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by Tim Campbell, PhD


Urban Age Institute

Learning Cities:
Acquiring Knowledge, Intelligence, and Identity in Complex Systems

This paper is written in support of an initiative into the concept of urban sustainability being carried out by the National Academy of Sciences, the University of California at Berkeley, the Healthy Communities Foundation, and the Urban Age Institute. The initiative aims to develop tools and methods to achieve sustainable cities. Companion pieces to this paper, Learning Cities: Acquiring Knowledge, Intelligence, and Identity in Complex Systems (Campbell 2006) and Lessons from Pittsburghs Water and Sewerage Crisis (Feller and Feller 2006) are published separately by the Urban Age Institute. The author wishes to acknowledge the support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation for this work. The author is grateful also for the assistance of Gordon Feller and Yuan Xiao of the Urban Age Institute. Urban Age Institutue 870 Estancia, 4th oor San Rafael, Calronia 94903 - USA tel: +1-4154914233 email: info@UrbanAge.org www.UrbanAge.org Urban Age Magazine: www.UrbanAge.org/magazine.php

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Table of Contents 4 Executive Summary 5 IntroductionRising Cities, the Need for Learning 6 The Urban Transformation 10 The Emerging Market for Learning 10 Cities and Competitiveness in the Globalized World. 11 Regional Development and Knowledge Economies. 13 How Cities Learn: A Typology and Cases 15 Type 1. Dedicated Agency. Case of Bilbao, Spain 18 Type 2. City and Regional One-on-Many Exchange: Seattle, Washington, Study Missions 20 Type 3. Individual Cities in One-on-One Exchange. Cases of International City Managers Association (ICMA), City Links Program and Sister Cities International 22 Type 4. City Clusters in Active Networks. Cases of UNESCO World Heritage Cities, ICLEI Sustainable Cities (and Bertelsmann Cities of Change, UCLG and Metropolis, CityNet, Cities Alliance, Association of CDS Cities, and others) 25 Type 5. Cities in Passive Networks. Cases of UN Habitat Best Practice and Local Government Information Network (LOGIN) 27 Observations from Cases 34 Implications for Urban Sustainability 37 Annex 1 39 Annex 2 48 Annex 3 49 Annex 4 51 Annex 5 53 Annex 6 55 Annex 7 57 Notes 58 Bibliography

Campbell Learning Cities: Acquiring Knowledge, Intelligence, and Identity in Complex Systems

Executive Summary
Both the number of urban residents and the spreading physical size of cities around the globeand in particular, the 4000 cities in the population range of 100,000 or more (see Angel, et al 2005)prompt renewed attention to a quest for environmental balance. Policy concerns about urbanization and environmental balance posed 40 years ago, but never fully answered by national authorities, arise again now for several reasons. First, environmental pressures are increasing in cities; also city-state relations have entered a new era. More than 70 countries are undergoing decentralization at a time when globalization of economies and trade are transforming the role of cities and states. It is timely and prudent to review prospects for achieving urban sustainability from a local, rather national perspective. The problem of achieving sustainable cities is not merely one of technology transfer. Rather, it is a much more involved process of institutional change. A key sequence in city decisions is the process by which city institutional tissue gets formed, achieves a self-conscious identity, is accepted as valuable and endorsed by the broad community, and takes on the policy and practical tasks of achieving sustainable development. A decade of research and analytical work in academic and development agencies has begun to reveal the importance of collective modalitiesfor rms, university researchers, venture capitalists, innovators, regions, and citiesas a strategy in achieving learning entities. The paper reviews empirical data about city learning drawn from both developed and developing countries and presents a typology to describe common modalities of city learning. Cases are drawn to represent a range of city learning experiences and, for purposes of later stages of proposed work on urban sustainability, to identify factors to be addressed. Among these are the importance of broad, collective leadership, motive and incentives of decision makers; the related problems of longevity and sustainability of incubated ideas and technologies; the strategic diculty of managing networks; the need for broad-based support and local initiative to launch new policy initiatives; and the sustained guidance in the eort to import and successfully implant innovations transferred from elsewhere. The overarching conclusion of the paper is that cities learn a great deal, maybe the most important lessons from each other, and that learning cities are able to create and draw on stored memory that consists of shared experiences between and among people who take part in a learning process. In essence, capacity building is to develop a proto-culture of shared values, and this requires long term support to stimulate and nourish shared understanding and eective action.

Cities on the Rise

IntroductionRising Cities, the Need for Learning


As cities around the globe continue to grow, in terms of both population and physical size, their impacts on the environment will worsen. This prospect revives questions about urbanization and environmental balance rst posed in 1972 with the UN Conference on the Human Environment but never fully answered. Since then, some progress has been achieved at the national and global levels in the search for sustainable cities, but progress has been considerably slower and certainly more uneven at the local level.1 With more than 70 countries now undergoing decentralization, it is timely and prudent to explore new approaches to the problem or sustainable cities starting from a local, rather national perspective. The underlying assumption of this paper is that cities can learn how to achieve sustainability. Having access to more and better inputs about science, engineering, and technology for city decision-making is part of that process, but the task is much more complicated than a simple adoption of new technologies. Rather, the central task is institutional capacity building that leads to a learning environment and the ability of cities to create home-grown solutions or to recognize and adapt solutions invented elsewhere.

Campbell Learning Cities: Acquiring Knowledge, Intelligence, and Identity in Complex Systems

The Urban Transformation


The rst major factor in the new global reality of cities is the shift to an urbanized world. Many studies, including those by the National Research Council (2003) and UN-Habitat (2004), paint a stark, troubling picture about the state of cities and their heavy impact, both short and long term, on the environment. Within the next 20 years, 2 billion more people will be living in cities, and this addition will signify that more than half of the global population is urban. Virtually all of this increase will occur in the developing part of the world, while rural populations remain essentially at. Another feature of this change is that poverty will be moving to cities. The rural poor who do migrate will add to the numbers of low-income urban residents already there, making the challenge of developing cities all the more dicult. Many authors have been probing the signicance, scope, and risk of environmental problems at various scales in cities (Campbell 1989; Leitmann 1999; Hardoy, Mitlin, and Satterthwaite 2001; McGrannahan et al. 2001; UN-Habitat 2004), each working up in scale from the indoor environment of households, to sanitation at the neighborhood scale, to pollution and other problems at the city-wide and larger scales. In the past decade, a new set of issues has begun to pervade the dialogue, such as security and safety from human-made and natural calamity. Natural disasters in particular have struck forcibly in recent years, wiping out whole sections of cities in rich and poor countries alike. What will be new and dierent in the next several decades is the spread of citiesthat is, the territorial expansion beyond city limits into agricultural areas and often into adjacent regions not suited for settlement, such as oodplains (Angel, Sheppard, and Civco 2005). The questions for urban sustainability are whether and how cities can plan and manage the scope of urban problems as they move steadily through a predictable pattern of growth.2 In a common-sense denition, Bartone et al (1994) saw urban environmental problems as threats to present or future human well-being, resulting from human-induced damage to the physical environment, originating in or borne in urban areas. This denition includes: Localized environmental health problems such as inadequate household water and sanitation and indoor air pollution. City-regional environmental problems such as ambient air pollution, inadequate waste management and pollution of rivers, lakes and coastal areas. Extra-urban impacts of urban activities such as ecological disruption and resource depletion in a citys hinterland, and emissions of acid precursors and greenhouse gases. Regional or global environmental burdens that arise from activities outside a citys boundaries, but which will aect people living in the city.

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It does not encompass: Problems in what are sometimes termed the social, economic, or cultural environment. Natural hazards that are not caused or made worse by urban activity. The environmental impacts of urban activities that are of no concern to humans, either now or in the future.

Table 1.1: Urban Population Size and Growth by Income


% growth rate

5000

mid-year population (millions)

World total

2.9

2.4

1.8

4000

middle & low income countries

3.7

3.2

2.2

3000

2000

1000

high income countries

1.8

0.9

.06

0
1950 1975 2000 2030 1950 1975 2000 2030

Table 1.2: Urban Population Size and Growth and Region


% growth rate

mid-year population (millions)

Asia

3.5

3.4

2.2

2500

2000

1500

1000
Africa Latin America and the Caribbean Europe North America

4.6 4.2 1.8 2.0

4.2 2.7 0.6 1.2

3.3 1.5 .04 1.0

500

0
1950 1975 2000

Oceania

2.5

1.7

1.1

2030

1950

1975

2000 2030

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Annex 1 presents a table depicting a wide range of common, city-related environmental hazards. Despite their diversity, all fall within the denition, provided the phrase resulting from urban activities is itself interpreted broadly. Most are the unintended side-eects of human activity in cities. Some might more accurately be ascribed to a lack of preventive measures. In all examples, however, better urban practices and governance could help reduce the burdens, and it is this distinction that is most critical operationally. The impact of human settlements on the environment can be gauged roughly by the shifting weight of populations living in cities. Tables 1 document the inexorable transition to an urbanized world that has occurred over the past six decades. Though terms like population explosion and massive urbanization are used to describe the current picture, in reality the fastest phases of urbanization have already passed. Perhaps even more signicant than the total population in cities is the number of large cities on the planet. During the last two decades, the number of cities with 1 million or more in populationso-called intermediate-size citiesin developing countries will have increased, and they will continue to grow in number. Where such cities numbered around 200 in the latter part of the 20th century, they will reach around 400 by 2015 (table 2). Only about a quarter of these intermediate-size cities are in the rich world. Though the so-called megacities, those with populations of more than 10 million, have understandably attracted much attention, the cities of 1 million or more will be important engines of growth, the movers and shakers of the urban planet in this millennium. In short, a very large number of cities need solutions to growing environmental problems. But new tools and policy instruments will be needed to help them cope with the next set of challenges of this millenniumpoverty and shelter, basic infrastructure services, large-scale infrastructure in water supply waste disposal and power, new solutions to transportation, and forms of metropolitan governments that have yet to be invented.

Table 2: Number of Cities of Various Population Sizes, 2015

Population size (Millions)

World Total

Economic status
More Developed Less Developed
17 31 378 400 826

10 > 5-10 1-5 0.5-1 Total .5-10M

21 37 496 507 1061

4 6 118 107 235

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The hundreds of new cities in the size range of 1 million will also be challenged in ways for which they have little preparation. Decentralization, democratization, and the opening of the global environment all pose new challenges and represent new conditions for which social institutions and political organization are poorly prepared. Cities are particularly ready to address these intertwined issues of growth and the environment as they set about creating strategies to retain or advance their position in the global marketplace. In the face of new global competition, cities and regions are discovering that the old approaches and tools are obsolete. Models of growth developed over the past 50 yearsfor instance, in import substitutionhave no applicability in a globalized economy. Cities in which industry and manufacturing were once protected are now more vulnerable to competitive pressures. As trade barriers are erased, the protective shells around city economies fall away. Decentralization and democratization impose added challenges on cities. More than 70 countries around the globe are currently decentralizing, meaning they are passing on decision-making and spending powers to local governments. Nearly 25 republics in Latin America accomplished this change during the 1990s. Dozens of other countries in Asia and Africa as well as Eastern Europe are also going through the transformation of political power, increasing the importance of cities in the conduct of public business. Decentralization means that city leadershipmayors, elected ocials, private sector, civic leaderswill play a more important role for their nations, as well. This puts extra weight on local leaders to organize the direction of growth, shape public choices, engage the public and decision-making process, and implement decisions that are made. Democratization further complicates the decentralized model of government. Popular elections in scores of countries around the world subject public-sector decision-makers to a kind of scrutiny and a clamor for participation for which they have virtually no experience and poor or underdeveloped tools. Participatory democracy requires new levels of sophistication in structuring decisions, informing the public, and channeling feedback on the implementation of programs in the public sector. Cities everywhere are hungry for lessons of best practice that help them make better decisions in decentralized democratic regimes. These political and economic transformations place new emphasis on good and better practice in achieving a local distinctiveness, attracting pools of talent, and improving environmental quality. Accordingly, cities are more ready to learn than in the recent past. Their growing presence on the international scenein sheer population as well as numbers of citiesmakes the challenge of facilitating learning much more important than ever.

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The Emerging Market for Learning


The global trends all work in the direction of exposing and challenging cities in economic, political, and environmental terms. Many signs indicate that cities are searching for answers. Development assistance agencies, such as the World Bank and sister regional banks, and regional organizations such as the European Union (EU), have witnessed an increasing number of requests for knowledge exchange about urban development. Also, cities in both developed and developing economies are reaching out to each other for concepts, theory, and methods in economic development at both the local and regional scales. Cities and Competitiveness in the Globalized World. In the developing world, a growing demand for learning is leading to a process of discovery. Cities and regions have limited institutional capacity and often, but not always, operate outside their national sovereign states. Cities in the developing world are aware of progress in the EU and the US. They feel the same pressures of regional and global competition. For decades, programs like Sister Cities International have supported community-to-community programs that include transfer of knowledge as a core activity.3 This dynamic has been replicated in City Links (formerly Resource Cities) of the International City and County Managers Association (ICMA), where more than 50 pairs of cities have been engaged in technical exchanges since 1997. Though not always catering to city business, more than 100 think tanks have been established in Eastern Europe since the fall of the Berlin wall (Struyk 2002). Sister Cities International (SCI) reports more than 2000 relationships between cities, 750 in the developing world, some of them going back 25 years (SCI 2005). The EU and UN systems are also preparing for more work at the local level. The European Commission recently announced a new program for the period 2007-2013 worth EUs200 million for local authorities and NGOs. UNDP asserts that links between cities over the past several decades number in the range of 15,000 to 20,000 UNDP (2001), and City to City Cooperation has become a recognized eld of development assistance (UN Habitat 1999; UNDP 2001). One striking example of the growing market for technical exchange is provided by the city of Seattle. Blanco and Campbell (2006) documented the number and range of technical visits to Seattle from developing countries. Technical visits is meant to distinguish those visits designed to address specic technical problems in urban management as opposed to visits that involve cultural, trade, and symbolic friendship between and among cities. Blanco and Campbell found that in 2002, Seattle hosted more than 150 technical delegations, averaging seven persons staying a period of four days. The delegations consisted largely of technical and policy teams, mostly from Asia, and covered topics in governance and policy, private public cooperation, legal and regulatory systems, health care, primary and secondary education, environmental quality, and community-based planning.

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Much anecdotal evidence from citiesamong them Baltimore, Barcelona, London, Stockholm, Toronto, and Vancouvercorroborates the phenomenon of horizontal exchange among cities. Each of these cities has reported signicant numbers of visits from cities in the developing world. The city of Stockholm maintains an international aairs division and has established a fee structure designed to cover administrative and overhead costs connected to the provision of services to visiting delegations. In line with this increased market for learning, the World Bank Institute (WBI), the Banks capacity building arm, reports a dramatic upsurge in activity and requests on the part of cities to tap into global knowledge. In key countries, notably China and Brazil, cities have come to be seen as the central or an important dimension of national growth strategy. Accordingly, more attention is being paid to cities, and nations and cities are requesting more assistance. The urban management program in the World Bank Institute more than quadrupled its programs exposure to clients in the rst ve years of this decade. Hits on WBIs urban web site have increased from under 12,000 per month in 2002 to over 30,000 per month in 2005.4 Regional Development and Knowledge Economies. The idea of learning cities can be traced back at least three decades to authors like Churchman and Schon. C. West Churchman staked out the broad outlines of learning organizations in his Design of Iniquiring Systems (Churchman 1971), a theme picked up later and rened by Schon (1974) and Argyris and Schon (1978). Later, issues of competitiveness and comparative advantage began to emerge, drawing on ideas of productivity in the rm. Porter (1990) focused on comptetitiveness and comparative advantage in cities. Much of this literature addressed local and regional economic development as a response to a changing global economy. Some work built on previous attention given to the embeddedness of networks and skills (traced to Granovetter 1985), to regions (e.g., Sable 1989)to innovative rms (e.g., Camagni 1991 and 1995; Amin and Tomaney 1995). These last authors recognized that some regions and rms did better than others in national competition by drawing upon specic organizational attributes, like internal connectivity and exibility to manage a variety of outputs. This marked a shift in focus to knowledge economies and competitive regions (e.g., Oinas and Virkkals 1997). Research began to focus on the importance of an innovative milieu and managing networks (Kickert, Klijn, and Kippenjan 1997; Kostiainen and Sotarauta 2002). By the end of the decade, researchers had begun to speak in terms of the learning city-region (Landry and Matarasso 1998), the creative city (Landry 2000), and learning entities (referring to neighborhood renewal, skill building, the importance of technical and public education) (Yarnit 2000). Many of these strands of thought are brought together by Kostiainen and Sotarauta (2002) to focus on the re-invention of the city, illustrated by the case of Tampere in Finland.

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This evolution in thinking about competitive rms and regions can be seen as gradual widening of focus (see gure 1). In this view, the boundaries of individual entities, for instance rms or planning organizations in cities, blend into their surrounding environment of knowledge resources. The upshot is that learning city regions succeed if they can manage the networks of knowledge resources within their purview and, according to authors like Florida (2002), attract talent to feed this process. Though the literature has probed quite far and is helpful in understanding the nature of learning cities, two key limitations still must be overcome. First, the literature reviewed above, while relevant, focuses on knowledge economies and is mainly concerned with technological and economic growth. Less attention is given to policy and political issues that impinge upon public choice, as environmental sustainability does. Second, except for Landry and Matarasso (1998), few authors have paid attention to the process and dynamics by which cities as organizational units engage in learning and change behavior. In the view of Landry and Matarasso, a learning city is one which ... develops by learning from its experiences and those of others. It is a place that understands itself and reects upon that understanding...[and develops]...new solutions to new problems (p. 3).5 The present discussion aims to help remedy some of these limitations. It focuses on collective learning and the culture of public business so that a city becomes reective and steers itself in strategy and action. Our focus is also dierent from most of the preceding work in that it concentrates on cities in the developing world and the search for sustainable urban development.

Figure 1: Focus of Analysis in Competitiveness

Organization
Concept in Theory
Organization Learning

<

Unit of Analysis
New Regional development

>

Interactive Milieu
Innovative Milieu, Concept of Ba Learning city

The rm and rms in clusters

Managing complex networks

Date
Example References in the Literature Examples

<
Schon

1970s
Marshall, Penrose, Porter Sabel

1990s
Sotarauta Crosby & Bryson Kostiainan

2000s

>

Churchman

Landry and Matarosso, Amin&To-maney

Italian small producers

Silicon Valley, SE England

Tampere Minneapolis

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How Cities Learn: A Typology and Cases


Experience accumulated over the past four decades forms a picture of many dierent ways that rms, cities, and regions organize themselves in order to learn to solve problems. Knowledge exchange is a central component in this experience. This section presents a simple typology to categorize the ways cities engage in learning processes (See table 3).
Table 3: Typology of City Learning: Agencies and Networks

Modality
Organized Agency Dedicated Agency

Example

Characteristics of Learning

Observations & Lessons

Curitiba, Ho Chi Minh Bilbao

Full or part time staff dedicated totally or mostly to city questions Closely connected and frequently consulted, but independent agencies

Self-starters create their own tools

Close, but Not Dedicated

Shanghai,Tangin Tampere, Finland Metro Research Institute, Budapest

City agency is secondary, i.e., a tool for, or consequence of, LED

City and Regional Development One on many in Europe and US


Birmingham, UK Seattle, ,Silicon Valley; Minneapolis; South Florida, USA Assembly of knowledge intensive rms, buttressed by universities; special purpose learning events Deliberate efforts to form a nexus of shared learning

Individual Cities Cities One on One


ICMA City Links Federation of Candadian Municipalities Sister Cities One on one exchanges over one to two years Vibrancy requires long- term commitment (Khuong 2002).

City Networks Active Cluster on Cluster


UNESCO World Heritage Cities Bertlesmann Cities of Change ICLEI Metropolis World Technopolis City members of a class involved in more or less sustained, regular program of exchanges, punctuated by intermittent technical meetings and visits External agent provides a forum for a designated class of cities in formal network

City Networks Passive City Network Conveners


UCLG, InfoCity, . Asia City Net Apex agencies convene and work on class action basis External agent for open network of cities, broad agenda

City Network Managers

UN Habitat Best Practice LOGIN

Largely passive networks.

External agent, learning depends on initiative of cities.

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The organizing principle of the typology is the tightness of city-focus held by the learning agent (whether a rm, a city or a region). Agents can be narrowly focused on the business of a city, as in the case of Curitiba, Brazil, or loosely interested, but available, as are some universities in their home cities. (See Campbell 2006 for a description of the Curitiba case.) Alternatively, a more lose focus might be represented by the Metropolitan Development Authority in Budapest. This Authority is like a think tank group that can consider many public and private sector issues, depending upon the client and business demand (Municipality of Budapest 2003). In practice, many kinds of agents, mandates, and learning processes can be found. This typology illustrates the widely varying arrangements in which cities tap knowledge and eect learning. The universe considered here is not exhaustive, but it is reasonably representative of typical arrangements observed in the eld. The table describes changing character of agencies as our view moves across a spectrum (from the top to the bottom of the table) from narrow to broadly focused mandates. At the top of table 3 are cities that invest in learning and focus on themselves. At the bottom of the table are looser arrangements represented by a large number of networks, such as United Cities and Local Governments, Metropolis, UN Best Practices Data Base, and others. (Refer again to Annex 2 for a selected list of international city networks and organizations.) At this bottom end of the spectrum, the agency is actually external to the city and takes the form of an international NGO. Between these end points are, respectively, individual cities without a dedicated agency, and clusters of cities engaged in loose dialogue. Case illustrations will be presented, below, to represent each of these ve main types. The ve cases are as follows: Dedicated Agencies: Bilbao, with occasional reference to Curitiba One on Many: Cities in Regional Development: Seattle with occasional reference to Birmingham Individual Cities One-on-One: City Links with reference to Sister Cities City and Clusters in Active Networks: UNESCO World Heritage Cities, with occasional reference to UCLG and Metropolis, ICLEI, AsiaCities, CityNet Cities in Passive Networks: Local Government Information Network (LOGIN) and UN Habitat Best Practice Data Base The rough scope of coverage for each of the cases is rst, a description of the type, its denition, typical origins and key features, and reference to examples and reasons that they are representative of their class. Second, each case is probed to understand something about how learning takes placea concept we might call the learning style of the organization or city. Where possible this understanding is extended to the larger class. The discussion will include observations about the motive and leadership requirements to launch and sustain learning and, if applicable, to replicate and scale up.

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The cases are selected to illustrate varieties of learning. More important, they show how dedicated attention can build a shared vision over time and create the tissue of self-aware organizations. At the same time, particularly in one-on-one and clusters, the cases illustrate learning modalities for specic kinds of policies and practices. Finally, the cases provide grist to draw lessons for promising modalities in a program on urban sustainability. Type 1. Dedicated Agency. Case of Bilbao, Spain The city of Bilbao is a textbook example of a community that perceived and reacted successfully to a pending economic crisis and then created an agency, reshaped the city, and reinforced its image and identity. Through the creation of a public private think and action group, Bilbao devised and implemented a long-term strategy that transformed its economic base, increased environmental quality, and elevated its status in the regional economy. The story of Bilbao begins in the late 1980s, when city leadership began to realize that its economic structure based on shipbuilding and steel would no longer be competitive after the formation of the European Union and the reduction in trade barriers. Much study and a structural analysis on the part of the EU helped Bilbao to this realization. For decades Bilbao had been a shipbuilding center, relying on nearby deposits of iron ore, the production of steel, and its position on the river to build and export medium and small size vessels. After the formation of the economic community in Europe, Bilbaos leadership understood that they would no longer be competitive in these industries. By their own assessment (university and chamber of commerce estimates) Bilbao would lose 10,000 jobs in shipbuilding alone, and that its competitive position would gradually erode in the succeeding 25 years. In 1989, civic leaders in Bilbao began to discuss the organizational arrangements to perfect and carry out a strategy to deal with the economic challenges. Reduction of trade barriers were scheduled for implementation in the 1980s and 1990s. In 1990, the city launched the founding of Bilbao Metropoli30, a public-private, non-prot partnership with 19 active members drawn from across a broad spectrum of entities in the region. The mission of Metropoli-30 was to carry out the revitalization of Bilbao.

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Metropoli-30 is a leadership group charged with the identication of a new strategy for the city to lead it through the pending economic transformation and on into the next century. The association was formed of the 30 most important players in Bilbaos economy. Members included business associations, chambers of commerce, chamber of manufacturers and commercial establishments, trade unions, and other civic groups, as well as elected and appointed leadership. The mandate of the organization was to carry out planning, research, and promotional projects to transform Bilbaos economic and industrial structure. After long deliberation, and hundreds of community and regional meetings, together with international learning seminars staged in the city, the association arrived at ambitious and farreaching conclusions: The future economy of Bilbao would center of the creative arts, information and culture, and learning institutions. This was a radical departure from its historical role as a manufacturing and shipping center, and therefore a useful example for many cities around the globe aiming to undergo similar transformations. The rst major step was the formation of an assembly of stakeholdersa broad network of local businesses, universities, and governments. The Assembly became a formal institution with appointed leadership and by-laws, and by 1991, it had published its rst major product, a general plan known also as Metropoli-30. Funds from Spain and the EU helped to nance the diagnostic and analytical ground work for the Plan. The learning process in Bilbao took place on many levels. Two major forms are noted here. First is the internal process of self recognition and awareness, starting with the realization that the major transformation in Europe and beyond was to leading to drastic economic decline for the city and its region and that something could be done about that. This process of reaching a broad consensus about the problem was critical to achieving a plan of action. In eect, many of the agencies and institutions were aware that their fates were tied to one another. A second process of learning helped to sustain the continuity of action and conviction. More than 40 learning eventsmeaning high prole speakers, conferences, seminars held in open for a with wide publicity. These helped to build a community consciousness about the mission of the city.

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Timeline for Bilbao
1980s European Union

1989 Formation of Assembly 1991 Creation of Metropoli-30 1992 Revitalization Plan 1993 Bilbao Ria 2000 External Port Abandoibarra, footbridges, Ribera Park 1995 Metro System 1997 Guggenheim Museum 1999 Bilbao 2010: The Strategy 2000 Airport 1990-2005 more than 40 seminars from World class thought leaders 2006 World Forum on Values for City Development 2008 European Institute for City Development

The agship building of this plan was to be the Guggenheim Museum. At the time, the commitment fee charged by architect Frank Gheary to even consider the site was thought to be exorbitant. But by the mid-1990s, again with the help of the European Union, Bilbao mobilized resources to meet the nancial requirements of the new museum, and in 1997 the now famous museum was inaugurated. Following the Guggenheim came nearly a dozen other major projects in and around Bilbao including a convention center, a concert hall, a new airport, regional transportation system, and improvements in university and educational institutions. A decade later, tourism business has blossomed in Bilbao. Hotel usage has doubled and airline passengers tripled since 1994.
Bilbao Metropoli30 regularly takes part in conferences, organizations and networks worldwide. Specically, the Association collaborates with the Urban Forum Network, International Institute of Administrative Sciences (IIAS), Standing Committee on Urban and Regional Statistics (SCORUS), part of the International Statistical Institute (ISI), The System Dynamics Society, The World Future Society, The International Network for Marketing and Urban Development or The Global Business Network (GBN). In 1999 a decade after the Strategic Revitalization Plan, once the infrastructure was built, the Association with the participation of all our members and support of 20 international experts, launched a study of advanced international models of urban strategy development. The conclusion of Bilbao 2010 is that success lies in ideas and values and these set the strategy for the future of Metropolitan Bilbao. It is a city capable of identifying, attracting and materializing good ideas in benet of all the community. Source: Metropoli30

An important part of Bilbaos success is that the city mobilized resources and support from many quarters. Even the considerable economic and nancial muscle of Bilbao and of the Basque community would not have been sucient to achieve Bilbaos transformation. The European Union provided nancial support. Also, the city brought a large number of organizations and agencies within the Basque region to support its eorts. More than 40 institutions and agencies have subscribed to Metropoli-30, and this organization itself represents a signicant achievement.

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Above all, the lesson from Bilbao is that the city created an entirely new elementa conscientious agency, Metropoli-30in the city and regional political structure. The key factor is that the structure involves a cerebral function for the city, one that concerned itself with the longterm development. This collaborative instrument was a signicant, possibly indispensable, tool for the city to grow and thrive. Bilbao 2010 (see Box) carries this vision into the next decade. Type 2. City and Regional One-on-Many Exchange: Seattle, Washington, Study Missions In contrast to Bilbao, Seattle has created a process of learning that ventures out to other cities in an organized exploration of best practice and benchmarking to bring back home. The study missions of Seattle are elaborate, highly organized, dedicated visits organized on a yearly basis by the Trade Development Alliance, a dependency of the Greater Seattle Chamber of Commerce. The study missions engage up to 100 business and civic leaders in the greater Seattle area. The objectives of study missions are many, as described below. The overarching objective is to broaden and strengthen the understanding of city leaders about the position of Seattle vis-a-vis the visited city, its region and state, all within the context of the global economy. The Seattle study missions have been called by the head of the National League of Cities arguably the best study tours of any US city. According to Staord (1999), six underlying goals of study missions are: To continue an ongoing process of relationship building among and between Seattles civic leadership; To study and learn from the practices and programs of other cities and cultures that may provide solutions to Seattles urban problems; To promote the regions business opportunities including the ports, tourism, goods and services, educational opportunities, and venues for international meetings; To build relationships with the people and institutions in the cities visited; To organize special business and educational opportunity meetings, such as the biomedical meeting in London between the leadership of Seattles two industry associations, the meetings between female leaders in Singapore and Sydney, or the sharing of experiences with airport noise reduction. To help develop the most sophisticated civic leadership in our country on international issues. Seattle began it study tour program in 1992 with a visit by a small delegation to the cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Stuttgart. In 1993, Seattle was one of the rst visiting delegations to Vietnam after the normalization of relations. In 1994 a delegation visited the Kansai region of Japan (Kobe and Osaka) and in 1995, Hong Kong. Succeeding missions visited London and Bristol in 1997; Singapore in 1998; and Sydney in 1999; Shanghai 2002; Barcelona, 2003 and Munich 2004. All of these visits were organized by the Trade Development Alliance and have included a similar prole of delegates.6

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Participants on the missions include the top leadership gures of the city and county and its utilities, ports, universities, private rms, and NGOs. Not all of the delegates are senior ofcials. One high level Boeing executive pointed out that he persuaded Boeing to send three of their top younger people on the study tour because it was the best value in training that money could buy. Each of the members, or their respective agencies, covers the travel and lodging and other costs. Often the receiving cities provide receptions, meals, and sometimes local transportation. Recent study tours (Shanghai, Barcelona, and Munich) involve detailed preparations with thick brieng books, seminars given in advance, and usually two preparatory visits by the chief organizer from Seattle. During the mission, often lasting seven or eight days, the delegates meet over meals, discuss in plenary what they have seen, and hear presentations by their hosts. Agendas will include a wide variety of topics and speakers that cover cultural, historical, economic and social issues. Speakers include US citizens working in the city, ocials from the city and region, business leaders, and members of civil society. Each day is a mixture of speakers, site visits, and cultural aairs. Business promotion and networking do take place, but for the most part, the participants on the study tours spend most of their day together, in a group or subgroups, divided according to interest. For example, in Shanghai, a large delegation of health ocials and university researchers (from the University of Washingtons Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center) had parallel meetings with counterparts on issues of public health. The heart of the learning experience takes place during these plenary sessions and afterwards when delegates sit during meals, in meeting halls, or on busses. They have an opportunity to question and digest what they have seen and heard and to exchange perceptions and opinions with each other, and they are able to gain perspective and insight on their own issues back home. Seattle has long considered the merits and demerits of better public transit, for instance light rail, in the down town area and of the need for a third runway at SeaTac airport. Another issue is governance, at least government coordination, in the Greater Seattle Area. Debates on these issues have been protracted over years and emerged as subtext during city visits. In this context, delegates visiting Shanghai were stunned to see a city nearly the size of Seattle constructed in the Pudong region in less than 15 years. Surveying the ambitious progress made in Shanghai provoked a debate among the touring team at the closing meeting. The Seattle contingent spoke in growing conviction about the swampy terrain of process-oriented planning and the need to achieve consensus. The Chinese in Shanghai were on the other end of this decisionmaking spectrum, where expedition and speed over-rode all concerns for environmental care, permit process, hearings, due process in courts, and the like. The same theme of process paralysis arose a year earlier in Barcelona when the Seattle delegation, the core of which was also at Shanghai, observed the consensus style of decisionmaking by the leader-

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ship elites of Barcelona, a group drawn from the far left on the political spectrum, organized civil society, conservative business, and political groups from all parties. Barcelona achieved a strategic vision and a common understanding in decisionmaking that allowed that city to move quickly to realize its goals, even to incur large debts to do so (Barcelona is the highest indebtedness on a per capita basis than any city in Spain). The impact of these observations on the leadership elites of Seattle triggered a retreat-style meeting at which the assembled group, again drawn from city, county, NGOs, business community, and specialized agencies like the ports, agreed to form a working group to get their arms around coordination issues. A year later, an economic development entity was legally formed, with representation from key elements in government and business. The group began laying the plans for economic options and infrastructure needs for Seattle over the long term. The legal formation of the group and pledges to it, including pledges in capital from private industry, were announced at the Munich study tour in 2004. The learning style and interactions on study missions also create a personal bond of shared experiences. Participants often spoke of the benets long afterwards, back in Seattle, of having participated on a mission. Back home, when placing a phone call to a government agency or business, of having the shared experience, and knowing the face of the person on the other end of the call greatly facilitated understanding and the speed of doing business (Trade Development Alliance of Greater Seattle 2001). Type 3. Individual Cities in One-on-One Exchange. Cases of International City Managers Association (ICMA), City Links Program and Sister Cities International One-on-one exchanges, sometimes called twinning or city-to-city exchange in a binary fashion, has been practiced for many decades. (See Annex 4 for a Time Line of city-to-city cooperation.) Recent versions have taken a new twist, adding more strategic and longer term objectives that fulll more programmatic needs of sponsoring entities (usually national foreign assistance agencies). European governments, particularly France and The Netherlands, make extensive use of individual municipalities, numbering in the thousands, as agents of international foreign assistance to local governments in recipient countries. Two programs in the US are illustrated below. ICMA is the professional and educational organization for chief appointed managers, administrators, and assistants in cities, towns, counties, and regional entities throughout the world. Since 1914, ICMA has provided technical and management assistance, training, and information resources to its members and the local government community. The management decisions made by ICMAs nearly 8,000 members aect more than 100 million individuals in thousands of communitiesfrom small towns with populations of a few hundred to metropolitan areas serving several million.

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ICMAs City Links Program (inaugurated in 1997 as the Resource Cities Program), brings together the best management practitioners from the United States with ocials from client cities of USAID in developing and transitional countries to share resources and technical expertise to improve the lives of urban residents. The City Links program facilitates the exchange of teams of local government ocials city managers, mayors, and department headsbetween US and overseas cities over an 18 to 24 month period. The exchanges enable ocials to learn from their peers and adopt pragmatic approaches to urban management problems. The partners develop a work plan with clear objectives and expected outcomes to remedy several challenges faced by the overseas city. Program funds cover international travel and accommodation costs, usually for four trips by American sta to the host country and three return trips to the American city. Local ocials contribute their time, making the program a cost-eective means to provide technical assistance to developing and transitional countries. To date, 29 partnerships have been initiated under this global cooperative agreement and 22 other agreements of USAID missions with ICMA. The partnerships have addressed areas such as solid waste management, budgeting and nancial planning, downtown revitalization, citizen participation, and water and wastewater treatment. The collaborative eort has helped partnerships make signicant changes in urban management overseas. Mechanisms of learning. A program of assistance is agreed in the course of the rst of three or four visits and, though it may be modied on the y, is carried out in several successive visits by practitioner experts from the resource city to the other in the eld, with return visits by eld practitioners to the resource city. Knowledge is transferred in a direct manner, from practitioner to practitioner. Activities include such things as strategic planning, conducting surveys, budget forecasting, incubators for local economic development, procurement documents, auctioning public land, and the like. For the most part, the city linkages achieve their objectives, usually two or three discreet management or service delivery issues. USAID has concluded that when reforms are dramatic departures from conventional practice, as they were with land auctions in former Soviet states, they can set up powerful models for change that other cities seek to achieve (USAID 2001). USAID also found that most partnerships result in unanticipated benets to the overseas cities, for example in management changes. This is the case when local ocials are highly motivated and become involved in activities beyond those originally envisioned, and the personal relationships and trust allow more direct one-on-one peer exchange. In a similar vein, US cities engaged in the relationship sometimes mobilize additional resources beyond those envisioned

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in, and over and above those nanced by, the exchange program. At the same time, participants in the program on both sides have expressed interest in more frequent visits and contact.
The Resources of ICMA and CityLinks An ICMA member is a part of a worldwide network of senior management professionals who share a commitment to local government excellence and who are dedicated to the highest standards of honesty and integrity. Information resources that include an On-line library (includes Associations database of more than 5,000 forms, brochures, plans, guides, and other materials developed for and used by local governments); GovSearch (gives ICMA members who are directly employed by local governments the ability to search local government Web sites for program descriptions, ordinances, budget presentations designed for the public, and the wealth of information available on local government Web sites); Job center, Salary Information center, Whos Who in Local Government Management and Discussion Links bring together the combined expertise and knowledge to 8,000 members that work in the areas of local democracy, professionalism in public administration, scal decentralization, good governance, and economic development.

The problem with this style of exchange is that sustainability in nancial terms is impeded by the lack of continuity in contact and support. US Sister Cities International learned this lesson long ago. That program has concluded that the most eective solution to sustainabilitynancial as well as institutionalis to build the relationship within the community, and not just among city ocials.7 Communities of interest become the glue of sustainability. When new leaders are voted into oce, the relationship does not end. It becomes a point of interest

and importance by the new mayors constituency, yet is not necessarily a program commitment on the part of the mayor. Type 4. City Clusters in Active Networks. Cases of UNESCO World Heritage Cities, ICLEI Sustainable Cities (and Bertelsmann Cities of Change, UCLG and Metropolis, CityNet, Cities Alliance, Association of CDS Cities, and others) Learning through the intermediation of international NGOs is fundamentally dierent in several ways from the previous cases. First, the focus shifts away from the city itself and moves instead to intermediate organizations. In eect, the agency of learning is shared, sometimes led, by an external actor, usually and international NGO. Second, network NGOs provide several forms of learning opportunities not provided by active cities. Networks provide conventions and standards (e.g., World Heritage Cities conventions or Agenda 21 programs) as well as best practice and normative codes and legislation which establish a framework of policy or practice. A second kind of service is the wide access to many dierent practitioners. This access to occasional contact at large scale conferences of membership and thematic organizations creates a loose bond in networks. For instance the UCLG or Metropolis semiannual meetings and Bertelsmann Cities of Change periodic meetings provide an opportunity for weak ties, which in Granovetters logic, is a source of fresh, out of the box thinking (Granovetter 1985) and reference contacts for consultation and advice. The Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC) was established in 1993 to develop a sense of solidarity and a cooperative relationship between World Heritage cities. Made up of 218 cities having sites included on the UNESCO World Heritage List, the OWHCs mission is

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to promote the implementation of the World Heritage Convention by helping municipal administrators access the information they need to meet this challenge. To this end, the OWHC organizes symposia and seminars dealing with the challenges to be met in the realm of management and strategies pertaining to the development and preservation of historic sites. The OWHCs headquarters, located in Qubec City, Canada, organizes OWHCs initiatives, which are geared to the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. OWHC meetings lead to international conventions, some of which have the moral force of law, that help cities understand the rights and responsibilities of being designated as a World Heritage City. The OWHC organizes symposia and seminars dealing with management and strategies pertaining to the development and preservation of historic sites. The OWHC also strives to heighten awareness among ocials of the United Nations, UNESCO, the World Bank, and the Council of Europe, of the importance of better protecting historic cities. In the coming years, the Organization is to focus on the establishment of an electronic communications network linking member cities through the Internet, and the creation of a data bank on historic cities. In 1991, the rst international symposium of World Heritage Cities was held in Quebec City. Two years later in Fez, Morocco, the Organization was founded. Since then, the OWHC has held six international conferences at which heritage cities take part, discuss the framework documentation and best practices, lobby national governments and exchange information and best practice. See Annex 6 on the international meetings and agreements. Several other important networks operate actively to engage their members in a more or less prescribed range of activities. A notable examples is the International Council on Local Environmental Initiatives, ICLEI. ICLEI was formed in the 1990 when its key founder, Jeery Brugman, discovered that it was possible to aect behaviors of citiesthat is to change operational policiesin a way that would have positive impact on green house gasses. His experience with a single municipality in Southern California mushroomed into a solid organization that made Local Agenda 21 a cornerstone of its actions. Today ICLEI advertises 475 member local governments and is focused on sustainable cities. According to their website, members carry out campaigns to improve environmental conditions. A fundamental component of our performance-based campaign model is the milestone process. Each campaign incorporates a ve-milestone structure that participating local governments work through: (1) establish a baseline; (2) set a target; (3) develop a local action plan; (4) implement the local action plan; and (5) measure results. Lately, ICLEI has focused on sustainable development. Over the decades, ICLEI has built up a data base of more than 70 successful sustainable city case studies. ICLEI has developed a network of activists that operate at the municipal level in scores of cities around the globe to lobby

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city councils, provide public education, and promote community support for environmental improvements at the city level.
ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability is an international association of local governments and national and regional local government organizations that have made a commitment to sustainable development. More than 475 cities, towns, counties, and their associations worldwide comprise ICLEIs growing membership. ICLEI works with these and hundreds of other local governments through international performancebased, results-oriented campaigns and programs. We provide technical consulting, training, and information services to build capacity, share knowledge, and support local government in the implementation of sustainable development at the local level. Our basic premise is that locally designed initiatives can provide an effective and cost-efcient way to achieve local, national, and global sustainability objectives. Source: ICLEI website

Many other organizations oer platforms for learning by cities. Perhaps the most visible in the past decade has been the Union of Cities and Local Governments (UCLG), a confederation of 10,000 local governments forged from the previous world-wide federations of the Union of Local Authorities (of elected city representatives), Cities Unies/United Towns, and their counterparts in Arabic speaking world, and in sub-Saharan Africa. Though regional networks are active and important, UCLG (and its subsidiary, Metropolis, for major cities) became the focus

of ocial sanction by governments represented at the United Nations and the World Bank. Launched in 1996 at the Istanbul, UCLG and Metropolis are membership organizations that seek to facilitate a common agenda for cities and regions in their own fora (annual and semiannual meetings) as well as at the UN and (through the Cities Alliance) at the World Bank. Regional organizationsEuroCities, MercoCiudades (association of cities in the Mercosur trading bloc) and CityNet are good examplesalso maintain active networks of exchange in which apex secretariats sift demands and problems from among the membership and frame learning events for cities in their respective domains. In this class of cases, networks, organized as secretariats with technical sta of various sizes, are the centers of action. As opposed to passive networks (next section, below) each of the active organizations has the means, budget, technical information, and sta to foster learning events that attract cities as members and clients. The main dynamic of learning takes place in these face to face meetings, in plenaries, parallel groups, and myriad bi-lateral exchanges. The importance of these groups is that the agenda is broadly agreed and framed to serve the common interests of cities in relation to higher powers (political issues such as federalism and scal relations) as well as technical and lobbying strategies. The upshot for most members is to build a common understanding and a solidarity about the role of cities and an agenda for action at regional and global levels.

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Type 5. Cities in Passive Networks. Cases of UN Habitat Best Practice and Local Government Information Network (LOGIN) In contrast to the active push of network clusters, discussed immediately above, key organizations like LOGIN and UN Habitat Best Practices operate in a more passive mode. These groups develop information of interest to members and make it availablefor those who wish to access itvia electronic or print media often reinforced by regular meetings. Both organizations oer documentation of best practices, exchange of information and technical knowledge, along with networking support. UN Habitat Best Practice is not the only award conferring sponsor of best practice cities, but it is certainly the best known globally. The structure resembles (and may have been patterned after) the Kennedy School of Government Innovations program for cities and counties. The Best Practices data base features award winners of best practice selected by international jury. Winners are posted on the data base with brief write ups. These are widely recognized, if not actively promoted by international agencies. The data base does oer stimulating ideas in many experiences, but there is little or no eort to certify or adopt award winning practices as a standard of excellence and little evidence that these are replicated.
The Best Practices and Local Leadership Programme (BLP) is a global network of institutions dedicated to the identication and exchange of successful solutions for sustainable development. The BLP partners network identies initiatives in such areas as housing, urban development and governance, the environment, economic development, social inclusion, crime prevention, poverty reduction, women, youth, infrastructure and social services Every two years, up to 10 outstanding initiatives receive the Dubai International Award for Best Practices to Improve the Living Environment, a biennial environmental award established in 1995 by the Municipality of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Those initiatives meeting the criteria for a Best Practice are included in the Best Practices database.. The lessons learned from selected best practices are analysed and made available t to other countries, cities or communities. A searchable database contains over 2150 proven solutions from more than 140 countries to the common social, economic and environmental problems of an urbanizing world. It demonstrates the practical ways in which public, private and civil society sectors are working together to improve governance, eradicate poverty, provide access to shelter, land and basic services, protect the environment and support economic development.

The Local Government Information Network (LOGIN) is a development partnership to increase the ow of useful information and experience to those people who develop, enact, implement, and monitor policy local government decision makers. LOGIN can be characterized as city network cooperation. LOGINs main objectives are to promote the professional development of local government ocials and to build their capacity to make better policy decisions through large scale, extensive provision of information. Another purpose of the program is to strengthen the capabilities of organizations that support the reform of public administration in the framework of decentralization. Finally, LOGIN aims at facilitating the exchange of

best practices and other policy related information at inter and intra regional level in the area of local governance.

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Acting as an information clearinghouse for local government decision-makers, LOGIN has ve core activities: LOGIN assesses information need in the target group; gathers or produces the information requested; processes the information e.g. in the form of executive summaries, and controls the quality of the information; disseminates the information on the Internet and by traditional means; and markets the service. Funding resources originate from local partner contributions, development project and program funds, as well as from resources from foundations and trust funds. LOGINs major nancial support comes from Steering Committee member organizations: the Open Society Institute, UNDP, the Council of Europe, USAID and the World Bank. Other donors include the Danish and the Czech governments. Local partner organizations also contribute to the program with their own nancial resources. The Committee provides policy guidance and oversight for project implementation. The LOGIN Program Manager prepares the agenda and background materials for the meetings, which take place eight to nine times a year, using a video conference facility. The Steering Committee makes its decisions by unanimous vote (thus every member has a veto power). LOGIN represents a unique way to share information and improve the services that are provided to municipalities. The Network brings together the combined expertise and knowledge of several leading international organizations that work in the areas of local democracy, professionalism in public administration, scal decentralization, good governance, and economic development. LOGIN has documented know-how for building a multi-lingual information network based on the cooperation of national partner organizations in the local government sector; developed experience in selecting, managing and evaluating national partner organizations; developed training materials for the operation of the web based site management tool, as well as for marketing, content development and fund raising.

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Observations from Cases


From this brief survey, we can glean lessons that may have relevance for learning in sustainable cities. First is the purpose of learning. One key question is whether the city, understood in a very broad sense, agrees on a problem. The issue of why has sometimes run to a larger question of reform, structural change, or even survival, and if these are the stakes, is the city cognizant of the need for learning? If so, how broad is the scope or narrow is the subject of learning? Second, is the nature of the entity responsible for learning. At a minimum, it is important to understand whether an entity has been identied for the job, for instance for environmental planning, for governmental reform, or for economic transformation, and whether the institutional arrangement is formal or informal. Also, the cases bring out the role of leadershipin a singular or collective formas well as the mandate, formalized and legal or informal and customary. A key factor is whether a schemea vision, a broad outline, a strategy or a planis already in hand or needs to be developed. Also important is the extent to which the larger community, and particularly the private sector, is engaged in the process. Third is the learning modality or features of learning. In many respects, this is the core area of concern. By learning style is meant to include whether the city or its agency is active in pursuing knowledge, or passive in receiving from outside sources such as conferences and networks of best practice. The source of knowledge has taken many forms in the cases. Cities can opt for a style that generates its own knowledge internally, or seeks knowledge from outside its domain. The subject has ranged from benchmarking and competitiveness in Types 1 and 2, to best practices and specic techniques in Types 3, 4, and 5. What balance is struck on this score, and what are the main subjects of concern in knowledge acquisition (policy, technical, managerial)? Style includes issues of regularity of learning events, their duration and whether or not follow up activities are a regular part of the scheme. The size, importance, and degree of bonding among the core learning group has gured importantly in the cases and in the WBI evaluations. Fourth, is whether policies are in place to sustain the learning process and whether these are backed up by investment in the learning activities, follow ups, complementary exercises, youth and young leader programs and the like. In other words, are cities conducting their own capacity building? Fifth is the eciency of learning. Nowhere in the body of experience is there much guidance on the best way to go about learning. Each of these aspects is reviewed for the ve types of cases. (Note that for convenience, Bilbao and Seattle are classied in table 4 as Cities and Agencies.) The objective here is to register

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what is in common among the types and to identify where important dierences lie. This is not intended to result in the selection of one type over another, but to appreciate the advantages and contributions of each type of learning and to understand what conditions should be considered when selecting cities for participation in an urban sustainability program.
Table 4: Features of Learning by Case Type Feature of Learning 1. Why Learn Purpose
Crisis, or economic transformation, Competitiveness Specic policy issues, and best practice techniques Norms and standards of practice in class of issues (e.g. heritage, reform) Issues of standard best practice in municipal government

Type 1 and2 Cities and Agencies

Type 3 Binary pairing

Type 4 Clusters

Type 5 Networks

Subject and Focus

Approaches and strategies, benchmarks, elite awareness

Improvement in management, budgeting, procurement, etc.

Conventions, standards, techniques within class of subjects

Varies widely

2. Agency Mandate
Specically dened, long term strategy Contiguous with local government Extends or en-hances typical municipal mandate Contiguous with local government mandate

Leadership (Individual/ Collective) Formal/Informal Action Plan Community Engagement 3. Learning Modalities Active/Passive and Source of Learning Regularity Term Follow-Up Core Group Size, Level, and Bonding 4. Capacity Building Sustained Policy Guidance Investment in Learning

Strong collective

Strong, less collective

Strong, moderately collective

Moderate and variable

Mixed Yes Yes

Mostly formal Yes Limited

Formal Varies Varies

Formal No Limited

Active imports and outbound

Active Imports and outbound Medium term

Mixed Mostly imports

Passive Mostly imports

Regular, Long term Yes Large, High Strong

Regular, short term, No Moderate, medium to high, Medium

Varies Medium term Varies Varies, Moderate, Medium

Irregular Short No Varies, Varies, Varies

Substantial

Moderate

Moderate

Little

Substantial

Moderate

Moderate

Little

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Why Learn ? The spectrum of cases reveals an underlying question implied if not explicit in each of the examples. Cities will learn by accident but they can learn eciently in deeply transforming ways if they see a reason to do so. But seeing that reason, and nding a feasible platform that reects the common interests of key stakeholders, is an indispensable part of the process. Bilbao is a good place to start on the question of motive: that citys leadership elite foresaw a pending crisis and mobilized broad-based support to take action and avert a crisis. It succeeded. Seattles motivation was similarly triggered by the recession in 1993 and layos by Boeing. But the purpose of learning among Seattle elites was one of understanding competition. In Bilbao, the purpose moved also into wholesale retooling of the city. The one-on-one relationships in City Links, Sister cities International, and other binary exchanges are typied by smaller scale tactical and managerial issues. The point is not how big the problem, but how big the motivation. This issue should be central in the selection of city cases in sustainability pilot program. When purpose is not clear, or motivation not widely shared, learning at least at the city level does not get started. The rst step is often identifying a problem. Much of the literature on learning regions and rms starts with an issue of economic survival, and this can be seen in some cases discussed here as well. On the other hand, many cases of failure, for instance in the City Links, were traced to the diculty or absence of agreement about whether a problem existed in the rst place (USAID Program Evaluation 2001) Agency and Mandate. The central actor or agency for learningthe Metropoli-30, the Trade Development Alliance (TDA), the municipality itself (in the case of Sister Cities International, the community based NGO in the city)four key features emerge: leadership, mandate and focus of actions, plan and time horizon, and degree of community engagement. In the case of Types 1 through 4direct agents, binary pairing, one on many, and clustersthe leading force has been a collection of stakeholders, a small cadre of individuals who share a vision or commitment to a long term goal. But it is implied that broad based community support lay behind most of these cases. (Even in the case of Curitiba where a small number of individuals were identied with that citys success, the leadership changed hands over the years, but the fundamental direction was sustained by broad based community support rearmed periodically at the ballot box.) On the other hand, the formality of arrangements was mixed in Type 1 and 2; Seattles group was organized by a formalized entity (Chamber of Commerce TDA), but the group itself participated on an informal basis. The Seattle case demonstrates the construction of a governing

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elite, teaching itself the ways of the world by going and looking. In eect, the city has deputized the TDA to be its scout, and has engaged in shared-values of exploration and bonding to build a leadership group and loose governance structure. In contrast, Bilbaos Metropoli-30 was highly organized with sta, budget, responsibilities, and accountabilities. Note that in Curitiba (Campbell 2006) a strong internal focus and specic organizational arrangements were drawn up to protect the agency from political manipulation. City Links, and city networks, both passive and active, functioned merely as municipal governments and rely on external agents, the UN, USAID, national governments, or regional confederations such as Metropolis or United Cities and Local Governments. Partly because of external agency, these cases are either less focused or more dicult to sustain. Precisely because these larger, external organizations are viable only with economies of scale, there are perforce less focused on the needs of specic places. Progressively, the active, and in an even more pronounced way, passive networks, rely on the initiation of cities themselves to access the benets of best practice. However, these passive sources of information, data, and exchange can play an important role in inspiring new ideas, even for the active Type 1 and 2 cases. A research project at the World Bank documented the sources of inspiration of innovations, and these were often an idea or practice found outside the immediate setting, and often in international settings (Campbell and Fuhr, 2004). Individual or small groups of leaders cannot move far without support from the larger community. Single leaders do not succeed by themselves. The best eorts, as shown in the learning city regions and managed networks, are those that consist of a group that sees its own self-interest aligned with the larger interests of the city. But the reverse must also be true. At the same time, as illustrated by Seattle and Bilbao, without concrete achievements, it is unlikely broad based community support can be sustained. Learning Modalities. At the core of this analysis are the features of learning. The cases illustrate a variety of ways that cities can learn. The cases listed in Table 3 represent one of the most important dimensions of learning: the active and passive, that is, cities may gain occasional access to networks whice passively oer data and knowledge. At the other end of this spectrum are cities that aggressively pursue knowledge and learning in order to achieve specic goals. One aspect of the learning modalities is the extent to which the city or its agency is expected to obtain lessons and learning from afar, already packaged and partly digested. Bilbao brought experience from many quarters to its stakeholders at home. Seattle is singular in the cases reviewed here in demonstrating a commitment to see best practice in its native habitat. Other

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cities not reviewed here, Johannesburg and Barcelona for example, also recruited world class sources of information for presentation to the home team. It should be noted that the source of knowledge in virtually all of the cases is overwhelmingly from other cities. Though many avenues are available to transmit information and experiencepolicy seminars, conferences, small group meetingsvirtually all of the ocial development assistance organizations rely on city to city exposure as a key ingredient. Exposure to new ideas in their native context enriches the Arthur Koestler Aha experience, especially if this takes place in the company of a core leadership group, as in the case of Seattle. City Rounds in the World Bank Institute endorse the importance
Cities learn from each other because they understand and trust each other more than commercial rms that have something to sell or even international institutions which are laying conditions on lending. Bill Stafford, Trade Development Alliance.

of observing best practice and knowledge management itself in the native setting of the practitioner.8 Learning practitioners know that context is everything in the understanding of relationships.

Regular, long term, sequential and follow up activities have all proved important for the active cities and are identied as factors of eectiveness in the evaluations of World Bank Institute. These features, along with those of engagement, sources of learning, and action planning, deserve attention in program design for urban sustainability. Institution BuildingManaging Knowledge Sharing the learning experience and bonding appear to be important elements in building institutions. In essence, capacity building of learning in cities is the development of a protoculture of shared values, and this requires support to nourish and maintain that shared understanding over time. A similar phenomenon takes place in networking among very large groups of cities in conferences as they come to recognize consensus. For this reason, both individual and collective modalities of learning are important. Each brings a dierent contribution, individual and collective, to the learning process. The special purpose agencies also suggest strongly that cities dedicated to learning invest in policy and in a learning eort, that the eort is sustained over a long period of time, and that the system of learning extends widely into the community. The dedicated agency cities like Seattle are running into their second decade of sustained policy support to learn; Bilbao is entering its third, and Curitiba its fth. London, Barcelona, and many others also sustain a long running process of learning. Financial support is supplied in dierent ways. Seattle through pay as you go scheme; Bilbao drew cleverly on EU funds and private donations; London builds into its own city budget and Barcelona has incurred debt. In each case a strong commitment is evident.

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Of equal importance is the extent to which the cities have nurtured broad community support into the learning eort. The Type 1 and 2 cities in this review are clearly engaged in dedicated institutional capacity building that extends far beyond agency boundaries. Indeed in the Seattle case, one of the objectives of study tours is to create a permeable layer across jurisdictional, agency, and public private boundaries. The most purposeful of these casesrepresented in dierent ways by Bilbao, Seattle, Curitiba, among many othersare cities that are able to create learning experiences and draw on stored memory in order to bring that knowledge to bear on present and newly emerging problems. The evidence from cases suggests that the secret to learning cities lies in the skill in managing a tension between two opposing, but not necessarily competitive, forces. On the one hand is the tightness of bonds that need to be developed so that the city, understood in the broader sense of community of interests, begins to acquire a shared set of values and a coherence of action. The tighter the network among like minded players, the more likely a coherent response can be expected to challenges and risks. On the other hand, the city, like individuals and rms, must also manage a set of loose ties that connects the urban community to outside networks where new sets of resources, skills, and innovations can be tapped to meet special challenges and risks. The cases suggest that the learning city is one that holds reins to both sides. We expect that advanced learning cities will begin to show evidence and skill in managing, or at least taking part in, broad learning networks where common objectives are observed. Efciency of Learning Though we have ample evidence that cities are eager to learn and actively engaged in it, we have very little guidance on the eciency factors in the learning process. The World Bank Institute (WBI) evaluation of capacity building activities provides some hints about eectiveness that may be useful in interpreting the issues and cases (Quizon et al 2005). WBI organizes thousands of learning events each year in regional, national, and local fora. Only about 60 events per year are aimed at ocials from municipal governments. Of these, a small handful (e.g., City Rounds) is organized for specic cities or regions. Most learning events involve high level policy makers as well as middle level practitioners. Evaluations are performed regularly. Periodically, in-depth follow up studies are also conducted. Findings from these reviews indicate that, in general, and not referring specically to cities or city groups, the most eective learning in strategic areas and approaches to problems, as in the case of our Type 1 and 2 cities, above, is when action planning of some kind is performed and when higher level personnel are involved. Reviews for specic countries rearm these points and also indicate the importance of a series of events and of engaging the client partner in the design of the events. Finally, the evaluations also indicate the importance of language. More eective outcomes are obtained when the learning event is held in the language of the participants.
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Hypothetical Sequence of Events: Learning and Exchange in USI (Cities in Nation X)


International City Tour Parallel Work Groups, (National)

Team Formation Goal Setting Benchmarking

Year 2

Year 1

Launch & Visioning Conference

Work Groups Seminars (Internantion)

Parallel Work Groups, (National)

Year 4

Regional or Internationl Conference

Year 3

Team Review of Goals & Benchmarks

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Implications for Urban Sustainability


This section draws together some of the implications from the previous discussion for programmatic work to achieve urban sustainability. The lessons apply in several ways. First, they help to formulate criteria for selection of cities. Second, the evidence suggests areas of management attentionfor the cities as well as for project managers. Third, the modalities of learning oer some suggestions about the sequence of programmatic activities and the relationship among learning events. Perhaps the single most important observation form this review is that, though cities learn in many dierent ways, a signicant part of their learning comes from other cities. It is already evident that achieving urban sustainability is much more complicated than a straight technology transfer. The learning process and institutional capacity building will run over many years and entail multiple layers of learning. Criteria of Selection. The lessons for selecting the living laboratories in a program for urban sustainability are clear: The motivation for learning must be sustained and demonstrable. Cities that can show a record of eortof past actions, committed resources, diagnostics, and sustained eortwould t this criterion. In addition, the leadership and the key actors must be broadly representative of the community. A key factor in this selection is that community stakeholders beyond elected ocials must be engaged. This criterion is essential to bridge the political term of oce of elected ocials. Repeated experience has shown the importance of broad based community support, including private sector and community groups as well as higher levels of government, as the key in sustaining eort. This has been shown in the proactive Type 1 and 2 cases as well as in the 25 years experience of Sister Cities International. Though some literature marks the importance of leadership of individuals, none of the cases reviewed in this paper suggest that an outstanding visionary leader or champion is sucient to carry the weight of a long term program in urban sustainability. Not only should leadership be a collective noun, leadership elites should also be widely based in the community and exhibit features of shared values and interests. On the other hand, the importance of formal organizational arrangements is less clear. Active learners, those that pro-actively seek knowledge, backed with mandate and budget, suggest a key feature of the learning style that has bearing on selection of candidates in work on urban sustainability. Like the earlier point about motivation for learning, candidate cities should be able to demonstrate a record of active learning. An important feature in this record and in the management and leadership in the community is the extent of connection across political terms of oce and spheres of public and private sectors in the community.

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Elements of Learning Programs The review suggests that each of the types of learning discussed here (and the myriad other possibilities that may be identied) have a role to play, depending on initial conditions and tasks selected for action in a given city. The trick for urban sustainability program learning is that experiences must be useful for the cities. Sustainable cities also means sustainable institutional capacity, and this requires more long term support and a process that is open to many players. The cases suggest that cities, again in the broadest sense (i.e., communities of interest, not just elected ocials and private sector) have the attitude and skills to manage networks in situations where, as Crosby puts it no one is in charge (2005: chapter One). Second, the linkages of learning and application must reach across many jurisdictions and areas of interest in the city, as was illustrated by Bilbao. An important part of work on urban sustainability will be to help the participating cities develop a long term learning process that allows learning to be built into management culture. Not every community can nor is willing to do this. Four main activities can be help. These are the following: 1. Conferences and seminars (knowledge exchange on policy and vision). These are suited to explore approaches to planning and planning frameworksfor instance regional planning; institutional coordination; planning theory; and analytical tools, like surveys and forecastingareas of work that are either abstract or as yet not widely practiced in the city. 2. City tours and visits. These are suited for areas of work for which frameworks are understood and for which practical and hands-on experiences are possible to observe, for instance, treatment of transport corridors, redevelopment zones, cultural heritage in the built environment and living heritage, as well as land use controls. Visiting on-site and peer-to-peer learning is important because visits allow planners and technicians to see rst hand the approaches and techniques used in world class cities. 3. City Studios for Working Groups. These events would bring international experts for stays of sucient duration in the city so as to allow practical work to achieve specic solutions to specic problems, such as site designs, neighborhood plans, small scale transportation solutions, and land use. They could be followed by project-specic learning integrated into work programs. (It might also be possible, and is certainly desirable, to link these projects with training institutions as a way to modernize graduate programs and provide credit for on the job planners towards eventual further qualications.) 4. Technical exchanges of days and weeks (some extended into short courses) by selected analyst to study and gain prociency in use of analytical tools like surveys, geographical information systems (GIS), simulation, scenario development, and other planning techniques.

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Designing a Learning Cycle for Cities What would be the nature and scope of a learning program for selected pilot cities that wish to achieve sustainable urban development ? The various components listed above, along with many other possible activities, can be packaged into a long term program useful for many purposes. (See Graphic 1.) The core idea of the cycle of learning is twofold. First, is to establish and rearm the proposition: to agree on the nature of the problem in the city, that the city will be engaged in a long term eort, and the aim is to achieve a more sustainable development pathway. Second, the cycle helps to integrate learning internally, among the major players in a given city, and externally, with counterpart peers from other cities. The program would need to be agreed in advance and managed as part of any project. A national or regional conference can help to set the stage, validate the objective, and rearm the commitment in the city as well as in regional and national centers. This visioning conference would educate and mobilize the public and local and national policy makers about the importance of urban sustainability. The idea is to convey a sense of movement and purpose. A goal setting and benchmarking exercise would follow and set the stage for an international city tour to study the best examples of practice in a given eld. Parallel working groups within each pilot city would then set about the work on policy and practice towards implementing key steps to achieve the goals. In Year 2, work groups would have encounters with world or regional experts working on the same or similar subjects. Each city would then review its goals and benchmarks and toward the end of Year 3 present their progress in each area to a regional or international conference, along with their peer cities. Parallel work groups would continue work in Year 4 and beyond. Further technical workshops or clinics would help to solve specic problems. A small national conference would complete the cycle in Year 5. This hypothetical learning sequence is intended to illustrate both the stages and the various mechanisms of learning. Each of the key institutions would be included in design and implementation of the multi-year and multi-city program. Each would also be exposed to peersboth other pilots as well as a wider range of cities where programs or best practice have been developed. In addition, local or regional educational institutions would also be included, especially those that oer post graduate degrees in public urban policy, environmental and urban planning, urban design, transport planning, economics, land use planning, and other sub-specialties.

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Annex 1

Summary: Range Of City-related Environmental Hazards By Scale And Type

Scale

Hazard

Some Specic Examples (This list of examples is not intended to be comprehensive)


Water-borne, water-washed (or water-scarce), airborne, food-borne, vector-borne, including some water-related vectors (e.g. Aedes mosquitoes breeding in water containers where households lack reliable piped supplied).

Within House and its Plot

Biological Pathogens

Chemical Pollutants Physical Hazards

Indoor air pollution from res, stoves or heaters. Accidental poisoning from household chemicals. Occupational exposure for home workers. Indoor air pollution from res, stoves or heaters. Accidental poisoning from household chemicals. Occupational exposure for home workers.

Neighborhood

Biological Pathogens

Pathogens in waste water, solid waste (if not removed from the site), local water bodies. Disease vectors, e.g. malaria-spreading Anopheles mosquitoes breeding in standing water or lariasis-spreading Culex mosquitoes breeding in blocked drains, latrines or septic tanks.

Chemical Pollutants

Ambient air pollution from res, stoves....; also perhaps from burning garbage if there is no regular garbage collection service. Air and water pollution and wastes from cottage industries and from motor vehicles.

Physical Hazards

Site-related hazards, e.g. housing on slopes with risks of landslides; sites regularly ooded, sites at risk from earthquakes.

Workplace

Biological Pathogens Chemical Pollutants Physical Hazards

Overcrowding/poor ventilation aids transmission of infectious diseases.

Toxic chemicals, dust

Dangerous machinery, noise

Cont. >

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Scale

Hazard

Some Specic Examples (This list of examples is not intended to be comprehensive)


Pathogens in the open water bodies (often from sewerage); also at municipal dumps; contaminated water in piped system. Ambient air pollution (mostly from industry and motor vehicles; motor vehicles role generally growing); water pollution; hazardous wastes. Trafc hazards. Violence. Natural disasters and their unnaturally large impact because of inadequate attention to prevention and mitigation.

City (or Municipality Within Larger City)

Biological Pathogens Chemical Pollutants Physical Hazards

Citizens Access to Land For Housing

Important inuence on housing quality directly and indirectly (e.g. through insecure tenure discouraging households investing in improved housing, and discouraging water, electricity and other utilities from serving them).

Heat Island Effect and Thermal Inversions

Raised temperatures a health risk, especially for vulnerable groups (e.g. elderly, very young). Air pollutants may become trapped, increasing their concentration and the length of peoples exposure to them. Soil erosion from poor watershed management or land development or clearance; deforestation; water pollution; ecological damage from acid precipitation and ozone plumes; loss of biodiversity.

City-Region (or City Periphery)

Resource Degradation

Land or Water Pollution from Waste Dumping

Pollution of land from dumping of conventional household, industrial and commercial solid wastes and toxic/hazardous wastes. Leaching of toxic chemicals from waste dumps into water. Contaminated industrial sites. Pollution of surface water and groundwater from sewage and surface runoff.

Pre-emption or Loss Of Resources

Fresh water for city pre-empting its use for agriculture; expansion of paved area over good quality agricultural land. Fossil fuel use; use of other mineral resources; loss of biodiversity; loss of non-renewable resources in urban waste streams. Persistent chemicals in urban waste streams; greenhouse gas emissions, stratospheric ozone depleting chemicals.

Links Between City And Global Issues

Non-Renewable Resource Use Non-Renewable Sink Use

Overuse Of Finite Renewable Resources

Scale of consumption that is incompatible with global limits for soil, forests, freshwater

SOURCE: Satterthwaite, David (1999), The Links between Poverty and the Environment in Urban Areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the European Commission (EC), New York.

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Annex 2
Best practice database, UN-Habitat & municipality of Dubai: http://www.bestpractices.org UN-Habitat Best Practices and Local Leadership Programme, 2002 http://www.blpnet.org

Metropolis http://www.metropolis.org Metropolis is the World Association of Major Metropolises. Metropolis is also the metropolitan section of the United Cities & Local Government organization (UCLG), which arose from the merger between the IULA and UTO. Its mission is to promote international cooperation and exchanges among members, i.e., local and metropolitan governments. Metropolis is the spokesperson on cities interests in international forums. The metropolises are shaping the 21 st century. While individually different, they share modern-day concerns on issues such as urban planning and development, the economy, health, environmental matters, transport, infrastructure and communications. Created in 1985, the Metropolis Association is represented by more than 80 member cities from across the world and operates as an international forum for exploring issues and concerns common to all big cities. The main goal of the association is to better control the development process of metropolitan areas in order to enhance the wellbeing of their citizens. To do this, Metropolis represents regions and metropolitan areas at the worldwide level and is recognized as a major player by large international organizations such as the UN, WHO, the World Bank and others.

Bertelsmann Cities of Change The Bertelsmann Foundation and the World Bank have jointly initiated and established a network of selected municipal authorities to support policy and administration reform in Central and Eastern European EU accession countries. This network is designed to foster a constructive, informal, cross-border dialogue between local governments from ve Central and Eastern European countries on key topics of organisational, political, social and economic reform. The joint establishment of this unique network is designed to tackle change from the local government perspective.

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CITYNET: The Regional Network of Local Authorities for the Management of Human Settlements http://www.citynet-ap.org Headquarter: Yokohama, Japan Serves: Cities in the Asia-Pacic Introduction of the institution: Vision: People-friendly cities that are environmentally sustainable, economically productive, politically participatory, globally connected, culturally vibrant and socially just. Introduction: Learning from each other is critical for survival in todays world. In 1987, CITYNET (The Regional Network of Local Authorities for the Management of Human Settlements), based in Yokohama, Japan, came into being with the vision of bringing cities together - to learn, to ourish. Since then, the organisation has taken bold strides in bridging the gap between local governments, their national counterparts, non-governmental and international organisations. With an aim to help local governments provide better services to citizens, CITYNET is committed to capacity-building at the city level. Every year, it organises around 25 activities, including seminars and training programmes, which address burning issues in urban planning and development. The agship activity is the TCDC (Technical Cooperation between Cities in Developing Countries) programme, which helps create afliations between cities in the Asia-Pacic. CITYNETs facilitation results in partnerships that foster best practices in urban governance and city development. Over 40 local governments have beneted from the TCDC programme in the last decade. With every passing year, the relevance and need for a facilitating organisation such as CITYNET has heightened. The Network has grown to include 63 city governments and 40 non-governmental organisations. In 2002, CITYNETs endeavors were recognized by UN-HABITAT in the form of the Scroll of Honour, for facilitating city-to-city cooperation and networking among local governments and other urban stakeholders. With the rm belief that people-friendly cities are the need of the hour, CITYNET is tirelessly working towards its goal of making cities environmentally sustainable, economically productive, politically participatory, globally connected, culturally vibrant and socially just.

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The CITYNET Databank http://www.citynet-ap.org/en/databank.html The ever-growing and evolving CITYNET Databank currently consists of the following information: General information about the city/organisation An outline of its main activities Its priorities and concerns Its technical cooperation efforts with other cities/organisations.

The Databank is in Microsoft Access format and is available on request. To obtain access to it, please contact: The Secretary General CITYNET Secretariat 5F, International Organizations Centre Pacico Yokohama, 1-1-1 Minato-Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama - 220-0012, Japan. Tel: (81-45) 223-2161; Fax: (81-45) 223-2162; Email: info@citynet-ap.org

TCDC (Technical Cooperation between Cities in Developing Countries) Programme: http://www.citynet-ap.org/en/Activities/TCDC/activity(TCDCnew).htm (with a detailed list of visits completed) Technical Cooperation among Cities in Developing Countries (TCDC) is a programme that enables members to exchange technical expertise with other cities. CITYNET facilitates the initiation and implementation of visits of experts from one city to another. Through these visits, cities can access the best practices being implemented by their counterparts around Asia and can learn from their experience Interesting Publications Guidelines for Transferring Effective Practices, 1998 (e-version to be found) (a practical manual for South-South Cooperation and TCDC Best Practices, as quoted in the C2C report )

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Local Government International Bureau: http://www.lgib.gov.uk/index.html Ofces: Londona and Brussels Serves: local authorities in UK Introdution: The Local Government International Bureau (LGIB) works with the Local Government Association (LGA) to promote local government interests in European legislation, funding and policy and in international developments, such as sustainability. It represents UK local authorities within Europe and around the world. LGIB Aims and Objectives The overall aim of the Local Government International Bureau is to promote high quality local government and its interests within Europe and internationally. We also have eight key objectives which form the heart of our corporate planning process. These are: To inuence key decision-makers and opinion formers in order to promote the interests of UK and European local government; To promote the values and role of local democracy within Europe and internationally; To keep UK local government informed about European and international policy, legislation and developments which may affect their operation and services; To support councillors appointed to represent UK local government on European and international bodies; To provide an action research resource on local government practice and systems worldwide; To promote international links and exchange of experience between local authorities and associations for mutual benet and learning; To participate in and promote international local government capacity-building; and To be an effective international ambassador for UK local government. LGIB Structure The LGIB acts principally as the European and international arm of the LGA. It also represents the Northern Ireland Local Government Association (NILGA) and acts as the UK member of international organisations, notably the Council of European Municipalities and Regions and United Cities and Local Governments. The LGIB is a company limited by guarantee and has a board of directors made up of elected councillors appointed by the LGA, with one member appointed by NILGA. Policy direction is provided by the LGAs European and International Panel, again comprised of elected councillors. The LGIBs services are delivered by staff in London, Brussels and Cardiff ofces.

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Case Studies http://www.lgib.gov.uk/case_studies/index.html This section features case studies from the world of local government in the areas of Employment Energy Evironment Information Society International Development Lisbon Strategy Regional Policy And Cohesion Research, Development And Innovation Rural, Agricultural And Fisheries Social Inclusion Sustainable And Community Development Twon Twinning Transport Urban And Spatial Planning Youth With Searchable Database

Town Twinning http://www.lgib.gov.uk/international/Establishing_a_partnership/index.html

International development Case Studies http://www.lgib.gov.uk/european_work/democracy/ internationalDevelopment/index.html Including: Oxfordshire and South Africa http://www.lgib.gov.uk/case_studies/2005/Oxfordshire_and_Nkonkobe The aim of this project is to alleviate poverty in Nkonkobe by creating jobs, supporting and training the development of small and medium sized economic enterprises and improving infrastructure in the region. Leicester and Nicaragua http://www.lgib.gov.uk/case_studies/2005/Leicester_and_Nicaragua Leicester and Masaya were formally twinned in 1987, since when they have worked to maintain an exchange of contacts that foster mutual understanding and cultural enrichment in both cities. Daventry and Uganda http://www.lgib.gov.uk/case_studies/2005/Daventry_and_Uganda The link between Daventry and Iganga, Uganda, aims to facilitate the development of local government services and to increase understanding between people living in different cultures and environments.

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EUs TACIS http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/ceeca/tacis/index.htm http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/projects/tacis/index_en.htm Introduction: Launched by the EC in 1991, the Tacis Programme provides grant-nanced technical assistance to 13 countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Moldova, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan), and mainly aims at enhancing the transition process in these countries. TACIS funding is allocated through: National country programmes: they include indicative programmes, valid 3-4 years, which identify priorities and areas of co-operation as well as annual (for Russia and Ukraine) and biannual (for the other countries) action programmes setting out the projects to be supported and the funding available, within the guidelines dened by the indicative programme. Regional programmes: Multi-country programmes are used for areas like environmental protection or the promotion of transport networks. Crossborder programmes have also been set up to promote the co-operation and the development of links between neighbouring communities in different countries. These regional programmes are based on indicative and action programmes as well. Small projects programmes: A limited number of small project programmes are used to address very specic tasks, such as advice to governments in particular elds: trade regulation, co-operation in higher education, or encouraging EU investment in the partner countries. Since their objectives are not set with pre-dened beneciaries in mind, they are organised in a different manner, with specic priorities set each year. City Twinning Scheme http://www.tacisinfo.ru/brochure/social_e/Preface/Twinning.htm But original website (http://citiesnet.uwe.ac.uk/tacis/index.htm) has been removed EU Asia-Urbs Programme http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/projects/asia-urbs/index_en.htm

UK Commonwealth Local Government Forum http://www.uclg-aspac.org Headquarter: London Introduction: Strengthening Local Democracy CLGF works to promote and strengthen democratic local government across the Commonwealth, and to encourage the exchange of best practice - through conferences and events, its Good Practice Scheme, research and information on innovation, and working with Commonwealth countries to support the development of democratic values and good governance. As the local government arm of the Commonwealth, CLGF has been actively involved in encouraging and developing local elections and systems, election monitoring, and capacity building support for councillors and councils.

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The Voice Of Local Government In The Commonwealth CLGF ensures that local governments voice is heard within the Commonwealth and that it gets full recognition and support in the Commonwealth family. CLGF works closely with other Commonwealth and international organisations such as the Commonwealth Secretariat and the United Nations, notably the UNCHS (Habitat). Working Throughout The Commonwealth CLGF has more than 160 members in 40 Commonwealth countries. Members include: local government associations, individual local authorities, and ministries with responsibility for local government. Professional bodies, research institutions and other organisations with an interest in local government can join as associate members. CLGF is based in London and supports a regional information ofce in Southern Africa (Harare) and a regional project ofce in the Pacic (Fiji). CLGF works through its members, particularly the national local government associations and regional and international partners. It brings together practitioners from all spheres of government who are involved in local government, to pool experiences, and make use of the framework of shared history, language, cultural, economic and other links which the Commonwealth provides. Good Practice Scheme http://www.clgf.org.uk/index_technical.htm (with a detailed list of collaborative projects among cities) The Commonwealth Local Government Good Practice Scheme was launched in 1998 to enable local government practitioners from across the Commonwealth to share experiences and good practice, and to pool resources by working together on practical projects to address poverty. During its pilot phase, the Good Practice Scheme, funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) supported 30 technical cooperation projects between local authority partners in 14 different Commonwealth countries. Partnerships undertaking projects have emerged in different ways. Some involve long-standing links, others are new partnerships set up in response to a specically identied need, or growing out of existing community links. All projects are jointly developed and implemented to address a specic issue being faced by one partner authority, through targeted and practical action. Personal contact, the exchange of technical expertise, joint-working and learning, and practical activity within a clearly identied set of aims and objectives, are at the heart of the Scheme. Project partners aim to achieve clear and practical outputs. Through the Scheme, CLGF can fund exchange visits, work shadowing, pilot implementation of new initiatives and related activities, within the overall objective of poverty reduction through more efcient local service provision.

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Eurocities: The Network Of European Cities http://www.eurocities.org/_INDEX.php Headquarter: Brussels Introduction: EUROCITIES is the network of major European cities. Founded in 1986, the network brings together the local governments of more than 120 large cities in over 30 European countries. EUROCITIES provides a platform for its member cities to share knowledge and ideas, to exchange experiences, to analyse common problems and develop innovative solutions, through a wide range of Forums, Working Groups, Projects, activities and events. EUROCITIES gives cities a voice in Europe, by engaging in dialogue with the European institutions on all aspects of EU legislation, policies and programmes that have an impact on cities and their citizens. The network is active across a wide range of policy areas including: economic development and cohesion policy, provision of public services, environment, transport and mobility, employment and social affairs, culture, education, information and knowledge society, governance and international cooperation. EUROCITIES Cooperation Projects Choose from the left-hand bar cooperation/projects Worth noting: Euro-Asia dialogue

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Other Interesting Institutions

Smart Cities http://www.smart-cities.net/ Introduction: SMART-Cities.net promotes urban sustainable development by providing a platform for information exchange and interaction between Asian Cities and European environmental solution providers. This Webportal will initially focus on urban environmental challenges. SMART-Cities refers to Sustainable Management Action Resource Tools for Cities. The site contains City Pages and Green Pages, with information on cities and companies databases, search function, and interactive communication and matching tools.

UK Local Government Alliance for International Development http://www.lgib.gov.uk/lg-alliance/index.html Introduction: The UK Local Government Alliance for International Development brings together the collective capacity of committed key agencies and bodies in the UK to boost local authorities involvement in international development. The core members of the Alliance are: Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF) Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA) Improvement and Development Agency (IDeA) Local Government International Bureau (LGIB) Society of local authority Chief Executives and Senior Managers (SOLACE) The wider Alliance includes government bodies, agencies, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and community based groups.

United Cities and Local Governments: http://www.cities-localgovernments.org/uclg its LAC website http://www.acma.org its Asia-Pacic website http://www.uclg-aspac.org

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Annex 3
Concept Link Denition
An established relationship between two or more local municipalities (entities). Subdivided into: Local authority led multi-purpose links Local authority led technical links Community led links with local authority in a support role Community led links without any local authority involvement Others1 A link that is formalized by a written and signed agreement between two or more municipalities.2 No consensus as to the operational meaning of the terms; some donor agencies exclude NGOs from their denition while others argue that NGOs are integral to it. The World Banks denition: a formal partnership between local authorities in different countries who engage in a program of exchange and collaboration aimed at improving the social and economic circumstances of their respective communities and enhancing the skills and competence of the partners involved. (World Bank, 1994) Town and Development denes decentralized cooperation as a means with which to improve the quality of life of local communities and provide them with better services and uses Community Based Development Initiatives (CDIs) as a central concept, treating the direct involvements of local communities and not necessarily of local authorities as a factor of importance.3 Actions undertaken jointly by NGOs, community groups and local governments to promote global development.4 Covers all possible forms of relationship between local authorities in two or more countries collaborating together on matters of mutual interest. This concept also covers cooperation between cities within a single country.5 Link between two or more communities in which at least one of the key actors is a municipality, or alternatively a district or regional council. Such links may also include local NGOs, CBOs, or private associations. MIC partnerships are generally conducted by equivalent entities which assisted by national or international associations or networks, establish contact with counterparts and develop an operational agreement that determines the character of their relationship.

Twinning Decentralized Cooperation

CDIs City to City Cooperation (C2C) Municipal International Cooperation (MIC)

Source: UN Habitat 2002


3 Ibid pp 23 4 Ibid pp 24 5 UN Habitat (September 2002). City to City Cooperation Habitat Debate Vol 8 No. 3

1 IULA/VNG (1995) Local Challenges to Global Change : A Global Perspective on Municipal international Cooperation Sdu Publishers, The Hague pp 24 2 Ibid

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Annex 4
Qubec City Declaration (1991) http://www.ovpm.org/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=40 Prior to the foundation of the OWHC in 1993, the representatives of the 41 cities that participated in the First International Symposium of World Heritage Cities adopted the Qubec City Declaration on July 14, 1991. Fez Charter (1993) http://www.ovpm.org/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=41 The Fez Charter was adopted on September 8, 1993 by the Founding General Assembly of the OWHC. Statutes (1993) The Founding General Assembly in Fez adopted the Statutes of the OWHC, which govern the operation of various bodies in the organization. Bergen Protocol http://www.ovpm.org/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=44 Participants from 65 World Heritage Cities attending the Second General Assembly in Bergen, Norway, adopted the Bergen Protocol on Communications and Relations among Cities of the Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC). The Protocol links the OWHCs international partners, i.e. UNESCO, the Council of Europe, the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS Evoras Appeal http://www.ovpm.org/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=45 Participants from 68 World Heritage Cities attending the Third General Assembly in vora, Portugal, adopted the Evoras Appel in favour of tourism development geared to safeguarding the vitality and character of historic cities . The Protocol links the OWHCs international partners, i.e. UNESCO, the Getty Conservation Institute, the World Tourism Organization and the Council of Europe. The Santiago de Compostela Manifest (1999) http://www.ovpm.org/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=46 Participants from 80 World Heritage Cities attending the Fourth General Assembly in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, adopted the Santiago de Compostela Manifest in favor of cooperation for the active conservation and sustainable management of heritage cities of humankind. This document links the OWHCs international partners, i.e. UNESCO, the World Heritage Center, the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). The Quebec Declaration (2001) for inter-Americain cooperation to ensure the preservation of historic cities of the Americas http://www.ovpm.org/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=43 Gathered in Quebec, Canada, on this 18th day of April, 2001, the Mayors and Representatives of World Heritage Cities and of other important historic cities of the Americas named below hereby address the Heads of State present at the 3rd Summit of the Americas.

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Puebla Declaration (2001) http://www.ovpm.org/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=47 1300 Participants from 100 Historic Cities attending the Sixth OWHC International Symposium held in Puebla, Mexico, adopted the Puebla Declaration regarding Prevention and Protection Measures for World Heritage Cities in Case of Disaster. This document links the OWHCs international partners, UNESCO, the World Heritage Center, the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), The Getty Grant Program and the World Monument Fund. General by Laws http://www.ovpm.org/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=42 The General Assembly in Rhodes adopted the Revised Statutes of the OWHC, which govern the operation of various bodies in the organization.

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Annex 5

Brief History: Evolution of C2C

1940s Widespread Twinnings World War II was the major catalyst for the twinning movement in a couple of ways. 1. During and after the conict a number of war relief organizations, e.g. Bundles for Britain, Russian War Relief, and American Aid to France, Inc., channeled assistance from North America to the stricken populations of allied countries, occasionally from one specic place to another overseas. Special relationship that developed between Vancouver and Odessa in 1944 persists to this day. 2. Within Europe, number of local community leaders set about the work of healing, reconciliation and long-term fraternity, creating active twinning relationships between pairs of municipalities, initially in France and Germany but later involving other countries as well. First formerly organized grassroots form of rapprochement Special meeting of French and German mayors at Mont Pelerin, Switzerland in 1948, which lead to the formation of the International Union of Mayors for Franco-German Understanding in 1950 and signing of a twinning agreement between Ludwihsburg, Germany and Montbeliard, France, rst of many Franco-German partnerships to follow

1950s Sister City Relationships/MIC Actively encouraged on a national scale in the US, following President Dwight Eisenhowers call for people-to-people diplomacy. Such relationships, which emphasize cultural and social links, have also proved to be popular in Canada. 1960 to 1970s Geographic spread of MIC Japanese cities also became involved mainly in partnership with American cities. Following liberization process in China Japanese municipalities as well as in other East Asian countries sought additional partnerships with China. Falling exports, following a high Yen exchange rate in 1970s, urge Japanese municipalities to establish links with Asian and particularly Chinese local authorities, as a tool to encourage trade and friendly relations.

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Late 1970s to Early 1980s Mic Begun The Process Of Diversication In Three Directions: 1. Emphasis on trade as a central component of MIC (best example, the United States) 2. (in the early 1970s) Demonstration of solidity with developing countries through the provision of nancial and material aid, in support of local democracy and increased awareness vis--vis development issues. (example, Netherlands) 3. Political, promoted by municipalities that were engaged in MIC for political reasons (examples: anti-apartheid actions of municipalities from the Netherlands and the US, the Nuclear Free Local Authorities actions in Italy, Japan, Spain, UK, Netherlands, US; actions against US policies and sanctions aimed at isolating Nicaragua. Late 1980s to Early 1990s Major Turning Point For Mic Fall of communism in Central and East European and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, represent, opening new territories full of opportunities to municipalities in the industrialized world. Since mid 1980s, MIC is characterized by increasing diversity and correlations worldwide, increased professionalization within MIC, greater participation of the donor community in MIC activities. (German Ministry for Technical and Economic Cooperation, Canadian International Development Agency, Directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Finnish International Development Agency, the Japan International Cooperation Agency, the Norwegian Agency for Development, the Overseas Development Administration, Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation, Swedish International Development Agency, United States Agency for International Development) From 1990s, the main factors for the continued expansion of MIC: Decentralization of public administration Decentralization of development cooperation Decentralization and democratization Globalization and localization Heterogeneity

2000s Current issues It appears that through MIC activities, widespread attention has been paid to range of issues such as human rights, peace and solidarity, promotion of South-South relations, bringing them to local communities.

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Annex 6

Sister Cities International (SCI) is a nonprot citizen diplomacy network creating and strengthening partnerships between U.S. and international communities in an effort to increase global cooperation at the municipal level, to promote cultural understanding and to stimulate economic development. The SCI network represents more than 2,100 communities in 121 countries around the world with a goal of enhancing quality of life through educational exchanges, business development opportunities and information sharing on issues such as technology, health care, and the environment.

SCIs Activities Within The UN Categories Geographic Orientation Geographical orientation falls into the global category of the UN classication system. Linking Modality The linking modality is a network. Primary Cooperating Parties Local authority services, NGOs Focus in the Urban Management Process technical information and expertise Thematic Focuses social/cultural, municipal nance, environment, infrastructure and services, health, security / disaster management, economic development. Facilitating Structures Individual city authorities, bilateral and multilateral aid organizations, professional associations, NGOs Funding and Resources Approximately one third of the resources comes from member dues, on third from the US Department of State, and one third from private sector contributions, foundation grants and individual gifts. Support Modalities documentation of best practices, exchange of information and technical knowledge, along with networking support.

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Regulatory And Governing Structure At the national level, SCI is governed by a 24-member Board of Directors. Based on action taken at the Annual Business Meeting July 28, 2001, this number has been increased to 24. The additional three members have been nominated to represent state coordinators, youth, and the Ambassador Association, with each representative serving a one-year term. The other 21 SCI Board members serve for staggered three-year terms. The Executive Director administers the affairs of the Association. At a city level, sister city chapters are usually run under an independent 501(c)3 organization and usually out of the Mayors ofce. Sister city member organizations have their own governing structure which usually comprises of a board of directors and an Executive Director who among other duties oversees staff and volunteers.

Opportunities To Scale Up Activities For Greater Impact People to People for Peace new themes that can be implemented through the SCI network: The two day conference during Fort Worth Sister Cities International Leadership Academy was designed to challenge participants to think about issues related to peace. Keynote speeches, small group sessions and open dialogue between youth, civic leaders and diplomats, the conference explored the issue of peace and produced specic initiatives citizens and cities can implement in their communities. Three hundred elected ofcials, students, community leaders, ambassadors and dignitaries from 13 countries actively participated in developing the city peace initiatives: Develop a People to People for Peace conference in your city with youth and sister cities Establish an award program recognizing cities efforts in the pursuit of peace Actively empower and motivate people and organizations whose purpose promotes peace Increase youth participation in government activities and encourage social entrepreneurs Educate the community of the importance of sustainable development and others Reaching for MDGs at the local level Sustainable development through programming The International Community Resource Center (ICRC) communitys passport to the resources Sister Cities International (SCI) offers to its members. ICRC enables members to get program ideas from other communities throughout the world, connect to funding sources, use SCIs new e-mail and document translation service that allows you to communicate instantly in seven different languages

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Annex 7

Selecting Criteria: 1. Case Type: Only those of Award Winner and Best Practice for 2004 (Good practice, In Revision, Non Qualier, Promising Practice are not included.) 2. Technical support: Comes from: a) independent academic institutions, research centers or universities b) the private sector. Cases that have technical support from government agency or international organizations are not included. (This explains why no case qualied for the Water and Sanitation category. Most of them rely on government support)

Statistics: Total: 34 cases Regardless of Category

Country
Austria Canada Germany Iceland Spain Sweden UK USA Angola Brazil China Cote dIvoire Cuba Egypt Kenya Mexico Mongolia Russia the Philippines Turkey

Developing/Developed
Developed Developed Developed Developed Developed Developed Developed Developed Developing Developing Developing Developing Developing Developing Developing Developing Developing Developing Developing Developing

No. of cases
1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Ratio
2.94% 14.71% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94% 20.59% 14.71% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94% 2.94%

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Breakdown by Developed/Developing Countries Developed Developing 12 22 35.29% 64.71%

Sectorial breakdown of Nominees and Winners

Sector

Number of Cases Submitted


210 276 125 103 13 727

Number of winners
18 8 6 2 0 34

% of Total winners
52.9% 23.5% 17.6% 5.9% 0 99.9%

Urban Planning 18 Social Services 8 Environment 6 Infrastructure & Transportation 2 Water & Sanitation

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Notes
1. Sustainable urban development is dened by the National Academies of Science as ...guiding growth and development in ways that will improve the lives of urban residents and preserve Earths life support systems (NAS 2005). 2. This paper does not address the complicated set of issues in which poverty is an overriding factor. In most cases, poverty is an essential part of the denition of environmental problem and, at a minimum, increases risk of other problems to the health and safety of the poor. 3. 4. 5. See Annex 2 and 3 for an illustrative list of organizations and terms. Ofcial web statistics for WBI for the month of November 2002 and November 2005. Mixed with this perspective, and those of literature on learning places (like Yarnit) that is not so relevant to the present discussion, is the notion of lifelong learning, technical education, curriculum for life, and other concepts that focus on individuals. 6. The Trade Development Alliance has also helped to purely trade development missions, separate from its study tour mandate. The TDA organized 26 outbound missions in its ten years of operation and assisted in the development of 14 others. 7. Personal communication, Tim Honey, Executive Director, Sister Cities International. See Annex 5 on Sister Cities International. 8. City Rounds involved city-to-city visits and presentations by experts and practitioners from peer cities. See www.worldbank.org/wbi/urban.

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