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3rd Joint Meeting of the Network of Universities and Research Institutions of Animal Science of the South Eastern European

Countries, Thessaloniki 10-12 February 2007

On the pastoral life in Balkans and South-Eastern Europe Past, present, future
C. Drgnescu Agricultural University, IBNA Bucharest Romania
. Sheep production has been a feature of Balkans, of South-Eastern Europe since antiquity. The climate, the high proportion of mountains to plains, and the socio-economic-historical conditions favourite some truly pastoral systems, characterised by free-ranging stock, which is not housed at farm every night.. The main such systems were pendulation and transhumance. Transhumance is the shift from summer upland pasture to the winter lowland pasture, the dwellers being in inhabitants of mountains, lowland or intermediate villages. Some scientists confounded transhumance to nomadic pasturing even as White (1970.p.305) determines the high proportion of mountain to plains discourage nomadic pasturing and Matley demonstrated that in Balkans was not nomadic but transhumance pasturing. Pendulation (transterminace in Spanish, Almwirtschaft in German), is the shift from wintering on lowland village to summer upland, or marginal land pasture. This were the most economic, may be the only possible in old time. We not that the Balkan Peninsula and the neibourough area is a geographical, historical, may be also anthropological unitary complex, even some political people do not accept that. Is possible there is more or less the same genetic population speaking different languages; Cavalli-Sfoza (2000, p 151) observed there are some major sources of divergence between genetic and linguistic trees. Vuia (1964), Matley (1968), Constantinescu (2002) etc faind out that there are many similarities of pastoral life between countrie from this area. We note also that the the pastoral life has been studied many time by historical, geographical, etnogrphal, liguistic sociological scientist, less by animal production one. Our essay intend to present, on the basis of our obseravation enriched by bibliographical data, some thoughts on the past, prezent and future of pastoral life, of the biodiversity and of traditional knowledge in sheep production in Balkans with the aim to visualise the future. It tray to integret not to conpete to one of my former paper on te transhumance in Balkans (2003).

Some historical reconstructions


An understanding of the Vlachs culture and its origins is important for the study of pastoral life in the Balkan Peninsula Matley (1968). . . The ancient populations (Greek, Illyrian, Tracks, Dacs, Scits ) of Balkans have been forced, according to the climate and to the geomorphology of the area to hold sheep and practice some type of pendulation or transhumance, less probably sedentary or nomadism sheep pastoral systems. In old time was practically difficult to fed on fodder during the winter and to assure year-round grazing was historical imposed.. The climat of the area is favorable for sheep and goat milk production, not to milk cattle production. The Rome Column Traiani and Romanian Tropheum Traiani sheep basso-relief attest the presence of sheep productionon the region. Perhaps some Valachian (Zackel) breeds are originated from this time (Tsurcana, the Romanian name of Zackel have a Sanskrit etymology). The Romans, who first describet the transhumance management (Varro 100 b. H.), introduced many sheep breeds in Europe and developed an agricultural technique who lasted up to XIX-th century (White 1970), contributed perhaps to the development of pastoral life in this region as in others Mediterranean area.). After the retirement of Roman Empie from Dacia, the collapse of Roman authority in Constantinople (641 year) and the Slaves arrival in the former East Roman Empire, - the former Romans settlers- and Romanized natives, had to retire from the history, from the state life to a sort of tribal one. Thy reappeared in the history as a miracle and an enigme ( )after 400700 years under the name of Vlachs or Valachs. This name had perhaps for them, as Winnifrith (1985) stated,- a derogatory connotation; perhaps that is, noted him, one reason why most Vlachs, with the exception of Meglen Vlachs, do not call themselves by this name, but as Aromanians (from Rome).. The best place to avoid the reprisals from de new authorities were the high mountains. One of he most possible occupation there was the pastoral life, generally the transhumance herding. The Vlachs have managed to exist through the centuries -stated Matley (1968)- almost exclusively by the herding of livestock on mountain pastures.. In fact, so strongly has herding become associated with the Vlachs that in parts of Greece the term vlakhos is used to denote a shepherd, with no ethnic connotation, and since the Middle Ages the term Vlah has been used in Serbia and Bosnia as synonymous with mountain herder of an ethnic group. In Bosnia-Hezegovina continued Matley, the Vlahs had become assimilated with the surrounding Slav population, many Vlahs were converted to Islam during the Turkish occupation. but in spite of losing their language they stil maintain the old Vlah way of life. It seem disputable if the Slaves bring sheep with them and if the Illyrians and Greek heirs were a sheep or goat breeders. Perhaps that is the reason whai Macom underline that for the study of pastoral life in the Balkans is important to understand the Vlachs culture and its origin. Winnifrith (1985) made a big monographic study on Vlachs (190 pag), including their pastoral life. Malcom ( 1996) presented the Vlach s presence in Bosnia-and in Kosovo-(1999). Draganescu (1997) made a study on transhumance in Romania, in Balkans (2005), and (2006) an essay on Vlachs pastoral life. Matley (1968). is perhaps right. May be it is not a chance that some local sheep breeds from Caspian See to West Carpathians and Pindus mountains are named Valahian, or have the name of some Vlah trib.There are evidence of strong

3rd Joint Meeting of the Network of Universities and Research Institutions of Animal Science of the South Eastern European Countries, Thessaloniki 10-12 February 2007 Vlach influence in the mountain area of southern Poland, Slovakia, and Moravia noted Matley (1968), Latin was the administrative language in the ancient Roman province of Panonia,where the Magyars imposed their language.., a frequent outcom of conquest. (Cavalli-Sfoza 2000 p.114). Colonization flux here, on South Steppes (of Ukraine), comes from North and from West. With settled people arrived different breeds of sheep noted Borinevici (1925) and presented the main local sheep-Tsigai and Valahian. Gidarakou and Apostoloupolus (1995) present some data who show that in 1923 there were some 2.5 millions transhumant sheep in Greece, and in 1980 some 2 millions. Baldock (1994) report that in spite of the recent decline in stock number, about one million animals were involved in transhumance in 1991. Muller 1938, elaborate a first chart on Transhumance routes in the Mediterranean basin reprinted by Braudel, 1966,, Grigg-1974, Draganescu-1996) (fig.1). With the apparition of national state, the transhumant route has been limited just inside of their borders.

Fig. 1.. Transhumance routes in East- Mediterranean basin

Management practice Pastoral sheep production, a low intensive, low in external input, but labor intensive system, is associated with traditional practices, dating from old time. From the Varro and Columella data presented by White result that most of Roman sheep production techique survive up to our days even in different part of the former empire. A comparative study on three pastoral market types, Marin (2004) found many similarities between transhumance in Central Romania, Northern Greece (Pindos and Grevena) and France (Pyrenees) In our oppinion in some countries (Albania, Greece) the sheep and goat milk and milk-fed lambs production have been and are more conected than in others (Romania). . Management practice (shepherd, head shepherd, breeding, maintenance of quality of the flock, etc) have been studied by many scientists. We mention just some ofe them. Campbell 1964, Shein 1975, Chang 1997 quoted by Constantinescu (2004) studied the pasturing systems for the Aromanian, especially Sarakatsan tribe in Northern Greece; Laga (1980), Hadjigergiou et al studied the pastoral system in Greece. Matley (1968) presented the transhumance in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Dragomir (1938) and Opreanu (1931) made an large study on transhumance of Romanian shephards in South Rossia. Vuia(1964) made a synthesis of researches on Romanian pasturing and Constantinescu (1976) on Romanian transhumance. It seem however that Shepards are the best practical scientists on sheep management Muller (1938) made the first Europan map on transhumance, developed by Braudel (1965) and Grigg (1974) Draganescu (1996). In Badlock (1994) present an interesting map on transhumance in Greece.. The truly pastoral systems were the wealthiest commercial low intensity sheep farming system in mountainous areas. They made possible for Balkan human communities to inhabit harsh mountain areas where production of crops is virtually impossible and had a great role in nature conservation, in cultural landscape creation. However the last economicosocio-political development putted them in a dangerous decline. Three forces acted against them: (1) the difficult life of Shepards; (2)the animosity of agricultural farmers towards transhumance and even pendulation, because in their routes the flocs damage crops; (3) the transhumance routes were strict limited to th national borders. Besaid that now the globalisation put difficult economic problems. Present ( An erosion ?)

3rd Joint Meeting of the Network of Universities and Research Institutions of Animal Science of the South Eastern European Countries, Thessaloniki 10-12 February 2007

European sheep farming are now under a great economic pressure. The sector experienced in most EC countries during the last century a drastic change from wool to lamb production, with more than 90 percent of revenues obtained sales of lambs, in strong competition on the world maket. The pressure of trade liberalization on sheep production of Central and East European countries produced a drastic diminution of wool price, and punted them in a difficult situation, in a struggle to survive, as was the under title a FAO symposium held for this countrie (Budapest 1997). The sheep number decreased 9 time in Poland, 3,7 time in Czech republic, but jus to in Romania where the milk production and the tradition made the non economic feasibility more supportable. The problem is however complicated now, under the policy reform imposed after the admission in EU, by the welfare and sanitary- veterinary exigencies imposed. Perhaps the Greek experience and success in this field, reflected by Hadjigeorgiou paper, and Marin (2004) study on Capitalism and Transhumance will help to solve the survival of pastoral systems in this area. Although the economic viability of pastoral production, of sheep year-round grazing system, is now the most important problem , we paid attention to a second problem of sustainable development, to some taxonomical complications who disturb the production and the scientific cooperation in sheep improvement. . Weaknesses of sheep taxonomy. Pastoral production has essentially a traditional community breeding system in small region, without herd books, and breeding societies. As a result Balkan sheep taxonomy , as all farm animal taxonomy, have a number of serious weaknesses .that prevented them from being useful as breeds identification and classification systems (Draganescu 2006 a). The breeds classification, their genetic relationships did not received on the past too much scientific- research attention, even it present also practical importance. When we speek that a breed is from a phyletic group we understood that he have some morphophisiological aspect useful for his identification and he is adapted to some specific utilization. More of that. The same name is used for different breeds (Tsigai for Tsigai and Ruda breeds) and different name for the same breeds (table 1), The national and international breeds inventory made by EAAP and FAO did not solve the problem. We found (2006 b) that the national and international inventory of Balkan breed are different, that the inventory of undangered breeds it is confused and sometimest the breed name is changed without justification. Farm animal taxonomy seems to be now in a paradigm crisis. Balkan sheep taxonomy , as all farm animal taxonomy, have a number of serious weaknesses .that prevented them from being useful as breeds identification and classification systems (Draganescu 2006). The breeds classification, their genetic relationships did not received on the past too much scientific- research attention, even it present also practical importance. When we speek that a breed is from a phyletic group we understood that he have some morpho-phisiological aspect useful for his identification and he is adapted to some specific utilization. . Table 1

Some confusionms and errors in denomination of some local Romanians breeds Breed denomination in Romania Breed denomination in others countries Correct breed
denomination Ratsca (Serbian by some peasants) Carabash( named by some peasants) Blackhead Tsigai, named by some scientists Tsurcana Brebis Vachienne (Buffon 1780, Darwin 1865) O.aries strepsiceros (L) Zackel (Nathusius 1870)=translation of Linnaeus strepsiceros intro German Racka (Hungary)= Serbian (meaning generally not noticed) Valaca vitoroga (Serbia), Tsigai-Serbia, Croatia, exported also in Hungary Milk Tsigai (recent denomination in Hungary). Pleven Blackhead (Bulgaria, they noticed that is not Tsigai ) Romanian Zackel (Simon 1993) Zackel de Transilvania (Hungary) Gyimes Racka (Hungary) Valahian (Russia, Czech,

Corkscrew horns valahian breed


( O. paleoegyptica supra breed, see Ryder p.15). The change of Buffon name-Valachian was proposed by us to avoid confusions to Valachian super breed or other Valachian breeds. Romanian Black head Ruda (from Blakan Ruda sheep supra breed, related to Bergamasca group)

surcan (Romanian Valachian) The name Zackel was a German translation of the name of O. aries 3

3rd Joint Meeting of the Network of Universities and Research Institutions of Animal Science of the South Eastern European Countries, Thessaloniki 10-12 February 2007 Ukraine, Slovakia etc) Vlahicos (?)-Greek breed Vlah Bosnia

strepsiceros/= Corkscrew horns breed


a different taxonomic group

Transhumance have, it seem, some tendency to unify the breeds from his area, but the tribes apparition in Middle Ages and the state borders had the tendency to insulate the breeds . The present breeds are the result of this interaction. The Greek Vachico breeds seem to be an illustration of this theory. Vlachico (some of Greek sheep)-effect of transhumance- have many sub breeds (types) according to different Vlach tribe(Gramostiano, Arvanito-Vlachico, Epirotico, Sarkatsanico etc). May be that is the situation and with other breeds, but the order, the change of breds name made in the last century produced disorders
The future a struggle to survive ,

European Charter for Transhumance (Cuenca Spain 1997) underline that Transhumance constitutes the maximum exponent of extensive livestock raising systems who respect economic, environmental and social criteria for sustainability. The CAP must visualise a clear action to its conservation and development. Mountain landscape, the former summer basis of sheep farming is just a basis for Ruminant. As a result the sheep have a duble rol to play under the sustainable development imposed by the 21st century. Firs they have a rol in converting noncompetitive feed sources (e.g.,forage, range, crop residues ) and nonprotein nitrogen to food (meat, milk), and other products useful to man; Second, ruminants, especially sheep, have a great rol in conservation of nonarable area, especially on alpine pasture. Sheep are only one grazing species which can be used for landscape maintainance, noted Kurt (1997), and that is very important for alpin area of Balkans and Carpathians.
. For a short time the pastoral systems of some Balkans countries help itself, observe the Charter for Transhumance; his tipe of production: milk (especially mixed sheep and goat,) milk-fed lambs production, and the the wool as a by product insure some economic suport. On a medium and long term the problem is more complicated, and it seem that the fact is not observed. Pastoral life erosion start from a long time. Now is easy to lose it at all and will be practically impossible to restore it because we lose in the sametime the traditional knovelage. .

Protection of traditional knowledge


The conservation of traditional production systems, implicit the biodiversity depend on preservation and protection of traditional knowledge, It include knowe;ledge about the uses, sustainable management of . The Convention on Biological Diversity (UNEP 1992) who came into force in 1993 and has been ratified by 189 countries, reconaises the value of the Knowledge for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. It requires countries to respect, preserve and maintain traditional knowledge sharing of benefit from their article 8 (j)). However, this knowledge is under increasing threat .and they is rapidly. disappering with the old generation of shepherds. International and national policies have so far proven inadequate to protect this knowledge. Sustainable utilization of local sheep genetic resources. The conservation of genetic resources is connected to their identification, to sheep taxonom For solving the crisis in Farm animal Taxonomy, we proposed (2006 a) to develop a Farm Animal Taxonomy Science starting from the progress of Zoological Taxonomy. In this paper we propose again for critical discussion a Diagnostic key for identification, denomination and classification of of some Central and South-eastern Europe Sheep phyletic group of breeds (annex 1) and three Sugested Cladogram of group breeds from this region (annex 2a,b,c). We hope that a critical aproach of scientist from our region will improve and adopt them. In such context we supose to discussion the folowind proposed sheep breeds phyletic groups for our region. We considered that in Balkan and in neiborough countries there are 6 Philetic groups of sheeps: 1).Ruda, related to Bergamasca and having some similarities to it 2)Tsigai, related to Merino ; 3)Corkscrews horns Valachian descend from the old Egyptian sheep, denominated by Buffon and Darwin Valachian , by Linaeus O.a. strepsiceros, translated into German by Nathusius as Zackel (strepsiceros= Zackel,); to avoid confusions we use the Serbian name-Valaska vitoroga=Corkscrew Valachian or conserv the Nathusius name Zackel. 4) Valachian with mixed wool, erroneus named Zackel (Ryder p.175 made practically the correction); in any country the name Zackel was not used for a breed, but the name Valachian is still used at least in Russia, Ukraine, Czech,

3rd Joint Meeting of the Network of Universities and Research Institutions of Animal Science of the South Eastern European Countries, Thessaloniki 10-12 February 2007 Slovakia. Primentas (1957) quoted by Ryder, gives the name Valchica to the Valachian stock which is the commonest sheep in Balkans 5). Vlahian (!?)) similar morpho-phisiologicaly to Valachian, but having in our impression more or just coarse wool (as Corkscrews horns Valachian) 6). Fat tail or Ramp breeds, who penetrated from Asia Minor. It seem that the transhumance studies can clarify some historical interesting problems in taxonomy. Some Balkan sheep breeds are connected with some extinct tribes. The Karakatsan (=Saracatsanico) are the sheep of the tribe of Saracaciani (=pauper people) and is the same or related to Greek Sarakawith, Corkscrew Valachian of a Valachian tribe who use to live in Serbia and Montenegro

The easiest and cheapest method of in situ conservation


Now the conservation of many sheep breeds even of sheep production are subsidized in many EU countries. In Germany some 50% of sheep farms come from subsidies. The problem of more poor countries and for future perhaps of al countries is to find the cheapest way of conservation in site. In our opinions there are two possibility of a soch conservation: 1. conservation of traditional production systems improving their economical efficiency; 2.conservation in natural reservation, natural parks of some endangered breeds. The Natural Parks, the reservation for nature preservation can include also some endangered breeds of domestic animals. The Hungary experience in this field can be an example also for Balkan countries. References Baldock D 9 (Ed) ( 1994) The Nature of Farming ;The extent and Location of Low Intensity Farming Systems-Greece, Hungary pp. 24-27 IEEP London BRAUDEL F., (1965) - La Mediterranee et le monde mediterraneen a lepoque de Philippe II, Armand Colin Paris st ) Campbell I., K. (1964) Honour, Family a Patronage.A Study 0f Institutions and Moral Value in Greek Mountain Commun i ty. Oxf.Univ.Press Chang, Cl., Tourtellotte, P. C. (1993)Ethnoarheological Survey of Pastoral Transhumance Sites in the Grevena Region,Greece, Journal of Field Archaeology, 20, 249-264 CONSTANTINESCU - MIRCESTI C., (1976) - Transhumant sheep production in the XVIII-th - XIX-th centuries. Ed.Acad., Bucuresti(n Romanian) DRAGOMIR ,C. (1938)Sibiu Margin shepards in Bassarabia, Caucasus, Crimea and N.America., Lucr. Inst.Geogr. Cluj: VI 154-298 ( in Romanian DRAGANESCU C.,(1994)d - Polish Mountain Breed a Cladogenetic autogenTsurcana Breed. Poc.Sym.Rare Farm Anim.Cons. Balice, Cracow:260-266., (1994) - An attempt to theFiletic classification of Walachian Zackel) and Tsigai Breeds. Stocarstvo (Zagreb) 9,10, 395-401.; (1995)- Origine and relationship between Walachian (Zackel) and Tsigai sheep breeds from the Danubian area. Stocarstvo., Zagreb 49: (9-12) 321-327.; (1996) - Azov Tsigai, Chushka and Steppe Voloshian branches of Romanian Tsigai and Tsurcana,47 EAAP Lillehammer, ; (1996) 1997.Transhumance and relaionship between sheep breeds in Central. Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean area. In: EAAP Publ.85:104-107.; 1998 Romanian Sheep production; spectacular past, Decline, Incertain Future.In: Kukovics S(ed) Sheep and Goat Production in Central and Eastern European Countries.FAO-Rome: 179-187 ; 2001 An Attempt to a Phyletic Classification of Balcan Native Sheep. Simpozion Balcanic-Tekidag; 2003 A note on transhumance in Balkans Balnimalcom 2; 2006 a For a new paradigm in farm animal taxonomy ERFP Antalia; 2006 b On breed phyletic gropup and name of Balcan native sheep breeds. Tirana DUNARE N., (1984) - Types traditionelles de vie pastorale dans les regions carpatiques de paturage et de fenaisons (Roumanie Pologne, Tchecoslovaquie, Hongrie), Travaux Simp.Clermont-Ferrant, p:55-58 . GRIGG, D.E., (1974) - The Agricultural Systems of the World . Cambridge Univ. Press. HATZIMIONOGLU J., (1995) - Legislation,... Le case de la Grece, in Terres collectives en Mediterranee, pp 91-116 Hadjigeorgiou i., Vallerand F., Tsimpoukas K, Zervas G. The socio-economcs of sheep and goat farming in Greece, and the implications for future rural developmentfuture Laga V.1986 Systemes delevage ovins latiers transhumants de Grece Centrale These dr. Montpellier Malcom Noel 1996 Bosnia-a short history. NY Univ.Press.; 1999 Kosovo-a short history Harper Press Marin C. 2004 Capitalism and transhumance: A comparison of tree Pastoral Market Types in Europe (1950-2000) Yerbook of New Europe College:57116 Marinow 1961- Die Schaftzuht der nomadisseren Karakatschnen in Bulgaria n Viehzucht und Hirtenleben in Mitelleuropa Budapest 1961.p1g 147-Vuia 184) Mason I.L. 1999 World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds ed 4. CAB Int. p.314 Opreanu S., (1931) - Transhumance in Oriental Carpathians., Lucr.Inst.Geogr. Cluj IV: 223 - 244 (in Romanian) Muller E.(1938) - Die Herdenwanderungen in Mittelmeer. In Petermanns Mittelungen Ryder M.L. Stephenson S.K. 1968 Wool Growth Acad.Press L.NY Ryder, M. *1994)Observation on Vlach Sheep=Milking and Milk-Processing in South-East Europe, Antropozoologica, 20, 3/10 Sivignon M. (1968) Les Pasteur du Pind Septentrional de Revue de Geographie dfe Lyon, 43,(1-4),5Vuia R. 1964. Tipuri de pstorit la romni Ed.Acad.Rom., White K. D. 197o. Roman Farming. Cornell Univ.Press Winnifrith T. J. 1985 The Vlachs: The History of a Balkan People. St.Martin Press European Charter for Transhumance. Cuenca, Spain October 31, 1997

3rd Joint Meeting of the Network of Universities and Research Institutions of Animal Science of the South Eastern European Countries, Thessaloniki 10-12 February 2007

.Annex 1 Suggested diagnostic key for identification, denomination and classification of of some

Central and South-eastern Europe Sheep group of breeds


Breeds G Tsigai Ruda Blackhead (and feet)Ruda Erroneous named Tsigai Brown face Ruda Erroneou s named Tsigai ? Corkscrw H (E Valachian I d Z k l I)* Vlachian.kempt wool Fat t il

Valachiankempt and wool

3rd Joint Meeting of the Network of Universities and Research Institutions of Animal Science of the South Eastern European Countries, Thessaloniki 10-12 February 2007 Origine Woolly sheep from Mesopotamia(/) Tsigai Merino British Down breeds Bergamasca Blakhead Ruda x Tsigai ? Blackhead Ruda Tsigai O.longipedes paleoaegytia cus ** (Asiatic Hairy) II) Other Balkan Ruda breeds

cyth ian

Related breeds Tail length Ears type Horns

Long thin tail (over 13 vertebras) Hanging, long ears Hornless Hanging, semi long Hornless or rudimenta ry horns

Coiled horns in rams; hornless or rudimentary horns in ewes

corkscrew horns protrude horizontally or in V-s Angular Dolicomorph ) medium small Milk,meat,w ool Mixed (70 % kempt Restricted Hungarian Serbian Romanian White with brown face or black Sedentary

Coiled horns in rams; hornless or rudimentary horns in ewes

Coiled horns in rams; hornless or rudimentary horns in ewes

Nose profile Conformation Type Development (Size) Production Fleece :

Angular-blocky (mezomorph) Medium-small (eumetric) Milk,meat,wool Medium wool

Angular Dolicomorph) Large (Hipermetric) Meat.milk,w ool Mediumcoarse wool Prolonged

Blocky Brevimorf Largemedium Milk,meat ,wool Mediumcoarse wool Prolonged

Breeding season Breeds included Color

Restricted, in the autumn All Tsigai breeds White dominant to black, with brown, reddish, white face and legs Sedentarytranshumance

All Balkan Ruda breeds White with black face and legs Sedentary Whitewith brown face and legs Sedentary

Angular Angular Dolicomorph Dolicomorph) ) medium medium small (eumetric) small Milk,meat,w Milk,meat,wo ool ol Mixed wool. Mixed wool. Some 20% Over 70 % kempts- outer kempt coat coat long Restricted, in Restricted, in the autumn the autumn All Valachian breeds, including the native Vlach breeds developed into breeds White wool (recessive to black or other colour)) with different colour on face and legs Sedentary transhumanc e Sedentary transhumance

Production system

* Early Egyptian ( 1000 BC) Mixed woolen sheep, Corkscrew horns, thin long tailed

* Walachian sheep (Corkscrew horns sheep) (Buffon 1780, Linnaeus, Darwin 1865) Ovis aries strepsiceros-L. * N.E. Africa sheep

* Valaska Vitoroga * Balusha * Romanian Ratsca * Hungarian Racka

3rd Joint Meeting of the Network of Universities and Research Institutions of Animal Science of the South Eastern European Countries, Thessaloniki 10-12 February 2007

Annex.2.A. Suggested cladogram for Walachian Corkscrew horns sheep breeds(modified from Drgnescu 1998)

Middle East Uniform wool sheep

Roman uniform wool sheep (0 AD)

Spain

Italy

* Merino * British uniform


wool breeds

* Carpathians bend transhumant Tsigai (2ndCent.AD)

* Uniform mediumcoarse wool breeds from Italy

* Spanish-French
rasso breeds

* Local Romanian * Romanian transhumant Tsigai (Braov, Covasna) * Czek Tsigai (closed 18th Cent) * Slovac Tsigai (closed 18th Cent) * Azov Tsigai (closed 1920) * Kivircik (closed 1850) * igaia(?) srbeasc, croat, ungureasc

* Balcanic Ruda Breeds ( O -500 AD)

* Bergamasca

* Yugoslav Blackhead Tsigai * Romanian Blackhead Ruda ? * Pleven Blackhead (Bulgaria) * Dubrovska Ruda (Croatia) * Zakynthos, Florina, Skopelos, Kumi, Serrai (Grecia) * Sredna Gora, White South (Bulgaria) * Starazagora, Ruda Ovce Gora (Bulgaria) * Ruda Ovce Polje (Macedonia) * Vasojevic Ruda (Serbia)

Annex. 2.B

Suggested cladogram for Tsigai phyletic group of sheep breeds and Ruda phyletic group of sheep breeds (modified from Drgnescu 1998, 2001)

*Early Scythian (400 BC), Mixed woolen sheep Coiled horns, thin long tailed (Ovis aries rustica or longicauda ? Linnaeus)

3rd Joint Meeting of the Network of Universities and Research Institutions of Animal Science of the South Eastern European Countries, Thessaloniki 10-12 February 2007

Annex 2.C. Suggested cladogram for Walachian (Zackel) philetic group of sheep breeds(modified from Drgnescu 1998)

3rd Joint Meeting of the Network of Universities and Research Institutions of Animal Science of the South Eastern European Countries, Thessaloniki 10-12 February 2007

Abstract On the pastoral life in Balkans and South-Eastern Europe-Past, present, future
C. Drgnescu Agricultural University, IBNA Bucharest Romania

Milk sheep production has been since antiquity a feature of Balkans and his neibourough area who is a geographical, historical, may be also anthropological an unitary complex,. This production was favored by climat, geomophology, socio-economichistorical conditions ,and caracterised by some truly pastoral systems, with free-ranging stock, not housed at farm every night and year-round grazing (transhumance, pendulation). Our essay present, on the basis of our obseravation enriched by bibliographical data, some thoughts on the past, and prezent of pastoral life with the aim to visualise the future. The truly pastoral systems were the wealthiest commercial low intensity sheep farming system in mountainous areas. It and his sheep genetic reources is originated from the ancien Balkan people, but with a stong influence from the imigrants, especially Romans, transmited by their succesors-the Vlachs and the Valachs. The word Vlah was synonim to shephard, the pastoral tehnology is still similar to that describet by Varro and Columella and and some country directed the production to the wool.. As a result, the last economico-socio-political and scientific development putted them in a dangerous decline. For his struggle to survive, are presented some suggestions for avoiding the weaknesses of sheep production and especially of sheep. taxonomy. A diagnostic key for identification, denomination and classification of of sheep bree and three sugested philetic tree of breeds from this area is prroposed propose for critical discussion and final elaboration by the scientist from the Balkan countries

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