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Negative Effects

Although there are some positive effects that are possible form video/computer game use there are mostly negative effects. Several professors conducted a research project to determine the effect of gaming on academic performance. According to the Australasian Journal of Educational Technology: Gaming Frequency and Academic Performance individuals who spend two or more hours playing games on a daily basis score lower in every subject than their non-gaming counterparts. By spending a high percentage of time on video games there is not enough time left to spend in studying for classes. The study found that there was not a single significant positive correlation between gaming and academic performance.

According to a list of statistics produced by Media Family: Effects of Video Game Playing on Children roughly 97 percent of kids played video games in 2008. In 2006 45 percent of kids were regular gamers, which means that they played for two or more hours on a daily basis. The high number of kids shows the importance of learning to choose games that will help strengthen and push the intellect of the child playing.

More then 90 years ago the first Kibbutz (from the Hebrew word kvutza, meaning group), was established. It was a revolutionary idea of a voluntary society in which people live in accordance with a specific social contract, based on egalitarian and communal principles in a social and economic framework. The main characteristics of Kibbutz life were established in adherence to collectivism in property alongside a cooperative character in the spheres of education, culture and social life. With this came the understanding that the Kibbutz member is part of a unit that is larger then just his own family.

The Kibbutz operates under the premise that all income generated by the Kibbutz and its members goes into a common pool. This income is used to run the Kibbutz, make investments, and guarantee mutual and reciprocal aid and responsibility between members. Kibbutz members receive the same budget (according to family size), regardless of their job or position. In terms of education, all children start equally and are given equal opportunity. The Kibbutz is governed by a system of direct participatory democracy, where the individual can directly influence issues and events in the community. In this mostly self sufficient community, the collective as well as the work ethic play a major role. There are Kibbutzim where the members receive differential salaries and pay for services, but in all the Kibbutzim which have chosen the differentiation model, the members are "insured" regarding the minimum income level. Having grown out of the pioneering era and way of thought of the early twentieth century, Kibbutz ideology was established and developed during the pre-state and early years of Israels statehood. During the initial years and for many years after, the Kibbutzim assumed prominent roles in almost every sphere of the developing country. Although encompassing only three percent of Israeli society, the Kibbutz has made a dramatic mark on Israeli production, culture and ideology. Today, the Kibbutz movement is undergoing a process of change. Some aspects that in the past were included in the public

domain are now under the care and responsibility of each member and his or her family. Somewhat romanticized in the past, the Kibbutz of today has evolved dramatically and the focus of Kibbutz life on society has substantially diminished.

The number of members on a Kibbutz can range from 100 to 1000. In older Kibbutzim members often include three and even four generations, comprising the founders and their successors, as well as members who have joined the Kibbutz over the years, including a significant number of new immigrants. Today there are approximately 250 Kibbutzim in the country, where about 125 000 people live. The majority of Kibbutzim are secular, but there are about twenty religious Kibbutzim, as well as Kibbutzim connected to both the Conservative and Reform streams..

The different characters of Kibbutzim are dictated by their historical origins, the ages of members and the general social and financial success and security of the Kibbutz. They are located throughout the country and vary in size, location, climate, agriculture, types of industry, population, ideological or religious persuasion and general character. In addition, issues of privatization and the extent of the continuation of communal life are factors influencing the style and development of most Kibbutzim today. Some have more or less solved the issue while others are still engaged in heated discussions as to their character and the character of Kibbutz life as it has been known for most of the last century. It is clear that much will be preserved, but at the same time generations have been raised and lessons learnt that will shed light on the continued future of the Kibbutz lifestyle.

Part of the ideology of Kibbutzim has always been the good of the collective and a strong involvement and ideological belief in the social issues and agenda of the country. An extension of these beliefs has led to an ongoing involvement with new immigrants over the years, from developing programs and assisting in providing accommodation to opening their communities and homes. The Kibbutzim have been involved historically with Aliyah and continue to be interested in this important aspect of building the country.

Alienation is a concept that refers to both a psychological condition found in individuals and to a social condition that underlies and promotes it. Karl Marx argued that alienation results from the private ownership of capital and the employment of workers for wages, and arrangement that gives workers little control over what they do. In alienated systems, people no longer work because they experience satisfaction or a sense of connection to the life process, but instead work to earn money, which they need in order to meet their needs. Alienated work becomes a routine, mechanical activity directed by others and serving merely as a means to an end.

ALIENATION (Marx) : the process whereby the worker is made to feel foreign to the products of his/her own labor. The creation of commodities need not lead to alienation and can, indeed, be highly satisfying: one pours one's subjectivity into an object and one can even gain enjoyment from the fact

that another in turn gains enjoyment from our craft. In capitalism, the worker is exploited insofar as he does not work to create a product that he then sells to a real person; instead, the proletariat works in order to live, in order to obtain the very means of life, which he can only achieve by selling his labor to a capitalist for a wage (as if his labor were itself a property that can be bought and sold). The worker is alienated from his/her product precisely because s/he no longer owns that product, which now belongs to the capitalist who has purchased the proletariats labor in exchange for exclusive ownership over the proletariat's products and all profit accrued by the sale of those products.

Positive Effects

Many people focus on the negative effects of these games and fail to see the opportunity for learning and growth. According to Raise Smart Kids: The Good and Bad Effects of Video Games there are several positive effects that come from spending time playing video games. Most games do not teach kids math, history and other subjects, however, they do provide students indirect opportunities to learn principles that can help them in their academic pursuits. Certain types of video games can help train kids to follow instructions as well as helping them develop their problem solving and logical thought processes. These skills translate directly to the classroom as students are asked by teachers to complete tasks and are presented problems that require them to use logical problem solving skills. Kids can also learn inductive reasoning and hypothesis testing. Games will often present them with a situation that needs to be solved and this causes the kids to have to develop problem-solving techniques. Before purchasing a video game a parent should talk with a representative at the store to see what the overall premise of the game is to see if it includes elements that will help build these aforementioned qualities.