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sd

B
F.L.

sd F.L.

s:1

s:1
N.S.L.

N.S.L.

X-Section in Banking/Filling

N.S.L. N.S.L. s:1 d F.L. sd B sd s:1

F.L.

X-Section in Cutting
N.S.L.

N.S.L.
s:1

F.L.
F.L.

s:1

sd

sd

X-Section in Cut & Fill

Rise, s:1 F.L.

Fall, s:1

N.S.L.

L-Section in Banking/Filling

N.S.L.

F.L.

Rise, s:1

Fall, s:1

L-Section in Cutting

N.S.L. Rise, s:1


F.L.

Fall, s:1

Rise, s:1

L-Section in Cut & Fill

Cross Sectioning Longitudinal Sectioning

PLAN VIEW

(a) Mid-Sectional Area Method


Station/ R.D. (m) Length b/w stations, L (m) Height/ Depth,d (m) Mean Height/ Depth (dm) (m) Central Area, Ac (B*dm) (m2) Side Area, As (s.dm2) (m2) -

F.L. (m)

N.S.L. (m)

(b) Mean-Sectional Area Method


Length b/w stations, L (m) Central Area, Ac (Bd) (m2) Side Area, As 2 (sd ) (m2) Total XArea, A (Ac+As) (m2)

Station/ R.D. (m)

F.L.

N.S.L.

Height/ Depth, d (m)

(m)

(m)

(c) Prismoidal Formula Method


Length b/w stations, L (m) -

Station/ R.D. (m)

Height/ Depth, d (m)

(d1+d2)/2

Central Area, Ac B*(d1+d2)/2 (m ) 2

d12
2

d22
2

d1d2
2

(m) -

(m ) -

(m ) -

(m ) -

Area of Side Sloping Surface


Station/ R.D. Length b/w stations, L (m) Height/ Depth, d Mean Sloping Breadth Height/Depth 2 dm d*(s +1) (m) (m) Total Area of Side Slopes 2*L*d*(s2+1) (m2) -

Total =

Total X-Area, A (Ac+As) (m2) -

Earthwork (A*L) Cutting (m3) Filling (m3) Area of Mid-Section: = = =

Area of rectangular portion + area o Bdm+1/2sdm +1/2sdm 2 Bdm+sdm L*(Bdm+sdm2)


2 2

Total =

Quantity

Mean X-Area, Am
2

Earthwork (A*L) Cutting Filling (m3) Mean-Sectional Area: A=(A1+A2)/2 A1= Bd1+sd12, A2=Bd2+sd22 Total = Quantity Earthwork (Ac+As)*L Cutting Filling (m ) 3

(m ) -

(m ) -

L*(A1+A2)/2

Side Area, As s*{(d12+d22+d1d2)/3} (m ) 2

(m ) -

Quantity or Volume

= =

L/6 (A1+A2+4Am) {B(d1+d2)/2 + s(d12+d22+d1d2)/3}*L

Total =

(Sectional area of central portion + s

Area of rectangular portion + area of two triangular portions Bdm+1/2sdm +1/2sdm 2 Bdm+sdm L*(Bdm+sdm2)
2 2

A=(A1+A2)/2 A1= Bd1+sd12, A2=Bd2+sd22 L*(A1+A2)/2

L/6 (A1+A2+4Am) {B(d1+d2)/2 + s(d12+d22+d1d2)/3}*L (Sectional area of central portion + sectional area of side slope portions) * Length

Design Problem-1 Calculate the quantity of earthwork for 200m length for a portion of a road in an uniform ground, the heights o at the two ends being 1.00m and 1.60m. The formation width is 10m and side slopes 2:1 (H:V). Assume that there is no transverse slope.

Design Problem-2 Reduced level (R.L.) of ground along the centre line of a proposed road at 30m interval are given below. The formation level (F.L.) at R.D. of 300m is 107.0m and the road is in downward gradient of 1 in 150 upto R. 420m and then the gradient changes to 1 in 100 downward. Formation width of the road is 10m and side slop banking are 2:1 (H:V). i) Draw longitudinal section of the road and a typical cross section. Also, determine the quantity of earthwork i ii) For estimation of turfing on side slopes, find out the area of side slopes as well. R.D. (m) R.L. of NSL (m) R.L. of F.L. (m)
300 105.0 107.0 330 105.6 360 105.44 390 105.9 420 105.42 450 104.3 480 105.0 Fall, 1 in 100

Fall, 1 in 150

Design Problem-3 Estimate the quantities of earthwork for a portion of road for 400m length from the following data. Formation width is 10m. Side slopes are 2:1 and 1.5:1 in banking and cutting, respectively. Draw the longitudinal section and typical cross sections.
Station No. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 R.D (m) 1000 1040 1080 1120 1160 1200 1240 1280 1320 1360 1400 R.L. of N.S.L. (m) 51.0 50.9 50.5 50.8 50.6 50.7 51.2 51.4 51.3 51.0 50.6 R.L. of F.L. (m) 52.0

Fall, 1 in 200

a road in an uniform ground, the heights of banks m and side slopes 2:1 (H:V).

Design Problem-2 R.D. (m) R.L. of NSL (m) R.L. of F.L. (m) Height/Depth (m)

road at 30m interval are given below. s in downward gradient of 1 in 150 upto R.D. of ion width of the road is 10m and side slopes of

Also, determine the quantity of earthwork involved.

510 104.1

540 104.62

570 104.0

600 103.3

Fall, 1 in 100

ength from the following data. nd cutting, respectively.

Design Problem-2
300 105.0 107.0 2.0 107.0 106.0 105.0 330 105.6 106.8 1.2 360 105.44 106.6 1.2 390 105.9 106.4 0.5 420 105.42 106.2 0.8 450 104.3 105.9 1.6 480 105.0 105.6 0.6 510 104.1 105.3 1.2 540 104.62 105.0 0.4

F.L.

N.S.L.
104.0 103.0 Datum

Longitudinal Section

sd

10m F.L.

sd

2:1

2:1

N.S.L.

X-Section in Banking/Filling

570 104.0 104.7 0.7

600 103.3 104.4 1.1

Centres d'intérêt liés