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Logic and Critical Thinking 201 2

The word Philosophy was coined by the Greek Philosopher Pythagoras. For him there are three types of man: a lover of pleasure, a lover of success and a lover of wisdom. And the most senior of this type is the man who is a lover of wisdom.

Etymology of Philosophy Philia Love Sophia Wisdom = Lover of Wisdom Only God can be called wise. We can only be Lovers of Wisdom A True Philosopher cannot give blind faith to the authority of the Great Philosophers of the past and merely respect their propositions; rather, is confronted with the task of asking the eternal questions anew and answering them anew.

Definition of Philosophy Philosophy as Science Science came from the Latin word Scire meaning To Know. Therefore, in science we are looking for Scientific knowledge Knowledge of causes of things. If we only know the fact, then we have a mere knowledge of it. If we know the reasons from the fact, then we have a scientific knowledge of it. Certitude - The Result of Knowing not only the Facts but also their Causes. Question: Will It, therefore, mean that all the findings of science possess certitude? Answer: No! Certitude, Not Probability is what we want to Achieve. Philosophy as a science seeks to acquire the Knowledge of the Causes of Things. It does Not rest on Opinion or mere Belief but pursues the Causes of Things. Moreover, when Philosophy reaches its final stage and brings itself to Perfection, it attains Absolute Certitude Philosophy as the Science of all things Philosophy deals with concrete, real, contingent things. Question: What is concrete, real, contingent things? Answer: It is a thing that is not self-existent. Philosophy is the science of all contingent things. Question: Does this mean that God is outside the scope of Philosophy?
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Logic and Critical Thinking 201 2


Answer: The consideration of God enters into the pictures because contingent beings cannot be understood without positing the existence of this self sufficient Being we call God. Philosophy as Known in the light of reason Branches of Philosophy that deals with God 1. Natural Theology - Studies God not by faith, but by reason alone. - Contingent being is the principal subject matter and secondarily treat God as the first cause of the existence of the contingent beings, 2. Revealed Theology - Treats God not by reason but by faith. - Treats God as the principal subject matter and secondarily treats of contingent beings as its effects. There is no opposition in the realms of Natural Theology and Revealed. In fact, Faith and Reason can co exist. The fundamental harmony between the knowledge of faith and the knowledge of philosophy is once again confirmed. Faith asks that its object be understood with the help of reason; and at the summit of the searching reason acknowledges that it cannot do without what faith presents. (Fides et Ratio, 42)

Branches of Philosophy 1. Metaphysics is the study of the nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and body, substance and accident, events and causation. Traditional branches are cosmology and ontology. 2. Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, and whether knowledge is possible. 3. Ethics, or "moral philosophy", is concerned primarily with the question of the best way to live, and secondarily, concerning the question of whether this question can be answered. 4. Aesthetics deals with beauty, art, enjoyment, sensory-emotional values, perception, and matters of taste and sentiment. 5. Philosophy of mind deals with the nature of the mind and its relationship to the body, and is typified by disputes between dualism and materialism. 6. Philosophy of language is inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. 7. Philosophy of religion is a branch of philosophy that asks questions about religion. 8. Logic is the Science of Correct Reasoning
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Logic and Critical Thinking 201 2


Critical Thinking Critical often carries a negative connotation, implying excessive fault-finding as when a politician from the opposition party is said to be critical of the president since the politician always gives negative comments on the presidents actions, program and policies. Critical Thinking is not focused on finding faults or weaknesses in a particular person or thing. Critical Thinking is focused on exercising objective, fair and skilled judgement and analysis of ideas, beliefs and arguments. The purpose of Critical Thinking is not to put down a person but to correct what is wrong and find out what is right. What is Critical Thinking then? Critical Thinking means thinking clearly, logically and intelligently. The primary focus of critical thinking is on evaluating arguments, particularly their logic and soundness. What are the cognitive skills involved in Critical Thinking? 1. Determine its precise meaning What it actually claims? - To assess arguments well we must learn how to interpret statements and arguments in a way that makes their meaning as clear as possible. Skill Needed: Interpretative Skills Analysis of language and awareness of its complexities will be very important. 2. Determine the truth or falsity of statements how do we determine whether statements are true or false? Skills needed: Verification skills 3. Look at the logic of the argument that means whether or not what it claims has adequate support or basis for it to be accepted. Skills needed: Reasoning skills These three types of skills constitute what are usually referred to as critical thinking skills. It must be emphasized, however, that another important skill involved in critical thinking which is actually inherent and essential in all the above mentioned skills is the skill in asking Relevant Questions. Characteristic of a Critical Thinker How can we distinguish critical thinkers from uncritical thinkers? Critical Thinkers Are honest with themselves, Uncritical Thinkers Pretend they know more than they
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acknowledging what they dont know, do, ignore their limitations, assume recognizing their limitations, and their views are error-free. being watchful of their own errors. Base judgements on evidence rather than personal preferences, deferring judgement whenever evidence is insufficient. They revise judgements when new evidence reveals error. Are interested in other peoples ideas, so are willing to read and listen attentively, even when they tend to disagree with the other person. Practice restraint, controlling their feelings rather than being controlled by them, and thinking before acting. Think independently and are not afraid to disagree with group opinion. Base judgements on first impressions and gut reactions. They are unconcerned about the amount or quality of evidence and cling to earlier views steadfastly. Are preoccupied with self and their own opinions, and so are unwilling to pay attention to others views. At the first sign of disagreement, they tend to think How can I refute this? Tend to follow their feelings and act impulsively. Tend to engage in group think, uncritically following the beliefs and values of the crowd.

Value of Critical Thinking There are several practical reasons why developing critical thinking skills is important. 1. Critical Thinking teaches us a wide range of strategies and skills that can greatly improve our ability to engage in such critical evaluations. 2. Critical thinking can help us avoid making foolish personal decisions. 3. Critical Thinking can teach us to be informed, deliberate and reasonable as possible. 4. Critical Thinking can give us Self-respect. 5. Critical Thinking, honestly and courageously pursued, can help to free us from the unexamined assumptions, beliefs and prejudices of our upbringing and our society. Simple Apprehension A. Ideas and Terms

Introduction Simple apprehension, the first mental operation, is the process of grasping or abstracting the essence of a thing without affirming or
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denying anything about it. Its mental product is called idea and the verbal manifestation of which is called the term. Ideas There is nothing in the intellect that does not pass first through the senses. (1) Ideas begin with the sense data; (2) the sense organs accept a number of impressions from the great number of stimuli coming from the external world. (3) An image then is produced. The image itself is not to be understood as an unconscious representation of the attributes of things; rather, it is a conscious experience in which the conditions of the external world are somehow reflected. Our images refer to the sensible aspect of reality, and by abstraction performed by the intellect, the essential elements are separated from the sensible qualities, thereby forming an idea of the thing sensed. An idea is abstract because it focuses only on the nature or essence it signifies and leaves aside the concrete, sensible characteristics of a thing. An idea is a mental sign whereby we grasp the essence of a thing. The idea is found in the mind, not in things. Example: The concept of a dog is found in the mind of the one who understands the nature of a dog. The mental operation by which we grasp the essence of a thing without yet making a statement about it is called simple apprehension. Terms Term is the verbal manifestation of the ideas. It is properly defined as a conventional sign that is expressive of an idea. It is a sign. A sign is something that leads to the knowledge of something else. It is anything that gives meaning distinct from itself. Example: Yawning a sign of being sleepy. Twisting ones lips sign of dislike Green traffic light sign of go for vehicles. It is a conventional sign. Conventional sign is contrasted with natural sign. It is a natural sign if the connection is given by nature itself such
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as the crying of a baby as an expression of pain, or the clouds as a sign of rain to come. It is expressive of an idea. Since an idea is abstract, it is made concrete through the use of terms. Classification of Terms A. According to Comprehension 1. Simple it expresses only one conceptual note. Examples: Truth Conformity between the intellect and the thing. Being An existential thing. Falsity Non-conformity between the intellect and the thing. 2. Compound it expresses more than one conceptual note. Example: Man may be expressed as Rational animal Human being Person God may be expressed as Infinite Primer Mover Intelligent designer Uncaused cause 3. Concrete - It expresses something which has attributes that are capable of being perceived through the senses. Examples: Ball, Can, Desk, Shirt, Stone, Table 4. Abstract it expresses something as separated from any single object. It denotes the general attributes of any objects. Examples: Fear, Happiness, Heights, knowledge, Perfection B. 1. According to Extension Singular it represents a single object only.

2. Universal it represents not only a class as a whole but also each member of the class. 3. Particular it represents only a part of the universal whether it is definite or indefinite. 4. Collective it represents a number of things constituting a unit group or whole. C. According to Origin
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1. Immediate (Intuitive) It is formed from the direct perception of things. 2. Mediate (Abstractive) it is formed through the mediation of other ideas. D. According Relation 1. Compatible those that can co-exist in a subject. 2. Incompatible those that cannot co-exist in a subject. They exclude each other. a. Contradictory those that express a positive and a negative concept.Contradictories are mutually exclusive such that the affirmation of one is the denial of the other. Between them, there is no third (middle) possibility. Examples: Legal Illegal Literarate Illiterate Patient Impatient Valid - Invalid b. Contrary those that express extremes belonging to the same class. Between these ideas, there is a third (middle) ground. Examples: Rich Poor Hot Cold High Low Beautiful - Ugly c. Privative two opposed ideas, one of which expresses a perfection, and the other it lacks which ought to be possessed. Examples: Sight Blindness Truth Error Hearing Deafness Good - Evil d. Correlative two opposed ideas that bear mutual relation to one another such that one cannot be understood without the other. They imply each other because one depends on the other. Examples: Cause Effect Husband Wife Whole Part Parent - Child E. According to Meaning 1. Univocal A term that carries the same meaning in its several uses. Examples: Animal when predicated of dog and cat has exactly the same meaning. 2. Equivocal A term that carries a different meaning in its different uses. The term may be equivocal: a. Only in pronunciation Sweet and Suite Sun and Son Matte and mat Dear and Deer
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Logic and Critical Thinking 201 2


Reign and Rain Queue and Cue b. In pronunciation and spelling Trunk of a tree, of a car, of an elephant Bank where money is deposited or withdrawn, or the riverbank. 3. Analogous A term that carries a meaning in some ways different, and in some ways the same. Examples: Good does not have the same meaning in good cement, good job, good medicine, good food. F. According to Quality 1. Positive in form, positive in meaning Examples: Life, justice, truth, freedom 2. Positive in form, negative in meaning Examples: murder, massacre, shortage, famine 3. Negative in form, negative in meaning Examples: immature, unprofessional, incompetent, dishonest 4. Negative in form, positive in meaning Examples: immortal, infinite, blameless, unblemished G. According to Object 1. Real it expresses something that has existential quality, whether positive or negative. Examples: clarity, temperature, scandal, unemployment 2. Logical it is used as a conceptual device to facilitate learning. Examples: subject, predicate, classification, division 3. Imaginary it has no correspondence in reality but is merely a concoction of the mind. Examples: spiderman, darna

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