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DEPSITOS MINERALES TIPO PRFIDO

Depsitos de Prfidos

Muestra de mano de un Prfido

CLASIFICACION DE LOS DEPOSITOS DE PORFIDOS


Segun Seedorff et al., (2005): Existen 5 CLASES de depsitos de prfidos: I. II. Prfidos de Oro (Au) Prfidos de Cobre (Cu)

III. Prfidos de Molibdeno (Mo) IV. Prfidos de Tungsteno (W) V. Prfidos de Estao (Sn)

Cada clase se subdivide en subclases, para un total de 13 subclases

CLASE: PRFIDOS DE ORO


Subclase: (1) Porfido Dioritico de Au (Dioritic porphyry Au)
(Tiene continuidad con los prfidos de Cu subclase Tonalitico-granodioritico)
Q

>0.4 g/t Au

Quartzolite
90 90

Quartz-rich Granitoid
60 60

Granite Alkali Fs. 20 Quartz Syenite Alkali Fs. 5 Syenite 10

Granodiorite
20

10

Quartz Quartz Quartz Monzonite Syenite Monzodiorite Syenite35 Monzonite 65 Monzodiorite90 (Foid)-bearing (Foid)-bearing (Foid)-bearing Syenite Monzonite Monzodiorite

Qtz. Diorite/ Qtz. Gabbro


5 Diorite/Gabbro/

10 (Foid)-bearing

Anorthosite

(Foid)-bearing Alkali Fs. Syenite (Foid) (Foid) Monzosyenite Monzodiorite

Diorite/Gabbro

60

60

(Foid)olites

Subclases:

CLASE: PRFIDOS DE COBRE


(Tenores de 0.2% a mas de 1% de Cu)

A. Rocas Subalcalinas (son las variedades mas abundantes y reconocidas): (1) Prfidos Tonalitico-granodioritico de Cu-(Au-Mo). Presente en arcos de islas, aunque hay ejemplos en arcos continentales (2) Prfidos Cuarzomonzodioritico-granitico Cu-(Mo). Presente en arcos continentales (comunes en suramerica:ejemplo: Chuquicamata)
Q
90

Quartzolite
90

Quartz-rich Granitoid
60 60

Granite

Granodiorite

20 Qtz. Diorite/ Alkali Fs.20 Quartz Syenite Quartz Quartz Qtz. Gabbro Quartz Syenite Monzonite Monzodiorite Alkali Fs. 5 5Diorite/Gabbro/ Syenite 10 Syenite 35 Monzonite 90 65Monzodiorite Anorthosite (Foid)-bearing (Foid)-bearing (Foid)-bearing A P Syenite Monzonite Monzodiorite (Foid)-bearing 10 10 Diorite/Gabbro (Foid)-bearing Alkali Fs. Syenite (Foid) (Foid) Monzosyenite Monzodio rite 60 60

(Foid)olites

CLASE: PRFIDOS DE COBRE


B. Rocas Alcalinas: (3) Prfido Monzonitico de de Cu-(Mo-Au) Presente en las mayores provincias de porfidos del mundo forma grandes depositos como Ok Tadi, Bingham, Peschanka (4) Prfido Sienitico (subsaturado en Silice) de Cu-(Au)
Q
90

Quartzolite
90

Quartz-rich Granitoid
60 60

Granite

Granodiorite

20 Qtz. Diorite/ Alkali Fs.20 Quartz Syenite Quartz Quartz Qtz. Gabbro Quartz Syenite Monzonite Monzodiorite Alkali Fs. 5 5Diorite/Gabbro/ Syenite 10 Syenite 35 Monzonite 90 65Monzodiorite Anorthosite (Foid)-bearing (Foid)-bearing (Foid)-bearing A P Syenite Monzonite Monzodiorite (Foid)-bearing 10 10 Diorite/Gabbro (Foid)-bearing Alkali Fs. Syenite (Foid) (Foid) Monzosyenite Monzodio rite 60 60

(Foid)olites

CLASE: PRFIDOS DE MOLIBDENO


Subclases: Prfido Monzonitico de Mo-(Au) Prfido Sienitico de Mo Prfido Cuarzomonzonitico-granitico de Mo-Cu Prfido Granitico de Mo Prfido Trondhjemitico de Mo Prfido Riolitico de Mo
60

Q
Quartzolite
90 90

Quartz-rich Granitoid
60 60

Granite Alkali Fs. 20 Quartz Syenite Alkali Fs. 5 Syenite 10

Granodiorite
20

10
60

Quartz Quartz Quartz Syenite Monzonite Monzodiorite Syenite35 Monzonite 65 Monzodiorite 90 (Foid)-bearing (Foid)-bearing (Foid)-bearing Syenite Monzonite Monzodiorite

Qtz. Diorite/ Qtz. Gabbro


5 Diorite/Gabbro/ 10 (Foid)-bearing

Anorthosite

Rhyolite

Dacite

(Foid)-bearing Alkali Fs. Syenite


20

Diorite/Gabbro

20

(Foid) (Foid) Monzosyenite Monzodiorite

Trachyte

Latite
35

Andesite/Basalt
65

A
10

(foid)-bearing Trachyte

(foid)-bearing Latite

(foid)-bearing Andesite/Basalt

10

Phonolite

Tephrite

60

60

(Foid)olites
60 60

(Foid)ites

CLASE: PRFIDOS DE TUNGSTENO (W)


Q

Subclase:
60 60

(1) Prfido Riolitico de W-Mo


20

Rhyolite

Dacite

20

Trachyte

Latite
35

Andesite/Basalt
65

A
10

(foid)-bearing Trachyte

(foid)-bearing Latite

(foid)-bearing Andesite/Basalt

10

Phonolite

Tephrite

60

60

(Foid)ites

http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~pgore/myphotos/porph.gif

CLASE: PRFIDOS DE ESTAO (Sn)


Subclase:
60

60

(1) Prfido Riodacitico de Sn


20

Rhyolite

Dacite

20

Ejemplo: Cerro Rico (Potos, Bolivia)


A
10

Trachyte
35

Latite (foid)-bearing Latite

Andesite/Basalt
65

(foid)-bearing Trachyte

(foid)-bearing Andesite/Basalt

10

Phonolite

Tephrite

60

60

(Foid)ites

Tomado de: http://www.lfhill.com/handsamples/rhyodporph1.jpg

Alteration characteristics in porphyry copper deposits.

From Cox (1987)

Tomado de:

RJB - FLUIDS IN THE EARTH

PRFIDO DE Au

Magmas Calco-alcalinos
PRFIDO DE Cu-Mo PRFIDO DE Cu-Au

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/images/fig11.jpg

(B) Quartz-molybdenite veins in altered porphyry (1) terminate at contact of intermineral dyke (2); a younger quartz-molybdenite (3) vein cuts the altered porphyry, earlier veins and the intermineral dyke. A late quartz-base metal vein (4) cuts all other features. Kitsault Mo deposit, Alice Arm district, British Columbia, GSC 2006-013.

Intermineral porphyry dyke with chilled margin cuts older porphyry with magnetite and quartz-magnetite veins and associated potassic alteration. Both the older porphyry and the intermineral porphyry are cut by borniteand chalcopyrite-bearing quartz veins. Granisle deposit, Babine district, British Columbia.

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/photolib/porph/babine/index_e.php?p=1

ALTERACION POTASICA

Examples of different types of alteration associated with porphyry deposits. (A) Potassic K-feldspar (Kfs) alteration around mineralized quartz veins in Bethsaida granodiorite. Valley Cu deposit, Highland Valley district, British Columbia, GSC 2006-017. (B) Potassic alteration of granodiorite porphyry consisting of pervasive pink K-feldspar and patches of fine-grained hydrothermal biotite (Bt) associated with quartz-molybdenite veinlets. Red Mountain Mo deposit, Yukon Territory, GSC 2006-008

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/index_e.php

Quartz-pyrite-chalcopyrite vein stockworks in feldspar porphyry heavily overprinted by sericitic (phyllic) alteration. Bell deposit, Babine district, British Columbia.
http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/photolib/porph/babine/index_e.php?p=1

Corobre Hole: Depth 658.95m, Quartz and sulphide veins with chalcopyrite and molybdenite cutting P1 porphyry. ARGENTINA http://www.savantexplorations.com/i/photos/7.jpg

Corobre Hole: Depth 643.2m, Quartz vein with chalcopyrite and molybdenum cuts sericitized P1 breccia

http://www.savantexplorations.com/i/photos/7.jpg

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/images/fig11.jpg

(C) Intermineral intrusive breccia with a partly digested chalcopyrite fragment (1) and a chalcopyrite-bearing quartz vein fragment (2). The matrix porphyry is cut by later chalcopyrite-bearing fractures and quartz veins (not shown). Granisle Cu deposit, Babine district, British Columbia, GSC 2006-015.

http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/originals/Weber-Toba/pinatubo.jpg http://www.richard-seaman.com/Travel/Philippines/Highlights/MtPinatubo.jpg

Pinatubo (Fillipinas)

The June 12, 1991 eruption column from Mount Pinatubo taken from the east side of Clark Air Base. U.S. Geological Survey Photograph taken on June 12, 1991, 08:51 hours, by Dave Harlow.

http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Imgs/Jpg/Pinatubo/Pinatubo91_eruption_plume_06-12-91_med.jpg

http://www.geokem.com/images/pix/Pinatubo-eruption.jpg

Pinatubo (Isla Lozn, Filipinas) 800 x 526 - 139 KB - jpg

www.vulkane-infos.de/img/pinatubo.jpg

White Island

http://www.geonet.org.nz/images/volcano/our-volcanoes/White-Island-28766-20-lge.jpg

Satsuma-Iwojima volcano, located 40 km south of Kyushu, Japan

http://googlesightseeing.com/wp-content/miyakejimaisland.jpg

http://www.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~kazan/images/Image24.jpg

Satsuma-Iwojima volcano, located 40 km south of Kyushu, Japan continuously emits high-temperature volcanic gases from the rhyolitic cone of Iwodake
http://www.terrapub.co.jp/images/symbol/eps/54030173.gif

Satsuma-Iwojima volcano, located 40 km south of Kyushu, Japan

http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/fmaeno/Pic/Iwo-jima/20010720_Iwojima.jpg

SKARN HS-IS-LS

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/index_e.php

Potassic K-feldspar (Kfs) alteration around mineralized quartz veins in Bethsaida granodiorite. Valley Cu deposit, Highland Valley district, British Columbia, GSC 2006-017.

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/index_e.php

(B) Potassic alteration of granodiorite porphyry consisting of pervasive pink Kfeldspar and patches of fine-grained hydrothermal biotite (Bt) associated with quartzmolybdenite veinlets. Red Mountain Mo deposit, Yukon Territory, GSC 2006-008.

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/images/fig11.jpg

Older porphyry with magnetite and quartz-magnetite veins and associated biotite and K-feldspar (potassic) alteration (1) truncated by an intermineral porphyry dyke with a chilled margin (2); both the older porphyry and the intermineral porphyry are cut by a bornite- and chalcopyrite-bearing quartz vein (3). Granisle Cu deposit, Babine district, British Columbia, GSC 2006-014.

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/index_e.php

Stockwork of wolframite- and molybdenite-bearing fractures with white selvages of quartz-topaz-fluorite-sericite alteration cutting chloritized granite. Fire Tower zone, Mount Pleasant W-Mo deposit, New Brunswick, GSC 2006-009.

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/images/fig16.jpg

Schematic time-depth relations of principal alteration types in Au-rich porphyry Cu systems and other types of porphyry deposits (after Sillitoe, 1993b).

Tomado de Robb (2005)

SiO2-(Fe2O3/FeO) variation diagram for granitic rocks related to porphyry deposits of Cu, Cu-Mo, Cu-Au, Mo, W-Mo and Sn (modified from Kirkham and Sinclair, 1995). The dividing line between the magnetite and ilmenite series is from Ishihara (1981) and the field of tin granites is from Lehmann (1990). http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/images/fig12.jpg

Descripcin General
Petrografa
Hospedados por intrusivos cidos a intermedios, tales como granitos, granodioritas, tonalitas, dioritas. Los depsitos de Porfidos de Cu estan generalmente asociados con granitoides tipo I. Multiples eventos intrusivos son comunes en las reas con mineralizacin de porfidos de Cu, donde las intrusiones hospeadoras son las ms jvenes y las ms diferenciadas. Generalmente emplazadas pasivamente rather than forcefully ie an extensional rather than compressive regime

Alteracin Hidrothermal
1) 2) Cuatro zonas de alteracin se asocian con los depsitos de prfidos Zona Potasica development of secondary orthoclasebiotite-chlorite and minor sericite which replace primary orthoclase, plagioclase and mafic minerals Zona Flica Se caracteriza por el desarrollo de una asociacin con cuarzo-sericita-pirita con algo de clorita, illita y rutilo. La Sericitizacin afecta a los feldespatos y la biotita. This rean releases silica resulting in silicification and quartz production Zona Arglica Los minerales del grupo de la arcilla predominan. Caolinita predomina cerca del cuerpo mineralizado y la montmorillonita ms retirada Zona Propiltica siempre presente! La Clorita es el mineral predominante junto con la pirite, calcita y la epidota. Minerales mficos son parcialmente reemplazados por la clorita y carbonato, la plagioclasa puede no ser afectada. Gradualmente grada hacia la roca circundante hasta 1 km.

3) 4)

http://www.und.nodak.edu/instruct/mineral/320petrology/opticalmin/jpgs/KspP51P.jpg

Conversion no hidrotermal

These photos show several grains of microcline (K-feldspar) with well developed crosshatched twinning (XP). Quartz and plagioclase are also present; they have color and interference colors similar to microcline's but lack microcline twinning. Brown biotite and green hornblende can be seen in the PP view. One hornblende grain has a diamond shape and shows hornblende's characteristic two cleavages at angles of 60o and 120o. A few grains of magnetite are in the lower right.

http://images.google.com.co/imgres?imgurl=http://www.dukelabs.com/Abstracts%2520and%2520Papers/CM2005b_files/ image010.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.dukelabs.com/Abstracts%2520and%2520Papers/ CM2005b.htm&usg=__6t_M1k95Zb0v5xo4Ncnc76U3y5I=&h=356&w=444&sz=43&hl=es&start=62&tbnid=XLa3H8DIejhQWM:&tbnh=102&tbnw=127& prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbiotite%2Bhornblende%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D21%26hl%3Des%26sa%3DN%26start%3D42

Photomicrograph in cross-polarized light of a rhyodacite dike showing a 1mm phenocryst of zoned hornblende (hbl) surrounded by a siliceous and partly glassy groundmass consisting of quartz and K-feldspar dusted with fibrous aggregates of iron oxide the probable result of quenching and devitrification of felsitic volcanic glass. Note the microphenocrysts of plagioclase (pg) and biotite (bi) to the top left, left, and bottom right of the hornblende. Such porphyritic textures are unique to the rhyodacite dikes of the Queens Tunnel. (Sample Q006C; Queens Tunnel Station 151+80; 2 mm field of view.)

Bornite on Precambrian sandstone matrix from Dolyhir Quarry. The metallic pinkish colour is well-displayed. A little malachite and azurite are also present. Sample 4 cm across.

bornite is an important ore of copper. It can occur as a primary mineral, for example in porphyry-copper deposits, or commonly as a supergene species occurring in the secondary enriched zones of copper ore bodies. Bornite is a distinctive mineral when fresh and unweathered and may be identified in hand specimen by its reddish-pink colour. However, like many sulphides it readily tarnishes to iridescent blues and greens. The commonplace name for bornite, 'peacock ore', reflects this property but has also caused confusion: chalcopyrite also tarnishes in this manner and many specimens labelled bornite often turn out to simply be tarnished chalcopyrite. The colour of the fresh sulphide is critical in identification.

http://images.google.com.co/imgres?imgurl=http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/geology/mineralogy/media//2/1/0/bornite2.jpg&imgrefurl=http:// www.museumwales.ac.uk/cy/800/%3Fmineral %3D50&usg=__svIE3zOIk4fFIoZLM6Pd0NVwdoc=&h=275&w=350&sz=40&hl=es&start=39&tbnid=4I5Rh9QYYCAEMM:&tbnh=94&tbnw=120&prev=/ images%3Fq%3Dhydrothermal%2Bbiotite%2Bporphyry%2Bdeposit%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D21%26hl%3Des%26sa%3DN%26start%3D21

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/images/fig9.jpg

Alteration Halos

Alteration Shell

Hydrotherm al Circulation

Multiple Intrusives

Structural Settings

Youngest Phase of Intrusion

Hypogene Mineralization
Ore can be found in 3 situations
1) 2) 3) Totally within the host stock (veins) Partially in stock and partially in country rock Totally within the country rock

Orebodies are usually surrounded by a pyrite-rich shell, which occur in concentric zones. Usually a central barren core passing outwards firstly to Mo-rich minzn, then Cu-rich minzn as the main ore shell is encountered. Pyrite gradually increases to form a pyrite-rich halo (10-15%) but with minor chalcopy and Mo. The highest Cu values often occur at the boundary between the potassic and phyllic zones with weak minzn in the propolyitic zones

The Diorite Model


Some porphyries assoc with low silica:alkali ratios and referred to as the diorite model Diorite model deposits have low sulfur conc. in the mineralizing fluids. Consequently not all the iron oxides are converted to pyrite and much remains in chlorite and biotite while excess iron tends to occur as magnetite The phyllic and argillic alteration zones are usually absent so that the potassic zone is surrounded by the propylitic zone Significant amounts of gold occur and Mo and Cu is usually low Gangue material may be devoid of quartz but contain abundant chlorite, epidote and albite

Comparison of the Lowell-Guilbert and Diorite Types of Porphyry Copper Deposits FEATURE LOWELLGUILBERT Quartz Monzonite to Granodiorite (S) DIORITE

Host Pluton Alteration Mineralization Quartz in fractures Common Orthoclase in fractures Magnetite Pyrite in fractures Molybdenite Chalcopyrite/bornite Gold Structure Breccia Stockwork

Qtz. Diorite to Diorite (I)

Potassic, Phyllic, Potassic Argillic,Propylitic Propylitic

Common Common Minor Common Common >3:1 Rare May Occur Important

Erratic Erratic Common Less Common Rare <3:1 Important Rare Important

Characteristics of S & I Type Granites FEATURE S TYPE I TYPE

Gabbro:diorite: granite Na2O (felsic)


Al2O3/Alkalis +CaO

2:18:80 <3.2% >1:1 ilmenite >.706 corundum Sn, W Crustal anatexis of sediments

15:50:35 >3.2% <1:1 magnetite .704-.706 diopside Au Partial melt of mantle

Iron oxide
87Sr/86Sr

Normative Assoc. metals Genesis

Distribution
Most porphyry deposits occur within Mesozoic and Cenozoic orogenic belts associated with either island-arcs and convergent continental margins Some porphyries occur in Paleozoic orogenic belts in Central Asia, Australia and US Few are found in Precambrian rocks due to their low preservation potential (erosion)

Porphyry Cu Locations

mineralizing fluids and the origin of the metals and sulfur Crackle brecciation indicates that at least some of the fluids originated from the pluton. Consists of fractures (brecciation) that have been healed with veinlets to form the stockwork mineralization Brecciation is a result of volume increase in the magma chamber within 0.5-2km of surface caused by continual fractionation of anhydrous minerals and the generation of volatiles and an increase in vapour pressure. If vapour pressure rises above confining pressure, retrograde boiling occurs which may overcome the tensile strength of the rock resulting in expansion and extensive and rapid brecciation Retrograde boiling produces an aqueous phase (hydrothermal fluid) rich in chloride and bisulfide ions which act as an important transport mechanism for base metals and gold Stable isotope data indicate that the potassium silica alteration occurred at 550-700C and derived from primary magmatic fluids. However, fluids from sericites in the phyllic zone are a mix of meteoric and magmatic fluids

Genesis of Porphyry Cu Deposits A question of magmatic versus meteoric derivation for the

Cadia/Ridgeway
Shoshonite association

Tholeiite trend

Where does Cadia fit into the typical porphyry model? Island-arc? Continental arc? Or no arc at all intracontinental? What environment are highly alkaline shoshonites most likely to form?

References/Links
Porphyry deposits
http://www.geo.arizona.edu/geos256/azgeology/porphyry.html http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/class/GSC433/Porphyry.htm http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/class/GSC433/Moly.htm

http://images.google.com.co/imgres?imgurl=http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/education/minerals/pics/porcop.jpg&imgrefurl=http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/education/minerals/gold.html&usg=__F_LA6neytj7DPtD8-PiTomsV2Q=&h=274&w=350&sz=28&hl=es&start=82&tbnid=_tp8BZ126sb0bM:&tbnh=94&tbnw=120&prev=/images%3Fq%3DPotassic%2Balteration%2BPorphyry%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26hl%3Des%26sa%3DN%26start%3D72

Idealized drawing of a porphyry copper deposit, showing the relationship between the porphyry body, the altered and mineralized rock, and the overlying volcano. http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/22/1522-004-87015467.gif

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/method/geophysics/images/fig07.jpg

http://www.sges.auckland.ac.nz/home_page/geol340/gfx/porphyry_molybdenum_01.jpg

Schematic image of airborne and ground gamma-ray spectrometry anomalies associated with a porphyry Cu deposit.
http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/method/geophysics/images/fig07.jpg

http://www.beloit.edu/sepm/Rocks_and_minerals/images_rocks.html/copper1.gif

Hypothetical cross-section of a small (100 m to 5 km across) pluton, probably derived from a larger magmatic reservoir, and intruding into extensional regimes at higher crustal levels. Of note is the asymmetric hornfels aureole and the early-chilled and more brittle marginal carapace. Preferred sites of intrusion-hosted Au mineralization are above the cupola, where exsolved fluids will accumulate, and mineralized fractures developed in the pluton's apex and shoulders. Epizonal styles of mineralization are associated with dike and sill complexes that would be hosted near the top of the hornfels aureole.

Reduced Intrusion-Related Gold Systems (RIRGS)


Schematic plot emphasizing the variations in metal association as a function of the primary magmatic oxidation state and the lithologic character of the associated plutonic rocks. Gold, associated with RIRGS, plot in the field occupied by W systems but notably is far removed from the more characteristic Au-Cu field that is associated with highly oxidized and more mafic magmas. The result is that Au can be enriched in both oxidized and reduced magmas, but that a reduced oxidation state may be necessary for Au enrichment in fractionated systems. The corollary is that fractionated oxidized systems are likely to be depleted in Au. Modified from Thompson et al. (1999).

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/gold/rirgs/images/fig14.jpg

http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/grocha/monument/images/metchem.gif

http://www.ucm.es/info/crismine/Geologia_Minas/Exploracion_alteracion_porfidos.jpg

http://plata.uda.cl/minas/apuntes/geologia/depos/L&G02.gif

filica

Schematic time-depth relations of principal alteration types in Au-rich porphyry Cu systems and other types of porphyry deposits (after Sillitoe, 1993b).

http://plata.uda.cl/minas/apuntes/geologia/depos/L&G02.gif

http://www.beloit.edu/~SEPM/Rocks_and_minerals/images_rocks.html/copper1.gif

El modelo se SILLITOE (1973) incluye algunos puntos nuevos. A parte de alteraciones hidrotermales (SILLITOE: potsica, serictica, propilizacin, argilica y silificacin) se concluye la presencia de stocks (=cuerpos subvolcnicos, hipabisales en bajas profundidades), y la presencia de un aparato volcnico o volcn estratificado. Adems se toma en cuenta la formacin de brechas hidrotermales. Interesante es la alteracin propilitica hasta el aparato volcnico y la silificacin en partes superiores del sistema. http://plata.uda.cl/minas/apuntes/geologia/depos/cuposil02.gif

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/images/fig16.jpg

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/images/fig15.jpg

Examples of different types of alteration associated with porphyry deposits. (A) Potassic K-feldspar (Kfs) alteration around mineralized quartz veins in Bethsaida granodiorite. Valley Cu deposit, Highland Valley district, British Columbia, GSC 2006-017. (B) Potassic alteration of granodiorite porphyry consisting of pervasive pink K-feldspar and patches of fine-grained hydrothermal biotite (Bt) associated with quartz-molybdenite veinlets. Red Mountain Mo deposit, Yukon Territory, GSC 2006-008. (C) Stockwork of wolframite- and molybdenite-bearing fractures with white selvages of quartz-topazfluorite-sericite alteration cutting chloritized granite. Fire Tower zone, Mount Pleasant WMo deposit, New Brunswick, GSC 2006-009. (D) Quartz-pyrite-chalcopyrite vein stockworks in feldspar porphyry heavily overprinted by sericitic (phyllic) alteration. Bell Cu-Au deposit, Babine district, British Columbia, GSC 2006-011.

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/images/fig15.jpg

http://eris.unalmed.edu.co/~rrodriguez/epitermales/schem.gif

Jeffrey W. Hedenquist Colorado School of Mines Dept. Geology and Geological Engineering 1500 Illinois Street Golden CO 80401-1887 USA tel: (1)303-273-3978 fax: (1)303-273-3859 Jhedenqu at Mines.edu Personal CV Born: 26 September 1954, Duluth, Minnesota, USA U.S. and New Zealand Citizen, Canadian resident; married

www.mines.edu/.../faculty/jhedenqu/index.html

Dick Sillitoe

El modelo de SILLITOE en un ambiente erosionado y levemente inclinado (tectnicamente) provoca un afloramiento de varias rocas. a) morfolgicamente como elevacin afloran los sectores silificadas. Abajo, protegido por la silificacin la propilizacin, alteracin serizitica y la alteracin potsica. Las rocas volcnicas jvenes (del aparato volcanico que provoc las alteraciones) existen casi solamente en una forma fuertemente alterada. Las rocas pre-volcanicas y la intrusin se conoce en su forma fresca y alterada. Brechas hidrotermales se ubican cerca del sector silificado, normalmente adentro de rocas pre-volcanicas alteradas.

http://plata.uda.cl/minas/apuntes/geologia/depos/cuposil02.gif

IOCG

Iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits encompass a wide spectrum of sulphide-deficient low-Ti magnetite and/or hematite ore bodies of hydrothermal origin where breccias, veins, disseminations and massive lenses with polymetallic enrichments (Cu, Au, Ag, U, REE, Bi, Co, Nb, P) are genetically associated with, but either proximal or distal to large-scale continental, A- to I-type magmatism, alkalinecarbonatite stocks, and crustal-scale fault zones and splays. The deposits are characterized by more than 20% iron oxides. Their lithological hosts and ages are nondiagnostic but their alteration zones are, with calcic-sodic regional alteration superimposed by focused potassic and iron oxide alterations. The deposits form at shallow to mid crustal levels in extensional, anorogenic or orogenic, continental settings such as intracratonic and intra-arc rifts, continental magmatic arcs and back-arc basins. Margins of Archean craton where arcs and successor arcs were developed appear to be particularly fertile.

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/iocg/index_e.php#typ

Distribution of IOCG districts and important deposits worldwide (red dots). Australia: Gawler (Olympic Dam, Acropolis, Moonta, Oak Dam, Prominent Hill and Wirrda Well deposits), Cloncurry (Ernest Henry, Eloise, Mount Elliot, Osborne and Starra deposits), Curnamona (North Portia and Cu Blow deposits) and Tennant Creek (Gecko, Peko/Juno and Warrego deposits) districts; Brazil: Carajas district (Cristalino, Alemao/Igarap Bahia, Salobo, and Sossego deposits); Canada: Great Bear Magmatic Zone (Sue-Dianne and NICO deposits), Wernecke, Iran Range, West Coast skarns and Central Mineral Belt districts, and Kwyjibo deposit; Chile: Chilean Iron Belt (Candelaria, El Algarrobo, El Romeral, Manto Verde, and Punta del Cobre deposits); China: Bayan Obo deposit (Inner Mongolia), Lower Yangtze Valley district (Meishan and Daye deposits); Iran: Bafq district (Chogust, Chadoo Malu, Seh Chahoon deposit); Mauritania: Akjoujt deposit; Mexico: Durango district (Cerro de Mercado); Peru: Peruvian Coastal Belt (Raul, Condestable, Eliana, Monterrosas and Marcona deposits); Sweden: Kiruna district (Kiirunavaara, Loussavaara), Aitik deposit (also described as a porphyry Cu deposit); South Africa: Phalaborwa and Vergenoeg deposits; USA: Southeast Missouri (Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob deposits); Adirondack and Mid-Atlantic Iron Belt (Reading Prong); Zambia: Shimyoka, Kantonga, and Kitumba prospects.

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/iocg/images/fig01.gif

Fe-Oxide Copper Gold deposits (IOCG): Candelaria-Punta del Cobre, Chile; Salobo, Brazil; Ral-Condestable, Peru. Specular hematite (hm) with pyrite (py) and chalcopyrite (cpy) in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre District. Frequently specular hematite is replaced pseudomorphically by magnetite (mushketovite). Marschik and Fontbot (2001).

http://copperrange.com.au/docs/Stuart%20Shelf/IOCG%20model.jpg

Model for the formation of IOCG deposits Olympic Dam is the biggest of a class of ore deposits known as iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Ukinrek_Maar_eruption_April_1977.jpg

http://z.about.com/d/geology/1/0/a/I/1/maar500.jpg

Maars:form when rising magma meets groundwater, triggering an explosion. Dark ash fell around this maar, one of the Ukinrek Maars, in a tephra ring. Maar, Alaska Peninsula

Magnetite breccia, Kwyjibo deposit, Qubec. http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/iocg/images/fig04.jpg

http://www.impactsilver.com/i/maps/lr-model.gif

YACIMIENTOS MINERALES

1. PORFIDOS CUPRIFEROS

www.ucm.es

Magmatismo del Eoceno-Oligoceno Cuarzomonzonita y Granodiorita


http://econgeol.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content-nw/full/100/1/87/FIG008801EPS
http://z.about.com/d/geology/1/0/o/I/chilemap.gif

http://www.beloit.edu/~SEPM/Rocks_and_minerals/images_rocks.html/copper1.gif

The world's largest porphyry copper mine, La Escondida, Chile

www.ersdac.or.jp/.../Image/103_Escondida.jpg

TIPOS DE DEPOSITOS CON Au

http://images.google.com.co/imgres?imgurl=http://www.gsi.ie/NR/rdonlyres/5097086D-C351-4503-9B1D-67EDF51AB1A9/0/Au_float_printsize.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.gsi.ie/Newsletters/Geology%2BMatters %2BNo1%2BWinter%2B2004.htm&usg=__fV23bBU7ea5yUoE4hUTS3aOwwUo=&h=228&w=227&sz=17&hl=es&start=175&tbnid=2aRVf7b03Mjn5M:&tbnh=108&tbnw=108&prev=/images%3Fq%3DCARLIN %2BSAMPLES%2BGOLD%2BDEPOSITS%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D21%26hl%3Des%26sa%3DN%26start%3D168

http://www.chilnet.cl/escondida/36362.jpg

http://www.soils.wisc.edu/courses/SS325/redox.gif

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vd5iKHKN8GE Link para ver un pequeo video sobre aspectos generales de la polarizacin unducida IP, el cualmes un mtodo geofsico muy importante en la exploracin de prfidos y Depsitos epitermales ricos en sulfuros. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vT8pcdfBjmY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KzE9osMMJsk

h t t p : / / w w w. g o o g l e . c o m . c o / i m g r e s ? i m g u r l = h t t p : / / w w w. g e o g a s c h . c o m / I n d u c e d _ P o l a r i z a t i o n _ M o d e l . j p g & i m g r e f u r l = h t t p : / / w w w. g e o g a s c h . c o m / h t m l / induced_polarization.html&h=630&w=989&sz=84&tbnid=zWKqb1oNyK30rM:&tbnh=92&tbnw=144&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dinduced%2Bpolarization%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo %3Du&zoom=1&q=induced+polarization&usg=__lwo7E9L4alCWQ_RfKspHf8L-gbU=&docid=9snAv3HqE5tVBM&hl=es&sa=X&ei=6tSwUNDQHpSy8ASI5IH4Dw&ved=0CCsQ9QEwAA&dur=1820

A porphyry copper deposit is composed of different layers of copper minerals. Minerals close to the surface are more oxidated than those deeper down. By courtesy of Anna Bauer and Andor Lips

http://wiki.biomine.skelleftea.se/wiki/images/thumb/e/e2/PorphyryCopperDeposit061006.png/ 550px-PorphyryCopperDeposit061006.png

3500

Plg Aug Hbl


7.0 (% H2O)

3000

Presin H2O (bar)

2500

Hbl

6.0

2000

Opx
5.0

Las series de reaccin de Bowen se pueden considerar como un modelo general. Sin embargo, otros parmetros, como el contenido de H2O, pueden alterar la secuencia de cristalizacin de un magma. En el sistema que se muestra a la izquierda, al variar el contenido de agua en el magma (PH2O), vara la secuencia de cristalizacin.
2.0

1500

Opx Plg+Opx + Aug + Hbl


4.0

1000

Plg +Opx

3.0

500

Plg+Opx +Aug

Plg
0 900 1000 1100 1200 1300

Temperatura (C) Diagrama de fases para composicin andestica (lampr-fido: espessartita) a condiciones de saturacin de agua. Moore y Carmichael (1998), Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 130, 304-319.

Plg cristaliza como primera fase a bajo contenido de agua (y mayor T), Opx a contenidos de agua y T intermedios, Hbl a contenidos altos de agua (y menor T). Estas variaciones se reflejarn en la composicin mineralgica de la roca.

Examples of comb-quartz layers in felsic intrusions associated with porphyry deposits. A. Comb-quartz layers containing molybdenite (Mlb) separated by aplite interlayers; growth direction from the top to the bottom. Anticlimax Mo deposit, British Columbia, GSC 2006-018. (B) Multiple thin to thick comb-quartz layers separated by aplite interlayers; growth direction of the quartz crystals in the layers was from the upper right to the bottom left. Logtung W-Mo deposit, Yukon Territory, GSC 2006-003. (C) Photomicrograph of a combquartz layer in aplitic granite showing euhedral termination of quartz crystals approximately perpendicular to the layer; the very fine-grained texture of the granite adjacent to the crystal faces resulted from pressure quenching and consequent rapid cooling related to sudden (catastrophic) release of the fluid phase in which the quartz crystals were growing. North zone, Mount Pleasant Sn deposit, New Brunswick, GSC 204152-T. (D) Contorted comb-quartz layers cut by a parting vein, which consists of quartz veinlets with numerous septa or partings of aplite; one of the quartz veinlets in the parting vein appears to be rooted at the termination of a comb-quartz layer (arrow). Logtung W-Mo deposit, Yukon Territory, GSC 2006-006.
http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/index_e.php

Examples of different types of alteration associated with porphyry deposits. (A) Potassic K-feldspar (Kfs) alteration around mineralized quartz veins in Bethsaida granodiorite. Valley Cu deposit, Highland Valley district, British Columbia, GSC 2006-017. (B) Potassic alteration of granodiorite porphyry consisting of pervasive pink K-feldspar and patches of fine-grained hydrothermal biotite (Bt) associated with quartz-molybdenite veinlets. Red Mountain Mo deposit, Yukon Territory, GSC 2006-008. (C) Stockwork of wolframite- and molybdenite-bearing fractures with white selvages of quartz-topaz-fluorite-sericite alteration cutting chloritized granite. Fire Tower zone, Mount Pleasant W-Mo deposit, New Brunswick, GSC 2006-009. (D) Quartz-pyritechalcopyrite vein stockworks in feldspar porphyry heavily overprinted by sericitic (phyllic) alteration. Bell Cu-Au deposit, Babine district, British Columbia, GSC 2006-011.
http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/synth_dep/porph/index_e.php