine from a superheated vapor at state 3 to a saturated vapor at state 4 generating mechanical power. The expansion process is both adiabatic and reversible, and is therefore isentropic as indicated by the vertical line on the T-s diagram. A First Law analysis for this process yields A fraction of the mechanical power produced by the turbine is used to drive the pump, while the rest is the net mechanical power produced by the cycle. Therefore, " id="pdf-obj-19-15" src="pdf-obj-19-15.jpg">

A fraction of the mechanical power produced by the turbine is used to drive the pump, while the rest is the net mechanical power produced by the cycle. Therefore,

Components | T-s Diagram The working fluid is expanded in a turbine from a superheated vapor at state 3 to a saturated vapor at state 4 generating mechanical power. The expansion process is both adiabatic and reversible, and is therefore isentropic as indicated by the vertical line on the T-s diagram. A First Law analysis for this process yields A fraction of the mechanical power produced by the turbine is used to drive the pump, while the rest is the net mechanical power produced by the cycle. Therefore, " id="pdf-obj-19-19" src="pdf-obj-19-19.jpg">

### Process 4 to 1: Energy Rejection

Components | T-s Diagram The working fluid is condensed from a saturated vapor at state 4 to a saturated liquid at state 1 in a condenser. A condenser is a type of heat exchanger, and the energy rejected by the condensing working fluid is absorbed by the environment, which is the cold region in the component diagram above. Most power plants that use the Rankine cycle are large coal or nuclear powered plants that reject a considerable amount of heat to the environment. These power plants are typically located next to large body of waters which the plants reject heat to; these bodies of water are often man- made lakes built by electric utility companies for this purpose. More recently, cooling towers are often used that reject this energy to the air in order to reduce the thermal pollution of these waters. " id="pdf-obj-20-4" src="pdf-obj-20-4.jpg">

Rankine Cycle | Components | T-s Diagram

Components | T-s Diagram The working fluid is condensed from a saturated vapor at state 4 to a saturated liquid at state 1 in a condenser. A condenser is a type of heat exchanger, and the energy rejected by the condensing working fluid is absorbed by the environment, which is the cold region in the component diagram above. Most power plants that use the Rankine cycle are large coal or nuclear powered plants that reject a considerable amount of heat to the environment. These power plants are typically located next to large body of waters which the plants reject heat to; these bodies of water are often man- made lakes built by electric utility companies for this purpose. More recently, cooling towers are often used that reject this energy to the air in order to reduce the thermal pollution of these waters. " id="pdf-obj-20-11" src="pdf-obj-20-11.jpg">

The working fluid is condensed from a saturated vapor at state 4 to a saturated liquid at state 1 in a condenser. A condenser is a type of heat exchanger, and the energy rejected by the condensing working fluid is absorbed by the environment, which is the cold region in the component diagram above. Most power plants that use the Rankine cycle are large coal or nuclear powered plants that reject a considerable amount of heat to the environment. These power plants are typically located next to large body of waters which the plants reject heat to; these bodies of water are often man- made lakes built by electric utility companies for this purpose. More recently, cooling towers are often used that reject this energy to the air in order to reduce the thermal pollution of these waters.

The energy rejection process from states 4 to 1 is isobaric and internally reversible. No mechanical power is associated with the condenser (as with all heat exchangers) and a First Law analysis yields

Desired " id="pdf-obj-21-4" src="pdf-obj-21-4.jpg">
Desired " id="pdf-obj-21-6" src="pdf-obj-21-6.jpg">

### Cycle Efficiency

Desired " id="pdf-obj-21-10" src="pdf-obj-21-10.jpg">

Energy Flow Desired

Desired " id="pdf-obj-21-15" src="pdf-obj-21-15.jpg">

The efficiency for a power cycle is defined as

Ideal  Non-Ideal Rankine Cycle " id="pdf-obj-22-4" src="pdf-obj-22-4.jpg">

Applying the First Law to the cycle

Ideal  Non-Ideal Rankine Cycle " id="pdf-obj-22-8" src="pdf-obj-22-8.jpg">

then

Ideal  Non-Ideal Rankine Cycle " id="pdf-obj-22-12" src="pdf-obj-22-12.jpg">

### Non-Ideal Rankine Cycle

Display T-s Diagram for

  

Rankine Cycle

Ideal  Non-Ideal Rankine Cycle " id="pdf-obj-22-32" src="pdf-obj-22-32.jpg">

Based on the ideal Rankine Cycle, a complete cycle analysis can be performed knowing only the pressures inside the steam generator and condenser if

information on the working fluid’s properties are available (such as from

tabulated data). Such an analysis is useful for a quick estimate of an engine’s

operating characteristics or when limited data are available. Given more information and time, a more complete cycle analysis can be performed that more accurately models the non-idealities of a real cycle, yielding a better estimate of the engine's operating characteristics. The following are some of the primary ways that real Rankine Cycles deviate from an ideal cycle:

Saturation States:

In the ideal Rankine Cycle, the working fluid leaves the turbine as a saturated vapor and leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid. In an actual Rankine cycle, it is much more likely that the working fluid leaves the turbines as either a superheated vapor or a high quality saturated liquid-vapor mixture, and leaves the condenser as a subcooled (or compressed) liquid.

Non-isentropic processes:

In an ideal Rankine Cycle, the pressure increase process from 1 to 2 and the expansion process from 3 to 4 are assumed to be adiabatic and reversible, and therefore isentropic. In reality, these processes are neither adiabatic nor reversible. When analyzing a cycle, these deviations are accounted for by using isentropic efficiencies for the pump and turbine.

Non-isobaric processes:

In an ideal Rankine Cycle, the energy addition (2-3) and rejection (4-1) processes are assumed to be isobaric. However, in reality, there is a pressure drop associated with these processes, and therefore they are not isobaric.

subcooled liquid ) the working fluid is heated b y steam tapped from the hot portion of the cycle. On the diagram shown, the fluid at 2 is mixed with the fluid at 4 (both at the same pressure) to end up with " id="pdf-obj-24-2" src="pdf-obj-24-2.jpg">
subcooled liquid ) the working fluid is heated b y steam tapped from the hot portion of the cycle. On the diagram shown, the fluid at 2 is mixed with the fluid at 4 (both at the same pressure) to end up with " id="pdf-obj-24-4" src="pdf-obj-24-4.jpg">

### REGENERATION

The regenerative Rankine cycle is so named because after emerging from the condenser (possibly as a subcooled liquid) the working fluid is heated bysteam tapped from the hot portion of the cycle. On the diagram shown, the fluid at 2 is mixed with the fluid at 4 (both at the same pressure) to end up with

the saturated liquid at 7. This is called "direct contact heating". The Regenerative Rankine cycle (with minor variants) is commonly used in real power stations.

Another variation is where bleed steam from between turbine stages is sent to feedwater heaters to preheat the water on its way from the condenser to the boiler. These heaters do not mix the input steam and condensate, function as an ordinary tubular heat exchanger, and are named "closed feedwater heaters".

The regenerative features here effectively raise the nominal cycle heat input temperature, by reducing the addition of heat from the boiler/fuel source at the relatively low feedwater temperatures that would exist without regenerative feedwater heating. This improves the efficiency of the cycle, as more of the heat flow into the cycle occurs at higher temperature.

feedwater heaters to preheat the water on its way from the condenser to the boiler. These heaters do not mix the input steam and condensate, function as an ordinary tubular heat exchanger, and are named "closed feedwater heaters". The regenerative features here effectively raise the nominal cycle heat input temperature, by reducing the addition of heat from the boiler/fuel source at the relatively low feedwater temperatures that would exist without regenerative feedwater heating. This improves the efficiency of the cycle, as more of the heat flow into the cycle occurs at higher temperature. The feed water is heated by steam bleeding out from steam turbine. The average temperature of heat absorption process increases then.   The flow of steam bleeding out from the turbine  100 % The flow of steam entering the turbine " id="pdf-obj-25-12" src="pdf-obj-25-12.jpg">

The feed water is heated by steam bleeding out from steam turbine. The average temperature of heat absorption process increases then.

# The flow of steam entering the turbine

T-S DIAGRAM FOR REGENERATION