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Employees are the major assets in every industry have where their attitude and performance can bring

a success or failure of the companys business. (Kavanaugh and Ninemeier, 2001)That is why people management is important to retained and motivate their employees by providing them an orientation training program for new employees (getting started) and motivation program for the current employees (rewards). The complexity of people management faces in every industry is that different employee has a different way to approach them and not every employee receives the same point of view. People management or popularly known as Human Resource Management (HRM) involves the tasks of recruitment, management and providing on-going support and direction of the employees of an organization. The tasks of people Management are compensated, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. (Woods, 2011) Employee turnover in the Hospitality industry often average as much as 200 to 300 percent per year due with the stress of starting a new job. Larson & Hewitt, (2005) stresses that the hospitality industry has a high turnover rate for employees to resign within 30 days of hire just got off to a poor start. This is where orientation is important to help change their mind set before start working. Orientation Programs are designed to reduce the stress that employees feel when beginning a new job. An orientation program contains a lot of information about managerial Philosophies, company history, policies, and procedure in a very short period. In theory, orientation provides news employees the information they need to succeed in a company. (Klein & Weaver, 2000) New employees who receive an orientation training program are likely to stay longer. (Larson & Hewitt, 2005) In order to make this program's success, hospitality industry must develop a well-designed an orientation training program that addresses the questions new employees might ask about their professions. The information in these programme divided into three general categories that is information about job-related issues (management expectation of employees, company standards, and the companys policies and procedures), information about cultural issues (management philosophies, strategic beliefs, and the companys tradition), and information about specific job responsibilities and technical aspects of the job (job description). (Klein & Weaver, 2000)Orientation training program benefits the new employees by building an important foundation of employee foundation, builds higher level of job satisfaction, properly sets the stage for the training that is to follow, and lastly it builds self-esteem from the feeling of being part of a successful team. (Larson & Hewitt, 2005) Motivation is one of the most important approaches especially in hospitality industry where it helps the company to achieve their objectives and goals. (Kavanaugh and Ninemeier, 2001) Motivation defined as the psychological feature that stimulates a human being to action toward a desired goal, that which gives purpose and direction to behaviour. (Webbster, 2013) The benefit of motivations is that it will help to improve employees productivity, performance, morale and give an inspiration so that the company operation runs smoothly by encouraging the teamwork and make it easier to reach the companys goals. It is not easy to motivate employees therefore the company must understand how or what motivate them. Some employees have a different ways to motivate them such as money, recognition, health insurance, development of their carrier, learning, and status. There are three types of theories of motivation that could help the company to motivate employees. The first theory is the Maslows Hierarchy of Need theory which content five basic needs of an individual. This theory states that an individual will be motivated to fulfil a higher-level Need (esteem and self-actualization) only when a lower-level need (physiological, safety, and social needs)

is satisfied or nearly satisfied. The company can use this theory to effectively motivate their employees by identify which stage is the employee at. (New York: Harper and Row, 1954) The most important needs that Maslow has identified are physiological needs which are a basic need for individual for example food, water, accommodation, cloth, heat, and light. When an individual has met the physiological needs, Maslow argues that individuals are most influenced by safety and security needs such as the need of protecting oneself from danger, harm, treat, and injury. In organizations, this level of Need might include an employees need for safe working conditions, benefits, insurance, job security, and retirement plans. After an individual met both physiological and safety needs, individual tend to achieve their social need which include love, the need of companionship, and belonging. In organizations, this level of needs include team, formal and informal work groups, and company-sponsored activities. After fulfilling those lower-level needs, individuals will seek to their self-esteem needs which involve achievement, status symbols, responsibility, appreciation, promotion, and personal reputation. Lastly, after satisfy the other four levels of needs, Maslow argue that individual have a need to focus on self-fulfilment. Seeking to realize ones full potential, increase the knowledge and skill, or be creative are manifestations of this need in both personal and professional life. (New York: Harper and Row, 1954) The second theory of motivation is Alderfers ERG Theory. Compare to Maslows Hierarchy Theory, Alderfers Theory divides the needs into three levels that are in existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence is similar to Maslows physiological and safety needs such as food, water, job security, insurance, and accommodation. Relatedness is the needs that are satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationship which is similar to Maslows social needs. Lastly, growth where the needs are satisfied when an individual makes creative or productive contribution which is similar to Maslows esteem and self-actualization needs. The differences between Maslows theory and The Alderfers theory is that Maslows theory states that an individual will be motivated to fulfil a higher-level Need (esteem and self-actualization) only when a lower-level need (physiological, safety, and social needs) is satisfied or nearly satisfied. However, The Alderfers theory argues that an individual will be motivated to fulfil a Lower-level need when he or she continually failed to satisfy higher needs. (Woods, 2011) Tom Monaghan, founder of Dominos pizza practices this theory for to satisfy the employees. (Habib, 2008) A third theory of motivation is Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory is a study focus on what caused satisfaction and dissatisfaction. There are two different types of needs that are hygiene factors which include personal life, status, company policies on pay, and Security while motivators include recognition, responsibility, and achievement. (Woods, 2011) In the hospitality and Tourism industry, the human resource department needs to motivate employees in order to increase their job satisfaction and performance in the organisation. There are two ways to motivate the employees by implementing the extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Extrinsic rewards are a tangible and its value can be monetized. (Metha, Anderson, and Dubinsky, 2000) This type of rewards is to those that are externally mediated and thus given to the employees by the firm to satisfy the employees lower-needs. In another words defined by Jannet (2009) is a motivation to perform a task or reach a goal that comes from outside the person performing the task. For examples of extrinsic rewards are usually taken form of some anticipated reward such as compensation, pay rise, bonuses, paid leaves and annual entertaining plans. The benefits of

implement this extrinsic reward is that firstly, it helps to give an incentive to the employees. (Van Harpen et al., 2005) Extrinsic motivation frequently acts as a powerful incentive, giving the employee the reason to do a task. (Jannet, 2009) For example in Hospitality industry, if the employees done or perform an excellent job, they will know that they will get the bonus or an opportunity to get a promotion from the managers. This will definitely help to boost up employee performance. For example, fast food industry which successful implements this extrinsic reward is Dominos pizza. Tom Monaghan, the founder of Dominos pizza belief that people need to be rewarded for their labours and the most of the employees, have dreams that can be developed and satisfied by material wealth. Whether these dreams match with basic existence needs or the need of some people to find self-esteem through goods is a matter of debate among psychologist. Whether they can be practical managerial creativity. (Habib, 2008) Intrinsic rewards are the one that comes from within the employee or in other words' inner value of the employees which satisfy employees higher-lever needs. The benefits of this intrinsic rewards is that it originates within the employees and give a great deal of personal satisfaction when accomplishes a task. According to Donni Jones (2009), thanking your employee would help to nurture a pleasant work environment. It gives the employee the drive to go an extra mile and let them know that they are recognized and valued their hard work. The intrinsic rewards are (1) token of appreciation such as gift basket. Gift basket is versatile and fun idea where it can shape it specifically for a certain employee by asking the co-worker what are the employees hobbies or interested in. If the employees are into coffee, fill in the gift basket with a coffee mug with the company logo on it and packets of quality fresh coffee beans. If the employees are into gardening, fill in the gift basket with a mini shovel, hand towel, and flower seed packets. (Jones, 2009) This reward is to show that the company are appreciating of what the employee has done so far for the company. A bank company such as Maybank and Hong Leong Bank practices this reward. (2) Good eats. Free stuff is good but free food is even better. (Jones, 2009) It means that treat the employee or group of employee lunch or dinner for their hard work to a good restaurant such TGIF, Chillis, or Nandos. To make it more interesting or the company is in the budget, reserve a conference room for a day where both employer and employee can have a barbeque, sandwich, pizza, and champagne to celebrate. Holiday Villa Subang practices this reward. (3) Time is money. Hardworking employees are always punctual at work where they come ten to twenty minutes early. (Jones, 2009) The employer can give them an extra time for their lunch break for example thirty minute break extend to one hour break or let them go fifteen or thirty minutes earlier. Most of the supermarkets who work as a part time cashier practice this reward. (4) Annual event such as family day where both employer and employees families enjoy their time together at the theme park or at the beach. This will help to improve their communication and teamwork. An airlines and bank company in Malaysia that is Malaysia Airlines (MAS) and Maybank implements this reward. After carefully studying both extrinsic and intrinsic reward, I conclude that intrinsic reward is the best motivation to improve the employees performance. This intrinsic reward will help to maintain the employee to work at the same company and to let them feel appreciated, satisfied, and valued by the company which could make the working environment better. Furthermore, it can be used as a long-term motivation to the employee. According to Maslow, an individual at the safety and security level might be motivated the most by pay. However, when the individual has met the safety and security needs, the amount of pay became less important than opportunities for self-esteem or

self-achievement. Maslows theory is supported by numerous studies that show that employees and managers want incentives other than pay. (1,921words)