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.t3ill's Review of Power Engineering EN EL 519.44 Power Engineering 2006


Sinusoidal Functions L1 Introduction .. 1.2 Some Useful Identities 1.3 RMS values ...... 1.4 Assignment Quest.ions Phasors 2.1 Impedance and Ohm's Law 2.2 Assignment Questions . . .


1 1




Bill Rosehurt September

6 7 9


3 Power 3.1 Power factor . Power 3.2 Complex/Apparent 3.3 Assignment Questions 4 3-Phase Circuitry 4.1 Y-Cotll1ection . 4.2 ~ Connection . 4.3 Three Phase Loads . 4.4 Power in 3-phase circuits. 4.5 Assignment Questions . .

11 14 16


.. ..


17 18 18 18 19 20

Assignment Questions
Assignment. questions have been given at the end of each Chapter. You are expected to attempt all questions. Solutions to these questions will be either posted or discussed ill class. Solution" that are discussed in class, will generally not be posted as well.

lB. Hosehart is with the Dept. Electrical & Computer Eng .. University of Ca]gtU'y, Calgary, AB, Canada, T2K IN4, rosehartesucalgary.ca, It is explicitly forbidden to reproduce, distribute or post in a public apace this document or any portion of this document without the written permission of the author. - This Document. if;. based on a. similar document prepared by B. Rosehart and P. .Iaaayeri in 2001 for students in ENEL 587

f(Hz) T(ms)

North America UO 16


20 314

Chapter 1

Table 1.1: Frequency, Period and Angular Frequency for North America and Europe In discussing the parameters of the voltage sinusoid of Figure 1.L the phase shift of the sinusoid was intentionally left out. Since phase shift is a relahllc measure, it is meaningless tu discuss it without a reference phase angle.. In power systems. this reference point is the Slack Bus. The phase angle of the voltage at this reference point is assumed to be zero (or some other fLurl value) and the phase shifts of all other vclteges are mea.. sures relative to this point:

Sinusoidal Functions
1.1 Introduction
voll,a~(~ i!, dcfinccl ax a slJllltcloi(lal ulemonl., ,(t) = v,. ", Rin(wt represented by: (Ll)


(or another





+ 0)

where sb is used to denote the slack-bus. When two sinusoids of identical frequency have different phase angle: i.e ..

where: vU) is the instantaneous voltage, ~rUlx is the maximum instantaneous voltage, w is the angular frequency of the sinusoid, and () is the phase shift of the sinusoid. A typical instantaneous voltage curve is shown in Figure 1.1.

I', (t) "2(t)

Vi cvs(wt + Bd

(U) (1.4)

+ 02l-


we B>'y that", LEADS '12 by (B, - 92) or th.s., " "S '" by (B, - O2), When determining whether one signal loads or Iagsac- !_J\~ t both must have positive amplitude and must be expressed as either sines k< cosines. 'Ye will discuss LEADING and LAGGING in more detail when presenting complex power and power factor till which case wo arc looking at the phase aaglc between a vottego and current- wavefcnn.


Some Useful Identities

w8(.4B) ,,;n(AB) cos(A) (;(J.,(A)""8(B) 8'in(A)"'8(B) .in(A +90") m.,(A90")

= sin(A).,in(B)

(1.5) (1.6) (1.7) (1.8)

Figure 1.1: Instantaneous

voltage of Period T

"in (A)

The voltage has a period of T (time units] and frequency of f = 1/T_ The period, T. is measured in seconds (6) and f ha.. s units of hertz (Hz). The sinusoid in Figure 1.1 has angular frequency of w = 21'0 f _ The frequency, period, and angular frequency values for the. North American and European systems are listed in Table 1.1 (it is beneficial to be very familiar with t,h"," values):


4 To simplify the equation a. little bit, we can square both Bides to get: 1 V';nax;-1( Vr-m,'! = T 2 Also, the following trigonometry


RMS values

In power systems, we tend to use RMS (Ruut Mea Sq'uaT~d) values. Also known as effective values, RMS values represent the DC equivalent for all AC source in terms of power consumption. Matbematicelly, the RMS value for any periodic signal 1(0 is calculated by:


T dt + 7' cos (41T Tt + 28))dt


property (L14)


= \/-


cos(x + ;q) = eos(x)cos(;q) - sin(T) sin(y) JZ(t)dt



can be used in: cos ( Therefore,


where T ie;;; the signal period. AB you might. remember, the R)lS value for a sinusoid 15 ~. A common mistake is to assume that tbe EMS vr Iue of any periodic signal is of this format, The derivation of the R!\:IS value for a sinusoid is as follows (Note: this derivation can be applied to either the current or the voltage waveforms): Assume: 'fI(t) = V=", ",s(wt + 0) then, from (L9), the RMS value is:

Tt + 29)


(4", Tt), eos(20)

- sm

, (41f , =' ') sm(20)

cos 29)dt-

v;~~ .,

1 v. -1( T + IT
2 maT.2 0

cos -t T



,/1T 10 r v,,..,, cos(wt + 9)1 m, = V

T [

., - [


(*t) Sin(29)dt)


(LlO) Vr2ms

1 1( T V;'ax:l T + cos(29) IT ... - sin(28) [


(411' =' ) dt-



=~ T



the integration


At this point you can perform the integration, OR you call observe that we arc integrating sinusoidal signals over twice their periods, Le. the sinusoidal signals sin (

1.'7' [v'nax cost Tt 2" Vrms = If

1 T

+ 0) 12dt


and cos


have period of

t ' and

is per-

formed over the [O.T] interval The integral for any sinusoidal signal over any multiple of its period is zero. Therefore. (1.15) reduces to: (Ll2)
,2 lrmtl _ -

CO"2(~t Given the trigonometric identity: cos2(x) = ~'()'(2x) 2~--

+ B)1dt

1 2 I ( T Vmax~ T+O+O

(Ll3) amplitude out of




l~ "


Substituting (L1:1) into (1,12), and moving the constant the integration gives: IT _l!:2

Once again, you should remember that this derivation was for sinusoidal signals only. and ut.lier signals would have it dillereut RNIQ value. Also note, that the HMS value of a constant signal is equal to itself (Another area where some people tend to incorrectly use the




1 l!;nox? 2 1 T



l,T cos

Tt + 29)) dt

fl,tAS J(A{ ~ or; A. 6\1\~~-f C;7) J (D() (~ 11"~4






Assignment Questions

Complete the following assignment questions, Please note, that the answers to these questions will require some investigation 011 your part. Al~l~l Find the frequency of the electrical power system trit ... s Japan, China, Iran, and Cuba,

the following conn-

Chapter 2
voltage used in

A]-1-2 What are the HMS values of the two main residential Canada. Al-1-3 \Vhy do we use two residential vultages in Canada?

A phasor is a complex number that contains the amplitude (usually in RMS) HUrl the phase angle of a sinusoidal function. Phasor representations are used iu circuit and power engineering to simply the analysis of circuits. The frequency of waveforms arc implied when using phasors. The reactance associated with Indnctcrs and capacitors arc functions of the frc1IUCllCY of the voltage/current waveforms. Euler",,> Identity is the foundation for representation of phasors:

) ( /.~ Consequently;


= cos


j sin




= !)te[e o]

(2.2) (2.3)

0 = :J'm[ej8]

Replacing l:'Htx with the equivalent v'ZV;'rHR : as derived previously, a sinusoidal Rigllal can be represented as: v(t)

v'2';'m, cos(w! + 0) v'2v;.m,!)t,,[eJ(wt.+O)] v'2.;'m,!)t"[,,j. ,Jw,]


From (2.4). only the amplitude (or R~IS Value) and phase angle values arc USCi..l in the phascr representation. III other words, the other values in (2.4) arc implicitly presented in phasor notation: i.e. it is implied that the pbasor rotates at the frequency of wt ) etc. You should he very comfortable with the following uotutions:

IVILII VLe V;'~ul + jVim'lg Vcos O+jVsiu 6 8

(2.5) (2.G) (2.7)



8 where the unit. of z is ohms, denoted with the symbol \Vrittcn for Phasors, Ohm's Law is:


IVI = V~'c(ll + jVif"(~ag



arctas V;.e:at

( v'ma




Impedance and Ohm's Law

( .,.J


In (2.18), V and I are both phasors. Reuiember. z is not a phusor, but it is " complex number. Impedance is generally represented in rectangular format as follows:

Based on fundamentals of electrostatics and magnctice the timc dependent voltage-current relationships for inductors, denoted with a subscript L, and capacitors: denoted with a subscript C, are: d

= T +jx


i.., . ,,.{t) idt) Using the Fourier Transform/Series = =

t1 C

if.(t) volt)

(2.11) (2.12) \..

where z , r and x arc referred to as irnp(~dance. r'e:;.i~tancc:.. and reacirl-rt-CC. respectively. The units for impedances (and its subcomponents) is Ohms, fl. III Power Engineering. we tend to UH Admifta.ru:e, y, which is defined as the inverse of impedance: 1 Y= (2.20)


which con also be represented

as a. complex number [rectangular


format): (2.21)

(sorry for using the :F~ word), i.e.,

~ H

+ jb


(2.1:l) and ic/L1t) to their phesor


and mapping the Fourier Transform representations, gives:

of vc/dt)


where g and is are referred to as conductance and SU8ceptance, respectively. The units for admittance is Siemens, S. The old unit for admittance was "mho's', which is "ohm" spelled backwards. A very common mistake is to assume that g = :: and b = ~. The following derivation shows the correct expressions for ccndnctencc and suscoptencc :




= uil:

(2.14) (2.15)


. Jxc1c

=* Xc = - wC

T+jX y Since there is all imaginary component in the denominator \ we need to "correct" the complex number [i.c. get rid of the imaginary component in the deuominator). To do this, we multiply t.he nominator and denomiuater with the complex conjugate of the denominator: 1 r+jx
r-jx r2 _ r

where x',le is known as the reactance. The units for reactance is ohms, denoted with the symbol n. It should he highlighted, that the "imaginary" operator, j, in the relationship between current and voltage denotes a 90 phase shift between the two sinusoidal functions, i.e, j is simply the operator 1L90' . The reactance of inductors and capacitors call also be shown by r;tartiuv; with a sinusoidal function for "cCt) and iL(t), and then substituting these functions into both sides of (2.12) and (2.11). After some .implificaliullR both sides of (2.12) anti (2.11) are mapped to the phase r "domain". Resistance maps to the phasor "domain'! without a.ny changes, Le.

,, '/
<::.. .

c: .. '.y.



(,. T-

iX) jx

(2.16) Therefore


r r'l. _ :r2

where T} ill the phesor "domain" is also called resistance with unit ohms, denoted with t.h() HYllIbol n. When agtt;regating elements in a system the resistance and reactance arc often lumped together to form the impedance, z: z


(2.22) (2.23)


+jx (2.17)





Assignment Questions

Complete the following assignment questions. Please note, the questions involve some lung (sorry) hut relatively simple math. Al-2-1 Re-find the expression for the reactance of inductors and capecitors, (2.14) & (2.15), starting with a sinusoidal function for vdt) and hit). /\J-:l-2 (~nlnpl(I.I\ 1.111: r(lll~',\viJlJ!; j,.,}!',ula!loll and 'WTit,P iJw final answer in both polar ami rectangular form:

Chapter 3


The instanta.neotts voltage and current at an clement (load! generator. be written as; v(t) i(t)
= =

+ j5) + (3 + j2}(2 + j3)

ete) can

Al-2-3 Express the following summations of sinusoids ill the general form A Sillwt by using trigonometric identities. a ] i(t) = 2e083t b)


+ 25' + 4 cos 3t + 40 + 4"oR3t + 40"


.;'.cos(wt+Ov) Im cos(wt

(3.1) (3.2)

Al-2-4 A sinu .. soidal voltage ha") a maximum value (If 208 volts and the instantaneous value of the voltage at t=O.Ols is 30 volts. The period is 16.667 ms. Determine ..:(t) in the standard fonnuft} = J'(Z)Y;.m. Sill",t + 6.

+ Of)

where V", and In> are the peak sinusoid values, Vm = .,fi V and Im = .,fi I. (Our notation convention Is 1-." and I will represent the nns values, and and In< will represent the peak values.) The instantaneous power applied to this clement at any time t is defined as:






+ ev).,fiI cos(;.;t + 0I) cos(wt + edcos(wt + OI)


order to he able to better understand the relationship between the instantaneous power and the "complex power': trigonometric identities are used to simplify the expression. Complex power can Le considered or associated with the "mapping" of instantaneous power to the "pha.~or:; domain. Complex power also is composed of the "de equivalent" power (real or active power) and the instantaneous power that is associated with reactive elements (reactive puwer). Using the following trigonometric identity: ""s(o:) cos(y) Equation 1 = 2( ",s(x as:

+ y) + cos(,:



(3.3) eau be re-written



+cos(wt+llv 10

+wt+6I) wt



11 simplifying the components inside the cosine and sine functions gives: +0,,


pet) = VI(!os(2wt


VI ""s(Ov - 01)


From the above expression. it call he seen that there are two terms in the expression for instantaneous power: 1. The first terrn.Vf cos(2;,;t + Ov + Or), has twice the frequency of 'v(t) and i(t}, and it represents the power being trausfered in and out uf capacitors and Inductore every cycle. This component is associated with the reactive power. 2. The second term,VIcos(liv 11]), is a constant value. This component corresponds to the actual average "work" done and is associated with the the everaae, 1--eator acU"ve power i.e.


,'~ ,~t\

i~, \ / \, t-.~\
'1\, .ffc-<>--'4.\~, t>,



. ..,

,'\ r

i ,




pI 1,'

j ,
r / \ \.' '


.o,o--Gl~ d


Q.~' \, e


'~'o,~ &u.. "~-Q-11


,-l/r;:/ 1jfi.' 'J..:>----OJ4)

r, (


r 10

Q~~ !~:\::;~I
0-1-'0'5 ~1'I1
~.01~ [<t'~



pet) - Od (3.7) Figure 3.1: Instantaneous Power - with associated current and voltage waveforms


In Figure 3.L plots of the voltage, current, and the corresponding power waveforms are given. In this figuce, the relationship between the voltage and current frequency and the instantaneous power should he noted. It if-> observed that the average of the instantaneous power, corresponds to the first term of (3.6). 1 the phase difference between the voltage and current is increased, i.e., incrca .. sed inductlvc/capacitivc components with respect to the resistance c-Omponents, currespcnds to a reduce .. d. average pOWHr.In Figure 3.2, the instantaneous power is pl,,I.kd fur djni:'l'(~nl pha .. xo <lllf!:!t.'s botwoon t.ill) voll.Hge and current. To generate these plots. the voltage and current maguttudee are set equal to the waveforms: in Figure :3.1


Power factor
and loads, the power factor, pf, is defined as:

For both generators

p.f = cos(O,r - 0,)


From the average power definition in (3.7) and power factor expression from (3.8), average power can be expressed as: Figure 3.2: Effect of phase angle
=Par;tf/lf, 011


and Average Power

V I co8(8,~ - Or) VIp! (3.9)

13 pf lagging flags V Ih<Ii, Oz > o net inductive load pf leading I leads V

Of >Ov



Complex!Apparent Power

Oz < () net capacitive load

To better show the relationship between the iustanteneous power and the complex power, the expression of instantaneous power (3.G). is repeated here: p(t) = Flilleo8(2wt+O,,+Bd


Table 3.1: Relationship


between leading and lagging power factor and phase

where IV and If I represent the rms voltage and cnrrent values. Based on (:~. 7), the average, real or active power was found to be: P,w

= P,'C<'vc = p,cu' = IV III cus(Bv

- Or)



For impedance loads, the term Dv ~ Of represents the load phase angle, Oz

Using these definitions, and the desire to have a measure of the "tduie varying" component of the instantaneous power, the product of the (rms) voltage and current phascrs is defined to be the appamnt (complex) power:

= (V LBv) (ILO,)' operator. a. --:ib ML -0 i.e.





'* Bv '* Oz

B, +Bz
Bv - 8, (3.10)




the complex conjugate (<1+ JIJ)' (M LO),

pf = cos(Ov - er) = cos(B,,)


The magnitude and angle of S can be expressed in terms of the voltage and current phasore as follows:

Depending on the type of load, power factor can be either leading or lagging. Leading and lagging are determined by considering the current waveform relative tu the voltage waveform. For example: if the current 19 leading the voltage (i.c. Br > ev) then the power factor is leading. Since for impedance loads, Oz = Bp! = B" ..- 0" for the leading power factor, an equivalent impedance load would 'look' capacitive (with a. res-istive component 8.'3 well). A summary uf the relationships between power Iector , leading and ia/;!;p;iul-{, and effective impedance is given in Table 3,l. From (3.8), the range of power factor is between 0 and 1:


= =

el.,'~ (Jj

The apparent. power. S, iR a. complex number, i.e.. S=P+jQ where P is the average, real. P


active power presented above, since

equivalent impedance load:



1 lfl,q,qing)


IS c08(B,) IVlIllcoa(e,)
IVIlIlcos(O, - 0,)

and Q is the reactive power. The reactive power, Q, is effectively a measure of the amount of power that is going in and out. of capacitors and inductors every half cycle (IN for one half cycle. OUT for the other). From 3.13 reactive power is defined as: Q Q

The point at the cdlter ~. p f = 1, represents a. purely resistive 10,";_ ,,,_ing tow81';j; the ';~;iieate8 a net cav lead) nd the extreme- left end of the epectruia it:I)resents a purely leat'_ Moving towards the right end indicates a net inductive load, extreme right end of the spectrum represents a purely inductive load . .'ug a power factor of zero Is not very realistic since there is inherent nee ;~l capacitors and inductors,

IVIIII.-i,II), 18sinBs

t;:. ~;

p Fig11fC3.3: Power Triangle since 6' = VIo




Assignment Questions

.\ _
} /--.

Complete the following assignment questions. Some equations extend beyond the material presented iu this Section. These questions are meant tu have you extend the fundamental eoncepta . Al-3-1 Al-3-2 In words, explain what is apparent: reactive and active power.

6' = VI'

Assume you are a consulting engineering: a small industrial factory has been iuforme .. d by its electricity provider that it will be cherged an increased fee if the power factor of the factory is below 0.9 lagging. Currently, the factory's power factor tends to be around 0.8 laggi11K. They are asking you if they should agree to pay this fee or modify their system to 'fix' the power factor. If you advice them to 'fix) the power factor, suggest how they could 'fix it

(I"VILO,) (lfIL01)"
ViII LO" - Or
VILIJ VI cosO P+jQ The value of Q is positive is the power factor is lagging. i.e.. the reactive portion of the load looks inductive. If the power factor ill leading, then the value of Q is negative. The Power Triangle is often used to display the relationship between COIUplex Power, Real Power, Reactive Power, and O. The power triangle in Figure 3.3, illustrates the apparent, active and reactive power for a lagging power factor load, Le. Os > 0 (load 'looks' inductive).

A1-3-3 Why should a power engineer minimize the amount of reactive power transmitted through transuussiou lines?

+ jVlRillO



Chapter 4

Figure 4.2: Wye (Y) and Delta (/I.) connections

3-Phase Circuitry
Some review items


may not be grounded.

1. The Neutral mayor

2. Phase current = line current 3. The line vcltages and pha .. se voltages ate related by: 1. If we add 3 vectors of equal magnitude other, we get zero. but phase-shifted 120" from each

2. Generally) we generate voltage/power in ;i-phascs\ phase shifted 120:::from each otber with equal megnitudes 011 each phase.


8,_, = 8"

Iv3V,;J + 30'

(4.1a) (4.1b)

:3. We tend to connect theses phases in positive abc or negative acb sequence, 0\,'" shown ill Figure 4.1: When we generate a voltage. it is between or across the two ends of a. coil (not necessarily directly related to GND or neutral). This fact allows us to connect the 3 p-hases in different ways, the main two connections are Wye (Y) and Delta(L\.) connections. The Phcsor representation of Y and /I. connected elements arc shown ill Figure 4.2. The following sections provide an overview of some of the characteristics of \Vye and Dell.a. connections.


Ll Connection

1. There are no direct references to GND (ground) 2. Phase voltage = line voltage 3. The line currents and phase currents are related by:

lIt! = 1v'3I~1
8, = 0" _ :lO'

(4.2a) (4.2b)

)..... :;~>~~)
b b c


Three Phase Loads

A three-pha .... <;ehnpedauce load call he connected in delta. or ill wye with OT without the neutral brought out. If the three phase load is balanced, then the relationship Zl>. (4.3) ZY=T is used to change from an why (or delta) load to load.

equivalent. delta [or wye}

Figure 4.1: Scphase sequences 17


20 The total 3-pha.se power is simply the Pl,,(t) Part) + Pb(t) 3VlcosO


Power in 3-phase circuits

of these 3 single phase powers:

In this section, an expression is determined for the instantaneous total power in a balanced three phose system. For the instantaneous voltage and current in the 'a' sequence: we will assume that the voltage phase angle L"! zero (Le. our reference, 8v' = 0). and that the current is phase-shifted from this voltage by -, The expressions for 'u(t) and i(t) arc then:

+ Pe(tl + cos(2wt
- 8 - "W')

- F I ( cos(2wt - 0)

+ cos(2,'t -




In the above expression. t:l~ 480 phase shift can be rer>.cBd with the equL111rut 120" phase shift (480" = a60" + 120") to get: P30(t) = 3Flcosl!



v2Vsill(wt) V2 I sin(wt - B)





+ cos(2wt


+ cos(2wt



Voltage and current in the other sequences are simply the phase shifted versions of voltage and current in sequence a. Phase shifting the sequence a. siuusoids by 120 and 240 results ill:
D 0

"""(t) ib(l) and,

= =

,,12 V 8ill(wt -


A closer look at the expression ins;.,,; the brackets shows that it is simple' the sununation of 3 equal magnitude sinusoids that two phase shifted from each other which is zero! 'Z'~herevre~ the total it' "');8' power in a 3-phase circuit is: P3.(t) = 3V[eos8 (4.5) You constant

V2 I sill(w~ - 0 - 120')

sec that the Instantaneous power in i.\ which is one uf the edvantagus of using haleru

;{-phasc circuits is phase circuits.

7'm(t) i,(t)

V2 Veill(wtV2 hin( wt -



Assignment Questions
given in (4.1) and (4.2). power in a. baleuced


240') voltage

Complete the following assignment questions. Al-4-1 Prove the relationships

The power ill each phase is simply the product of the instantaneous and current. Therefore. P,,(t) Pb(t) P,(t) From trigonometry, sil,,;siny Tlunefore) P,,(t) P;(t) P,(t) =

v",,(t)i,,(t) 2Vlsin(wt)sin(wt - 9) - 0 - 240") 2Vlsill(wt 2Vlein(wt - 120')sin(wt - 9 -120") - 240")sin(wt

Al-4-2 Why is it all advantage that the instunteneous 3-phase circuits is constant.



Y) - COR("



VI( ""s(e) = VI( eos(e) =

,,,,"(21t -


cOR(2wt- 0 - 240'))