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Energy Harvesting Through Piezomaterial

MD AFZALUL KARIM MEHDI AHMADI


MSES 5060 Technology Innovation

Course coordinator: Dr. Nourredine Boubekri Submission Date: 12-10-2012

Executive Summary
Piezoelectric or more generally, electro elastic materials exhibit electromechanical coupling. They experience mechanical deformations when placed in an electric field and become electrically polarized under mechanical loads. These materials have been used to make various electromechanical devices. Examples include transducers for converting electric energy to mechanical energy or vice versa, resonators and filters for telecommunication and timekeeping, and sensors for information collection. Piezoelectricity has been a steadily growing field for more than a century, progressed mainly by researchers from applied physics, acoustics, and materials science and engineering, and electrical engineering. After World War II, piezoelectricity research has gradually concentrated in the IEEE Society of Ultrasonic, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control. The two major research focuses have always been the development of new piezoelectric materials and devices. All piezoelectric devices for applications in the electronics industry require two phases of design. One aspect is the device operation principle and optimal operation which can usually be established from linear analyses; the other is the device operation stability against environmental effects such as a temperature change or stress, which is usually involved with nonlinearity. Both facets of design usually present complicated electromechanical problems. Due to the application of piezoelectric sensors and actuators in civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering structures for control purposes, piezoelectricity has also become a topic for mechanics researchers. Mechanics can provide effective tools for piezoelectric device and material modeling. Mechanics theories of composites are useful for predicting material behaviors. This paper will give a clear idea about piezoelectric materials, how it works as an energy harvesting and wide range of applications.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1....................................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction to Piezoelectricity .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Introduction: ....................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 History: ................................................................................................................................................ 3 Chapter - 2 .................................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction to piezoelectric energy harvesting........................................................................................... 1 2.1 Piezoelectric Material: ........................................................................................................................ 1 2.2 How Piezoelectricity Works ................................................................................................................ 3 2.3 What is piezoelectric energy harvesting? ........................................................................................... 5 2.4 Piezoelectric energy harvesting with alternatives .............................................................................. 6 2.4.1 Photonic ....................................................................................................................................... 6 2.4.2 Thermal ........................................................................................................................................ 7 2.4.3 Vibrational.................................................................................................................................... 8 3. Piezoelectric as an energy harvester (vibration harvesting)..................................................................... 9 3.1 Wideband ............................................................................................................................................ 9 3.2 Damping: ........................................................................................................................................... 11 3.3 Remote controllers ........................................................................................................................... 12 Chapter 4..................................................................................................................................................... 14 Utilization of New Materials for Piezo-electric energy harvesters ............................................................. 14 4.1 MEMS Piezo-electric energy harvesting ........................................................................................... 14 4.2 MEMS piezoelectric harvester with record power output ............................................................... 16 4.2.1 Record and novel material ......................................................................................................... 16 4.2.2 Vacuum package ........................................................................................................................ 17 4.2.3 Fully Autonomous ...................................................................................................................... 18 4.3 Thermal Acoustic Piezo Energy Conversion ................................................................................... 19 4.3.1 TAPEC Electricity ........................................................................................................................ 20 4.3.2 Advantages of TAPEC ................................................................................................................. 21 4.4 Turning heat into sound, then electricity ......................................................................................... 21 iii

4.4.1 How to Get Power from Heat and Sound .................................................................................. 22 4.5 Piezoelectric ribbons and fibers ........................................................................................................ 24 4.6 Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowire................................................................................................................ 26 4.6 Piezoelectric graphene...................................................................................................................... 28 4.7 Optimal shape piezoelectric energy harvesters................................................................................ 29 4.8 technique for fabricating piezoelectric ferroelectric nanostructures .............................................. 30 4.9 Giant piezoelectric effect to improve energy harvesting devices .................................................... 32 4.10 Potential for lead-free piezoelectric ceramics ................................................................................ 34 4.11 Electro-active papers ...................................................................................................................... 36 4.12 Electroactive polymers and piezoelectric Energy harvesting Devices ............................................ 38 4.13 Energy Harvesting from Piezoelectric Polymers ............................................................................. 39 4.13 Piezoelectric fabric that can detect and produce sound ................................................................ 42 4.13.1 Microphone check ................................................................................................................... 42 4.13.2 Sound results............................................................................................................................ 43 Chapter - 5 .................................................................................................................................................. 44 Applications of piezoelectric energy harvesters ......................................................................................... 44 5.1 Consumer Electronics ....................................................................................................................... 44 5.1.1 Energy harvesting Backpack....................................................................................................... 44 5.1.2 Piezoelectric kinetic energy harvester for mobile phone from Nokia ....................................... 46 5.1.3. Small scale wind turbines (Contact-less Piezoelectric Wind Turbine) ................................... 47 5.2 Energy harvesting for vehicles .......................................................................................................... 49 5.2.1 Piezoelectric Power Source for tire pressure monitoring .......................................................... 49 5.2.2 Piezoelectric roads for California ............................................................................................... 51 5.2.3 Energy harvesting for robots ..................................................................................................... 52 5.3. Healthcare ........................................................................................................................................ 56 5.3.1 Breakthroughs with sensing in the human body ....................................................................... 56 Chapter 6..................................................................................................................................................... 57 Energy Harvesting Market Shares, Strategies, and Forecasts, Worldwide................................................. 57 Citation:......................................................................................................................................................... a

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Chapter 1

Introduction to Piezoelectricity
1.1 Introduction:
Many historical studies have been dedicated to the discovery of novel effects and phenomena. Following the discovery of a new basic phenomenon and the emergence of a novel field, much less attention was dedicated to the early development of physical research. This paper will describe the history of piezoelectricity after the discovery of the effect to its consolidation into an accepted body of experimental and theoretical knowledge. This process seems to recur in the establishment of novel scientific subfields and thereby, knowledge. The mere discovery of an effect (in piezoelectricity that pressure induces electric polarity in crystals) was not enough to establish a scientific subfield. It could have been left as merely another curious experimental fact unconnected to any other. A subfield emerged only with subsequent study of the observed effect and related phenomena under various conditions, which resulted in the knowledge of their characteristics and laws. Such study is neither self-evident nor inevitable. The subsequent study depended both on the phenomenon and on a few scientists interested in issues that it raised; the interest stemming from their own theoretical experimental, or occupational concerns, and their earlier works. The emergence of a new subfield requires a basic consensus on the phenomena that it encompasses and their characteristics. As this history shows, such a consensus evolved via experimental study, theoretical arguments, and controversy. Its evolution was part of a process of consolidation that the new field underwent in the first two decades after its discovery. At the end of this process piezoelectricity encompassed an accepted body of knowledge consisting in
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experimental findings and a mathematical theory that accounted for them. Still, many issues were left open and were the subject of disagreement between scientists. That the subfield of piezoelectricity was compatible with the general concepts and laws of contemporary science enabled its consolidation. Discordance with the accepted truths of physics would probably have precluded a consensus on the theory.

Beyond the interest in the study of mundane gross matter phenomena, there are good specific reasons to draw historians and philosophers of science to the early history of piezoelectricity. Though almost unknown outside the professional community, piezoelectric devices are today ubiquitous. Virtually everyone in the West possesses at least one device based on piezoelectric technology. Most of us carry at least one piezoelectric device a few millimeters from the skin. All quartz watches and clocks are based on piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric resonator is the basis for most electronic time keepers and regulators. Thus, most electronic devices contain such a resonator, which utilizes the two basic effects of piezoelectricity: the induction of electricity by changes of pressure and the converse induction of strain by changes in the electric field in crystals. Yet, time keeping is but one application of the phenomenon, and its scientific study continues unabated. Transducers, sensors, actuators, pumps, motors, and smart structures are only some of the central devices that employ the piezoelectric effect. Electric communication, medical diagnostics, computers, industrial sensors, and micro electromechanical (MEMS) devices are a few examples for the application of the piezoelectric effect.[1]

1.2 History:
Piezoelectricity was discovered in 1880 by Jacques and Pierre Curie when studying how pressure generates electrical charge in crystals (such as quartz and tourmaline). Its use in submarine sonar in World War 1 generated intense development interest in piezoelectric devices.

Most modern piezoelectric materials are ceramics, although polymeric and single crystals also exist and are used commercially in many applications.

The term ceramic's meaning has evolved a great deal from its Greek root keramos, meaning pottery (or potters clay). Ceramic materials can now be broadly considered to be all inorgan ic non-metallic materials. However, it is more useful to classify them as polycrystalline nonmetallic materials that acquire mechanical strength through a sintering process. The inherent physical properties of ceramics have made them desirable for use in a wide range of industries. The first applications in the electronics sector made use of their inherently high electrical resistivity, and intrinsic stability for fabrication into insulating bodies needed to carry and isolate electrical conductors.

However, these immediately apparent properties exploited in the first half of the twentieth century are only the most obvious of a wide range of properties. Materials with unusually high dielectric constants (er > 2000-10,000) were used due to the phenomenon of their ferroelectric nature. These materials where first employed in high-dielectric capacitors (barium titanate [BaTiO3] based), and later developed into:

piezoelectric transducers positive temperature coefficient (PTC) devices

electro-optic light valves

Some of the more recent developments in the field of ferroelectric ceramics are their use in:

medical ultrasonic composites high displacement piezoelectric actuators thick/thin films

The birth of ferroelectric ceramics as a useful class of materials came about as a result of:

1. Discovery of unusually high dielectric constant in barium titanate

2. Discovery that the origin of this high dielectric constant was due to a permanent internal dipole moment ferroelectricity. This allowed the development of ABO3 structure ferroelectrics

3. Discovery of electrical poling process within the ceramics, giving rise to single-crystal like properties

Over the next few decades, new piezoelectric materials and applications were explored and developed. Piezoelectric devices began to emerge in many applications. Ceramic phonograph cartridges made record players cheaper to maintain and easier to build. Ultrasonic time-domain reflectometers could find flaws inside cast metal and stone objects, which improved structural safety.

Other developments included new designs for piezoceramic filters used in radios and televisions, and the piezoelectric igniter, which generates sparks for gas ignition systems by compressing a ceramic disc.

The most commonly used ferroelectric materials are PZT (Pb[Zr,Ti]O3) ceramics, which are based on the cubic perovskite structure. Most commercial materials are based on morphotropic phase boundary (mpb) compositions. (A mpb separates solid solutions of the same prototype structure but with different structural distortions.) The mpb in PZT separates rhombohedral and tetragonal phases.

More recently, using domain engineering in single crystals it is possible by the use of appropriate crystal cuts to maximize the piezoelectric properties. However, it is not possible to produce useful size single crystals of PZT because it melts incongruently. However, it is possible to grow large crystals of PMN-PT and PZN-PT (Pb[Zn1/3,Nb2/3]O3 PbTiO3) with mpb compositions. The pioneering work at Penn State by Tom Shrout has shown that it is possible to achieve piezoelectric properties that are nearly an order of magnitude greater than those achievable with PZT ceramics.

The environmentally-focused agenda of most governments includes the legislated reduction in the industrial use of lead and lead containing materials. For many industrial sectors the use of lead containing piezoelectric materials (such as PZT, or PMN-PT) is permitted because the societal advantages outweigh any perceived dangers. The lead in PZT is chemically bound within its crystalline structure and there is no evidence that this lead can leach out into the environment. However, this has not stopped the aggressive development of lead-free piezoelectric materials notably by research groups in Japan. Impressive research has uncovered new lead-free compositions that might one day offer potential replacement strategies for many applications[2].

Chapter - 2
Introduction to piezoelectric energy harvesting
2.1 Piezoelectric Material:
Simply stated, piezoelectric materials produce a voltage in response to an applied force, usually a uniaxial compressive force. Similarly, a change in dimensions can be induced by the application of a voltage to a piezoelectric material. In this way they are very similar to electrostrictive materials.

Figure 1: Piezoelectric Effect

These materials are usually ceramics with a perovskite structure (see figure 1). The perovskite structure exists in two crystallographic forms. Below the Curie temperature they have a tetragonal structure and above the Curie temperature they transform into a cubic structure. In the tetragonal state, each unit cell has an electric dipole, i.e. there is a small charge differential between each end of the unit cell.
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Figure 2: Shows the (a) tetragonal perovskite structure below the Curie temperature and the (b) cubic structure above the Curie temperature.

The piezoelectric effect occurs only in nonconductive materials. Piezoelectric materials can be divided in 2 main groups: crystals and cermaics. The most well-known piezoelectric material is quartz (SiO2). Crystals 1) Quartz (SiO2) 2) Aluminum orthophosphate,(AlPO4) 3) Gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) 4) Tourmaline Ceramics 1) Barium titanate BaTiO3 2) Lead zirconate titanate PZT Other Materials 1. Zinc oxide (ZnO) 2. Aluminum nitride (AlN) 3. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)
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4. Lithium tantalate 5. Polyvinylidene fluoride 6. Lanthanum gallium silicate 7. Potassium sodium tartrate Ceramics with perovskite tungsten-bronze structures: 1. BaTiO3, 2. KNbO3, 3. Ba2NaNb5O5, 4. LiNbO3, 5. SrTiO3, 6. Pb(ZrTi)O3, 7. Pb2KNb5O15, 8. LiTaO3, 9. BiFeO3, 10. NaxWO3

2.2 How Piezoelectricity Works

1. Normally, the charges in a piezoelectric crystal are exactly balanced, even if they're not symmetrically arranged.

Figure 3: Balanced charge

2. The effects of the charges exactly cancel out, leaving no net charge on the crystal faces. (More specifically, the electric dipole momentsvector lines separating opposite chargesexactly cancel one another out.)

Figure 4: Charges cancel one another out

3. If someone squeezes the crystal, applying force helps the charges out of balance.

Figure 5: Crystal is squeezed

4. Now the effects of the charges (their dipole moments) no longer cancel one another out and net positive and negative charges appear on opposite crystal faces. By squeezing the crystal, a voltage across its opposite faces is produced which is called piezoelectricity.

Figure 6: Generation of piezoelectricity

2.3 What is piezoelectric energy harvesting?


The increasing demand for completely self-powered electronics has caused an increase of research into power harvesting devices over the past decade. With the advances being made in wireless technology and low power electronics, sensors are being developed that can be placed almost anywhere. However, because these sensors are wireless, they require their own power supply which in most cases is the conventional electrochemical battery. Once these finite power supplies are extinguished of their power, the sensor must be obtained and the battery replaced. The task of replacing the battery is tedious and can become very expensive when the sensor is placed in a remote location. These issues can be potentially alleviated through the use of power harvesting devices. The goal of a power harvesting device is to capture the normally lost energy surrounding a system and convert it into usable energy for the electrical device to consume. By utilizing these untapped energy sources, electronics that do not depend on finite power supplies, such as the battery, can be developed. One source of typically lost energy is the ambient vibrations present around most machines and biological systems.

The piezoelectric effect converts mechanical strain into electric current or voltage. This strain can come from many different sources. Human motion, low-frequency seismic vibrations, and acoustic noise are everyday examples. Except in rare instances the piezoelectric effect operates in AC requiring time-varying inputs at mechanical resonance to be efficient.

Most piezoelectric electricity sources produce power on the order of miliwatts, too small for system application, but enough for hand-held devices such as some commercially available selfwinding wristwatches. One proposal is that they are used for micro-scale devices, such as in a device harvesting micro-hydraulic energy. In this device, the flow of pressurized hydraulic fluid drives a reciprocating piston supported by three piezoelectric elements which convert the pressure fluctuations into an alternating current.

2.4 Piezoelectric energy harvesting with alternatives


The most common types of energy harvesting are photonic, thermal, and vibrational [3].
2.4.1 Photonic

Common photonic harvesters rely on solar energy drawn with the use of photovoltaic. Photovoltaic convert sunlight into electricity, and are commonly made from semiconductors. They may be solar cells or panels. A tiny, inexpensive solar cell can generate 150 watts of energy at noontime, so they can be relatively powerful and plentiful sources of energy.

Figure 7: Photon energy

The most obvious drawback of photonic harvesting is that sunlight is not on 24 hours a day, which affects the amount of voltage generated. Voltage is also affected by waning light from dusk or creeping light from the dawn, both of whihc change the angle of incidence of the light which hits the device. Susceptibility to pollutants such as dust that blocks light from the cells may further impede their efficiency. The fragility of photovoltaic devices is still yet another concern.
2.4.2 Thermal

Unless objects are at absolute zero, they have thermal activity. Differences in temperature between objects produce thermal gradients that can be used to generate electricity nearly everywhere on Earth. Of course it is neither feasible nor practical to use any object in existence to do this, as factors such as durability, cost, and efficiency would need to be factored in.

Figure 8: Thermoelectric micro-structures generate high voltages

Thermoelectric devices used for energy harvesting convert thermal activity into electricity are constructed from semiconductors. They don't require generators or pumps or fluids, and don't require copius amounts of materials to build. The main requirements for operation are a heat source and a heat sink.

Because thermoelectric elements produce DC power, a further requirement is that of a DC-DC converter to ensure stability of the potential produced by the power source. One of their drawbacks is that they are not as efficient as Stirling engines.
2.4.3 Vibrational

Vibrational devices feed off motion produced as a by-product in order to generate power, and so are natural AC power sources. Because they are AC, they require rectifying and regulatory circuits. Sources include the human gait, trains, motors, engines, and radio frequencies.

The two most common methods to generate power are that of electromagnetic induction and piezoelectricity.

Electromagnetic induction is harvested using motors, with the difference being that the magnet inside the coils moves back and forth instead of just spinning.

Figure 9: Volture V25W-ND cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester.

Piezoelectric materials produce voltages under pressure changes brought about by sound waves or touch or mechanical strain. Crystals made from this substance form diaphragms or are linked to them, and they can function as speakers or microphones. For energy harvesting, piezoelectric generators are usually cantilevers with masses attached to a free end.

Vibrational harvesting devices are useful monitoring equipment and machinery in industrial environments without the use of batteries or cables. However, this method is not good to use in devices where mobility is a requirement, due to concerns with stability and interference that will impact features such as velocity and noise. They are also best used where the input is at a consistent, predictable frequency [4].

3. Piezoelectric as an energy harvester (vibration harvesting)


3.1 Wideband
Thin film piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) materials offer a number of advantages in micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) as such devices provide large motions with low hysteresis in applications such as actuating mirrors [5], and raster scanning mirrors [6]. They also provide good signal to-noise ratio in a wide dynamic range [711]. The piezoelectric coefficient of PZT is more superior than other piezoelectric thin films, such as ZnO and AlN, due to the high

energy density. Hence, PZT thin films are good transducer materials for MEMS based energy harvesters [1214]. Vibration-based MEMS energy harvesters have received increasing attention as a potential power source for microelectronics and wireless sensor nodes [15,16]. To date most energy harvesters based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and electrostatic transduction mechanisms, particularly MEMS-based harvesters, operate at frequencies of more than 100 Hz [1721]. Increasing compliant spring and bulk movable mass are required to achieve lower resonant frequency. It is a great challenge to realize small size and low resonant frequency at the same time due to the limitation of microfabrication processes and brittle properties of silicon material. The generated power is theoretically proportional to the cube of the operation frequency and drops dramatically at low frequencies [22]. Thus energy harvesters with low resonant frequencies would result in reduced power output. However, harvesting energy from low frequency vibrations, such as human motions (<10 Hz), vehicle (<20 Hz) and machine vibrations (<50 Hz) [2325] is desirable in applications such as implantable electronic devices and wireless sensor nodes. Thus FUC approach has been touted as a breakthrough to boost output power at low vibration frequencies [26]. Several researchers have developed FUC energy harvesters by utilizing magnetic forces [27,28]. A magnet attached to a low-frequency or bulked diaphragm resonantly or non-resonantly catches and releases magnetic strips mounted on highfrequency oscillators, resulting in self-oscillations of the oscillators. These methods require additional magnets to generate current and are suitable for electromagnetic energy harvesters. Jung et al. [29] demonstrated a shock-based FUC approach using a buckled elastic beam integrated with high-frequency piezoelectric cantilevers. A sudden acceleration change introduced by the buckled beam would excite the self-oscillations of the piezoelectric cantilevers. However, this method requires large accelerations to drive the buckled beam.

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Renaud et al. [30] has reported a non-resonant impact-based energy harvester driven by a free ball moving in a guided channel where top and bottom piezoelectric benders are mounted in between. The method however does not benefit from the power enhancement of a resonant operation.
A resonant impact-based energy harvesting prototype which utilizes a low-frequency resonator to directly impact two high-frequency PZT bimorphs in order to trigger their self-oscillations and generate power at high operation frequencies was also reported by Gu et al. [31]. The prototype suffered from large device size and has not been realized by MEMS technology. In fact, none of the aforementioned works use micro-scale approaches [32,33]. For a given acceleration, the vibration amplitude of an oscillator is inversely proportional to the square of the vibration frequency. A lower resonant frequency requires an increased displacement space and mechanical stoppers to prevent damage of the oscillator, thus reducing the generated power density of the device, though the mechanical stopper does broaden the frequency bandwidth [34,35]. Instead of increasing the extra space to accommodate the displacement of the LRF oscillator, by incorporating a piezoelectric HRF cantilever which is excited into self-oscillation by the impact of the LRF cantilever and at the same time acts as an energy harvester. This will not only reduce the device space and protect the oscillator, but also realize a wide operation band and FUC behavior. As a result, additional significant power will be generated and power density of the system will be improved.

3.2 Damping:
A damping mechanism suitable for use with a vibrating beam accelerometer comprising a piezoelectric block mounted between the vibrating beam force transducer and the pendulum of the instrument. The proof mass, or pendulum, is mounted for pendulous motion about a pair of hinge means. Vibration of the instrument causes opposite charges to appear on electrodes which are on two opposite faces of the block. These charged electrodes are connected to each other by a

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resistor and so a current will flow through the resistance to neutralize the charge. The resistor will then dissipate the vibration energy as heat. This energy dissipation is effectively damping.

3.3 Remote controllers


Piezoelectric film used for new remote that twists and bends September 25, 2011 by Nancy Owano report Piezoelectric film used for new remote that twists and bends Leaf Grip Remote Controller using piezoelectric film (sample) (PhysOrg.com) -- Murata Manufacturing Co. is using high-transparency organic piezoelectric film for its two new devices, a remote control that works by bending and twisting, and a touch-pressure pad that connects to PCs. Murata will ship samples of both devices next year. Murata says the film they are using has a high piezoelectric output constant; high transparency (light beam transmittance of 98% or higher according to the internal haze measurement) and most notably it is free from the pyroelectric effect. Murata, in its press release announcing the devices, stresses what is special about its film. Conventional piezoelectric films are usually subject to a pyroelectric effect. The company says this is a drawback because they cannot detect bending and twisting vibrations separately from changes in temperature. Murata instead has developed a high-transparency piezoelectric film that is free from the pyroelectric effect. Murata developed the film through a joint research effort with Kansai University and Mitsui Chemicals. Piezoelectric film used for new remote that twists and bends Enlarge Piezoelectric film used for new remote that twists and bends That bending and twisting movement is the key feature of its new remote control device for TVs. The device is called the Leaf Grip Remote Controller, and it can convey the tv users commands by using a bending and twisting motion. The control device uses two piezoelectric films: one for detecting bends and the other for detecting twists. Murata further describes the remote as using pigments to

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discharge electrons when it receives light, and is assembled with a photovoltaic cell that converts light into electricity to provide it with a "battery-less feature." Piezoelectric film used for new remote that twists and bends Touch pressure pad using piezoelectric film (sample) Piezoelectric film used for new remote that twists and bends The second device that Murata announced is a Touch Pressure Pad, which is a panel that can be connected to a PC. The touch panel can detect vertical and horizontal finger movements and can measure the users pressure strength. For example, the user can enlarge an image at high speed by pressing the panel firmly and at low speed by pressing the panel lightly.

Figure 10: Leaf Grip Remote Controller using piezoelectric film

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Chapter 4 Utilization of New Materials for Piezo-electric energy harvesters


4.1 MEMS Piezo-electric energy harvesting

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, or MEMS, is a technology that in its most general form can be defined as miniaturized mechanical and electro-mechanical elements (i.e., devices and structures) that are made using the techniques of microfabrication. The critical physical dimensions of MEMS devices can vary from well below one micron on the lower end of the dimensional spectrum, all the way to several millimeters. Likewise, the types of MEMS devices can vary from relatively simple structures having no moving elements, to extremely complex electromechanical systems with multiple moving elements under the control of integrated microelectronics. The one main criterion of MEMS is that there are at least some elements having some sort of mechanical functionality whether or not these elements can move. The term used to define MEMS varies in different parts of the world. In the United States they are predominantly called MEMS, while in some other parts of the world they are called Microsystems Technology or micromachined devices.

While the functional elements of MEMS are miniaturized structures, sensors, actuators, and microelectronics, the most notable (and perhaps most interesting) elements are the microsensors and microactuators. Microsensors and microactuators are appropriately categorized as transducers, which are defined as devices that convert energy from one form to another. In the
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case of microsensors, the device typically converts a measured mechanical signal into an electrical signal.

Figure 11: Components of MEMS

In recent years, a great effort has been devoted to the study of self-powered electronics by using renewable power sources or energy scavengers to replace traditional batteries. Therefore, energy harvesting technique which is used to collect and convert ambient energy into usable electrical power has been considered as a promising solution and has attracted noticeable research interests. Among many energy sources, vibration energy is ubiquitous in numerous applications ranging from common household devices, trans-portation tools, and industry machines to human motions. In addition, vibration-based energy harvesters (EHs) using MEMS technology are reported to generate electricity based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrostatic, and hybrid mechanisms. Piezoelectric EHs convert mechanical strain into voltage output, i.e., electric field across the piezoelectric layer, based on the piezoelectric effect. Because of the advantages of simple configuration and high conversion efficiency, they have received much attention. Currently, most investigations for power generation of vibration-based piezoelectric EHs focus on the configuration of cantilever beam with or without proof mass in the form of unimorph,
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series triple layer bimorph, parallel triple layer bimorph in the d31 mode and d33 mode. However, the performances, such as output voltage and power, of piezoelectric EHs with piezoelectric elements in series or in parallel connections under similar mechanical strain conditions, have not been thoroughly studied [36].

4.2 MEMS piezoelectric harvester with record power output


Recent research shows that, a piezoelectric harvesting device fabricated by MEMS technology generates a record of 85W electrical power from vibrations. A wafer level packaging method was developed for robustness. The packaged MEMS-based harvester is used to power a wireless sensor node. Within the Holst Centre program on Micropower Generation and Storage, imec researchers developed a temperature sensor that can wirelessly transmit data in a fully autonomous way [37].

Micromachined vibrational energy harvesters operating in the frequency domain between 150 and 1000Hz are ideal devices to convert vibrations from machines, engines and other industrial appliances into electricity. Thanks to their smaller dimensions, the micromachined devices are the preferred candidates for powering miniaturized autonomous sensor nodes.

4.2.1 Record and novel material By using cost-effective, CMOS compatible MEMS processes on 6 silicon wafers, imec developed piezoelectric energy harvesters capable of generating up to 85W of power. The harvester consists of a Si mass that is suspended on a beam with Aluminum Nitride (AlN) as

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piezoelectric material. By changing the dimensions of the beam and mass, the resonance frequency of the harvester can be designed for any value in the 150-1200Hz domain.

Figure 12: Aluminum Nitride (AlN) as piezoelectric material

Not only the record power output, but also the use of AlN as piezoelectric layer, is a notable achievement. AlN has several advantages in terms of materials parameters and ease of processing compared to the commonly used PZT (Lead zirconate titanate). Just to name two: AlN can be deposited up to three times faster while composition control is not an issue, thanks to the stoichiometric nature of the material. 4.2.2 Vacuum package

Final achievement in the research is the development of a wafer-scale process to protect the piezoelectric devices by a package. It was shown that the power output significantly increases by the use of the vacuum package compared to packaging in atmospheric pressure. In a three step process, glass covers are coated with an adhesive, vacuum bonded on top and bottom of the processed wafer and diced.
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Figure 13: a): Wafer-scale vacuum package process flow. The wafer with the AlN piezoelectric energy harvester is bonded between two glass wafers. The cavities in the glass wafer are etched with HF and the SU-8 bonding layer is applied with a wafer scale roller-co

4.2.3 Fully Autonomous

The piezoelectric harvester was connected to a wireless temperature sensor, built op from of-theshelf components. After power optimization, the consumption of the sensor was reduced from 1.5mW to 10W, which is an improvement by three orders of magnitude. When subjected to vibrations at 353Hz at 0.64g (indicating a realistic amplitude of the vibrations), the system generated sufficient power to measure the environmental temperature and transmit it to a base station with an interval of fifteen seconds. The result proves the feasibility of building fully autonomous harvesters for industrial applications. Once fully mature, the technology can be used to power sensors in industrial applications such as tire-pressure monitoring and predictive maintenance of moving or rotating machine parts. Imec
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and Holst Centre do not go to market themselves, but perform the research together with industrial players interested in commercializing the technology. The result was obtained within the Micropower Program at Holst Centre, an open-innovation initiative by imec and TNO[38].

Figure 14: Fully autonomous wireless temperature sensor powered by a vibrational energy harvester

4.3 Thermal Acoustic Piezo Energy Conversion


Thermal Acoustic (or Thermoacoustic) devices are a type of technology capable of either:

Drawing on sound waves to drive heat from location A to location B Capitalising on the difference between two temperatures to create sound which can, subsequently, be turned into electricity by introducing a piezoelectric device.

Symkos heat to electricity conversion technology involves two processes, then. Firstly, thermoacoustic devices (known as heat engines) convert heat into sound. Secondly, piezoelectric devices convert this sound into electricity when pressure is applied to them. Symko himself
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compares the effects of pressure on piezoelectric devices to hitting your elbow a sudden, painful impulse.
4.3.1 TAPEC Electricity

Professor Symko has drawn attention to how the electricity created as a result of Thermo Acoustic Piezo Energy Conversion (TAPEC) could actually be used. Potential applications include a number of areas in the home, where the TAPEC electricity could replace that produced by household photovoltaic devices, like solar panels, which draw on the energy in the suns rays, and for which another term is solar electric. Small TAPEC devices could also be incorporated into PCs or laptops, which could draw on the machines internal heat to produce electricity from and which, in turn, the PC or laptop could derive power from thus creating a satisfying and efficient renewable energy circuit.

TAPEC electricity could also have military applications and, recognizing this, the US military is involved in the Utah teams research - the US Army having injected finance into the venture. Technology capable of providing a combat edge within a conflict zone could obviously prove highly advantageous to those that own it and, according to Professor Symko, the US Army is keen on taking care of waste heat from radar, and producing a portable source of electrical energy which one can use in the battlefield to run electronics.

Another application is within the manufacturing industry. The purpose of industrial cooling towers is to remove the heat associated with industrial processes. Rather than have this waste

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heat pass into the atmosphere, however, the Utah scientists propose drawing on it and applying TAPEC technology in order to create electricity.

We are converting waste heat to electricity in an efficient, simple way by using sound, Symko says. It is a new source of renewable energy from waste heat.
4.3.2 Advantages of TAPEC

Among the advantages of TAPEC technology is the fact that it generates little or no noise pollution. According to Symko, once the devices are able to be made more compact, they will able to transform heat into sounds that the human ear cannot detect (ultrasonic). Whats more, the sound-to-electricity conversion processes already involve an inherent loss of volume anyway. Finally, the sound can be reduced through the application of muffling devices[39].

4.4 Turning heat into sound, then electricity

Figure 15: Physicist Orest Symko works on blowtorch

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University of Utah physicist Orest Symko demonstrates how heat can be converted into sound by using a blowtorch to heat a metallic screen inside a plastic tube, which then produces a loud tone, similar to when air is blown into a flute. Symko and his students are developing much smaller devices that not only convert heat to sound, but then use the sound to generate electricity. The devices may be used to cool electronics, harness solar energy in a new way, and conserve energy by changing waste heat into electric power. Credit: (Credit: Image courtesy of University of Utah) University of Utah physicists developed small devices that turn heat into sound and then into electricity. The technology holds promise for changing waste heat into electricity, harnessing solar energy and cooling computers and radars [40]. 4.4.1 How to Get Power from Heat and Sound

Symko's work on converting heat into electricity via sound stems from his ongoing research to develop tiny thermoacoustic refrigerators for cooling electronics.

In 2005, he began a five-year heat-sound-electricity conversion research project named Thermal Acoustic Piezo Energy Conversion (TAPEC). Symko works with collaborators at Washington State University and the University of Mississippi.

The project has received $2 million in funding during the past two years, and Symko hopes it will grow as small heat-sound-electricity devices shrink further so they can be incorporated in micro machines (known as micro electro mechanical systems, or MEMS) for use in cooling computers and other electronic devices such as amplifiers.

Using sound to convert heat into electricity has two key steps. Symko and colleagues developed various new heat engines (technically called "thermo acoustic prime movers") to accomplish the first step: convert heat into sound.

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Then they convert the sound into electricity using existing technology: "piezoelectric" devices that are squeezed in response to pressure, including sound waves, and change that pressure into electrical current. Most of the heat-to-electricity acoustic devices built in Symko's laboratory are housed in cylinder-shaped "resonators" that fit in the palm of your hand. Each cylinder, or resonator, contains a "stack" of material with a large surface area -- such as metal or plastic plates, or fibers made of glass, cotton or steel wool -- placed between a cold heat exchanger and a hot heat exchanger.

When heat is applied -- with matches, a blowtorch or a heating element -- the heat builds to a threshold. Then the hot, moving air produces sound at a single frequency, similar to air blown into a flute. "You have heat, which is so disorderly and chaotic, and all of a sudden you have sound coming out at one frequency," Symko says.

Then the sound waves squeeze the piezoelectric device, producing an electrical voltage. Symko says it's similar to what happens if you hit a nerve in your elbow, producing a painful electrical nerve impulse. Longer resonator cylinders produce lower tones, while shorter tubes produce higher-pitched tones.

Devices that convert heat to sound and then to electricity lack moving parts, so such devices will require little maintenance and last a long time. They do not need to be built as precisely as, say, pistons in an engine, which loses efficiency as the pistons wear.

Symko says the devices won't create noise pollution. First, as smaller devices are developed, they will convert heat to ultrasonic frequencies people cannot hear. Second, sound volume goes down

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as it is converted to electricity. Finally, "it's easy to contain the noise by putting a sound absorber around the device," he says [41].

4.5 Piezoelectric ribbons and fibers


Nanofiber-based piezoelectric energy generators could be scalable power sources applicable in various electrical devices and systems by scavenging mechanical energy from the environment. Piezoelectric nano generators made of PVDF (polyvinyllidenefluoride) or PZT (lead zirconate titanate) and fabricated by means of electro spinning processes such as conventional, modified or near-field electro spinning (NFES) are the key focuses of this paper. Material and structure analyses on fabricated Nano fibers using tools such as XRD(X ray diffraction), FTIR(Fourier transform infrared), SHG(second harmonic generation), PFM ( piezo response force microscopy) and Raman spectroscopy toward the fundamental characterizations of piezoelectric Nano fibers are also described.

Figure 16: Different layers of piezo electric fibers

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After decades of developments in the miniaturization of portable and wireless devices, new power sources beyond rechargeable batteries have become important topics for current and future stand-alone devices and systems. Specifically, ideal power sources should be scalable for power demands of various portable devices without the necessity of a recharging process or replacement. Recent work in the field of nanomaterials has shown considerable progress toward self-powered energy sources by scavenging energy from ambient environments (solar, thermal, mechanical vibration, etc.). In particular, the use of piezoelectric generators by nanomaterials as a robust and simple solution for mechanical energy harvesting has attracted lots of attentions. One of the earliest nanogenerators for possible energy scavenging applications from mechanical strain utilized piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires . By coupling their semiconducting and piezoelectric properties, mechanical strains can be converted into electricity. In recent years, numerous research groups have demonstrated results in the field of mechanical energy scavenging using nanomaterials with different architectures, including: film- based, nanowirebased and nano fiber-based nanogenerators. Film-based nanogenerators are often made by the spin- on or thin-film deposition methods. Mechanical strains due to the bending, vibration or compression of the thin-film structure can be the source of the energy generation. Nanowirebased nano generators are typically made of semiconducting materials such as ZnO, ZnS , GaN or CdS . These piezoelectric nanowires have been demonstrated to build up an electrical potential when mechanically strained by an AFM tip, zig-zag electrodes or a compliant substrate to convert mechanical strains into electricity. The third group of nano generators is based on nanofiber s often constructed by the electro spin- ning process with piezoelectric materials such as PZT or PVDF. PZT is a ceramic material exhibiting exceptionally good piezoelectric properties and is only recently utilized in nanofiber based energy harvesters. Most of PZT- based

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energy harvesters have film-based structures, including the typical design of cantilever structure with proof mass [42].

4.6 Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowire


Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are generating significant interest due to unique characteristics that make them good candidates for UV optoelectronic applications such as biosensors and resonators. These properties are due to the wide band gap of ZnO (3.37eV at room temperature) and to its large exciton energy (60meV), which makes it possible to employ excitonic recombination as a UV-lasing mechanism. ZnO is also a piezoelectric and bio-safe material that has probably spawned the richest family of nanostructures to date. Moreover, the ferromagnetic properties of ZnO doped with rare earth metals are also of interest for the design of novel devices that store information as a particular spin orientation (spintronics).

Of the techniques for growing ZnO nanostructures with controlled dimensions, we have been using two of the most common and cost-effective, namely, the catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method and a low-temperature technique based on chemical engineering. When optimized, both approaches can be used to produce large-scale wafers and are suitable for commercial production. Below Figure shows the schematics of the oven used in our VLS growth experiments. We have generated a wide family of different ZnO nanostructures, including wires (both vertically aligned and randomly oriented), ribbons, dots, flowers, branched structures, and leaves, on a variety of substrates with crystalline or amorphous surfaces.

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Figure 17: Fabrication of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires using the catalytic VLS growth method. Insert: Transmission electron microscope image of a nanowire with a gold (Au) particle at the tip. Ar: Argon.

The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of typical ZnO nanowire samples are characterized by two main emission bands. The first is a sharp free-exciton UV band that usually centers on () 380nm, and the second is a wider broad band observed between 420 and 700nm, historically referred to as the green luminescence or deep-level emission band. Although all ZnO nanostructures display both bands, their relative intensity varies depending on different growth methods and parameters. Deep-level emission is the source of observed white light emission. The assignment of this band is still controversial, and we have attempted to elucidate its origin. In a recent experiment, different ZnO bulk samples were annealed for 1h at 501050C in the presence of ZnO powder, metallic zinc, pure oxygen, or air. All the experiments, except annealing in air, were performed in quartz-encapsulated samples filled with the corresponding gas or powder. After annealing, PL spectra were recorded in the 27300K temperature range using the 350nm line from an argon ion laser as the excitation source [43].

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4.6 Piezoelectric graphene

Graphene, the ultra-durable carbon material that holds promise for a range of applications, has yet another trick up its single-atom-thick sleeve. Engineers at the University of Houston have used quantum mechanical calculations to show that, merely by creating holes of a certain configuration in a sheet of graphene, they can coax graphene into behaving like a piezoelectric material. Piezoelectric substances generate electricity in response to physical pressure, and vice versa, and scientists can use these materials for applications such as energy harvesting and artificial muscles, as well as to make precise sensors. Graphene itself is not naturally piezoelectric. But the Houston engineers reasoned that if they took either a semiconducting or insulator form of graphene, punched triangle-shaped holes into it, and applied a uniform pressure to the material, they could make that material act as though it were piezoelectric. The teams calculations showed that triangular holes did indeed result in piezoelectric behavior, while circular holes as they predicted did not. They also found that graphenes pseudopiezoelectricity was almost as strong as that of well-known piezoelectric substances such as quartz. The authors suggest that triangular pores could be created in real graphene using electron-beam radiation in a lab, which means these calculations can be tested using existing methods. Nature has dealt humankind a very limited choice of effective electromechanical materials that exhibit piezoelectricity, write the authors in their paper, accepted to the AIPs Applied Physics Letters. Adding graphene to the list could potentially open new avenues of use, both for graphene and for applications that rely on piezoelectricity [44].

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Figure 18: This illustration shows lithium atoms (red) adhered to a graphene lattice that will produce electricity when bent, squeezed or twisted. Conversely, the graphene will deform when an electric field is applied, opening new possibilities in nanotechnology.

4.7 Optimal shape piezoelectric energy harvesters


We aim at using variable shape cantilever beam to improve the efficiency of energy harvesting from ambient vibration in wireless grid sensor applications. The cantilever beam is composed of an active layer composed of a piezoelectric material and a metallic layer (unimorph design). A tip mass attached to the free end of the cantilever beam is added to increase the inertial forces of the structure. The introduction of the variable shape design is motivated by the fact that prismatic shape beams are not efficient since only the part near to the clamped side can produce electrical power thanks to the presence of stresses. By varying the geometry of the beam we redistribute the stress along the beams length in order to increase the harvested power. In this work, the equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton Principle. We analyze the statics and dynamics of the variable geometry beam. In order to maximize the harvested energy, we discuss the influence of the systems and excitations parameters on the dynamic problem. Besides, we found that harvested energy is maximized for an optimum electric load resistance. Concerning the beams shape, this work reveals that it should be as truncated as

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possible. In fact, trapezoidal cantilever with base and height dimensions equal to the base and length dimensions of a rectangular beam will have a higher strain and maximum deflection for a given load[45].

Figure 19: Usual structure of a piezoelectric vibration

4.8 Technique for fabricating piezoelectric ferroelectric nanostructures


Researchers have developed a soft template infiltration technique for fabricating free -standing piezoelectrically active ferroelectric nanotubes and other nanostructures from PZT a material that is attractive because of its large piezoelectric response. Developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology, the technique allows fabrication of ferroelectric nanostructures with user-defined shapes, location and pattern variation across the same substrate.

The resulting structures, which are 100 to 200 nanometers in outer diameter with thickness ranging from 5 to 25 nanometers, show a piezoelectric response comparable to that of PZT thin films of much larger dimensions. The technique could ultimately lead to production of activelytunable photonic and phononic crystals, terahertz emitters, energy harvesters, micrometers,

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micro-pumps and nano-electro-mechanical sensors, actuators and transducers all made from the PZT material

Using a novel characterization technique developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the researchers for the first time made high-accuracy in-situ measurements of the nanoscale piezoelectric properties of the structures. They are using a new nano-manufacturing method for creating three-dimensional nanostructures with high aspect ratios in ferroelectric materials that have attractive piezoelectric properties. They also leveraged a new characterization method available through Oak Ridge to study the piezoelectric response of these nanostructures on the substrate where they were produced.

Ferroelectric materials at the nanometer scale are promising for a wide range of applications, but processing them into useful devices has proven challenging despite success at producing such devices at the micrometer scale. Top-down manufacturing techniques, such as focused ion beam milling, allow accurate definition of devices at the nanometer scale, but the process can induce surface damage that degrades the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties that make the material interesting.

Until now, bottom-up fabrication techniques have been unable to produce structures with both high aspect ratios and precise control over location. The technique reported by the Georgia Tech researchers allows production of nanotubes made from PZT (PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3) with aspect ratios of up to 5 to 1.

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The ferroelectric nanotubes are especially interesting because their properties including size, shape, optical responses and dielectric characteristics can be controlled by external forces even after they are fabricated. For example, the piezoelectric effect could permit fabrication of nano-muscle tubes that would act as tiny pumps when an electric field is applied to them. The fields could also be used to tune the properties of photonic crystals, or to create structures whose size can be altered slightly to absorb electromagnetic energy of different wavelengths[45].

4.9 Giant piezoelectric effect to improve energy harvesting devices

Researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Materials Research Institute at Penn State are part of a multidisciplinary team of researchers from universities and national laboratories across the U.S. who have fabricated piezoelectric thin films with recordsetting properties. These engineered films have great potential for energy harvesting applications, as well as in micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS), micro actuators, and sensors for a variety of miniaturized systems, such as ultrasound imaging, microfluidics, and mechanical sensing.

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Figure 20:Comparison of the figure of merit for PMN-PT film with other reported piezoelectric values for micromachined actuators and energy harvesting devices

Piezoelectric materials can transform electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. Most MEMS utilize silicon, the standard material for semiconductor electronics, as the substrate. Integrating piezoelectric thin films onto silicon-based MEMS devices with dimensions from micrometers to a few millimeters in size will add an active component that can take advantage of motion, such as a footstep or a vibrating motor, to generate electric current, or use a small applied voltage to create micron level motion, such as in focusing a digital camera.

Previously, the best piezoelectric MEMS devices were made with layers of silicon and lead zirconium titanate (PZT) films. Recently, a team led by Chang-Beom Eom of University of Wisconsin-Madison synthesized a lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) thin film integrated on a silicon substrate.

The Penn State team, led by Susan Trolier-McKinstry, professor of ceramic science and engineering, and including research associate Srowthi Bharadwaja, PhD, measured the electrical and piezoelectric performance of the thin films and compared the PMN-PT films against the reported values of other micromachined actuator materials to show the potential of PMN-PT for actuator and energy harvesting applications.

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In a recent article in Science, the team reported the highest values of piezoelectric properties for any piezoelectric thin film to-date, and a two-fold higher figure of merit than the best reported PZT films for energy harvesting applications. This increase in the effective piezoelectric activity in a thin film will result in a dramatic improvement in performance. For example, energy harvesting using such thin films will provide local power sources for wireless sensor nodes for bridges, aircraft, and potentially for human-body sensors [46].

4.10 Potential for lead-free piezoelectric ceramics


Scientists are using Diamond Light Source, the UK's national synchrotron facility, to discover how we can detoxify our electronic gadgets. Results published in the journal Applied Physics Letters reveal the potential for new artificial materials that could replace lead-based components in everyday products from inkjet printers to digital cameras. Researchers from the Institute for Materials Research at the University of Leeds' Faculty of Engineering used the Diamond synchrotron to investigate the structure and properties of piezoelectric ceramics in order to develop more environmentally friendly alternatives to the widely-used but toxic ceramic crystal lead zirconium titanate (PZT)

The team used the I15 Extreme Conditions beamline at Diamond to probe the interior crystal structure of the ceramics with a high-energy pinpoint X-ray beam and saw changes in the crystal structure as an electric field was applied. Their results demonstrate that this new material, potassium sodium bismuth titanate (KNBT), shows the potential to perform the same job as its lead counterpart.

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Dr Tim Comyn, lead investigator on the project, said: "These results are very encouraging. Although harmless when in use, at the end of their lifetime these PZT gadgets have to be carefully disposed of due to their lead content and as a consequence, there is significant interest in developing lead-free ceramics."

Piezoelectric materials generate an electrical field when pressure is applied, and vice versa. For example in gas igniters, like those used on ovens and fires, a piezoelectric crystal creates sparks when hit with the hammer. In an electrical field, it undergoes a phase transition, that is changes in the crystal structure.

The team will continue to work at Diamond to study the electric field induced transformation at high speed (1000 times per second) and under various conditions using state of the art detectors.

Adam Royles, PhD student on the project, said: "Not only could a lead-free solution mean safer disposal of electronic equipment, by virtue of the absence of lead, these new materials are far lighter than PZT. The piezoelectric market has applications in many fields, where a lighter leadfree alternative could make quite a difference."

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Figure 21: Crystal structure of KNBT before the application of an electric field (left) and after (right). The purple spheres are either sodium or potassium atoms, the red spheres are oxygen atoms, the small blue sphere is titanium. The figures show the arrangemen

In the medical field, PZT is used in ultrasound transducers, where it generates sound waves and sends the echoes to a computer to convert into a picture. Piezoelectric ceramics also hold great potential for efficient energy harvesting, a possible solution for a clean sustainable energy source in the future.

Lead-based electronic ceramics are one of only a few exemptions to the European directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic components (2002/95/EC). This exemption will be reviewed again in 2012.

The global market for piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors was estimated to be $6.6 billion in 2009 and is estimated to reach $12.3 billion by 2014[46].

4.11 Electro-active papers


EAPap is a paper that produces large displacement with small force under an electrical excitation. EAPap is made with a chemically treated paper by constructing thin electrodes on both sides of the paper. When electrical voltage is applied on the electrodes the EAPap produces
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bending displacement. However, the displacement output has been unstable and degraded with timescale. To improve the bending performance of EAPap, different paper fiberssoftwood, hardwood, bacteria cellulose, cellophane, carbon mixture paper, electrolyte containing paper and Korean traditional paper, in conjunction with additive chemicals, were tested. Two attempts were made to construct the electrodes: the direct use of aluminum foil and the gold sputtering technique. It was found that a cellophane paper exhibits a remarkable bending performance. When 2 MV m1 excitation voltages were applied to the paper actuator, more than 3 mm tip displacement was observed from the 30 mm long paper beam. This is quite a low excitation voltage compared with that of other EAPs. Details of the experiments and results are addressed.

Figure 22: Electro active paper

The recent emergence of electro active polymers (EAPs) has received much attention due to their capability for large displacement actuators. Some of the currently available materials are ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), gel polymers, conductive polymers, electric-field-activated EAPs such as electron-irradiated P(VDF-TrFE), electrostrictive polymer artificial muscle (EPAM), electro rheological fluids and so on . EPAM is an elastomeric polymer sandwiched between two compliant electrodes. When an electric field is applied across the thickness, the
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polymer thickness shrinks, but the area is enlarged due to the electrostatic forces of the free charges on the electrodes. Diaphragm actuators have been used for pumps, adaptive optics and loudspeakers . However, these actuators need highly compliant electrodes to be expanded in plane and pestess to enhance the displacement output. The use of paper as an electrostrictive EAP actuator has been demonstrated by other reaearcher. Paper is a sheet that is composed of a multitude of discrete particles, mainly of a fibrous nature, which form a network structure. Since paper is produced in various mechanical processes with chemical additives, there is a possibility of preparing a paper that can meet the requirements for EAP actuators. Such actuators were prepared by bonding two silver-laminated papers with the silver electrodes placed on the outside surface. When electric voltage is applied to the electrodes the actuator produces bending displacement depending on the excitation voltage, frequencies, type of adhesive and host papers. This is termed electro-active paper (EAPap). Once EAPaps meet the requirements of EAP actuators in terms of force and displacement, various applications may be possible, including active wings for flying objects, active sound absorbing materials, flexible speakers and smart shape control devices.

4.12 Electroactive polymers and piezoelectric Energy harvesting Devices


This article reviews the state of the art of Electroactive Polymers (EAPs) field, which are also known as artificial muscles for their functional similarity to natural muscles. The key aspects of this subject are: available materials, analytical models, processing techniques and characterization methods. EAPs are plastic materials that change shape and size when given some voltage or current. They always had enormous potential, but only now this potential starting to materialize. The most interesting EAP application is a robot arm built with artificial

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muscles that could win an arm wrestling match against a human, and the success of a robot against a human opponent will lead to a new era in both making realistic biomimetic robots and implementing engineering designs that are currently considered science fiction.

Figure 23: Biometric robots

The use of polymers with electroactive response has only emerged in this decade with the introduction of EAP materials, having significant displacement levels. These materials are highly attractive for their low-density, with large strain capability that can be as high as two orders of magnitude greater than the striction-limited, rigid and fragile electroactive ceramics (EAC). Also, these materials are superior to shape memory alloys (SMA) in their spectral response, lower density, and resilience. However, these materials reach their elastic limit at low stress levels, with actuation stress that falls far shorter than EAC and SMA actuators.

4.13 Energy Harvesting from Piezoelectric Polymers


The Figure below shows the EAP context in which the piezoelectric energy harvesters can be applied:

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Figure 24: Flow chart for EAP

Utilizing intelligent materials to harvest energy from ambient vibrations has been of great interest over the past few years. Due to the relatively low power output of piezoelectric materials, energy storage devices are used to accumulate harvested energy for intermittent use. Technology is continuously becoming smaller and smaller. With these advancements, sensors and other electronics can be used in the most remote locations and transmit information wirelessly. A great deal of research has repeatedly demonstrated that piezoelectric energy harvesters hold the promise of providing an alternative power source that can enhance or replace conventional batteries and power wireless devices. Also, ambient vibrations have been the focus as a source due to the amount of energy available in them. By using energy harvesting devices to extract energy from their environments, the sensors that the power can be self-reliant and maintenance time and cost can be reduced. To maximize the amount of energy harvested from the source, generally a resonant mode of the harvester should match one of the dominant frequencies of the source. Due to inconsistencies in the fabrication of the harvester or variations in the source, frequency matching can be difficult to achieve. By being able to tune the device

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during fabrication or in real time during operation, a means to meet this criterion during operation of the device can be provided.

Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a semi-crystalline high-molecular weight polymer with repeat unit (CH2-CF2), whose structure is essentially head-to-tail, i.e., CH2-CF2-(CH2- CF2)n-CH2-CF2. PVDF is approximately half crystalline and half amorphous. In the semi-crystalline polymers such as PVDF, there are regions where the chains exhibit a short and long-term ordering (crystalline regions). A net dipole moment (polar phase) is obtained by applying a strong electric field at or above Tg. Then, it is frozen in by cooling the material resulting in a piezoelectric-like effect. PVDF has the advantage that it is mechanically strong, resistant to a wide variety of chemicals including acids and can be manufactured on a continuous reel basis. Another important property of PVDF is that it shows a strong piezoelectric response. Energy Harvesting Journal has shown a list of great applications of piezoelectric energy harvesters. In the future, most of these examples could be fabricated exclusively by Electroactive Polymers, such as PVDF and its composites. Below are some examples of piezoelectric energy harvesters:

Energy harvesting for robots Energy harvesting backpack Harnessing vibrations from raindrops Flapping leaf generator for wind energy harvesting Piezoelectric kinetic energy harvester for mobile phones Breakthroughs with sensing in the human body Harvesting energy from natural motion
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Electroactive Polymers (EAPs) are a promising alternative for energy harvesting devices, due to the flexibility, versatility and low cost of these materials. Considering the high degree of complexity of the current technological context, the development of clear reviews can deeply help toward the best investments strategy in Renewable Energy in general and also in the emerging Polymeric Energy Harvesters (PEH) technologies.

4.13 Piezoelectric fabric that can detect and produce sound

Researchers have created new plastic fibers that can detect and produce sound. When stretched, these strands could be used to make clothes that act as a microphone or generate electricity. "You can actually hear them, these fibers," said Nomie Chocat, a graduate student in the materials science department at MIT and co-author of a paper describing the fibers. "If you connected them to a power supply and applied a sinusoidal current" an alternating current whose period is very regular "then it would vibrate," Chocat said. "And if you make it vibrate at audible frequencies and put it close to your ear, you could actually hear different notes or sounds coming out of it."
4.13.1 Microphone check

The heart of the new acoustic fibers is a plastic commonly used in microphones. By playing with the amount of the element fluorine in the plastic, the researchers were able to ensure that the material's molecules remained "lopsided," with the fluorine atoms lining up on one side and hydrogen atoms on the other. This asymmetry made the plastic "piezoelectric," meaning that it changes shape when an electric field is applied to it.

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In a conventional piezoelectric microphone, this useful electric field is generated by metal electrodes. But in a fiber microphone, the drawing process when the strand is pulled into being from a larger block of material would cause metal electrodes to lose their shape.

So the researchers instead used a conducting plastic that contains graphite, the material found in pencil lead. When heated, the conducting plastic maintains a higher viscosity meaning it yields a thicker fluid than a metal would. Not only did this prevent the mixing of materials that might wreck the fibers' properties, but, crucially, it also made for fibers with a regular thickness.

After the fiber was drawn, the researchers needed to align all the piezoelectric molecules in the same direction. That required the application of an electric field 20 times as powerful as the fields that cause lightning during a thunderstorm.
4.13.2 Sound results

In addition to wearable microphones, the fibers could be used as biological sensors for monitoring bodily functions. The tiny filaments could measure blood flow in capillaries or pressure in the brain, for example.

Other applications of the fibers include loose nets that monitor the flow of water in the ocean and large-area sonar imaging systems with much higher resolutions. A fabric woven from these acoustic fibers would provide the equivalent of millions of tiny acoustic sensors.

As it turns out, the same mechanism that allows piezoelectric devices to translate electricity into motion can work in reverse. "Imagine a thread that can generate electricity when stretched," said Zheng Wang, a research scientist at MIT and another co-author of the paper.
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Ultimately, the team of researchers led by Yoel Fink, an associate professor of materials science at MIT hopes to combine the properties of their experimental fibers into a single fiber. Strong vibrations, for instance, could vary the optical properties of a reflecting fiber, enabling fabrics to communicate optically .

Max Shtein, an assistant professor in the University of Michigan's materials science department, points out that other labs have built piezoelectric fibers by first drawing out a strand of a single material and then adding other materials to it, much the way manufacturers currently wrap insulating plastic around copper wire.

Chapter - 5 Applications of piezoelectric energy harvesters


5.1 Consumer Electronics
5.1.1 Energy harvesting Backpack

In order to increase the life of electronic devices (batteries), researchers have begun investigating methods of generating energy from ambient sources such that the life of the electronics can be prolonged. Recent developments in the field have led to the design of a number of mechanisms that can be used to generate electrical energy, from a variety of sources including thermal, solar, strain, inertia, etc. Many of these energy sources are available for use

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with humans, but their use must be carefully considered such that parasitic effects that could disrupt the users gait or endurance are avoided. These issues have arisen from previous attempts to integrate power harvesting mechanisms into a shoe such that the energy released during a heal strike could be harvested. This study develops a novel energy harvesting backpack that can generate electrical energy from the differential forces between the wearer and the pack. The goal of this system is to make the energy harvesting device transparent to the wearer such that his or her endurance and dexterity is not compromised. This will be accomplished by replacing the traditional strap of the backpack with one made of the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Piezoelectric materials have a structure such that an applied electrical potential results in a mechanical strain. Conversely, an applied stress results in the generation of an electrical charge, which makes the material useful for power harvesting applications. PVDF is highly flexible and has a high strength, allowing it to effectively act as the load bearing member. In order to preserve the performance of the backpack and user, the design of the pack will be held as close to existing systems as possible. A typical schematic of this Energy harvesting backpack is shows in the Figure 25[47].

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Figure 25: Michigan Tech: Energy harvesting backpack

5.1.2 Piezoelectric kinetic energy harvester for mobile phone from Nokia

Figure 26: Nokia Piezoelectric kinetic energy harvester

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Its not a big deal to plug in a gadget, of course, but when your smartphone only lasts five hours at a time, the added inconvenience becomes maddening. Various companies have played around with other solutions to the charging problem, but most of them like built-in solar panels simply arent quite there yet. Nokia thinks theyve got a good solution to the problem though or, if they dont, they think its worthwhile patenting, at least. Recently (2010) Nokia filed a patent for a piezoelectric kinetic energy harvester for installation in their mobile phones. Piezoelectric Kinetic Energy Harvester: It sounds like something out of Star Trek or Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy, but its actually pretty simple: a piezoelectric kinetic energy harvester works by generating electricity from crystals which are compressed by movement. What this means is that when youre walking around with your mobile phone, these crystals will generate electricity, which will be passed into the battery, charging you up. Its a good idea, but its not going to do much to do anything more than slightly lessen battery drain: charging a whole phone battery by waving it around your head would be muscle-aching and impractical. We may very well never see this patent in the real world, but still, good on Nokia for trying to innovate [48].

5.1.3. Small scale wind turbines (Contact-less Piezoelectric Wind Turbine)


Conventional wind turbines rely on electromagnetic generators for electro-mechanical energy conversion. While electromagnetic generators are highly matured and efficient for larger-scale power generation, they are limited by several factors including high cogging torque and high
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rotational speeds. In low altitudes (below 50 ft from ground) and in areas with low average wind speeds, conventional wind turbines are not able to operate consistently at high rotational speeds. Hence, piezoelectric materials have explored as a low-torque, low-rotaional speed alternative for electro-mechanical energy conversion in wind turbines. In the case of small-scale (blade swept area below 5 in) wind turbines, the more continuous operation from using piezoelectric materials can offset the corresponding decrease in efficiency from switching away from electromangetic generators. In the contact-less wind turbine concept, the effectiveness of using piezoelectric materials is increased by using alternating-poled, permanent magnets to excite the piezoelectric materials; hence, there are no frictional losses from contact between some mechanical actuator and the piezos. The efficiency of wind turbine configuration can be further increased through performing detailed blade design, using high d31 piezoelectric materials, and designing for resonance. Figure 27 shows Small-scale contact-less wind turbine prototypes [49].

Figure 27: 1st generation (left) and 3rd generation (right) contact-less wind turbine prototypes

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5.2 Energy harvesting for vehicles


5.2.1 Piezoelectric Power Source for tire pressure monitoring

Piezotag Limited has developed a unique proven piezo power source for Tyre Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in response to industry led demands for a battery free product. The Piezotag is a greatly superior product in comparison with battery powered TPMS as controlled Piezo actuation generates power in surplus of the requirements of a typical TPMS unit. This surplus energy is therefore available to provide power for other in-tyre functions. The battery is replaced with a Piezo power harvesting unit which enables power to be harvested while the vehicle is in motion at speeds above 15kph. Extensive field tests prove conclusively that use of the technology generates power in excess of that needed thus providing further opportunities for information based products which manufacturers can incorporate into their vehicles. The power unit is housed in an anti-shock and vibration mounting; this protects it from damaging forces and provides a long service life.

Direct TPMS require a pressure and temperature sensor, a Radio Frequency transmitter and a power source which could be a battery or by using energy harvesting technology. With this technology it is possible to take accurate pressure readings from each tyre and transmit the data directly to the driver. Piezo Power technology frees the system from battery conservation constraints, it means that the system can transmit more frequently and it can transmit more information at each transmission. This ability to transmit more information makes the piezo power source the most suitable technology, with a lower environmental impact. The Piezotag power generator will be mounted in a wheel unit on the tyre's crown, opposite the tread for the highest energy recovery. Piezotag generates power generation by the controlled actuation of the

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piezo element. Due consideration must be given to the considerable forces generated inside a rotating wheel and the parameters that affect the power unit, such as deflection distance, deflection force, along with the shape and size of the power generator. Piezotag's power output is not dependent upon background vibration experienced by the wheel in normal use. These vibrations, left uncontrolled, would have a detrimental effect on the service life of the power generator, to a point where it would not provide sufficient product life expectancy. Special vibration and shock dampening strategies have been incorporated to overcome this by screening out or protecting the delicate piezo ceramic from unwanted vibration and shocks. Critical design features are the piezo actuation surfaces, piezo element shock protection and case resistance to mechanical and environmental effects. Hardware, and advanced software strategies have been developed to rectify and smooth the generated power, then temporarily store it prior to a duty cycle. The inventors, Geoff Haswell and Malcolm Caley have developed the world's first proven piezo power unit for TPMS that is not dependant on an environmentally unfriendly battery [50].

Figure 28 : Piezoelectric pressure Sensor

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5.2.2 Piezoelectric roads for California

California Assemblyman Mike Gatto has proposed a new bill that will implement piezoelectric technology already in use in Italy and Israel to harness energy from road vibrations. According to Gatto, hybrid vehicles capture the energy lost while slowing down a vehicle and use that energy to power the car independently from the engine for significant stretches of time. But he would like to capture the energy lost as all automobiles move along a stretch of pavement and place that power into the electrical grid. The technology works in this way: When a car or truck passes over pavement, the pavement vibrates slightly. By placing relatively inexpensive piezoelectric sensors underneath a road, the vibrations produced by vehicles can be converted into electricity, which can be used to power roadside lights, call boxes, and neighbouring communities. Identical technology has already been placed underneath highways in Israel, and Italy has signed a contract to place the technology under a stretch of the Venice-to-Trieste Autostrada. The technology can be placed under asphalt during regularly scheduled repaving, and does not affect the vehicles travelling on the road, in terms of "road feel", fuel efficiency, or emissions. According to one report, "When the technology was put to the test in 2009, the Israeli government was able to generate 2,000 watt-hours of electricity simply by implementing the system on a 10-meter stretch of highway" [51].

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Figure 29: Cross-section of a typical Piezoelectric roads generator

5.2.3 Energy harvesting for robots

Energy harvesting and energy scavenging are terms that are usually used to refer to conversion of ambient energy to electricity to drive small electrical and electronic devices, making them self-sufficient, often for decades. At the other extreme is provision of grid electricity from renewable sources. Somewhere in between we have autonomous robots. These need enduring motive power that is not usually associated with the term energy harvesting and power for sensors and so on that is more to do with energy harvesting. However, these needs merge as we progress to small robots [52].

5.2.3.1 At Sea
More conventional Autonomous Underwater Vehicles AUVs that look like torpedoes have been roaming the oceans for some time doing military surveillance or underwater meteorology

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depending who owns them. Typically they come to the surface to recharge their batteries using photovoltaics or wave power but there are many other options. For example, the AUV could anchor on the bottom and garner energy using a "Piezo Eel "of Ocean Power Technologies, Fig. 26, which is like an underwater flag of piezoelectric plastic such as polyvinylidene difluoride PVDF that flaps in the tide.

Figure 30: Schematic of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (Ocean Power Technologies)

More energy is produced by inorganic piezoelectrics such as barium titanate, so Tokyo University in Japan is progressing this idea using a rigid flapping sheet "behind a bluff object" underwater. Readers will think of other options, though vibration harvesting from a passing whale or ship is probably unrealistic. Certainly self-tuning, adaptable waterproof vibration harvesters are tough to find, whether electrodynamics or piezoelectric and it is difficult to see a place for thermoelectric here, which brings us to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs.

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5.2.3.2 In the Air


Predator and surveillance drone aircraft are commonly deployed today. Now there is interest in very small robot aircraft which means flies in the long term and bats in the medium term. The University of Michigan was recently awarded a $10 million grant to open the U-M Center for Objective Microelectronics and Biomimetic Advanced Technology (COM-BAT) with the focus of developing a robotic bat useful in urban combat zones. The complete robot, which is financed by the US Army, is being developed collaboratively by the University of Michigan, the University of California at Berkley, and the University of New Mexico. Each will develop a different aspect of the 15 centimeter bat-like aircraft so it can hover, perch and operate night and day. For example, the University of Michigan researchers will focus on the microelectronics, including sensors and communication tools and the batteries.

Figure 31: Schematic of a Robotic Bat (Source: University of Michigan

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Tiny cameras will provide stereo vision, an array of mini microphones may home in on sounds from different directions, and small detectors may seek nuclear radiation and poisonous gases. Low-power miniaturized radar and a very sensitive navigation system will probably be employed to help the bat find its way at night. Reports talk of energy scavenging from solar, wind, vibration and other sources recharging the bat's lithium battery but the extreme requirements of light weight will narrow down that choice a great deal, almost certainly excluding electrodynamics for a start and probably leading to MEMS with sensing in them for the electronics. The aircraft will radio signals back to troops. That could all lead to civilian use in disaster monitoring and control in our opinion. Meanwhile, police are planning to acquire Taserfiring robot helicopters.

5.2.3.3 On the Land


In Iraq, three SWORDS robotic vehicles were tested carrying machine guns then abruptly withdrawn, according to the press. Robot sentries routinely patrol the borders of Israel and South Korea. Robot vehicles routinely defuse bombs and detect landmines and others are currently being prepared for deployment deep into enemy territory. More benignly, but still rather disturbingly, robots for feeding and bathing the elderly are well advanced in Japan and South Korea and, in Japan, there is a small domestic robot pet for the elderly. It telephones for help if it is not spoken to for a predefined interval because it is presumed that the old person has a problem. Perhaps we should not dwell on reports that robots will enter buildings through chimneys and pipes to listen, photograph and even overwhelm suspects. There are many opportunities for sale of energy harvesting devices in the edgy world of autonomous robots before we get to make ones that swim around inside us.

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5.3. Healthcare
5.3.1 Breakthroughs with sensing in the human body

Holst Centre and others are working on body area networking to monitor vital signs, control drug delivery according to need and otherwise progress towards bionic man and woman and care of the disabled and elderly. Unfortunately cutting into your body to change batteries brings with it a significant percentage of mortalities, not just pain and infection. Energy harvesting within the body is potentially helpful but biobatteries and thermoelectric generators provide only weak amounts of electricity in such applications. Fortunately, energy harvesting progresses as much from electronics becoming less power hungry as it does from harvesting becoming more powerful and body monitoring is no exception. For example, researchers at Korea University in Seoul noted that monitoring many vital signs such as blood sugar level and electrical activity of the heart currently calls for too many batteries, so they have developed a way of transmitting 10 megabits/second through the skin using one tenth of the amount of energy required by existing schemes. Sang-Hoon Lee, one of these researchers, has noted that their thin flexible electrodes make an excellent connection and use significantly less energy than a conventional wireless network such as Bluetooth, because the low frequency electromagnetic waves employed pass through the skin with little attenuation. Indeed, they are also sheltered from outside interference. On the other hand, at the joint Energy Harvesting & Storage Europe and Wireless Sensor Networks & RTLS 2010 in Munich 26-27 May, Prof Michael C McAlpine, Department of MAE,

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Princeton University will reveal a method for integrating highly efficient energy conversion materials onto stretchable, biocompatible rubbers. He believes that this could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable energy harvesting systems. His team have a scalable and parallel process for transferring crystalline piezoelectric ribbons of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) from host substrates onto flexible rubbers over macroscopic areas. Fundamental characterization of the ribbons by piezo-force microscopy (PFM) indicates that their electromechanical energy conversion metrics are among the highest reported on a flexible medium [53].

Chapter 6 Energy Harvesting Market Shares, Strategies, and Forecasts, Worldwide


Winter Green Research, Inc. tells us the energy harvesting markets at $511 million a year market worldwide in 2011 is anticipated to increase tenfold to $5.1 billion by 2018. This strong growth is anticipated to come as units are less expensive and more effective in the same amount of space. Wireless sensor networks are useful almost everywhere, creating the opportunity to implement controls and mange every aspect of human activity in ways that have not even been imagined hitherto [54]. In market value, variety of applications and number of devices, the Consumer sector is biggest of all and will remain so for the next ten years. Overall, photovoltaic is the clear winner and we believe its dominance will continue. Overall, China is the main manufacturer of products employing energy harvesting by number and value and this situation will pertain for the foreseeable future. Of the many types of energy harvesting employing electrodynamics, those
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capturing human energy are hugely successful. They include bicycle dynamos, wind-up radios and lights, kinetic wristwatches and miniature wind turbines [55].

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